Article

Developmental Readiness: Accelerating leader development

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Abstract

The development of leaders is a stated goal of most organizations, yet a validated framework and theory for leader development does not yet fully exist, nor is there a method for determining who is developmentally ready to engage in leader development. The authors of this article provide a framework for examining how one can accelerate leader development. They propose that leader developers first focus on assessing and then building the developmental readiness of individual leaders, as well as the developmental readiness of the organization as prerequisite steps for accelerating positive leader development. They identify and discuss 5 specific constructs comprising their initial modeling of developmental readiness (i.e., learning goal orientation, developmental efficacy, self-concept clarity, self-complexity, and metacognitive ability), as well as suggest methods for assessing and developing these 5 components. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... This chapter seeks to contribute to the emerging literature on developmental readiness (Avolio and Hannah, 2008). First, we propose to broaden the developmental readiness (DR) concept beyond leadership domain to include other viable career tracks (e.g., expert or entrepreneur). ...
... One of the emerging and important concepts in the training and development literature is "developmental readiness." The term was coined by Avolio and Hannah (2008) to explain why some leadership development interventions did not lead to positive learning outcomes. The concept paralleled clinical psychology literature where being developmentally ready to accept the change has been linked to success of therapy interventions (Singer, 1997). ...
... Figure 6.1 summarizes the extant research and presents a simplified conceptual model for the developmental readiness constructs. This model combines ideas from Mauer et al. (2003Mauer et al. ( , 2008, Avolio and Hannah (2008), and Rosch and Villanueva (2016), and formally specifies the three DR constructs as a proximal antecedent of participation in learning and other forms of proactive career behaviors. However, unlike Avolio and Hannah's (2008) view of DR as a moderator, our model conceptualizes DR as a key mediator of relationships between more distal dispositional/situational factors (e.g., individual differences and experience) and the outcomes. ...
Chapter
This chapter seeks to contribute to the emerging literature on developmental readiness (Avolio and Hannah, 2008). First, we propose to broaden the developmental readiness (DR) concept beyond leadership domain to include other viable career tracks (e.g., expert or entrepreneur). To that extent, we use Chan’s et al. (2012) EPL model to represent DR constructs in a multidimensional career space defined by entrepreneurship, professional, and leadership vectors. We also describe and initiate the effort to develop and validate a suite of DR measures that can be readily used in research and practice.
... How leaders shape their transformative experiences is important to how leaders engage with the reflection process. Relevant to leader development, Avolio and Hannah (2008) discussed two forms of self-reflection: adaptive and maladaptive. This concept is similar to reflection versus rumination self-focus discussed by Trapnell and Campbell (1999). ...
... This concept is similar to reflection versus rumination self-focus discussed by Trapnell and Campbell (1999). Adaptive self-reflection, similar to Trapnell and Campbell's (1999) reflection, is a constructive process of reflection which is often used by an individual who is open, positive, and has a goal-oriented perspective (Avolio & Hannah, 2008). This reflection "can result in greater self-awareness and self-knowledge that then contributes to more effective choices in terms of actions, behaviors, and emotional selfregulation over time" (Avolio & Hannah, 2008, p. 338). ...
... In contrast, maladaptive self-reflection, Trapnell & Campbell's (1999) rumination, has the ability to hinder self-awareness and self-regulation (Avolio & Hannah, 2008). This is because "maladaptive self-reflection involves more destructive ways of thinking that generates negative emotions such as anxiety, self-doubt, and fear-based actions" (Avolio & Hannah, 2008, p. 338). ...
Article
Leader identity development happens over a lifespan, and long-term identity change is unusual. The way individual’s view their identity as a leader is built upon and reinforced over time. However, there are events such as crucible moments or transformative experiences that do alter an individual’s leader identity. This study aimed to identify what factors influence the way people describe transformative experiences that lead to perceived leader identity change. The correlational research design employed the data collection of transformative experiences narratives, which were coded into a quantitative content analysis, and four assessments to measure the following concepts: affect, identity processing styles, learning goal orientation, and leader development psychological capital. The study analyzed 93 participants responses to understand the degree of relationship between the four mentioned concepts and the affect, or emotion, participants used to describe a transformative experience. Five out of the ten tested hypotheses were supported to indicate several factors that influence the way people describe transformative experiences that lead to perceived leader identity change. Additional exploratory multiple regression analyses were performed to further understand the role of these influence factors. The results from the present study advance transformative experience and leader identity research and literature through the provided insight gained through the findings. Advisor: L.J. McElravy
... Chapter 3 concludes with a description of Avolio and Hannah's (2008) model of Leader and Organisational Developmental Readiness, which will serve as the basis for identification of the pertinent dimensions of leader developmental readiness in this paper. ...
... Hypotheses follow from the presented theory. Finally, I expand from Avolio and Hannah's (2008) model by introducing the role of reflective and ruminative self-attention as self-regulatory processes, which may either enhance or hinder the leader development process through moderating how the individual's confidence as a leader translates into emergence into leader roles. ...
... All of these leader developmental readiness variables have been proposed to be somewhat malleable over time in response to leader experiences (Hannah & Avolio, 2010). Like the aforementioned Maurer and Lippstreu (2010) model, the Avolio and Hannah (2008) model also takes into account the role of context in shaping the leader development process, wherein, readiness climate, along with leadership formative experiences, may act as mediators between readiness for development and developmental outcomes. ...
Thesis
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https://research-repository.uwa.edu.au/en/publications/examining-the-relationship-between-leader-development-readiness-a
... Therefore, in the future, successful leadership will not result from the old paradigms of traditional leadership frameworks (Bolden, 2011;Elkington, Pearse, Moss, Van der Steege, & Martin, 2017;Mehra, Smith, Dixon, & Robertson, 2006), as they are not fully equipped to handle technology's impact on social and business structures. Instead, research reflects that new leadership strategies are required, such as systems thinking (Osborn, Hunt, & Jauch, 2002;Ramosaj & Berisha, 2014;Rios et al., 2018;Schneider, Wickert, & Marti, 2017;Senge et al., 2015) contextual intelligence (Khanna, 2014(Khanna, , 2015Kutz, 2008aKutz, , 2017Kutz & Bamford-Wade, 2013;Leavy, 2013;Masciulli, 2011) and metacognitive strategies (Avolio & Hannah, 2008;Black, Soto, & Spurlin, 2016;Chua, Morris, & Mor, 2012;Davis, Curiel, & Davis, n.d.;Swart, Chisholm, & Brown, 2015). ...
... enhanced degree of metacognition, or an understanding of one's own thinking as well as the elements and conditions that impact that thinking (Black et al., 2016;Davis et al., n.d.). As posited by Avolio and Hannah (2008), metacognitive ability can accelerate leadership learning by allowing leaders to identify, make sense of, and learn from their experiences. According to Proust, "[t]he real voyage of discovery consists not in seeing new landscapes, but in having new eyes" (Proust as cited by Cashman, 2008, p. 158). ...
... • Metacognitive strategies are the methods utilized by leaders to aid in making sense of their leadership experiences to transfer and adapt the learning to new contexts (Avolio & Hannah, 2008;Olivares, 2011). ...
