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Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation


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People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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... However, in collectivistic countries (Asian countries, mostly), both shame and guilt is induced by focus on specific behaviors (Wong & Tsai, 2007). This may be because people in collectivistic cultures do not believe in core self but consider self as more interdependent; that is, self can be defined by other people and be more variable depending on situations and relationships (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Consequences of shame in collectivistic countries are also similar with those of guilt. ...
... Some may argue that this argument has relevance with cultural differences of independent and interdependent self-construals. Markus and Kitayama (1991) argued that people in Western countries have independent self-construal. People with this type of self-construal tend to consider themselves as unique from others and as a separate, independent entity. ...
... These people also value their own cognitions, emotions, and attitudes. On the other hand, Markus and Kitayama (1991) argued that people in Asian countries have interdependent self-construal. People with this type of self-construal tend to consider themselves as connected with others and define themselves in terms of relationships with others. ...
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Collective guilt is a feeling that members of a perpetrator group experience for their group’s harmful actions. Collective guilt feelings are known to induce conciliatory behaviors such as reparations and apologies. While members of a perpetrator group experience collective guilt feelings, members of a victim group also often expect perpetrator group members to experience collective guilt. This is called collective guilt assignment. Collective guilt assignment could inhibit victim group members from moving past their negative feelings and inhibit intergroup forgiveness. Thus, it is important for positive intergroup relations to consider what may increase collective guilt feelings and what may decrease collective guilt assignment. The present research argues that a perception of psychological connections between perpetrators and members of a perpetrator group influences both feelings and assignment of collective guilt. Perpetrator group members may perceive psychological connections between themselves and perpetrators, which may result in collective guilt feelings. Victim group members similarly perceive psychological connections between perpetrators and other members of a perpetrator group, which may result in collective guilt assignment to other members of a perpetrator group. Collective guilt can be not only experienced but expressed by perpetrator group members. Thus, the present research also examines effects of expression of guilt and expression of preventing future harmful actions on collective guilt assignment. Chapter 1 provides theoretical backgrounds and develops five propositions. Effects of psychological connections on collective guilt feelings are formulated as Propositions I and II. Proposition III discusses effects of perceiving psychological connections on collective guilt assignment. Effects of guilt expression on collective guilt assignment are formulated as Proposition IV. Proposition V is related to effects of expression of preventing future harmful actions on collective guilt assignment. Chapter 2 (Studies 1 and 2) provides empirical support for Propositions I and II. Chapter 3 beings with Study 3 which examines whether victim group members perceive perpetrator group members as capable of experiencing guilt and other complex emotions (i.e., secondary emotions) for their harmful actions. This provides a basis to examine any potential effects of guilt expression. Studies 4 through 6 provide empirical evidence for Propositions III and IV. Chapter 4 (Study 7) empirically examines Propositions IV and V. Finally, Chapter 5 is devoted to general discussion of the present research. Each proposition is evaluated, and future directions are discussed. This chapter is concluded by discussion on implications of predicting both feelings and assignment of collective guilt by the perception of psychological connections.
... These exploratory results indicated that the concept of brand love in India is similar to that of interpersonal love, contradicting the earlier finding in the field of brand love. These contradicting findings were attributed to the cultural differences between Eastern and Western cultures, especially in the field of extended self (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). These findings create the possibility for future research into brand love via the triangular theory of love to understand how the changes in the perceptions of self influence the brand love. ...
... A very few studies have considered love as a relationship, and most of that studies are conducted among Western cultures. The Western and Eastern culture differ significantly in the areas of dogmatism (DeBono & Claudine, 1993) individualism (Choi et al., 2005;Kapoor et al., 2003) and extended self (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). The Western view considers individual as an independent, selfcontained and autonomous entity who (a) comprises a unique configuration of internal attributes and (b) behaves primarily as a consequence of these internal attributes which is different from the Eastern view of individuals (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). ...
... The Western and Eastern culture differ significantly in the areas of dogmatism (DeBono & Claudine, 1993) individualism (Choi et al., 2005;Kapoor et al., 2003) and extended self (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). The Western view considers individual as an independent, selfcontained and autonomous entity who (a) comprises a unique configuration of internal attributes and (b) behaves primarily as a consequence of these internal attributes which is different from the Eastern view of individuals (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). According to Markus and Kitayama (1991) when the American stresses on attending to the self, as the appreciation of one's difference from others, the Japanese emphasize to 'attending to and fitting in' with others. ...
... However, the effects were reduced in Asians as they were more comfortable with suppression (Butler et al., 2007). Expression and the experience of emotions (such as anger) are situationally bound and influenced by the consideration of others in interdependent cultures (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). More often, Easterners, compared to Westerners, are dialectical (the view that the world is inherently contradictory) and expect more change in explanation tasks and more tolerance of contradictory actions, which manifest differently in emotional experience, attitudes, evaluations, and perceptions (Spencers-Rodgers et al., 2010). ...
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One can find a rich set of empirically evaluated techniques across different schools in couple therapy over its evolution of five decades. Though there are multiple systematic reviews and analyses of couple intervention studies, none focus on reviewing the universal dimensions of change across therapeutic techniques. Understanding the common areas of change would enable integrated learning across therapy modalities for novice therapists. Therefore, the aim is to identify the techniques employed in couple intervention research and categorize their change dimensions. We examined 40 articles on couple interventions published across 16 journals and identified 111 techniques. The five therapeutic change dimensions, namely behavior, cognition, emotion, attachment, and holistic, were categorized based on the common factor integration of techniques. The identified techniques were further classified under the five dimensions using the voting procedure to validate the universality of change dimensions.
