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The cognitive and somatic anxiety of sport spectators

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Abstract

Previous work (e.g., L. R. Sloan, 1989) with sport spectators had indicated that the affective, cognitive, and behavioral responses of these persons were often similar to those of athletes. Two studies extended this line of work to the experience of cognitive and somatic anxiety. It was hypothesized that spectators would experience an increase in cognitive and somatic anxiety as an important competition approached, that highly identified spectators would report higher levels of anxiety than lowly identified spectators, and that spectators would be able to accurately recall their anxiety several days after an athletic event. 53 college students participated in the studies. Ss completed questionnaires during several testing sessions spaced at different time points before the target games as well as during the games. Target games differed in relation to perceived difficulty and importance to the sports teams. Results show that the hypotheses were supported through the 2 studies employing a modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory–2. The relatively poor anxiety recall of highly identified spectators is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Thus, based on the abovementioned arguments, the following hypothesis were proposed: H 1 the degree of acceptance of aggression is by and at large common to all human beings, H 1a a similar trend in the personal degree of approval of the different acts during particular circumstances would be predicted for these two cultures, with a lower justification of the more serious forms of aggression than mild ones, and H 1b a higher willingness of instrumental aggression than of hostile or emotional aggression would also be expected [43]. H 2 Congruent with the aforementioned H 1 , some minor characteristics peculiar to each cultural group would also be expected. ...
... Trends among people of such contrasting cultures were quite similar. For instance, certain acts were never justified, regardless of cultural context, and serious aggression was always less accepted than mild aggression [43]. These overall similarities in moral approval for aggression by people of different societies suggest a sharing of similar standards of approval, as if there were some common moral code ruling their justification. ...
... High justification may be also expected in cases of a personal attack, such as self-defense and defense of others, as it has been shown in the present research. Consequently, H 1b was also corroborated: there is a higher willingness of instrumental aggression than of hostile or emotional aggression [43]. ...
... Thus, based on the abovementioned arguments, the following hypothesis were proposed: H 1 the degree of acceptance of aggression is by and at large common to all human beings, H 1a a similar trend in the personal degree of approval of the different acts during particular circumstances would be predicted for these two cultures, with a lower justification of the more serious forms of aggression than mild ones, and H 1b a higher willingness of instrumental aggression than of hostile or emotional aggression would also be expected [43]. H 2 Congruent with the aforementioned H 1 , some minor characteristics peculiar to each cultural group would also be expected. ...
... Trends among people of such contrasting cultures were quite similar. For instance, certain acts were never justified, regardless of cultural context, and serious aggression was always less accepted than mild aggression [43]. These overall similarities in moral approval for aggression by people of different societies suggest a sharing of similar standards of approval, as if there were some common moral code ruling their justification. ...
... High justification may be also expected in cases of a personal attack, such as self-defense and defense of others, as it has been shown in the present research. Consequently, H 1b was also corroborated: there is a higher willingness of instrumental aggression than of hostile or emotional aggression [43]. ...
... Thus, based on the abovementioned arguments, the following hypothesis were proposed: H 1 the degree of acceptance of aggression is by and at large common to all human beings, H 1a a similar trend in the personal degree of approval of the different acts during particular circumstances would be predicted for these two cultures, with a lower justification of the more serious forms of aggression than mild ones, and H 1b a higher willingness of instrumental aggression than of hostile or emotional aggression would also be expected [43]. H 2 Congruent with the aforementioned H 1 , some minor characteristics peculiar to each cultural group would also be expected. ...
... Trends among people of such contrasting cultures were quite similar. For instance, certain acts were never justified, regardless of cultural context, and serious aggression was always less accepted than mild aggression [43]. These overall similarities in moral approval for aggression by people of different societies suggest a sharing of similar standards of approval, as if there were some common moral code ruling their justification. ...
... High justification may be also expected in cases of a personal attack, such as self-defense and defense of others, as it has been shown in the present research. Consequently, H 1b was also corroborated: there is a higher willingness of instrumental aggression than of hostile or emotional aggression [43]. ...
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This study reports the degrees of approval for different aggressive acts in a number of instrumental and emotional situations. A nationally-adapted version of the Lagerspetz and Westman questionnaire [1] was administered to 332 university students of both sexes in Spain and Hong Kong. Respondents had to indicate levels of justification of several aggressive acts of different quality and intensity in the context of different social justifications. Our results replicated the general findings of previous research in other cultures: in both samples, more drastic forms of aggression (e.g., killing, torture) were less accepted than non-dangerous forms of such behavior (e.g., hindering, being ironic); aggressive acts more socially justified (in terms of protection of self or other) were clearly more accepted than others with no such justification (problems of communication); and instrumental-motivated aggression was higher justified than emotional-motivated aggression. Some differences in the level of acceptance according to the sex of the participants were found: women were more prone to a higher acceptance of acts and situations more related to emotion. Although both sexes justified aggression in a higher degree for instrumentally motivated situations than for emotional ones, males showed a higher acceptance than females for instrumental situations and a lower one than females for emotional ones. There were also some minor culturally bound differences in these attitudes: Spaniards accepted less than HK students aggression in emotional situations, specially for the cases of punishment and lack of communication, but more emotional acts, such as rage and shouting. Thus, patterns of moral approval of various kinds of aggressive acts are in a large part common to both cultures. Findings also confirmed a two-factor solution and the respective predictive power of justifications for aggression in instrumental vs. emotional motivated situations. The reliability and validity of this brief self-report have been further established by the present study, paving the way for future studies to measure instrumental and emotional aggression.