Thesis
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As the world becomes increasingly interconnected through intricate networks in technology-laden environments, leadership has become exponentially more complex. This VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous) context disrupts long-held leadership constructs. Historically, leaders have been able to reflect on past decision making to guide their current and future decisions. No longer is this practice viable; leaders now require new skills to lead competently in this rapidly iterating ecosystem. With its challenges, this dynamic environment also offers opportunities for those who are able to capitalize on the next waves of disruption. Social entrepreneurs, tackling the world’s most pressing challenges, are leading systems-wide changes within this technology-driven context. With a heightened awareness of these global issues, employing contextual intelligence to capitalize on new and innovative social solutions through creative destruction enables leaders to exploit this technology-rich landscape to expand their social impact. Consequently, this phenomenological qualitative study utilized semi-structured interviews to investigate the best practices and strategies employed by Ashoka Fellow social entrepreneurs who are leading change successfully within this VUCA context. In addition, this study explored the challenges these entrepreneurs encountered while leading, the ways in which they evaluated their success, the role that technology played day-to-day, and what recommendations they would make to future leaders of systems-wide change. Through this study, 30 key findings surfaced in relation to successful practices and strategies for leading systems-wide change in a technology-rich VUCA ecosystem.
... Several studies have investigated the reasons for career transition failure (Avolio & Hannah, 2008;Bebb, 2009;Freedman, 2011;Martin, 2015;Watkins, 2003). These studies found that many transitioning leaders are unable to learn new skills (psychological, behavioural, cognitive, interpersonal) to adapt to the new roles. ...
... Organisations attempt to support transition leaders via various interventions such as leadership development programmes, mentoring and transition coaching (Freedman, 2011;Watkins, 2003). The jury is still out on the effectiveness of leadership development programmes (Avolio & Hannah, 2008), but transition coaching seems to hold promise due to its individual, one-on-one nature (Kauffman & Coutu, 2009;Witherspoon & Cannon, 2004). ...
... This definition is confined to the individual perspectives of developing leadership capabilities. However, there are other literatures that describes the same concern using the term 'leader development' [44,50,56,[67][68][69][70]. Leadership development in this study is about exploring the factors that individuals exposed to during their lifetime and because of which they were positioned and identified as a leader in public health. ...
... Apart from other models/frameworks in leader or leadership development which focused on the role of either child/adolescent development [43] or adult development [56,57], this study explored the role of both childhood and adult development in leadership. This study adds a new theory in the field of leader/leadership development where further research were recommended [50,57,66,68]. Most importantly, this study laid a foundation to understand the public health leadership in the context of developing countries. ...
Article
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Leadership in public health is necessary, relevant, and important as it enables the engagement, management, and transformation of complex public health challenges at a national level, as well as collaborating with internal stakeholders to address global public health threats. The research literature recommends exploring the journey of public health leaders and the factors influencing leadership development, especially in developing countries. Thus, we aimed to develop a grounded theory on individual leadership development in the Nepalese context. For this, we adopted constructivist grounded theory, and conducted 46 intensive interviews with 22 public health officials working under the Ministry of Health, Nepal. Data were analysed by adopting the principles of Charmaz’s constructivist grounded theory. The theory developed from this study illustrates four phases of leadership development within an individual–initiation, identification, development, and expansion. The ’initial phase’ is about an individual’s wishes to be a leader without a formal role or acknowledgement, where family environment, social environment and individual characteristics play a role in influencing the actualisation of leadership behaviours. The ’identification phase’ involves being identified as a public health official after having formal position in health-related organisations. The ’development’ phase is about developing core leadership capabilities mostly through exposure and experiences. The ’expansion’ phase describes expanding leadership capabilities and recognition mostly by continuous self-directed learning. The grounded theory provides insights into the meaning and actions of participants’ professional experiences and highlighted the role of individual characteristics, family and socio-cultural environment, and workplace settings in the development of leadership capabilities. It has implications for academia to fulfill the absence of leadership theory in public health and is significant to fulfill the need of leadership models grounded in the local context of Asian countries.
... LGO tends to produce the strongest relationships between leaders, followers, and work groups. Perhaps this trend exists because LGO is an individual difference variable that assists leader development (Avolio & Hannah, 2008;Culbertson & Jackson, 2016) share their motivations to learn. And with greater redundancies and barriers to successful leadership, perhaps leaders are more taxed to influence followers, thus more readily accepting PAGO goals of merely "staying afloat." ...
... Again, LGO-as compared to PPGO or PAGOyielded the strongest findings. Similar to the ideas expressed previously, leaders with a strong LGO may undergo further development to become more competent leaders (Avolio & Hannah, 2008;Culbertson & Jackson, 2016) to thus better influence followers by sharing their LGO. Because none of the results indicated that followers, as compared to leaders, more directly shape work group climate for a given goal orientation, it is evident that leaders retain disproportionately more power in shaping work group experiences. ...
Thesis
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Motivational contagion is a process where one individual’s motivations are adopted by others (Dragoni & Kuenzi, 2012). Leaders enact motivational contagion when they share their goal orientations with followers. The present work applied motivational contagion to a leader-follower dynamic to identify how motivational contagion occurs and if substitutes/neutralizers to leadership reduce the rates of motivational contagion. It was hypothesized that motivational contagion occurs because leaders behaviorally establish a desired goal orientation which signals followers to similarly adopt that goal orientation. The presence of substitutes/neutralizers to leadership were hypothesized to moderate and reduce the rates of motivational contagion. These hypotheses were mostly supported, indicating that leaders do share their goal orientations with followers, but this process is sometimes hindered by substitutes/neutralizers to leadership. Theoretical implications include a new model for motivational contagion in a leader-follower dynamic that can inform future research. Practical implications include a reminder to leaders to be aware of what motivations they silently share with followers.
... The second is employees who are developmentally ready to be empowered. An individual's developmental readiness is based on the belief that individuals can create positive self-fulfilling prophecies about their future (Avolio & Hannah, 2008). That is, individuals who are willing to develop and better understand their own self-concept are better able to respond positively to have agency. ...
... The authentic leader, through their informal influence and sincere interactions with their followers, creates the conditions by which their followers are developmentally ready to engage with new information and new knowledge. In the leadership literature, developmental readiness has grown in its usage (Avolio & Hannah, 2008). Through the guise of a positive organizational culture, authentic leaders seek to create the conditions by which followers want to engage with self-improvement and assessment of their current conditions. ...
Chapter
The digital era has catalyzed the contemporary workforce and workplace. Employees are now required to develop skills that may be outdated in a matter of years, and be consciously aware that their society is evolving rapidly. This Chapter conceptualizes the characteristics of a digitally empowered worker to encompass awareness, creativity, agility, and a positive learning orientation. In doing so, the authors consider the way in which an authentic leader and authentic follower may influence the development of the digitally empowered. Authors present a model and its impact on digital innovation and digital productivity.