... Markus dan Kitayama (1991) mengemukakan bahwa individu yang berada dalam masyarakat kolektif cenderung memiliki sifat interdependen sebagai konsekuensi bahwa mereka memiliki ciri unik dalam bekerja kelompok, yaitu (1) memiliki rasa tanggung jawab yang tinggi terhadap kelompok, (2) merasa memiliki keterkaitan yang tinggi dengan anggota kelompok lain, (3) menjunjung tinggi harmoni dan kerja sama di dalam kelompok, (4) mengontekstualisasikan diri dalam kelompok, dan (5) menjunjung tinggi sistem hierarki sosial yang berjalan di dalam kelompok. Mereka kembali menambahkan bahwa masyarakat individualis cenderung independen, yakni pribadi yang cenderung mengacu pada orientasi diri, menekankan kemandirian dan kontrol, mengejar tujuan individu dalam kelompok, dan budaya di mana individu tersebut mendapatkan kebanggaan dari prestasi diri sendiri dan pencapaian tujuan pribadi. ...
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SINOPSIS SEJAHTERAKAH BERMUKIM DI RUSUNAWA? Berkembangnya pembangunan hunian di berbagai daerah menjadi tantangan tersendiri dalam penataan wilayah. Hunian vertikal (rusunawa, apartemen, kondominium dan lain sebagainya) menjadi alternatif solusi “kesejahteraan” yang ditawarkan. Buku yang berasal dari penelitian disertasi ini mengajak kita menelisik lebih dalam rusunawa sebagai hunian vertikal yang menjadi pilihan “yang tepat” bagi warga yang membutuhkan tempat tinggal dengan harga terjangkau. Hal ini dikarenakan jumlah lahan yang tersedia di kota besar semakin terbatas dan kebutuhan ruang terbuka publik tidak dapat tergantikan, sehingga konsep hunian vertikal diyakini memberikan solusi untuk memaksimalkan lahan sempit yang dapat menampung kebutuhan hunian bagi banyak warga. Pendekatan psikologi lingkungan dan psikologi sosial sangat kental dalam buku ini, sehingga pembaca dapat memahami lebih dalam makna sejahtera tinggal. Dengan mengambil lansekap rusunawa di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, buku ini gamblang memberikan situasi yang kerap menjadi masalah tinggal di hunian vertikal (yang konon) khusus diperuntukkan bagi masyarakat berpenghasilan rendah. Dalam buku ini, pembaca juga ditengahkan dengan alternatif solusi dari masalah yang diungkapkan warga.
... Participants then responded to scale measures of engagement, attitude certainty, and interdependent (vs. independent) self-construal (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). ...
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Variety-seeking research has examined antecedents in terms of contextual factors and individual differences. However, it does not consider the interaction of individual difference factors such as regulatory focus (promotion vs. prevention) and regulatory mode (locomotion vs. assessment) to predict variety-seeking. Drawing on regulatory fit theory, this study introduces a new kind of regulatory fit based on the interaction between regulatory focus and mode (i.e., regulatory focus-mode fit), thereby extending previous work examining fit based on either regulatory focus or regulatory mode in isolation. Results from five studies, including field data from 10,547 music app consumers (text analysis), two preregistered studies, and two online experiments, show that regulatory focus-mode fit (vs. nonfit) decreases variety-seeking. Engagement and attitude certainty serially mediate regulatory focus-mode fit effects. Findings provide implications for consumer segmentation and message framing.
This chapter reviews culture-bound approaches in the international marketing literature. Although these models are still very relevant and set the foundation for a detailed understanding by the firm of whether and to what extent host markets are different from the home market, they are also open to question because of evolving societies and customer behavior. The chapter outlines the concept of culture and its key understandings along different dimensions by illustrating some key dimensional models of culture. It then reflects on the paradoxes emerging when considering increasingly hybridized customers—from the point of view of the cultures they are influenced by—and proposes to move beyond traditional, culturally bound target segments and go in the direction of one-to-one marketing and of buyer personas so to capture increasingly complex customer behaviors.
This article provides a conceptual introduction to the second installment of a two‐issue collection of work on decolonial approaches to the psychological study of social issues. Whereas papers in the first installment consider decoloniality as a social issue for psychological study, papers in this second installment consider psychology as a site for decolonial analysis. In this article, we briefly review key concepts from decolonial theory (e.g., the coloniality of modernity, distinct from historical colonialism). We then discuss manifestations of epistemic violence in hegemonic psychology that require intervention. Epistemic violence is (not merely) a matter of epistemic exclusion of racialized others from the knowledge production process, imperialist imposition of white‐washed knowledge products as universal standards without regard to context, or pathologizing forms of explanation that construct racial others as deviants in light of white‐washed standards (i.e., epistemological violence; Teo, 2010). In addition, epistemic violence in psychology includes forms of harm (e.g., zero‐point epistemology and individualist lifeways) associated with its modern/colonial roots. Accordingly, a decolonial approach to the psychological study of social issues may require refusal of the discipline of psychology.
Preface PART 1: TWO NATURAL KINDS 1. Approaching the Literary 2. Two Modes of Thought 3. Possible Castles PART 2: LANGUAGE AND REALITY 4. The Transactional Self 5. The Inspiration of Vygotsky 6. Psychological Reality 7. Nelson Goodman's Worlds 8. Thought and Emotion PART 3: ACTING IN CONSTRUCTED WORLDS 9. The Language of Education 10. Developmental Theory as Culture Afterword Appendix: A Reader's Retelling of "Clay" by James Joyce Notes Credits Index