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Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation

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People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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... The cultural values were classified as "collectivism, masculinity, power distance, long term orientation, and uncertainty avoidance" (Hofstede 2001). In different cultures, children are conditioned to specific cultural values through socialization and reinforcement (Markus and Kitayama 1991;Bao, Zhou, and Su 2003). Hofstede (2001) defined culture as a multi-dimensional construct comprising of five dimensions that explained an individual's orientation toward society. ...
... The findings support earlier research which suggests that cultural values bestow meanings to products, shopping occasions, and retail outlets (Ozdemir and Hewett 2010;Wang et al. 2010) and similarly, participation in mall events helped in projecting success, happiness and, position in society. In the eastern culture, individuals place importance on the doctrine of karma, respect for authority, and material wealth connotes success (Markus and Kitayama 1991;Khare 2013;Lindridge, Vijaygopal, and Dibb 2014), and mall events helped in symbolizing similar values. Mall events reflected glamor, fun, and the presence of celebrities in various promotional events created engagement. ...
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The current study explores the influence of culture on consumers' attitudes toward mall events and, consequently, its role in improving commitment toward malls. The study employed a mall-intercept technique for data collection across seven cities in India. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results indicated that cultural values predicted attitudes toward mall events. Mall events were categorized according to shopping motives typology and conceptualized as escape, exploration, social, epistemic, and flow. Among the four cultural values, power distance, collectivism, and masculinity were more effective in predicting consumers' attitudes toward the various mall events dimensions. The research findings can help mall managers for planning events according to Indian consumers' cultural beliefs.
... Trajectories of domain-specific self-evaluations could also differ by country and ethnicity. For example, theory suggests that individuals from Asian and Western cultures develop different self-construal styles, which may influence the typical trajectories of selfevaluations in these cultural contexts (Heine, Lehman, Markus, & Kitayama, 1999;Markus & Kitayama, 1991). More generally, researchers have pointed to the need to assess the degree to which psychological phenomena and processes hold across, or are unique to, different cultural contexts (Arnett, 2008;Henrich, Heine, & Norenzayan, 2010). ...
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This meta-analysis investigated the normative development of domain-specific self-evaluations (also referred to as self-concept or domain-specific self-esteem) by synthesizing the available longitudinal data on mean-level change. Eight domains of self-evaluations were assessed: academic abilities, athletic abilities, physical appearance, morality, romantic relationships, social acceptance, mathematics, and verbal abilities. Analyses were based on data from 143 independent samples which included 112,204 participants. As the effect size measure, we used the standardized mean change d per year. The mean age associated with effect sizes ranged from 5 to 28 years. Overall, developmental trajectories of self-evaluations were positive in the domains of academic abilities, social acceptance, and romantic relationships. In contrast, self-evaluations showed negative developmental trajectories in the domains of morality, mathematics, and verbal abilities. Little mean-level change was observed for self-evaluations of physical appearance and athletic abilities. Moderator analyses were conducted for the full set of samples and for the subset of samples between ages 10 and 16 years. The moderator analyses indicated that the pattern of findings held across demographic characteristics of the samples, including gender and birth cohort. The meta-analytic dataset consisted largely of Western and White/European samples, pointing to the need of conducting more research with Non-Western and ethnically diverse samples. The meta-analytic findings suggest that the notion that self-evaluations generally show a substantial decline in the transition from early to middle childhood should be revised. Also, the findings did not support the notion that self-evaluations reach a critical low point in many domains in early adolescence.
... It becomes a core and characteristic of American culture, which then builds national consciousness (Arieli, 1964, p. 32). Therefore, the imposition of individualism challenges the collectivism within Japanese culture, which was already embedded in their social environment as part of their cultural value (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Japanese collectivism results in "the culture of shyness" in which Japanese people hesitate to express their own opinion in public (Aizawa & Whatley, 2006). ...
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This paper, which is under Transnational American Studies and Postcolonial Studies, aims to analyze a process of creating a colonial culture which involves cultural imposition, adoption, and resistance in Lynne Kutsukake's The Translation of Love. This novel depicts postwar Japanese society that lives under American power after the end of World War II while undergo kyodatsu (the period of an economic, social and moral crisis caused by the war). This paper is a qualitative research that utilizes three theories, including cultural imposition, mimicry and symbolic resistance. The finding, shows the devaluation of Japanese cultural identity which used to oppose the claim of "otherness" by the West. In cultural imposition, the United States manages to impose American ideology, language, lifestyle, customs and fashion through various ways such as media, social interaction, social obligation and school curriculum. Meanwhile, in cultural adoption, postwar Japanese adopt American cultures in which it asserts that there is a shift of postwar Japanese cultural orientation that tends to celebrate American culture as a "sign of liberation". Then, in symbolic resistance, postwar Japanese resistance toward the United States as the occupying power is only manifested in subversive everyday gestures which include covert and overt form. In short, this analysis shows that, during U.S. occupation, postwar Japan only becomes "a pawn" in the United States' postwar plan for global dominance by rebuilding a new Japanese society under American influence.