... Over the past decade, research attention has been devoted to the theory and practice of leadership development (e.g., Avolio & Hannah, 2008;Collins & Holton, 2004;Day, Zaccaro, & Halpin, 2004;DeRue & Ashford, 2010). The general consensus is that different managerial populations need different kinds of learning opportunities, but little theoretical and empirical guidance exists to help practitioners and HR personnel select or combine methods that are best suited to each group (Guillen & Ibarra, 2009). ...
... Furthermore, different personal traits and life experience may enhance or hinder the tendency of individuals to learn and develop as leaders from engaging in play. For example, individuals with a high level of developmental readiness (e.g., learning goal orientation, developmental efficacy and self-concept clarity; Avolio & Hannah, 2008), as well as a high level of openness to experience (LePine, Colquitt, & Erez, 2000) may have a strong tendency to benefit from play, in comparison with individuals who are low on these characteristics. ...
... United States organizations continually increase the total spending on leadership development (Crawford & Kelder, 2019), with 2014 boasting an increase to 15.5 billion USD (O'Leonard & Krider, 2014), up from 14 billion in 2012 (Loew & O'Leonard, 2012), and 12 billion in 2007 (Avolio & Hannah, 2008). Nevertheless, the current limitations of entrepreneurship and management education can arguably be a contributing factor to failing ethical practices. ...
Chapter
Despite their inherent complexity, social entrepreneurs seek to create social innovation to stem society's wicked problems. To do so requires a balanced consideration of varying social expectations, all while trying to lead a sustainable enterprise. Educators look to equip the social entrepreneur with the right skills and mindset; with program failure, sadly, more common than not. This chapter seeks to explore the commonalities of such failures, highlighting the importance of behavioral development and facilitating an effective learning environment. Following an investigation into the notion of social entrepreneurship, authentic leadership is identified as a response some of the shortcomings of contemporary entrepreneurship education. The incorporation of authentic leader behaviors in entrepreneurial education can offer an injection as the social entrepreneur seeks to address the various challenges of social enterprise.
... Additionally, understanding self-perception of leadership in youth is critical as it provides a window into leadership identity. Murphy and Johnson (2011) identified leadership identity and self-regulation as the two most frequently cited results of leadership development (e.g., Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May, & Walumbwa, 2005), which are strongly associated with leadership effectiveness (Avolio & Hannah, 2008 Darst, 1998;Owings & Nelson, 1979;Wingenbach, 2000). The MBTI is designed to specify a respondent's preference on each of four basic personality traits: (a) extroversion or introversion, (b) sensing or intuition, (c) thinking or feeling, and (d) ...
... The belief in one's own ability is similar to the self-efficacy concept (Bandura, 1977). Self-efficacy involves the perceived belief that one is capable of a specific behavior (Williams, 2010) and has been associated with greater effort, engagement, and performance (Avolio & Hannah, 2008;Judge & Bono, 2001). A recent study showed that managers with higher levels of self-efficacy in their job reported that they enacted more distributive, procedural, and informational justice towards their employees than those managers who reported less self-efficacy (Sherf et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Building on the Ability-Motivation-Opportunity framework, we investigate managers’ ability, motivation, and opportunity as predictors of managers’ self-reported justice enactment during pay setting. Data from 168 managers from a large industrial company in Sweden were analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression analyses to predict the four dimensions of enacted justice (distributive, procedural, informational, interpersonal). Ability indicators contributed to all justice enactment dimensions, with self-efficacy in one’s role as pay-setting manager being positively related to all justice enactment dimensions. Motivation indicators contributed to three justice enactment dimensions (not informational), with managers’ outcome expectations of pay setting being positively related to distributive justice enactment. Opportunity indicators contributed to three justice enactment dimensions (not interpersonal), where social support in the pay-setting process predicted these justice enactment dimensions. Demographics and personality variables only explained additional variance in interpersonal justice enactment. The paper sheds light on the managers’ side of justice in pay setting, and highlights the relevance of resources to equip managers with ability, motivation, and opportunities in order to perceive that they can be fair during pay setting.
... A challenging assignment is understood as an activity that is new, stimulating, and calls on the individual's ability and determination (De Pater et al., 2009). Line managers as developers allocate time and resources to tailor the assignment of tasks and challenges that serve to fast track the development of each future leader (Avolio & Hannah, 2008). 4. Developmental support. ...
Article
Due to the centrality of line managers’ role in the talent identification process, this qualitative study aims to determine what effective and non‐effective talent spotters do differently from one another in relation with an ‘ideal’ talent identification model offered by the literature. A double‐blind design was applied to the sample designated by the Corporate Talent Management Director of a Latin American multinational firm. 20 senior and middle managers, some effective and some others non‐effective, who work in different countries, participated in the study. Findings show that effective talent spotters perform three key stages of the talent identification model and they do it extremely well: differentiation of potential from performance, matching process and design of developmental challenges. The clear differentiation of potential from performance constitutes the crucial stage since a fuzzy differentiation taints the following stages. Not only is it necessary to perform these key stages but they should be executed in line with the principles of the talent management literature. Recommendations for practice, including specific guidelines for Talent Managers are proposed.
... We fully agree with these recommendations. Indeed, some of the existing literature on authentic leadership already reflects a focus on leader/follower relations (Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, et al., 2005), the self and its development Avolio & Hannah, 2008;Avolio & Mhatre, 2012), and when, why, and how to be authentic (Gardner et al., 2009), although clearly much more work is required. As such, despite the extensive differences in our perspectives on authentic leadership, we see a surprising amount of common ground regarding what we recommend the field advancing. ...
Article
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Scholarly and practitioner interest in the topic of authentic leadership has grown dramatically over the past two decades. Running parallel to this interest, however, have been a number of concerns regarding the conceptual and methodological underpinnings for research on the construct. In this exchange of letters, the cases for and against the current authentic leadership theory are made. Through a dialogue, several areas of common ground are identified, as well as focal areas where the cases for and against the utility of authentic leadership theory for scholars and practitioners sharply diverge. Suggestions for future theorizing and research that reflect areas of common ground are advanced, along with divergent perspectives on how research on authenticity and leadership should proceed. Despite their differences, both author teams found the dialogue in itself to be a healthy process for theory development and encourage constructive future dialogue on other areas where theoretical perspectives diverge.
... In the United States, organizations have continued to increase the total spending on leadership development and as a percentage of training and development budgets (Crawford, Dawkins, Martin, & Lewis, 2019). 2014 saw an increase in year-on-year spending for leadership development at 15.5 billion USD in 2014 (O'Leonard & Krider, 2014), up from 14 billion in 2012 (Loew & O'Leonard, 2012), and 12 billion in 2007 (Avolio & Hannah, 2008). Despite the general belief in the importance of training and development as a method of achieving HRM goals, it seems to fall short. ...
... In addition, past and present research on training motivation has focused on a number of different types of motivation, including pretraining transfer, motivation to transfer, and motivation to learn (Burke & Hutchins, 2007). In parallel, a growing number of studies focus on leader developmental readiness and motivation to develop (Avolio & Hannah, 2008;Hannah & Avolio, 2010;Reichard & Johnson, 2017). Future research may benefit from incorporating these lines of research and comparing different types of motivation by using an SDT perspective to get at fuller understanding of their role in the transfer process. ...
