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Interaction Patterns and Themes of Male, Female, and Mixed Groups

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All-male, all-female, and mixed groups were observed for possible differences in interactional style. The groups met for 5 11/2-hr unstructured meetings. Portions of the tape-recorded sessions were analyzed by the General Inquirer computer-aided content analysis system. Leadership, defined as rank order of Ss initiating interaction, showed greater variation along sessions in the female than in the male group, whereas in the mixed group the males initiated and received more interaction than the females. Exercise of power, defined as amount of talking to the group as a whole rather than to individuals, occurred more often in the male groups than in the female. In the mixed groups, the female pattern did not change, but the males addressed the group as a whole less often in mixed groups. A 3rd difference was found on the variable of intimacy and openness. Female group members revealed more information about themselves and their feelings than the male group members. In the mixed group, males shared more about themselves than in the all-male group. Sex role pressures are considered to be a contributing factor to the results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... In order to mitigate these concerns and avoid audit failure, the need for better collaboration and sufficient information exchange within the joint auditor pair may foster a transformational leadership style on the part of audit partners. Drawing on insights from the psychology literature that male and female members are likely to exhibit variation in their interpersonal style according to the group's composition (e.g., Aries 1976;Fenwick and Neal 2001;Hirokawa and Poole 1996), we argue that the better interaction between male and female within the joint auditor pair, by promoting better communication and collaboration and fostering a transformational leadership style on the part of the audit partners, confers a comparative advantage on gender-diverse partners compared to all-male partners. ...
... Indeed, insights from the psychology literature suggest that male and female members are likely to exhibit variation in their behavior according to the group's composition. Based on the differences in how women and men lead, communicate, and influence each other's behavior, Aries (1976) finds that while men are likely to express more competitive behavior in their social interaction within an all-male group, they nevertheless exhibit more variation in their interpersonal style in a small gender-mixed group and tend to become more personally oriented and less competitive (i.e., more transformational with respect to their leadership). This change in interpersonal style is likely to increase communication between men and women, reducing power distance between them (Aries 1976). ...
... Based on the differences in how women and men lead, communicate, and influence each other's behavior, Aries (1976) finds that while men are likely to express more competitive behavior in their social interaction within an all-male group, they nevertheless exhibit more variation in their interpersonal style in a small gender-mixed group and tend to become more personally oriented and less competitive (i.e., more transformational with respect to their leadership). This change in interpersonal style is likely to increase communication between men and women, reducing power distance between them (Aries 1976). Teams with lower power distance are more prone to embrace transformational leadership behaviors and to work collaboratively, resulting in superior team performance (Schaubroeck et al. 2007). ...
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Our study examines whether gender-diverse engagement partners constrain unethical earnings management behavior in a French mandatory joint audit setting. The investigation of the joint audit setting, by raising concerns about audit team organization and management, provides new insights into how gender-diverse audit partners contribute to the effectiveness of audit decision-making, resulting in reduced earnings management. The need for effective collaboration and communication between joint auditors may foster a transformational leadership style on the part of audit engagement partners. In this regard, we argue that better interaction between male and female lead audit partners confers a comparative advantage on gender-diverse audit partners compared to all-male audit partners. In line with our expectation, our empirical results show that gender-diverse audit partners are negatively associated with discretionary accruals of client firms. Gender-diverse audit partners are also found to constrain earnings management irrespective of whether clients hire one or two brand-name audit firms. Finally, we find that the pervasiveness of earnings management declines when client firms switch from all-male audit partners to gender-diverse audit partners. Our findings underline the importance of considering audit partner gender by policy makers in contexts where joint audits are required or in countries that are considering introducing joint audits.
... Marcus (1999), Sadeghi (2003) dan Natsir et al., (2016) juga menyatakan bahwa siswa perempuan cenderung lebih menyukai gaya belajar pendengaran. Penelitian-penelitian tersebut sejalan dan terkait dengan penelitian yang disarankan oleh Leet-Pellegrim (1980), Aries (1976), Fox (1990), dan Tatarintseva (2002) bahwa siswa perempuan merasa lebih nyaman untuk mendengarkan daripada menunjukkan dibandingkan dengan siswa laki-laki. Dengan demikian, dijelaskan mengapa sebagian besar siswa perempuan dalam beberapa penelitian cenderung lebih suka gaya belajar pendengaran, serta dalam penelitian ini. ...