... Team failure undermines the need for positive distinctiveness, and although social creativity mechanisms allow identity reparation, highly identified fans may become frustrated by team failure and lose a sense of behavioral control as a result. Empirical evidence indicates that highly identified fans experience greater levels of arousal and anxiety while watching their team compete (Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998)-probably because their identity and evaluation of self is on trial. ...
... Two reasons may account for the significant differences between highly identified fans and less-identified fans in perceptions of behavioral control. First, numerous studies have indicated that highly identified fans experience extreme fluctuations in emotion during games (e.g., Wann, Dolan, McGeorge, & Allison, 1994;Wann et al., 1998), and these strong emotions are likely to influence perceptions of control. Fans who feel that their identity is threatened (or enhanced) are likely to experience emotions that could lead to a loss of behavioral control. ...
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Fan identification refers to the psychological connection that individuals have with sport teams. This study sought to determine whether fans possessing different levels of identification respond differently to the antecedents to aggressive spectator behaviors that are addressed by the theory of planned behavior. Fans of four professional sport teams (N = 231) were placed in one of three groups based on their scores for fan identification strength. Consistent with hypotheses, highly identified fans felt less control over their behavior at games than moderately identified fans and lowly identified fans. Contrary to hypotheses, however, neither attitudes towards aggression nor subjective norms on aggression differed between identification levels. Discussion centers on the relevance of the findings for the control of different types of aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... A stronger theoretical approach and more reliable empirical data could possibly help to explain the ambiguous results from research investigating the relationship between team identification and gender. With some studies finding no differences between male and female spectators (Wann, Brewer, & Royalty, 1999;Wann & Grieve, 2005;Wann & Schrader, 2000;Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998), and others finding male spectators to identify more strongly with their favourite team than females (Dietz-Uhler, Harrick, End, & Jacquemotte, 2000;Mehus & Osborn, 2010;Melnick & Wann, 2004;Wann, Dolan, McGeorge, & Allison, 1994), the relationship between gender and team identification is obviously somewhat unclear in the literature. ...
... The results support the first hypothesis and earlier studies finding male spectators identify more strongly with favourite teams (Dietz-Uhler et al., 2000;Melnick & Wann, 2004;Wann et al., 1994). These findings are opposed to earlier studies that find no difference between male and female team identification (Wann & Branscombe, 1993;Wann & Schrader, 2000;Wann et al., 1999Wann et al., , 1998. One explanation for these contradictory results probably lies in the comparison of results across studies that include different sports, different levels of the same sport, different sports within the same study, and samples collected from the stadium and the classroom. ...
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Football spectators (N􏰁760) at two local and two international matches were surveyed with the aim of investigating how identity is created and sustained in relation to top-level sport in general, and local and national football teams in particular. Two-way between-groups analyses of variance were applied, and effect sizes calculated. There was a statistically significant main effect for gender, showing that male spectators identify more strongly with their favourite team than female spectators. The findings also include an interaction effect between gender and level of matches, indicating different effects on male and female spectators. Male spectators identify more strongly with the national team than the local team, whereas female spectators identify more strongly with the local team. Strong identification with the national team goes together with more positive attitudes towards the nation. The results are analysed within the theoretical framework of social identity theory (SIT) and self-categorization theory (SCT). Team identification is context-dependent and partly explained with reference to the principle of meta-contrast implied in SCT. Positive attitudes towards the nation are interpreted as beneficial from a nation-building point of view, but have possible negative consequences concerning the evaluation of social groups not included in the in-group.
... Many scholars have found that identification plays a vital role in fans' various affective, cognitive, and behavioral reactions (Capella, 2002;Wann & Branscomb, 1993). In terms of the affective aspect, highly identified fans would experience intense emotions and high anxiety levels during and after their team's competitions (Wann et al., 1998). Cognitively, highly identified fans show several biased perceptions regarding their identified teams' performance (e.g. ...
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The current study investigated the influence of service quality factors on season ticket holder (STH) satisfaction and intention to renew their season tickets. The current study was particularly interested in exploring the unique contribution of the season ticket-specific service quality on STHs’ satisfaction and retention in the context of professional sports. Data were collected from 646 STHs from a Major League Baseball (MLB) team using an online survey. The findings from the hierarchical multiple regression models confirm the influence of the STHs’ team identification, three gameday service quality dimensions (game, facility, and interaction qualities factor), and the season ticket service quality (STSQ) on their level of satisfaction and intention to renew their season tickets. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that all groups of predictors contribute to predicting STH satisfaction and intention to renew, together explaining 42.4% and 34.7% of the variances in satisfaction and renewal intention, respectively. Results showed the importance of the season ticket service quality in satisfying and retaining STHs, even after controlling their team identification and gameday service quality. The findings of this study provide helpful tips for sport managers to ensure important service qualities and train their service employees accordingly.
... According to the studies, fanaticism means the character of the belief between the fans and their teams. Fanatic fans display behaviors such as higher level of knowledge, more anxiety, and higher arousal level than normal fans while watching their teams (9,66). Interaction with the club is very valuable for fanatic fans. ...