Article
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The purpose of the present research was to investigate how leaders’ different types of pretraining motivation may influence transfer of leadership training. Drawing on self-determination theory, we examined the role of autonomous and controlled motivation for short- and long-term transfer in terms of employee-rated improvements of leaders’ need support. Data were collected in conjunction with a leadership training program that was aimed at increasing need support among municipality leaders ( n = 20 leaders and their n = 323 employees), and surveys were sent to leaders and employees before training, posttraining, and 4 months after training. Bayesian multilevel modeling suggests that autonomous (Estimate = 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI: 0.030, 0.329]) and controlled (Estimate = 0.08, 95% CI [0.013, 0.150]) premotivation among leaders are related to short-term improvements in need support. Although neither type of motivation had a credible long-term effect on transfer 4 months after the training, the 95% credibility interval indicate that the effect of autonomous motivation (Estimate = 0.13, 95% CI [−0.004, 0.269]) most likely is positive. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of using a theory-based multidimensional perspective on predictors of training transfer and on adding a temporal perceptive on their effects. Our study also points toward the importance of not only fostering autonomous motivation at work but recognizing the potential in controlled motivation.
... Pour engager une réflexion à l'égard des intérêts des employés, de leur confiance en leur capacité, les profils de compétences devraient être accompagnés de questions qui sondent ces éléments. SelonAvolio et Hannah (2008) ainsi queBrassard (2018), ces questions sont pertinentes pour l'atteinte d'un objectif d'amélioration des compétences.En résumé, les conditions individuelles suggérées dans le cadre d'une proposition d'un cadre systémique favorable à l'amélioration des compétences qui implique une activité de formation à l'intérieur de la gestion de projet, peuvent être contenues dans un profil de compétences. Ce profil de compétences pour les MEP peut contenir des compétences de nature réflexive, interpersonnelle et technique, de même que des questions à l'égard de l'engagement, la motivation et la perception des compétences personnelles des membres de l'équipe. ...
Thesis
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Proposition d'un cadre systémique en soutien à l'amélioration des compétences des membres des équipes projet : le cas d'une organisation municipale à structure matricielle faible par France Desjardins Sous la direction de : Éric Jean, Ph. D., professeur agrégé au Département des sciences économiques et administratives, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. Christophe Leyrie, D. Sc., professeur titulaire au Département des sciences économiques et administratives, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. Thèse présentée à l'Université du Québec à Chicoutimi en vue de l'obtention du grade de doctorat en management de projets (DMP)
... As seen in Table 3, one participant desired more information on the expected format for their weekly email to the instructor, another expressed concern about having to choose one leadership competency to focus on, and one admitted the need to seriously assess his or her "development readiness" and motivation. These comments reveal the importance of emphasizing developmental readiness at the outset of a program (Avolio & Hannah, 2008), and the investment of time required, to increase the odds of executives' skill improvement. Given participants' positive response to the transfer tool, we decided early on to allow participants-once they have made significant improvement on a skill-to target another competency and receive instructor facilitation even beyond the end of the formal program. ...
Article
Cognitive-behavioral theories offer a long-standing theoretical approach in clinical psychology that has wide-ranging implications for management education. We designed a cognitive-behavioral–based learning transfer tool for executives to enhance their application of leadership skills from professional development programs. We summarize the primary research-based principles underlying this transfer tool for leadership development, provide a template, describe how the tool is used, and offer evidence of executives’ reactions to the tool at the beginning and end of a 9-month program.
... Indeed, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that the median number of years that workers stay with an employer was 4.2 years as of January 2018.3 Avolio may logically argue, however, that the more that individuals are positively influenced through his four-stage model and have taken on the forms of ownership and organizational identity that he proposes will result, the less likely they would be to leave the organization-whatMitchell, Holtom, Lee, Sablynski, and Erez (2001) call job embeddedness.A strength of the book, and a differentiator from most other models of individual transformation, is Avolio's recognition that not all individuals are equally ready to change, or what he and Hannah have called developmental readiness(Avolio & Hannah, 2009;Hannah & Avolio, 2010). Continuing the focus on the micro level of analysis and the individual as the focus of change, Avolio describes his body of empirical research, describing factors that make organization members more or less motivated to change as well as able to change.All told, Avolio demonstrates his mastery of and uncommon ability to integrate a wide set of psychological, leadership, and organizational research streams to create a detailed and theoretically sound model of individual-withinorganization transformation. ...
... When discussing reactions, an antecedent concept is learner readiness (Avolio & Hannah, 2008). Readiness can be considered a prerequisite for change and can be achieved by personal conviction for the necessity of change as well as by an organisational context which is ready for change (Kohler, 2016). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Leadership development is an area which is a top priority for organisations. While communication has historically been viewed as one of many leadership activities, it has recently been suggested to be more central to, even constitutive of, leadership. It has also been put forth that communication researchers may provide a means to develop new theoretical frameworks from which to develop leadership. The purpose of this thesis is to further the theoretical understanding of communicative leadership development, specifically in the form of training efforts. Furthermore, the goal is to provide a new understanding to practitioners who are working with the development of communicative leadership. This is a compilation thesis that consists of three papers. An initial literature review shows that the development of leadership communication receives interest from fields related to health, for instance, from nursing teams, businesses, the military and construction. On the other hand, the subject doesn’t receive as much attention from the field of communication studies. The results of the thesis are based on interviews with managers and communication professionals in two organisations. The findings show several benefits from having communication professionals take on a role as communication trainers, such as increased visibility of the communication department within the organisation and the opportunity to continue to support the leaders after the trainings. Additionally, a framework of adult learning is used to analyse the interviews, which highlights several points of adult learning that are relevant to the development of leadership communication. Based on the empirical data and the literature review, a model of communicative leadership development is suggested. This model is an amalgamation of what was learned from the three papers and summarises the understanding that was gained. Moreover, the model should provide practitioners with a basis for developing communicative leadership trainings as well as for developing the theory of communicative leadership.
... Činjenica je da su viši revizori spremniji da komuniciraju sa vođom orijentisanim na tim o pitanjima vezanim za upravljanje timom(Nelson et al., 2016). Razvoj liderstva jedan je od ciljeva mnogih organizacija, ali konceptualni okvir i teorija za razvoj liderstva još uvek ne postoje u potpunosti(Avolio & Hannah, 2008). Samopoštovanje pojedinca kao lidera utiče na broj nominacija za lidere koje pojedinac dobije tokom vremena, a broj nominacija utiče na reputaciju pojedinca kao lidera (Emeri et al., 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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Tema je odabrana sa ciljem da se stekne šira slika o tome na koji način je sertifikacija kroz istoriju prihvatana u razvijenim i manje razvijenim zemljama Evrope, koji su to izazovi, ključni događaji, stavovi, popularna i uticajna razmišljanja i prepreke na koje je ova delatnost nailazila u toku svog razvojnog puta. Predmet istraživanja bio je razvoj standarda, njihova zastupljenost u svetu, kao i razvoj sertifikacije prema najzastupljenijim standardima, sa posebnim fokusom na Evropu i Srbiju.