... Meskipun tidak ada perbedaan signifikan antara skor rata-rata siswa laki-laki dan perempuan, dapat disimpulkan bahwa siswa laki-laki dan perempuan memang berbeda secara unik dalam preferensi gaya belajar mereka berdasarkan penelitian ini, di mana siswa perempuan cenderung lebih memilih gaya belajar pendengaran dibandingkan untuk siswa laki-laki yang lebih suka gaya belajar kelompok dan visual, pernyataan ini didukung oleh beberapa studi yang disebutkan di atas oleh Marcus (1999), Sadeghi (2003), Natsir et al., (2006), Leet -Pellegrim (1980), Aries (1976), Fox (1990), dan Tatarintseva (2002) yang menyatakan bahwa siswa perempuan dan laki-laki sebenarnya cenderung memiliki perbedaan dalam preferensi mereka dalam gaya belajar. ...
Article
Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui preferensi gaya atau tipe belajar siswa pada sekolah dasar menengah, dan untuk melihat apakah ada perbedaan antara preferensi gaya belajar siswa laki-laki dan perempuan. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 27 siswa siswa SMP, 12 siswa perempuan dan 15 siswa laki-laki. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kuantitatif yang menggunakan Kuesioner Perceptual Learning oleh Reid (1987) sebagai instrumen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gaya belajar yang disukai siswa adalah gaya belajar kelompok, sedangkan gaya belajar yang paling tidak disukai adalah gaya belajar individu, disimpulkan bahwa murid laki dan perempuan memang berbeda secara unik dalam preferensi mereka pada gaya belajar.
... For example, although there is a widespread belief that women talk more than men, the literature provides a review of studies, displaying that men talk more than women (e.g., Soskin & John, 1963;Argyle et al., 1968;Bernard, 1972;Swacker, 1975;Eakins & Eakins, 1978;Spender, 1980;Steinem, 1991;Herring, 1992). Both men and women tend to discuss different topics (Aries, 1976;Haas, 1979;Aries & Johnson, 1983;Seidler, 1989;Coates, 1987Coates, , 1993. While men tend to talk about politics, sports, and cars, which seen as serious topics, women tend to talk about child-bearing, child-rearing, and personal relationships, which labeled as trivial topics (Coates, 1993). ...
... But a speaker who was intending to say more and was simply waiting for the appropriate turnexchange pause will fell [sic] that the floor was taken a way and the topic aggressively switched." Both men and women tend to discuss different topics (Aries, 1976;Haas, 1979;Aries & Johnson, 1983;Seidler, 1989;Coates, 1987Coates, , 1993. For instance, while men tend to talk about politics, sports, and cars, which seen as serious topics, women tend to talk about child-bearing, childrearing, and personal relationships, which labeled as trivial topics. ...
... Also, the researcher could not find any significant relationship between language learners' learning styles with their gender which means males and females did not differ in their styles of language learning. However, certain studies revealed that gender matters and males and females have different learning styles (Greb, 1999;Pizzo, 1990;Marcus, 1977;Thompson, 1975;Leet-Pellegrini, 1980;Aries, 1976;Fox, 1990;Ong, 1989;Dorval, 1990;Sadeghi, 2012). ...
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The present study attempted to investigate the interdependence of self-regulated learning and language learning styles among three levels of language learners. Their gender and language proficiency level were also taken into consideration to find out the interaction between these variables. To carry out the study, the subject was selected based on the multi-stage sampling procedure. From five universities, 200 EFL learners studying TEFL, Literature, and Translation were randomly selected. Based on their scores on the TOEFL test, the participants were divided into beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. From each level, 30 subjects were randomly selected. The research instruments were used to collect the required data for the study. After analyzing the data, the results showed a significant relationship between the EFL learners’ learning styles and their self-regulation. It was disclosed that the higher the learners’ scores on language learning styles were, the more self-regulated they were. When gender was taken into account as a moderator variable, no significant correlation between language learners’ learning styles and their gender was detected. It was found that both male and female learners were self-regulated in the same way. In addition, EFL learners’ proficiency level significantly made a difference in their self-regulation; however, it did not affect their learning styles.
... We have stated arguments for (1) in previous parts, we can also find some evidence from the literature to support (2). In the communication context, men tend to avoid same-gender one-to-one contact but they tend to attract females (Aries 1976). In the service context, female customers have higher satisfaction with male service providers (Iacobucci and Ostrom 1993). ...