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Sometimes positive and sometimes negative meanings can be attributed to fanaticism in sports. For sports marketers, fanatics are valued customers of the brand and form a framework of social approval in terms of social identity, relationship and self-esteem. In addition, the violent extreme behavior of fanatics is seen in a socially unacceptable framework. This study, which was carried out due to the need for a valid and reliable measurement tool to measure sports fanaticism for these different fields of study, aims to determine the validity and reliability of the Sport Fanaticism Scale developed by Dwyer, LeCrom and Greenhalgh (19) in Turkish conditions. The 5-point Likert type scale consisting of 12 items was applied to 528 participants who are supporters of Besiktas, Fenerbahce, Galatasaray and Trabzonspor clubs. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed using the AMOS program to examine the four-factor structure of the scale. It was observed that the values of fit indices are at good or excellent level in all parameters (χ²/sd= 2.91); RMSEA=.060; GFI=.96; CFI=.95; IFI=.95; AGFI =.93). The results show that the 12-item scale is consistent with the original four-factor structure and is compatible with the data. For the reliability of the scale, the internal consistency coefficients of the entire scale and its sub-dimensions were checked. In addition, Cronbach's Alpha and AVE and CR values were also calculated within the scope of the internal consistency reliability of the scale and the coefficients were found to be sufficient. Test-retest reliability analysis of the scale was also performed at three-week intervals. In the light of these findings, it was concluded that the "Sports Fanaticism Scale" is a valid and reliable measurement tool that is compatible with the Turkish cultural structure. Spor Fanatizmi Ölçeğinin Türkçe'ye Uyarlanması Özet Sporda fanatikliğe bazen olumlu bazen olumsuz anlamlar yüklenebilmektedir. Fanatikler spor pazarlamacıları için markanın değerli müşterileri olmakla birlikte sosyal kimlik, ilişki ve benlik saygısı açısından sosyal bir onay çerçevesi oluşturur. Bunun yanında fanatiklerin şiddet içeren aşırı davranışları sosyal olarak kabul edilemez bir çerçevede görülmektedir. Bu farklı çalışma alanları için de spor fanatizmini ölçecek geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracına ihtiyaç duyulması nedeniyle gerçekleştirilen bu çalışma, Dwyer, LeCrom ve Greenhalgh (19) tarafından geliştirilen Spor Fanatizmi Ölçeğinin (Sport Fanaticism Scale) Türkiye koşullarında geçerliliğini ve güvenilirliğini belirlemeyi amaçlamaktadır. 12 maddeden oluşan 5'li likert tipindeki ölçek, Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray ve Trabzonspor kulüplerinin taraftarı olan 528 katılımcıya uygulanmıştır. Ölçeğin dört faktörlü yapısının incelenmesi için AMOS programı kullanılarak doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) yapılmıştır. Uyum indeksleri değerlerinin tüm parametrelerde iyi veya mükemmel seviye de olduğu görülmüştür (χ²/sd= 2.91); RMSEA=.060; GFI=.96; CFI=.95; IFI=.95; AGFI =.93). Elde edilen sonuçlar, 12 maddelik ölçeğin dört faktörlü özgün yapı ile tutarlı ve verilerle uyumlu olduğunu göstermektedir. Ölçeğin güvenilirliği için, ölçeğin tamamının ve alt boyutlarının iç tutarlılık katsayıları kontrol edilmiştir. Ayrıca, ölçeğin iç tutarlık güvenirlik kapsamında Cronbach's Alpha ve AVE ile CR değerleri de hesaplanmış ve katsayıların yeterli düzeyde olduğu bulunmuştur. Ölçeğin üç hafta ara ile test-tekrar test güvenirlik analizi de yapılmıştır. Elde edilen bu bulgular ışığında, "Spor Fanatizmi Ölçeği''nin Türk kültür yapısıyla uyumlu, geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
... 13 A good part of the research linking identification to mental health outcomes also does so (at best) thinly veiling the purposes of the study; for example, performing mental health screenings in the wake of dislocation due to a flood (K. Erikson, 1976), or measuring fans' anxiety before and during significantly competitive sporting events (Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998). These may well be the best methods for studying these relations, but they also lend themselves to demand effects -participants guess the purpose of the study and respond in ways that confirm the researcher's expectations. ...
... Highly identified fans are likely to have a strong and favourable attachment to the sport teams with which they identify. Affectively, highly identified fans experience intense emotions and high levels of anxiety during and after their teams' competitions (Wann et al., 1998). Cognitively, highly identified fans show a number of biased perceptions regarding their identified teams' performance. ...
Article
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This study intended to examine the roles of motives and constraints in spectators' attendance in intercollegiate sports with team identification. Spectators in Division I and III were compared in their responses in dimensions of motives and constraints. Multiple analysis of variance was conducted to see the influence of motives and constraints on the number of games attended followed by hierarchical regression analysis to examine an interaction effects between motives and constraints. Results showed significant mean differences for dimensions of motives and constraints depending on divisions and the level of team identification. Fan attendance was found to be the result of negotiation between motives and constraints.
... Objects of attachment can vary, but many studies in sport contexts focused on team identification (Woo, Trail, Kwon, & Anderson, 2009) and found its role in explaining various affective, cognitive, and behavioral reactions of fans (Capella, 2002;; Wann et al., 1996). Affectively, highly identified fans would experience intense emotions and high levels of anxiety during and after their teams' competitions (Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998). Cognitively, highly identified fans show a number of biased perceptions regarding their identified teams' performance and they tend to be more knowledgeable about their team and the sport (Smith, Patterson, Williams, & Hogg, 1981). ...
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This study aimed to examine different segments of spectators at minor league baseball games in motivation, external factors, and their consumption behaviors. Using spectator identification, a combined scale of fan identification and sport identification, spectators were grouped into four clusters using K-means cluster analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance and chi-square tests were conducted to determine group differences. The results showed significant mean differences in the dimensions of motivation and external factors by clusters. In addition, different behavioral patterns were found in their game attendance and ticket purchase. The implications of acknowledging segmented spectator markets of the minor league baseball were discussed.
... Magyar and Chase (1996) found that performing superstitions was one of the most popular psychological strategies used by athletes to combat the anxiety associated with their sport. It is likely that the same phenomena work in sport fans, as sporting contests are routinely perceived as anxiety-inducing, especially by highly identified fans (Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998). ...