... If a leader is only respected for the hierarchy he or she has in the company's organizational structure and not for his or her ability to motivate, guide and encourage employees to follow him or her, he or she is not a leader but simply a boss. The widespread acceptance that leadership plays a vital role as a competitive advantage for organizations has led to enormous amounts of spending on leadership development and training programs [2]. ...
Article
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Permanent changes, the globalized economy, the universality of information have increased the level of competitiveness between countries in general and organizations in particular. What could be the reason why organizations competing in the same market, with similar technology and comparable resources, differ significantly from each other in terms of performance? The most limited resource in any organization is an efficient and trained person. Finding the right people for each position is critical to the company’s success. Technological variations force us to learn, to adapt and to change our mentality. In order to survive, organizations need flexibility and the ability to adapt to change. It is and will be a necessary condition for employees to be the tools that provide the necessary answers that allow organizations to remain in the markets successfully over time. Leadership is the most vital, challenging and mysterious phenomenon in an organization for which researchers have worked tirelessly to explain how the best leaders perform. This article aims to review and synthesize the existing literature from the beginning to the 21th century’s challenges to find the best solution for an organization’s success.
... Pre-training motivation can be conceptualized as the efforts, intensity, and persistence that a trainee is willing to apply to learning-oriented activities prior to training (Noe & Schmitt, 1986). Motivation has been established as an important antecedent to the effectiveness of diverse learning and development practices: training (e.g., Colquitt et al., 2000), leadership development (e.g., Avolio & Hannah, 2008), and mentoring (e.g., Janssen et al., 2016). For example, higher levels of pre-training motivation among trainees are positively associated with positive training outcomes (e.g., Baldwin et al., 1991). ...
Article
This study responds to the call for a closer look at the role that contextual and individual factors play in workplace coaching as a context-sensitive intervention. Drawing on and integrating theories of regulatory focus and training we proposed and examined a model that explains the impact of organizational coaching context on coachee pre-coaching motivation using coachee situational regulatory focus as an underlying mechanism. Results of a scenario-based experimental study (N=175) demonstrated that organizational coaching context affects coachees’ situational regulatory foci beyond chronic dispositions. Further, the indirect relationship between developmental organizational coaching context and pre-coaching motivation was mediated by coachee situational promotion focus. However, we did not find the hypothesized indirect relationship between remedial organizational coaching context and coachee pre-coaching motivation via coachee situational prevention focus. The study highlights the important role that organizations’ management and human resource personnel play in the ‘kick-off’ of a workplace coaching intervention by shaping the context of coaching assignments prior to coaching. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the importance of including the organization’s informal feedback for the employee prior to coaching as a key contractual element that contributes to coachees’ pre-coaching motivation. We conclude with implications for future workplace coaching research and practice.
... This positive perception of the present stimulates the essential functions of metacognition, that is, individuals' self-awareness, self-reflection and self-regulation. Metacognition promotes the development of individuals' self-leadership by enabling individuals to recognize their own advantages and disadvantages, understand the known and unknown, and monitor and adjust their learning needs (Avolio and Hannah, 2008). ...
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As one of 21st century key skills, self-leadership is not only the internal factor of private college undergraduates’ independent development, but also related to the quality improvement of talent cultivation of private undergraduate colleges. It is proved that mindfulness or metacognition separately has the predictive effect on self-leadership, but their structural relationships has not been revealed. The present study explored the interrelations between mindful agency, metacognitive ability, and self-leadership through the mediation analysis with structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping was conducted to test the mediating effect. The sample comprised 1,244 private undergraduate sophomore (38.4% male and 61.6% female), and they completed online questionnaires of mindful agency, metacognitive ability, and self-leadership. The results revealed that mindful agency of private undergraduate students not only directly and positively predicted self-leadership, but also indirectly and positively predicted self-leadership through the mediating effect of metacognitive ability. Metacognitive ability partially mediated the relationship between mindful agency and self-leadership. The direct effect of mindful agency and the mediating effect of metacognitive ability, respectively, account for 86.9% and 13.1% of the total effect. The results suggest that the more mindful private college undergraduates are, the more willing they are to practise their metacognitive skills in their learning, and the more progress in self-leadership they make. Educational implications for mindfulness training and metacognition practice to foster their self-leadership are discussed.
... Pre-training motivation can be conceptualized as the efforts, intensity, and persistence that a trainee is willing to apply to learning-oriented activities prior to training (Noe & Schmitt, 1986). Motivation has been established as an important antecedent to the effectiveness of diverse learning and development practices: training (e.g., Colquitt et al., 2000), leadership development (e.g., Avolio & Hannah, 2008), and mentoring (e.g., Janssen et al., 2016). For example, higher levels of pre-training motivation among trainees are positively associated with positive training outcomes (e.g., Baldwin et al., 1991). ...
Article
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This study responds to the call for a closer analysis of the role that contextual and individual factors play in workplace coaching as a context‐sensitive intervention. We build on theories of regulatory focus and training motivation, to propose and examine a model that explains employees' pre‐coaching motivation when assigned to workplace coaching. Specifically, we propose that the employees' perception of the organizational coaching context, as either developmental or remedial, contributes to their pre‐coaching motivation through employees' situational regulatory focus. Results of a scenario‐based experimental study (N = 175) demonstrated that organizational coaching context affects employees' situational regulatory foci beyond their chronic dispositions. Further, the indirect relationship between developmental organizational coaching context and pre‐coaching motivation was mediated by employee situational promotion focus. However, we did not find the hypothesized indirect relationship between remedial organizational coaching context and employee pre‐coaching motivation via employee situational prevention focus. The study highlights the important role that organizations' management and human resource development personnel play in the “kick‐off” of a workplace coaching intervention by shaping the context of coaching assignments prior to coaching. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the importance of including the organization's informal feedback to the employee prior to coaching as a key contractual element that contributes to coachees' pre‐coaching motivation. We conclude with implications for future workplace coaching research and practice.
... We fully agree with these recommendations. Indeed, some of the existing literature on authentic leadership already reflects a focus on leader/follower relations (Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, et al., 2005), the self and its development Avolio & Hannah, 2008;Avolio & Mhatre, 2012), and when, why, and how to be authentic (Gardner et al., 2009), although clearly much more work is required. As such, despite the extensive differences in our perspectives on authentic leadership, we see a surprising amount of common ground regarding what we recommend the field advancing. ...
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Copy and paste the following link into your browser for the video recording of this seminar. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1DIo_Dyml5MI2fdzTyToDXC_8NHT9yN6V/view?usp=sharing
... Especially when employees feel high uncertainty over the influence of newly implemented technologies, digital literacy provides a sine qua non for leaders to help their team members maintain high performance (Kane et al., 2019). In a related vein, high learning orientation and related attributes such as developmental readiness (Avolio & Hannah, 2008) should be required for those in leadership positions. ...