... [11], [12] Empirically, past research among Chinese has found differences concerning not only the nature of ethical judgments and actions [13]- [17], but also other psychological traits and constructs potentially relevant to ethics [18]- [20] -such as thought styles [21], [22], causal attribution [23], and self-concepts and values. [24], [25] For these reasons, simply importing foreign ethics curricula into China might be inappropriate, resulting in not only a failure to cultivate ethical reasoning but also a strong backlash against a perceived cultural imperialism embedded in the theoretical perspectives of these curricula. [26] Even if such curricula were successful in cultivating understandings of ethical and professional responsibility, it is not clear that these should be an ultimate goal of ethics education. ...
... seeking and using advice and emotional solace) it may increase the likelihood of distress in collectivist cultures (Taylor et al., 2007) contrary to a lower likelihood for the individualist Anglo group. Explicit support-seeking can increase the risk of damaging relationships, and might, therefore, be avoided by collectivist cultures that value the maintenance of harmonious relationships (Markus and Kitayama, 1991). Alternatively, it is also possible that communication through messaging services is sought more frequently by Asian migrants, and specifically, Confucian Asian migrants, in our study, who are, perhaps, unable to flourish in the new country. ...
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Purpose-This paper aims to examine the relationship between migrants' psychological well-being and the extent to which they keep in touch with people in their country of origin. Design/methodology/approach-An online survey completed by 1,328 Australian migrants from 4 cultural groups (Anglo, Southern Asian, Confucian Asian and other European) assessed 2 facets of well-being, namely, flourishing and psychological distress and the use of 3 modes of online communication, namely, social media, messaging services and phone/video services. Findings-Overall, keeping in touch with family and friends in their country of origin was associated with more flourishing and less distress amongst migrants. Nonetheless, the preferred modes of communication and how those usages relate with well-being varied considerably across cultural groups. In the Anglo group, communicating through messaging and phone/video services was associated with lower distress and communicating in all modes was associated with higher flourishing. Furthermore, the latter link was accounted for by having a meaningful conversation. Originality/value-These findings suggest that the psychological well-being of migrant populations may be supported by an understanding of the distinct roles played by specific communication modes that are used to stay in touch with family and friends back home.
... Psycho-social factors such as social support, respect, and autonomy-which are associated with loneliness-have been the basis of happiness and subjective wellbeing research in general. However, in the late 1980s, some studies on culture and self (Markus & Kitayama, 1991;Triandis, 1989) had a stimulating effect on the search for the possible effects of culture on happiness and subjective wellbeing (Suh & Choi, 2018). ...
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Turkish government mandates compulsory service for public servants in Eastern Turkey. The compulsory public service cities are different from others in terms of their so-cio-economic conditions as well as socio-cultural structures. As such, these cities offer limited opportunities and an unusual cultural environment for newcomers such as those on compulsory service which will likely impact job satisfaction and loneliness. In order to examine these relationships, we conducted a survey with three hundred sixteen civil servants in Bitlis. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale are used to measure the job satisfaction and loneliness levels, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that income, occupational sector, and social environment, occupational satisfaction, and income advantages provided by Bitlis have remarkable effects on job satisfaction scores, while gender, relationship status, income , occupational sector, the presence of people already known before coming to Bitlis, social environment advantage , and participating in social activities have significant effects on loneliness scores. In addition, negative correlation between loneliness and job satisfaction scores shows that as the job satisfaction score increases, the loneliness score decreases.
... Sensorydiscriminative aspects are those related to the location, intensity, and duration of painful stimuli, while affective-motivational aspects relate to how pain is qualitatively experienced [43,44]. Several studies indicate that ethnic differences in pain experiences may be most apparent for the affective-motivational aspects as these are more in uenced by psychosocial factors than the sensory-discriminative aspects such as pain intensity [45][46][47]. Thus, there appears to be psychosocial differences related to geographical location, culture and/or ethnicity that may explain these ndings of different levels of reported catastrophizing. ...