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The present study examined how a fan's desire to exhibit superstitious behaviors depends on team identification and game outcome. The study was a 2 (team identification: high vs. low) x 2 (game outcome: close game vs. blowout) between subjects factorial design. Participants included 176 students recruited from undergraduate psychology classes at a mid-sized university in Kentucky. They completed the Sport Spectator Identification Scale, read a randomly assigned vignette differing in game outcome, and filled out the Superstition Questionnaire to measure their desire to complete superstitious behaviors based on the vignette. Results indicated that highly identified fans reported wanting to perform more superstitious behaviors than low identified fans. The main effect for game type was almost significant (p = .07); fans were more likely to report performing superstitious behaviors during close games than blowouts. There was not an interaction between identification and game outcome. This finding reiterated the importance of team identification and its effects on the sport fan. There were also indications that the outcome of the event itself plays a minor role in determining sport fan behaviors.
... Therefore, identification has been regarded as one of the critical predictors of various affective, cognitive, and behavioural reactions (Capella, 2002;Wann and Branscombe, 1993;Wann et al., 1996). Affectively, highly identified fans might experience intense emotions and anxiety during and after games of their supporting teams (Wann et al., 1998). Cognitively, highly identified fans might show a number of biased perceptions regarding the performance of their identified teams. ...
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The study examined how cognitive, affective, behavioural functions and patriotism influence viewing intentions to follow games of the men's US national team and games of the FIFA World Cup in general played during the 2010 World Cup. A questionnaire that included items in three dimensions of the attitude formation theory: 'sport knowledge', 'sport identification', 'frequency of viewing' and 'patriotism' was administered to 467 sport sciences students in the USA. Results revealed that sport identification was the strongest predictor followed by patriotism and sport knowledge when examining intention to watch the World Cup games. For intention to watch games of the US national team, results showed patriotism was the most important predictor followed by sport identification and sport knowledge. ANOVA results indicated there were gender differences. In both cases, male respondents showed significantly higher mean scores than female respondents. Practical implications and methodological limitations were also discussed.
... Introducing the team identification-psychological health model, Wann (2002) suggested that identification with a local sport team is related to psychological well-being. In a study of cognitive and somatic anxiety, Wann, Schrader, and Adamson (1998) found that highly identified spectators would report higher levels of anxiety than lowly identified spectators, and that spectators would be able to accurately recall their anxiety several days after an athletic event. Parallel with the disposition theory of sportsfanship, the team identification literature also suggests that fans with higher level of identification with a team are more likely to report greater enjoyment when their team experiences victory over an opponent (e.g., Madrigal, 1995Madrigal, , 2003Bernthal & Graham, 2003;Stets & Burke, 2000;Wann & Branscombe, 1990. ...
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In understanding why people enjoy media content, disposition-based theories of media enjoyment have shown to be practical and helpful guides for researchers (Raney, 2004). In broader terms, this theoretical framework posits that enjoyment of media content is a function of viewers’ affective dispositions toward media characters, and whatever happens to those characters. However, one of the bigger gaps in the theory concerns the formation of dispositions. That is, how we come to like certain characters and why we form dispositions toward them is still a question. Therefore, more factors need to be identified that may induce formation of dispositions. The purpose of this study was to extend the disposition theory by identifying new factors that may induce formation of dispositions in the context of sports spectatorship. In two separate experiments, the study particularly examined the role of morality and physical attractiveness of athletes in formation of dispositions. Study 1 has applied Raney and Bryant’s (2002) Integrated Model of Enjoyment for Crime Drama in the context of sports, and findings suggested that when athletes are concerned, the moral judgment of athletes is a factor in formation of dispositions as well. Utilizing the interpersonal attraction theory, Study 2 tested whether physically attractive athletes have an effect on disposition formations for the spectators. Physical attractiveness was not found to be significant predictor of formation of dispositions. Because of the varied results in the first two studies, the researcher conducted a third study to investigate whether morality and physical attractiveness together stimulate formation of dispositions. The results revealed that morality has an additive effect on physical attractiveness regarding the formation of dispositions. Findings of this dissertation have implications for disposition theory, team identification literature and interpersonal attraction theory. A discussion of these implications is provided, and suggestions for future research are provided.
... On the flip side, for the fan, the anxiety and pain associated with pending games and undesired outcomes may be as great as those experienced by the players themselves. Fans experience an increase in cognitive and somatic anxiety as an important competition approaches; the effect is heightened among highly identified fans (Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998). Deeply committed fans also are less able to separate themselves from their teams when their teams lose (Wann & Branscombe, 1993). ...
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Using self-administered questionnaires, this study assessed ways in which the viewing experience for sports fans is similar to-and different from-the viewing experience for fans of other popular programming genres. Compared to fans of other genres, televised sports fans were likely to engage in a variety of pregame planning and information search activities. Their viewing was more likely to be purposive and content oriented. Sports fans were emotionally involved and cared about the outcomes. They also were more likely to check media sources for follow-up information. Fans of other genres were not as active or invested in their favorite programming genre.
... Considering the multi-disciplinary body of research linking sports fan identification to sports fan effects (see Wann, Melnick, Russell, & Pease, 2001 for review), this dearth of research is surprising. For example, fans who highly identify with athletes are subject to heightened anxiety during sports viewing (Wann, Schrader & Adamson, 1998), potentially leading to increased aggression (Wann & Branscombe, 1993). Highly identified sports fans also engage in pre-game activity (e.g., having a drink before the game, reading about the event), during game activity (e.g., yelling, acting out, stomping floor), and post-game activity (e.g., stay in good/bad mood after game, talk with others, seek out highlights) (Gantz & Wenner, 1995). ...