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This study coupled the theory of uncertainty management (TUM) with the notion of transformational leadership (TFL) to examine how the uncertainty over the adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies affects employees. SEM analyses with two-wave data collected in Japan (N = 1318 employee–supervisor dyads) revealed that uncertainty is negatively associated and TFL is positively associated with employees’ job performance. In addition, consistent with TUM, the digital literacy of leaders was found to moderate the effects of TFL such that the positive association between TFL and job performance disappeared when employees simultaneously feel high uncertainty and find supervisors low on digital literacy. These findings are discussed with reference to the relevant literature.
... Here, practitioners can use a far-fromequilibrium system dynamics perspective to explore why different leaders emerged during the pandemic and foster conversations about how the organization can recalibrate and experiment to be proactive and receptive to emergent leadership in the future. This could include fostering psychologically safe spaces for workers to emerge, rescind, and reemerge as informal leaders within the team (Avolio & Hannah, 2008). ...
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We draw attention to how and why multiple perspectives on emergence can promote leadership scholarship within the broad umbrella category of emergent leadership. Tracing the derivation of emergent leadership and related concepts since 1941, we identify four empirically derived themes: Entries, or how and where definitions were introduced and adopted; Essences, identification of key components and processes; Eclipses, where certain constructs and approaches have gained prominence over others; and Erasures, where particular lines of inquiry and methodologies have been subsumed, ignored, or removed from easy access by researchers. In critically reviewing the emergent leadership literature, we apply these themes to reveal a number of flaws that inhibit emergent leadership research, including: inconsistent measures, narrow sampling frames, tautological definitions, limited theorization, and very little attention to implications for the development of leader-follower relations. Based on this analysis, and with reference to contemporary issues, we propose an agenda for future research on emergent leadership that is informed by interdisciplinary perspectives that give prominence to emergence dynamics.
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Despite significant attention devoted to outcomes of formal leadership training, little is known about how individuals develop during these programs. The current study examined developmental trajectories of leader efficacy and identity, two proximal outcomes supporting leadership effectiveness, in a six-week leadership training course (N = 240). Testing competing predictions between developmental readiness and developmental need perspectives, we examined whether learning goal orientation (LGO) and motivation to lead (MTL) predicted development of trainees' leader self-views. Latent growth modeling results revealed leader efficacy developed linearly, whereas leader identity developed quadratically (i.e., positive change with slowing growth over time). Results for leader efficacy supported the developmental need perspective, as individuals lower on affective MTL exhibited greater changes to their leader efficacy, which was further moderated by LGO. In contrast, individuals higher and lower on LGO developed equally on leader identity, albeit via different trajectories. Implications for leadership theory and practice are discussed.
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----- http://www.sim.wz.uw.edu.pl/sites/default/files/artykuly/barbara_jozefowicz_iwona_escher_aldona_glinska-newes.pdf ------ ENG: The aim of the article is to identify how the intensity of volunteer contact with the beneficiaries of implemented volunteer projects influences the effects that corporate volunteering brings to the organization. The analyses are based on the qualitative research conducted in 11 companies implementing corporate volunteer programs. The results of the study suggest that the more intense the contact between the volunteer employees and the beneficiaries of volunteering is, the wider range of competences they develop. On the other hand, volunteer projects in which contact with the beneficiary is low, contribute to strengthening the integration of employees and their identification with the organization. // PL: Celem artykułu jest określenie, w jaki sposób intensywność kontaktu wolontariuszy z beneficjentami realizowanych projektów wpływa na efekty, jakie wolontariat pracowniczy przynosi organizacji. Podstawą rozważań jest badanie jakościowe przeprowadzone w 11 przedsiębiorstwach realizujących programy wolontariatu pracowniczego. Wyniki badania sugerują, że im intensywniejszy jest kontakt nawiązywany przez pracowników-wolontariuszy z beneficjentami wolontariatu, tym szerszy wachlarz kompetencji jest przez nich rozwijany. Z kolei projekty wolontariackie, w których kontakt z beneficjentem jest niewielki, sprzyjają wzmacnianiu integracji pracowników oraz ich identyfikacji z organizacją.
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The complexity of the world today requires leadership that is interconnected rather than self-serving. This is particularly important within the context of agriculture, a field at the forefront of the complex problems associated with the impact of climate change. In recent years, the role virtues play in effective leadership has gained a significant amount of attention. One particular virtue that has seen increased attention in the leadership research is humility. Humility has been identified as a way to counteract the negative outcomes of self-serving leadership, namely, unethical practices and leader narcissism. Over the past several decades, researchers and scholars have begun to shed light on the many benefits this elusive virtue brings to leadership, however, many questions remain, notably, “How do humble leaders develop their leadership?” The present qualitative study found that humble agriculture leaders develop their leadership style through (a) the development of strong personal values, (b) investments in human and social capital, and (c) supportive feedback. The findings from this research provide recommendations for agricultural leadership educators to consider when building leadership programs that have the goal of developing humble leaders ready to address complex problems in the context of agriculture and natural resources.
Chapter
Ecotourism is one of the fastest growing sectors within the tourism industry in Australia. The southern island state of Tasmania is one of the pioneers in creating sustainable ecotourist ventures. We explore, with a leadership behavioral lens, the role that the embodiment of authentic leader behaviors in social entrepreneurs has on ecotourism emergence. Authentic leader behaviors offer a response to some arguments that numerous ecotourist ventures are only sustainable and environmentally responsive in name only. Entrepreneurial leadership is critical in creating a culture conducive to social entrepreneurial growth and sustainability. This chapter concludes with recognition of the importance of future research into developing authentic leader behaviors in social entrepreneurs.
Chapter
Strength-Based leadership coaching has demonstrated significant efficacy in the development of individual agency-based leadership capability, (MacKie, 2014). Unlike many coaching methodologies, this effect has been demonstrated beyond the level of self-report and in addition, there is convincing evidence that is the specific strength-based methodology rather than the generic coaching approach that is responsible for the observed enhancements in transformational leadership effectiveness. Despite a consensus emerging around leadership as being a key dependent variable in the evaluation of coaching effectiveness, the construct of contemporary leadership has recently been criticised for containing within in several unsustainable assumptions that if unchecked, can lead to poorer outcomes at the societal and planetary level. Sustainability leadership offers the opportunity to redress that imbalance by aligning strength-based coaching with sustainable outcomes beyond individual, shareholder and organisational value. This chapter explores the core elements of a strength-based approach to leadership development and how they can be repurposed towards the development and enhancement of sustainability leadership within organisations.
Chapter
This chapter sets out by defining conviviality in a way that allows the term to be simultaneously applied to face-to-face and virtual experiences. The educational context is introduced as one of many that can benefit from both types of experience. Impairment of the components of a shared learning experience (self, others, teacher) does not have to occur if educators understand the unique combination produced by the content to be learned plus the markers of the type of learning experience selected. Matching the content to the medium produces the optimal results. The authors conclude that conviviality in a specific application is not only possible, but, potentially highly productive in cyberspace, minimizing the logistical, high-risk, and cognitive constraints identified by Calandra & Puvirajah (2014) that can impair other forms of communication and specifically non-cyber learning experiences. This chapter contributes to new era of human interaction literature in the age of virtuality.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to bridge the gap between literature about leadership studies and engineering education to develop future engineering leaders. The chapter focuses upon the hindrances that are faced in integrating leadership programs in the engineering circular. To this end, the chapter employed qualitative methodology under which it reviewed literature on multiple lines such as identifying significance of leadership for engineering students, identification of leadership practices and skills taught to engineering students, and the way this can be improved. Key findings of chapter emphasized on leadership as an important skill for future engineers thus demanding need for equipping engineers with skills needed to become an effective leader. It is found that having engineers to develop leadership skills will enable them to perform their role effectively, effectively allocate and utilize available resources. Thus, the chapter recommends integration of leadership knowledge and skills in engineering curricula through usage of variety of tools such as experiential learning and self-awareness.