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Background The aim of this study was to investigate differences in psychological characteristics between people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) from Japan and Australia. Methods A total of 62 adults from Japan and 168 adults from Australia aged over 50 years with knee pain were included. Japanese data were collected from patients with knee OA diagnosed by medical doctors. Australian data were baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Psychological characteristics evaluated were depressive symptoms (depression subscale of the 21-item short-form of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale), fear of movement (Brief Fear of Movement Scale for Osteoarthritis), and pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale). Psychological characteristics were compared between the Japanese and Australian cohorts by calculating 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for difference of the mean. To test for equivalence of the average values of characteristics, the equivalence margin was set at 0.5 standard deviations (SD) of the mean, where these SDs were based on the Australian data. When the 95%CI for the difference of the mean value lay entirely within the range of equivalence margin (i.e. between -0.5 and 0.5 times the Australian SD), the outcome was considered equivalent. Results There were no significant differences between the groups from Japan and Australia for depressive symptoms (mean ± SD; Japan 4.9±5.4, Australia 4.2±4.7) and fear of movement (11.7±3.8, 12.5±3.2, respectively). Mean (95%CI) between group differences were 0.75 (-0.79 to 2.28) for depressive symptoms and -0.77 (-1.77 to 0.22) for fear of movement. Based on the equivalence test, 95%CIs of mean difference between groups for depressive symptoms was within the range of equivalence margin (±2.35). However, the lower limit of the 95% CI of difference in mean for fear of movement (-1.77) was just outside the lower equivalence margin (-1.60). People from Japan with knee OA showed significantly higher pain catastrophizing (20.7±11.0) than those from Australia (14.8±9.6). Conclusions People from Japan with knee OA showed higher pain catastrophizing than people from Australia. The level of depressive symptoms and fear of movement appeared to be equivalent between people from the two countries.
... Similar threads can be found in contemporary personality psychology. The socially defined Self (Markus & Kitayama, 1991;Markus & Nurius, 1986) is not based on the person's total self-knowledge but rather on the information that is available at a certain moment (Markus & Wurf, 1987). It may be even constructed in a particular social context (McGuire & McGuire, 1988). ...
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The effects of an "internal audience" (Zajonc, 1960; Baldwin et al., 1990) and "shared reality" (Hardin and Higgins, 1996) seem to indicate a dialogical nature for cognition and modular structure of the mind, which can be fully described by discursive conceptions, including the theory of the Dialogical Self (Hermans, 1999). This article sets out to describe an empirical attempt to verify one of the basic theses of the theory of the Dialogical Self, according to which each I-position, creates its own Me, being the hero of a specific self-narrative. The experiment using a simplified version of the Baldwin and Holmes' (1987) procedure showed that life stories created by different I-positions do indeed differ in a range of content-related and formal characteristics, which is in agreement with the theory of the Dialogical Self. Given the results, one may also evaluate various methods of positioning as experimental procedures that differ in their effectiveness.
... According to Wong et al. (2006) and Heppner (2008), culture might help understand the different strategies adopted by social groups in order to cope with unexpected events. As an example, Markus and Kitayama (1991) established in their research that citizens belonging to cultures with a high degree of individualism, might feel more inclined to develop a self-construal approach and behave in a more independent, rather than interdependent, style. Higgins et al. (2008) and Kurman and Hui (2011) confirm the fact that individuals, (Fig. 1) under stressful scenarios, will turn into their default cultural values in order to better cope with unexpected events. ...
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This study aims to analyze the role of cross-cultural country differences during a global pandemic. Based on country cultural dimensions and country economic indicators, the research proposes specific policies that might prove of value in order to manage and better respond to present and future critical events such as the 2020 SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. The methodology is based on multivariate analysis for the first set of countries and cross-country comparative analysis for the second set of countries. Research results reveal the critical role of the cultural dimensions individualism, power distance, masculinity, long-term orientation and indulgence, along with the country economic context in the magnitude of the consequences of a global pandemic within a country specific context. Based on these results, the study proposes policies adjusted to the countries specific cultural and economic frameworks in order to promote the most effective and efficient management of a critical event such as a global pandemic.
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Creating a meaning system is fundamental to human adaptation. This article reviews how the emotion of awe, characterized by perceived vastness and the need for accommodation, has a crucial role in meaning-making.Empirical evidence suggests that the experience of awe alters how people construe the world, theself, and the relationship between them, and in finding meaning in life. Directions for future research are discussed with a focus on how the dynamic process of meaning-making through awe would be constrained by cultural meaning systems and how sharing awe experiences with others would contribute to collective meaning-making processes.
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Preface PART 1: TWO NATURAL KINDS 1. Approaching the Literary 2. Two Modes of Thought 3. Possible Castles PART 2: LANGUAGE AND REALITY 4. The Transactional Self 5. The Inspiration of Vygotsky 6. Psychological Reality 7. Nelson Goodman's Worlds 8. Thought and Emotion PART 3: ACTING IN CONSTRUCTED WORLDS 9. The Language of Education 10. Developmental Theory as Culture Afterword Appendix: A Reader's Retelling of "Clay" by James Joyce Notes Credits Index