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Parasocial interaction (PSI) involves attraction to and subsequent relationship development with mediated characters. This study examined the nature of PSI in NASCAR fans, the fastest growing sport in the United States. Our findings indicated that PSI among NASCAR fans is a multi-dimensional concept consisting of parasocial enjoyment and parasocial attachment. Furthermore, PSI was linked to increased audience activity (involvement, intentionality and affinity), higher levels of NASCAR fandom, positive perceptions of a favorite driver’s corporate sponsors, sex, NASCAR fandom within ones family, and NASCAR viewing motives. The results of this study examine the strong parasocial bond between fan and driver and may have direct implications for marketers of NASCAR.
... Team identification is a specific form of social identification that reflects a fan's psychological connection to a team (Wann, 1997). The construct has been associated with behaviors such as attendance decisions (e.g., Sutton, McDonald, Milne, & Cimperman, 1997) and spectator aggression (e.g., Dimmock & Grove, 2005), and it has also been used to predict a host of emotions and psychological health constructs (e.g., Wann, Dimmock, & Grove, 2003;Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998). Despite the growing number of studies on team identification, research on the topic is still in its embryonic stages. ...
Article
In 2 studies framed within social identity theory, the authors examined the relationships among cognitive, affective, and evaluative dimensions of team identification. They also sought to determine relationships between team identification and intergroup bias. Factor analyses in both investigations revealed similar findings. Items corresponding to cognitive identification and affective identification loaded on 1 factor. Items intended to measure evaluative identification loaded on 2 factors that depicted self-evaluations and evaluations perceived by others. Consistent with expectations, the cognitive-affective dimension of team identification was the strongest predictor of intergroup bias in both investigations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... A recent investigation has revealed that sport fans experience a wide range of emotional reactions, and that these reactions may be more intense subsequent to certain types of contests, such as important games or losses (Sloan, 1989). Furthermore, it is apparent that athletic contests can impact spectators' levels of anxiety and arousal (Branscombe & Wann, 1992;Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998) and that the affective reactions are more intense among fans with levels of team identification (Wann, Dolan, McGeorge, & Allison, 1994), that is, persons with a strong psychological connection to a team (Wann, Melnick, Russell, & Pease, 2001). ...
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This study examined relationships among team identification, fan dysfunction, general sport fandom, and trait shame coping styles in a sample of college student sport fans (N = 287). A research question was posed regarding which of Nathanson's (1992) maladaptive shame copings styles (Withdrawal, Attack Self, Attack Other, and Avoidance) would be endorsed most frequently by college sport fans, as well as which variables accounted for the greatest amount of unique variance in maladaptive shame coping styles of college sport fans. Paired-sample t-tests were conducted to identify differences in shame coping endorsement for the entire sample and indicated that Avoidance was the most commonly endorsed shame coping style while Withdrawal was least common. Regression analyses were conducted for each of the shame coping subscales, and indicated that dysfunctional fandom is a significant predictor of three forms of shame coping (Attack Self, Attack Other, and Withdrawal) while a significant amount of the variance in Avoidance was explained by team identification. Implications for sport fan and emotional coping research are discussed.
... Hunt et al. (1999) stress that what distinguishes the devoted fan from his dysfunactional counterpart is that while the former manifests a fun-like and team-support attitude, the latter engages in an anti-social, violent and deviant behaviour which offends the athletic ideal and disrupts both sporting events and the social exchanges surrounding these events. The dysfunctional fan is so strongly identified with the object of his fanaticism and thus, he experiences emotions such as anxiety, dislike, anger and pain to such an extreme degree (Wann et al., 1998) that he often loses control of himself. The most typical representatives of this category of sports followers are the English soccer fans, the notorious " hooligans " (Pimentel & Reynolds, 2004) who label their vulgar conduct as nationalistic support for their team. ...
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Sport events are gradually showing higher potential to make significant contribution to contemporary society. Current events are being developed at local, regional and national level, having economic, commercial, political and socio-cultural implications. Different types of fans are the main target of the global sports industry. Therefore, marketers should be aware of sports fans' needs, discern their motives and predict their buying attitude, estimate the driving forces urging fans to devote time, money and effort to be attend sport events. The scope of the present study is to develop a new sports fan classification scheme, as well as, to evolve a variety of models, like LOGIRE models, aiming at exploring the existence of specific motives, both internal and external that induces fans to attend sports events held abroad. The research was based on personal interviews using a sample 315 persons. Research results revealed six different sports fan types with concrete internal and external motives. More importantly, a new fan type emerged adopting all the behaviour characteristics of the temporary fan type, as well as, the local fan type.
... Cognitively, highly identified fans might perceive their team's performance more favorably (Dietz-Uhler & Murrell, 1999) and thus view things positively through a favorable lens. In regard to affection, highly identified fans are more likely to experience high levels of anxiety and emotion when their team plays (Wann et al., 1998). From a behavioral aspect, individuals with high identification might attend more games and spend more money to follow the team they identify with (Wann, 2006). ...
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As professional sport teams’ involvement with corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities are prevalent and expected by the public, there has been more attention on the factors that can influence consumers’ reactions to CSR activities. This study investigated the influence of two factors—corporate image and organization choice of communication vehicle—on individuals’ responses, perceived motive, and change of attitude to a professional team sports organization’s CSR activities. A total of 225 usable surveys were collected from a university located in the southern region of the United States for data analyses. The study showed that corporate image had a main effect on perceived motives, M unfavorable = 5.07, M favorable = 5.60, F (1, 216) = 6.38, p < .05, , and attitudes, M unfavorable = 4.64, M favorable = 5.49; F (1, 216) = 18.34, p < .05, , toward the team due to CSR activities, while there was no main effect for the professional team sports organization’s chosen communication vehicle, F (2, 217) = 1.09, p > .05, for their CSR activities. The importance of building good corporate image and communicating CSR activities to the fan base are also discussed.