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The characteristics of auditors represent the characteristics of persons engaged in audit work. Given that an auditor is a person who should provide independent and objective assurances that the business of the audited entity does not contain material misstatements, the auditor is expected to possess certain characteristics and to apply them in his daily work. The subject of the research in the paper is the research of the attitudes of the respondents in the Republic of Serbia about the characteristics that should be possessed by every person who is engaged in the planning and implementation of the audit engagement. The main conclusion of the paper is that respondents require auditors to possess positive and leaders characteristics, with respondents more likely to expect auditors engaged in public sector auditing to have a certain tendency to possess certain negative characteristics, including emphasized political affiliation in the first place.
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The scientific advancement of leader and leadership development has offered various conceptualizations and operationalizations of evaluation criteria. However, because the complex learning that occurs during leader and leadership development is typically ignored, current leader and leadership development evaluation criteria do not fully capture the multidimensional and temporal nature of learning which serves as a critical mediating mechanism between training and more distal outcomes. Further, evaluations of leadership programs tend to focus on individual (i.e., leader development) outcomes without consideration of collective (i.e., leadership development) outcomes. Thus, we present a comprehensive typology of leader and leadership development learning outcomes that elucidates the multidimensional and multilevel nature of such outcomes and provides greater construct definition and precision. Our purpose is to integrate multiple theoretical perspectives, generating a more precise classification to provide researchers and practitioners assistance in 1) designing and evaluating the effectiveness of leader and leadership development, and 2) clarifying the limits of generalizability of both conceptualizations and empirical research across learning outcomes.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine how employee competences can be developed through corporate volunteering (CV). Specifically, this study focuses on diversity of volunteering studies categorized according to the type of beneficiaries and intensity of volunteer contact with them. The study examines how the beneficiary-employee relation influences the development of employee competences in CV projects. Design/methodology/approach In this qualitative empirical study, interview data collected in Poland about the perceived effects of CV projects on employee competences was used. Findings The findings suggest that to understand the competences generated in CV, attention needs to be paid to the nature of the volunteering study itself. The study proposes four different logics of competence development in CV, based on the type of the beneficiary and contact with them. Research limitations/implications The study builds on managers’ perceptions of competence development. For a holistic understanding, future research should include employees’ perceptions of the process. Also, more research is needed regarding national and organizational settings as factors in competence development through CV. Practical implications The study suggests how companies could best engage in volunteering programs and improve existing ones to make them more beneficial for all parties involved. Social implications The findings build the better business case for CV and other corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, i.e. they deliver rationales for business engagement in this regard. Originality/value The study contributes to the conceptual understanding of CSR activities by presenting four logics of competence development in CV.
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Leaders are made." Leadership is a trait which is learnt through training and practice. But only those who are ready to become a leader can make it to successful leadership. Readiness is defined as the availability of the required set of skills and ability in a person to become a leader. This paper analyses in detail various factors affecting readiness in a person for leadership. After reviewing of the literature, the paper concludes that there are three types of factors contributing to a person's leadership readiness viz. demographic factors, socioeconomic factors and personality factors.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the interactions between mezzo and micro levels of analysis: i.e. it discusses the firm–employee relationship in terms of the clashes of interests and identities. The results from my empirical study demonstrate that the clashes in interests within and across levels of analysis and the related multilevel narratives trigger identity work at the level of the individual. I thus first discuss how agency theory, which deals with the principal–agent relationships, conflicts about priorities by different parties to these relationships, and the related power struggles, can inform the impact of multilevel narratives on assignment outcomes for inter-employee, inter-assignee, inter-entity, and firm–employee collaboration (see Sect. 10.1). Since role transitions, social categorisation, and identity work are featured more prominently in the study, these are the focal part of my theorising and, as such, the primary theoretical contribution of the empirical study. In the second part of the chapter (i.e. Sect. 10.2), I therefore discuss how my findings contribute to role (transition), social categorisation, and social identity theories by showing the particularities of role transitions, social categorisation, and identity work for international assignees (and to a limited extent their colleagues and business partners) and their implications for international assignment management in the context of emerging market firms.
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This study analysed elementary mathematics specialists’ stories of work to examine how these disciplinary-specific teacher leaders engage in their practice. This paper examines the ways in which elementary mathematics specialists conceptualise their leadership roles and the impact of their work on other school stakeholders. Using narrative inquiry, we conducted semi-structured interviews in order to capture participant stories that described specific tasks, actions, context, intent and reflections. Findings suggest that the ways participants articulated their agenda, enacted their agency and positioned themselves and others provide a lens for viewing the range of ways they approached their work as elementary mathematics specialists and ultimately resulting in the categorisation of participants into two profiles based on similarities and differences in these themes. While all participants described challenges and successes, their stories differed in how they engaged in leadership practice and how they engaged others in leadership. We argue that, while having deep knowledge of mathematics content and pedagogy is crucial to elementary mathematics specialist work, to maximise the impact of these disciplinary teacher leaders, the exploration of teacher leadership knowledge, practices, and tools must be a crucial aspect of elementary mathematics specialist preparation and professional development.
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A distinction between ruminative and reflective types of private self-attentiveness is introduced and evaluated with respect to L. R. Goldberg's (1982) list of 1,710 English trait adjectives (Study 1), the five-factor model of personality (FFM) and A. Fenigstein, M. F. Scheier, and A. Buss's(1975) Self-Consciousness Scales (Study 2), and previously reported correlates and effects of private self-consciousness (PrSC; Studies 3 and 4). Results suggest that the PrSC scale confounds two unrelated motivationally distinct disposition-rumination and reflection-and that this confounding may account for the "self-absorption paradox" implicit in PrSC research findings: Higher PrSC sources are associated with more accurate and extensive self-knowledge yet higher levels of psychological distress. The potential of the FFM to provide a comprehensive Framework for conceptualizing self-attentive dispositions, and to order and integrate research findings within this domain, is discussed.