Conference Paper
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Chatbots have been empowered by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and rapidly applied to many industries. There is a call for more understanding of the effect of chatbots' social cues on business outcomes. This paper investigates how does the choice of chatbots' voice gender impacts customers' intention to repay overdue debt. Prior studies on gender differences have conflicting implications. Employing unique real business dataset, we find that for male customers, they are more willing to repay when served by female chatbots. However, female customers have no preference for the gender of chatbots. We finally explain the effect of chatbot gender in ten gender-stereotypical attributes (e.g., forceful and assertive of masculinity, gentle and warm of femininity). The results demonstrate that masculine attributes have significant negative effects on both male and female customers while feminine attributes only have significant (positive) effects on male customers. Based on the results, we further discuss the theoretical contributions and managerial implications.
... These included questions about how involved the interviewee was in fisheries activities, if he/she earned enough money from fishing, if he/she knew how the fishery was managed, and if he/she was familiar with fisheries-related laws. With this set of questions in particular, I believe that the male respondents might have engaged in more detailed and answered in more depth had I been a man (Aries, 1976;Herod, 1993), and especially another fisherman. When fisheries-related questions were posed to women, despite their direct involvement in the fishery (e.g. ...
... It should be noted that this study has examined the relationship between the sense of justice, social identification and student engagement in a sample of prevalently female 123 university students. Extensive literature exists on the relationship between gender and cooperation, suggesting that in their personal interactions females tend to be compliant and conciliatory whereas males tend to disagree and to be more competitive (see, for example, Aries 1976;Carli 1989;Mabry 1985). Future research should explore the role played by gender in student engagement in terms of compliance with formal university rules (rule-abiding behaviours) and extra-role behaviour. ...
Article
This paper provides the first causal evidence on the effects of gender match in the adviser–student relationship (as opposed to the well‐researched instructor–student relationship) on student outcomes along both the intensive and extensive margins. We analyze administrative data from a university with a faculty adviser assignment policy that makes gender pairing between advisers and students exogenous. We find that matching female students with female adviser has a positive and significant effect on retention and grade point average (GPA) upon graduation, particularly for students with academic challenges and non‐science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students. For female students with below‐median high school GPA, gender match is found to raise the odds of graduate school enrollments.
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Art is a mean of communication. It provides people with exchange of feelings with themselves and their environments. There are different kinds of art. These variations depend on and changes in accordance with the quality of life, values, ideologies, hopes, expectations, level of consciousness and esthetic receptions. In this matter, the folk songs in Turkey are an important subject as they refer to peoples feelings and thoughts. Here, Âşık Veysel has a primary importance. This study is based on multi dimensional content analysis of musical and textual structure of Veysel's 14 folk songs. As a result, we can say that Veysel's folk songs have universal features both musically and textually.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Reports the results of 4 experiments with 80, 90, and 60 undergraduates, respectively, in Exp. I, II, and IV, and 40 high school students in Exp. III. Ss performed a 65-item conformity measure constructed to control for sex relatedness of the judgmental task. Data led to the conclusion that the simple explanation of sex differences in conformity as a function of cultural role prescriptions is inadequate, and that a disregard for the nature of the experimental tasks has contributed to artificially inflated observations of sex differences in conformity. (31 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated situational factors influencing the manifestation of dominance (Do) by pairing 80 undergraduates high and low on the CPI Do scale and having them interact in tasks in which 1 had to lead and the other follow. In experiments using a masculine industrial task and a sexually neutral clerical task, the following S pairs were studied: high and low Do men (Group 1), high Do men and low Do women (Group 2), high Do women and low Do men (Group 3), high and low Do women (Group 4). Assumption of leadership by the high Do women in Group 3 was significantly lower in both studies. This was attributed to sex role conflict inhibiting the manifestation of Do. Analyses of the decision-making process support this interpretation.
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Men make significantly higher scores than women on a scale of attitudes toward problem solving. Attitude scores "have some positive relationship to performance scores." From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:1GD56C.
Interpersonal behavior and preferences for exploration in adolescent boys: a small group study Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of MichiganSex variable in conforming behavior
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Personality and Interpersonal BehaviorSex differences in problem-solving performance as a' function of attitude differences
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The Adolescent ExperienceSocial change in self-analytic groups The General Inquirer: A Computer Approach to Content AnalysisInfluence of sex roles on the manifestation of leadership
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