... Research findings by Wann (1995) and Wann et al. (1999) supported that eustress (pleasant stress) was a factor related to sport fan motivation. Wann, Schrader, and Adamson (1998) found that spectators experienced an increase in cognitive and somatic anxiety as an important competition approached. Rollin (1985) explained how soccer became more popular in Britain during World War II because it served as a therapeutic pastime and a source of moral stimulation to the British people. ...
... Cognitively, highly identified fans might perceive their team's performance more favorably (Dietz-Ihler & Murrell, 1999). Affectively, highly identified fans are more likely to experience high levels of anxiety and emotion when their team plays (Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998). For example, an individual who is highly identified with flag football would be more emotionally invested in the game's result. ...
Article
This study explored flag football participants in Mexico as potential consumers of games and merchandise of the National Football League (NFL). An online questionnaire was administered through a flag football organization in Mexico. Using K-mean cluster, participants were grouped into four categories based on a combined score of identification with flag football and American football: ‘avid flag football participants’, ‘dedicated football participants’, ‘avid American football participants’, and ‘casual participants’. MANOVA tests were conducted to see whether there is a main effect for different clusters in terms of current and future consumption of NFL games and merchandise. Gender differences were also examined. Different clusters showed different levels of consumption, which was seemingly influenced by their identification with American football. Females showed higher levels of flag football identification than males while males had higher identification with American football than females. Male participants were prominent consumers of both NFL media and merchandise.
... 39). Research results shows that high-identified fans experience greater levels of arousal and anxiety while watching their team compete (Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998) probably because their identity and evaluation of self is on trial. Participative norms on aggression are likely to be related due to the 'false consensus effect.' ...
Technical Report
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The main motivation behind the creation of the project is the belief that sport should provide a social environment, which unites people with different perspectives. Sport fans who support different teams might have controversial issues with each other only due to their affiliation with their teams. In some cases, sport teams can represent different ideological values such as politics or religion. However, we believe that the sport environment shouldn’t be the place where people represent their beliefs. Instead, it should be the place where people interact with each other, have fun and socialize.
... This could increase their fishing knowledge and confidence in their own ability to catch more fish themselves. Achievement can be offered as a potential motivator in the sense that pro bass fishing fans may have a favorite angler or anglers and bask in the reflected glory (Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998) of these anglers' success. A sense of achievement could also be gained, as well as a desire for competition fulfilled, by bass fishing spectators through success in their participation in fantasy fishing contests that are offered by professional bass fishing organizations. ...
... Achievement is a viewer's sense of relatedness to a team or player when the team or player wins. Empirical research suggests that sports spectators experience a sense of achievement through BIRGing (Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998). Sports fans vicariously related themselves with the victory of a sports team/athlete for a purpose of maintaining or enhancing their self-images (McDonald, Milne, & Hong, 2002). ...
Article
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The current study employs the theory of reasoned action to examine factors that correlate with the behavioral intentions of watching eSports. A structural equation modeling analysis is performed to examine the relationship between intentions to watch eSports, attitude toward watching eSports, subjective norms, behavioral beliefs, and normative beliefs. The results suggested that three behavioral beliefs-related factors (aesthetics, drama, and escapism) and subjective norms were positively related to attitude toward watching eSports. Normative beliefs positively influenced subjective norms. Finally, attitude toward watching eSports positively influenced behavioral intention.
... The relationship between gender and team identification is obviously somewhat unclear in the literature. Some studies have found no differences between male and female spectatorsWann & Grieve, 2005;Wann & Schrader, 2000;Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998), whereas others have found that male spectators identify more strongly with their favourite14 The measure of indirect consumption in Paper I includes TV only, whereas the measure in Paper III includes TV, radio, newspaper and the Internet. teams than do women(Dietz-Uhler, Harrick, End, & Jacquemotte, 2000;Melnick & Wann, 2004;Wann, Dolan, McGeorge, & Allison, 1994). ...
Thesis
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Following Sandvoss (2003) and Crawford (2004), the thought of all spectators of sport as consumers is adopted. This is not to say that spectators are a homogenous group of people. On the contrary, a more nuanced understanding of who the spectators are and how and why they choose to consume sport is the focus of this thesis. Sport spectators have received attention in a spectre of different theoretical traditions, and the papers included in the thesis are published in journals dealing with sociology, social psychology and popular culture. Utilising different theoretical perspectives, the overarching goal is to provide insight into the consumption patterns, motives and identification of spectators. The problems investigated in this thesis demand samples of spectators actually attending live sports events. Data were collected with self-completion questionnaire at seven different events, including basketball, football and ski-jumping. The thesis consists of four empirical papers and one purely theoretical paper. Paper I maps out the patterns of consumption across different sports in relation to social background. Paper II defines the concept of entertainment sport and investigates motives for consuming entertainment sport. Paper III investigates the relationship among motives, team identification and the direct and indirect consumption of sport. Paper IV compares team identification by football spectators attending local and international football matches. Finally, Paper V elaborates on sport being a particular kind of entertainment with specific characteristics., and investigates how the categorisation of football spectators keeps the fan/non-fan binary alive and adds to the entertaining features of sport. There are five main findings. First, class is a poor indicator of what type of sports spectators choose to consume. However, entertainment sport is consumed differently according to social background, providing support for the omnivore thesis. Second, social and excitement motives are stable constructs across sports. The importance of motives varies by gender, age and education within and between sports. Third, excitement motives are more important than are social motives when explaining the strength of team identification and the volume of direct and indirect consumption of sport. Fourth, following social identity theory and social categorisation theory, different contexts activate different identities, explaining diminishing contrasts between spectators rooting for the same team and why female spectators distance themselves relatively from the national side. Finally, football spectators and writers are part of the diffused audience, and keeping the fan/non-fan binary alive contributes to the development of football being consumed as entertainment. In conclusion, the present thesis argues that sport is a special kind of entertainment that has specific features. Entertainment sport is consumed differently according to social background, and spectators without a higher education consume more sport and identify more strongly with their favourite teams compared with highly educated spectators. Sport consumption functions as a cultural currency, and patterns of consumption are argued to be in accordance with the omnivore thesis. Team identification functions as a mediator between excitement motives and consumption, indicating that identification is necessary in order to experience excitement. Team identification is activated according to context, leading to diminishing contrasts in motives and identification, making it difficult to separate fans from non-fans. By pushing beyond the fan/non-fan dichotomy, this thesis aids thinking about spectators as taking part in numerous different practices and displaying different levels of involvement. Spectators are not a discrete group of people, whose practices and identities are rigidly circumscribed and cut off from the rest of culture.
... Cognitively, highly identified fans may perceive their team's performance more favorably (Dietz-Uhler & Murrell, 1999). Affectively, highly identified fans are more likely to experience high levels of anxiety and emotion when their team plays (Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998). Behaviorally, Stryker and Serpe (1994) found that identity salience is a factor that explains time individuals spend engaging in various behaviors. ...
Article
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We explored the influence of facility quality, performance quality, interaction quality, and complaint management on fan satisfaction and team identification. Participants were 283 fans of a Class A minor league baseball team, who completed an online survey on the team’s official social media website. We tested the efficacy of the proposed model using the structural equation modeling bootstrap procedure with maximum likelihood estimation. The results confirmed that complaint management positively influenced interaction quality, and that facility quality, performance quality, and interaction quality positively affected fan satisfaction and team identification. Our findings highlight the importance of complaint management, indicating that organizations need a good complaints management system and employees who are well trained in handling these complaints.
... For instance, highly identified fans might contribute the win to their team's excellent performance while they might blame referee's bad call for the team's loss. Affectively, highly identified fans go through intense emotions and anxiety during the games (Partridge, Wann, & Elison, 2010;Wann, Schrader, & Adamson, 1998). Behaviorally, individuals with high identification are likely to attend more games and are more willing to spend time and money to follow their team (Bravo, Won, & Lee, 2013;Nassis, Theodorakis, Alexandris, Tsellou, & Afthinos, 2012). ...
... The notion of "team identification" has been extensively researched, with results consistently suggesting that fans who have a higher attachment to a team are more likely to initiate and follow-along with aggressive behaviors (Dimmock and Grove 2005;Shoham, Dalakas, and Lahav 2015;Wann et al. 2003). These manic fans are not only more likely to be aggressive but also feel less control over their emotions during gameplay, along with more extreme fluctuations in emotional responses (Dimmock andGrove 2005, Wann, Dolan, McGeorge, &Allison, 1994;Wann et al., 1998). Thus, team identification is a major predictor of aggressive behavior, as frustrations associated with this team are more likely to be internalized and harmful. ...
Article
This paper employs panel data on Iranian soccer fan hooliganism (i.e., verbal and physical aggression against rivals) to provide a longitudinal test of Agnew’s general strain theory. Structural equation models reveal that the experience of strain, a latent variable comprised of negative life events, victimization, bullying, and economic pressures, is positively associated with fan aggression. Moreover, the effects of these strains are both directly and partially mediated through negative affect (state-based anger).
Article
This study examined how athletic success at a university, specifically in men’s basketball, impacted the self-esteem of first-year college students. A sample of students both before and after a period of athletic success completed surveys assessing their collective self-esteem as a member of the university (i.e., membership esteem, private esteem, public esteem, importance to identity) and their identification with the men’s basketball team. In support of the first hypothesis, those students with high-identification with the team showed more self-esteem (i.e., membership esteem, private esteem, public esteem, importance to identity) than those students with low-identification. Supporting the second hypothesis, students after the period of athletic success reported more membership self-esteem than those before the period of athletic success. This research demonstrates that a student’s psychological connection to a sports team has a greater impact on their collective self-esteem about the university compared to athletic success.
Article
Spectators often attribute their athletic team's victories to internal causes and its losses to external causes (e.g., A. H. Hastorf & H. Cantril, 1954; R. R. Lau, 1984; L. Mann, 1974). This self-serving attributional pattern is most common among fans with a strong psychological attachment to their team (D. L. Wann & T. J. Dolan, 1994). The authors examined the relationships among identification, game outcome, and controllable and stable attributions. Their 1st hypothesis was that high-identification fans after a victory, compared with high-identification fans after a loss and low-identification fans after either outcome, would be more likely to exhibit self-serving attributional patterns by attributing their team's successes to controllable and stable causes. Their 2nd hypothesis was that high-identification fans would be more likely than low-identification fans to attribute their team's successes to internal causes and its failures to external causes. U.S. college students high and low in identification first watched their university's men's basketball team win or lose a contest and then completed measures of identification and attribution. The results confirmed the hypotheses.
Article
Three factors believed to play a role in the confidence sport spectors have in their team were examined: time until the competition began, the difficulty of the competition, and the fans' scores on identification with the team. 31 college students were asked to complete the Confidence subscale of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 on five separate occasions: 3 days before, 12 hours before, 3 hours before, immediately prior to, and at half-time of two basketball contests. Subjects also completed the Sport Spectator Identification Scale during the first testing session. Analysis indicated that subjects' confidence changed significantly as the competition approached but only for the more difficult contest. Further, highly and lowly identified subjects exhibited different patterns of confidence as the difficult competition approached.
Article
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the emotional reactions of fans of winning and losing teams at two professional soccer games. The participants were 187 male and 146 female Japanese soccer fans who provided biographical information and responded to a slightly modified state version of the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory (TESI; Svebak, Ursin, Endresen, Hjelmen, & Apter, 1991) pre-, mid- and post-game. Data from winning and losing fans were analysed using 3 × 2 independent groups ANOVAs for each of the pleasant emotions, unpleasant emotions, and tension stress/effort stress ratings with Bonferroni adjustment to control Type 1 error rates. When winning and losing fans’ responses were compared, most differences were found post-game, where losing fans scored significantly higher than winning fans on boredom, anger, sullenness, humiliation and resentment, and lower on relaxation. Also, levels of pleasant and unpleasant emotions changed significantly for losing fans, but (except for boredom) not for winning fans.
Article
This article presents a theoretical model designed to account for the positive relationship between identification with a local sport team and social psychological health. This model, labeled the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model, predicts that team identification facilitates well-being by increasing social connections for the fan. Two forms of social connections are developed through team identification: enduring and temporary. Although the enduring and temporary social connections are expected to result in improved well-being, it is predicted that this relationship will be moderated by threats to social identity and efforts to cope with the threats. The social connections resulting from team identification are expected to impact both state (via increases in temporary social connections) and trait well-being (via enduring connections). Finally, because research indicates that group and team identification are more closely related to social well-being than personal well-being, temporary and enduring social connections are predicted to have their greatest impact on social psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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While the benefits of identification with a sport team have been described (Wann, 2006a), the conditions under which fans will change or switch identification have not been investigated. The present study was designed to address this gap. Participants (154 college students) indicated how likely they were to engage in various acts following a basketball loss in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championship tournament by the University of Kentucky (UK) men's basketball team. Half of the vignettes described a loss early in the tournament, while half of the vignettes described a loss in the Final Four. Results indicated that the timing of the loss, level of team identification, level of basketball fandom and level of maladaptive fan beliefs all influenced the likelihood that participants partook in certain activities. The results are discussed in terms of the influences that affect such decisions.
Article
Examined the hostile and instrumental verbal aggression of sport spectators. It was hypothesized that highly identified fans would report higher levels of hostile and instrumental aggression than fans low in identification and that aggression directed toward the officials would tend to be hostile in nature. Prior to attending a men's college basketball game, 196 college students (mean age 21.3 yrs) were asked to complete a measure of their team identification. After the contest, they were asked to indicate the degree to which they had acted aggressively toward the officials and opposition for hostile and instrumental reasons. The results reveal strong support for both hypotheses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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There are motivation sports events attending measuring tools, although so far these instruments have only been able to provide a limited explanation for attendance, which means that more sophisticated, useful scales are required. The aim of this research is to provide more efficient tool to measure the motivations of soccer events attendance. With this aim, a 14-item scale has been developed to measure the motivations that have been identified in a comprehensive review of specialized marketing literature. This scale, was used during a soccer event, showed a good global adjustment, internal consistency and validity, and found the following four dimensions explained 67% of variance in attendance: excitement, aesthetics, escape and connections to the team and its environment.
Thesis
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Working within a social identity framework (Tajfel & Turner, 1979; Turner, 1999), this thesis aimed to advance the understanding of the construct commitment and collective-self esteem, and non-performance related social identity threats in sport fans. Chapter three describes the adaptation and psychometric validation of the collective self-esteem scale (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992), and then outlines the development and validation of the sport fan commitment scale. Exploratory factor (principal components analysis) and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the construct validity of the collective self-esteem scale was was upheld but was best represented by a four factor correlated model and not a four factor hierarchical model as previously thought (cf. Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992). Mixed methodology using thematic analysis and both exploratory factor (using PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the construct commitment could be reliably assessed by a 12 item, three factor correlated model, comprising affective loyalty, involvement, and BIRGing. Chapter Four utilises the new scales to examine how non-performance related threats to sport fans’ social identity. The results of this chapter suggest that fans derived a more positive social identity by being seen to belong to a better in-group (one that is high in commitment and loyalty) than when their social identity was defined by their team’s performances. Furthermore, threats to fans’ social identity led to stronger loyalty to their in-group than to their team (see studies eight and nine). The implications of the results are discussed in Chapter Five, which highlights how the new scales have advanced theory and understanding about the multidimensionality of sport fans’ commitment. Integration of the commitment scale with more general models of social identity (e.g. Cameron, 2003) in order to assess its utility with other social groups is one direction identified for future research.Finally, the finding that team performance was not as important for fans’ social identity as initially thought, could be expanded through other novel methodologies (e.g. pre-game contexts and mixed method approaches). These directions for research might allow a larger range of fan behaviours to be examined, as well as enabling sport clubs to understand their consumers’ commitment further.
Article
The present study investigated whether seat location and ticket cost influence sport fans' instrumental and hostile aggression. College-aged fans imagined attending a sporting event in which the seat location (five rows from the field vs. the upper deck) and ticket cost ($10.00 vs. $75.00) were manipulated. Participants then completed a modified version of the Hostile and Instrumental Aggression of Spectators Questionnaire. Contrary to the hypotheses, seat location and ticket cost did not predict instrumental or hostile aggression, although highly identified fans reported greater intent to aggress than low identifying fans. This effect persisted when controlling for gender differences. Results indicate that sport management should consider gender and individual differences in team identification when attempting to curtail fan aggression.
Article
The Norelco Sport Fanatics Survey administered by Impulse Research to over 1,400 avid sport fans online assessed their support of and involvement with their teams, emotional responses prior to and subsequent to team performance, and the effect of their fandom on their family and social relations. Analysis yielded results which replicated past research and indicated that sport fandom was extremely important to the respondents, intensified affective reactions, and was perceived as a highly social activity with very few negative consequences for interpersonal relations.
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