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Bruce J. Avolio and Fred Luthans, both professors holding endowed chairs at the University of Nebraska, provide a helpful theoretical and practical introduction to Authentic Leadership Development (ALD). The authors’ stated goal is to “identify what the authentic leadership process truly looks like” (p. 5) and to guide readers on a journey into “high-impact leadership” by means of a methodology, a range of related exercises, and a rationale for increased self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-efficacy. They define Authentic Leadership Development as: The process that draws upon a leader’s life course, psychological capital, moral perspective, and a “highly developed” supporting organizational climate to produce greater self-awareness and self-regulated positive behaviors, which in turn foster continuous, positive self-development resulting in veritable, sustained performance. In short, the concept of Authentic Leadership Development emphasizes authenticity—being true to and aware of one’s self and others—as the key to effective leadership. The authors understand ALD as involving a process that occurs across one’s life span, both in the gradually unfolding experiences of life and in one’s responses to unexpected positive or negative events. Early in the book, a practical chapter on “Mapping the Journey of ALD” provides guidelines for each of four components that contribute to Authentic Leadership Development: self-awareness, self-regulation, self-development, and a new level of ALD (p. 64). Chapter 3 provides a helpful summary of the past century of research on leadership interventions and development. Doctoral students in the recently created Gallup Leadership Institute program at the University of Nebraska—which the authors hope will become the “Bell Labs” for leadership development research (p. 47)—were tasked to review 100 years of leadership literature, focusing on the research question: Do leadership interventions matter? Subsequent meta-analysis distilled the findings of 201 studies (out of approximately 3,000) that had used acceptable scientific criteria. The results, available at www.gli.unl.edu , reflected the impact of the “Pygmalion Effect” on many effective leadership development programs, i.e., the “so-called smarter or more motivated groups do better if the leader believes they are smarter or more motivated” (p. 50). In an intriguing chapter entitled “Moments Matter,” Avolio and Luthans describe the importance of individual moments that have the potential to shape our lives. They cite the work of Nobel Prize-winning behavioral decision theorist Daniel Kahneman, whose research has focused on the “thousands of moments” in each waking day. According to Avolio and Luthans some such defining moments last only for a few minutes—or even seconds—while others unfold gradually over time. Such “moments” can enhance self-awareness and self-regulation. The key to effectiveness in life is to be intentional and reflective, seizing and building upon those moments that have the potential to shape one’s own leadership or to contribute to the development of others. Two of the most helpful chapters focus on the linkage between effective leadership development and the concept of Positive Psychological Capital (PsyCap). The High Impact Leader provides an accessible and practical summary of research presented in the authors’ 2007 Oxford University Press publication (with Carolyn Youssef), Psychological Capital: Developing the Human Competitive Edge. Building on the better-known concepts of economic/financial capital (“what you have”) and social capital (“who you know”), the authors define PsyCap as “who you are” (the actual self) and “what you intend to become” (your possible self). In short, “PsyCap involves investing in the actual self to reap the return of becoming a possible self” (p. 147). Avolio and Luthans make an important contribution to the leadership literature by distilling, in two chapters of the book, information about four key components of PsyCap that hold great potential for enhancing one’s leadership abilities: (a) hope: an effective leader is able to communicate: “I am proposing two feasible alternatives” to accomplish a specified goal; (b) optimism, which in leadership communicates, “Everything will be okay; we’ll make it”; (c) resiliency, which is reflected in leaders who may be hit hard by a particular problem but who find ways to keep moving ahead; and (d) self-efficacy and confidence. Because these components of PsyCap are viewed as...
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In this paper we integrate recent theories on followers’ self-concept and transformational leadership theory in order to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the exceptional and diverse effects transformational leaders may have on their followers. We propose that transformational leaders may influence two levels of followers’ self-concept: the relational and the collective self, thus fostering personal identification with the leader and social identification with the organizational unit. Specific leader behaviors that prime different aspects of followers’ self-concepts are identified and their possible effects on different aspects of followers’ perceptions and behaviors are discussed.
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Five experiments supported the hypothesis that peoples' implicit theories about the fixedness versus malleability of human attributes (entity versus incremental theories) predict differences in degree of social stereotyping. Relative to those holding an incremental theory, people holding an entity theory made more stereotypical trait judgments of ethnic and occupational groups (Experiments 1, 2, and 5 ) and formed more extreme trait judgments of novel groups ( Experiment 3 ). Implicit theories also predicted the degree to which people attributed stereotyped traits to inborn group qualities versus environmental forces (Experiment 2). Manipulating implicit theories affected level of stereotyping (Experiment 4), suggesting that implicit theories can play a causal role. Finally, implicit theories predicted unique and substantial variance in stereotype endorsement after controlling for the contributions of other stereotype-relevant individual difference variables (Experiment 5). These results highlight the importance of people's basic assumptions about personality in stereotyping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two central constructs of applied psychology, motivation and cognitive ability, were integrated within an information-processing (IPR) framework. This framework simultaneously considers individual differences in cognitive abilities, self-regulatory processes of motivation, and IPR demands. Evidence for the framework is provided in the context of skill acquisition, in which IPR and ability demands change as a function of practice, training paradigm, and timing of goal setting (GS). Three field-based lab experiments were conducted with 1,010 US Air Force trainees. Exp 1 evaluated the basic ability–performance parameters of the air traffic controller task and GS effects early in practice. Exp 2 evaluated GS later in practice. Exp 3 investigated the simultaneous effects of training content, GS and ability–performance interactions. Results support the theoretical framework and have implications for notions of ability–motivation interactions and design of training and motivation programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Whether you're a manager, company psychologist, quality control specialist, or involved with motivating people to work harder in any capacity—Locke and Latham's guide will hand you the keen insight and practical advice you need to reach even your toughest cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reports an error in the original article by Jennifer D. Campbell et al ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1996[Jan], Vol 70[1], 141–156). On page 145, item 10 in Table 1 contains a typographical error. The item should read: "Even if I wanted to, I don't think I could tell someone what I'm really like." (The following abstract of this article originally appeared as record 1996-01707-011). Self-concept clarity (SCC) references a structural aspect of the self-concept: the extent to which self-beliefs are clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and stable. This article reports the SCC Scale and examines (a) its correlations with self-esteem (SE), the Big Five dimensions, and self-focused attention (Study 1); (b) its criterion validity (Study 2); and (c) its cultural boundaries (Study 3). Low SCC was independently associated with high Neuroticism, low SE, low Conscientiousness, low Agreeableness, chronic self-analysis, low internal state awareness, and a ruminative form of self-focused attention. The SCC Scale predicted unique variance in 2 external criteria: the stability and consistency of self-descriptions. Consistent with theory on Eastern and Western self-construals, Japanese participants exhibited lower levels of SCC and lower correlations… (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study developed and tested a theory-based measure of authentic leadership using five separate samples obtained from China, Kenya, and the United States. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a higher order, multidimensional model of the authentic leadership con-struct (the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire [ALQ]) comprising leader self-awareness, rela-tional transparency, internalized moral perspective, and balanced processing. Structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrated the predictive validity for the ALQ measure for important work-related attitudes and behaviors, beyond what ethical and transformational leadership offered. Finally, results revealed a positive relationship between authentic leadership and supervisor-rated performance. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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Although some have argued that goal orientation could be beneficially integrated into organizational research, progress in this area has been impeded by several problematic conceptual issues and a lack of validated dispositional measures. This research was intended to address these issues and to provide a foundation for future organizational research in this area. We argue that goal orientation is a two-dimensional construct that has both dispostional and situational components. In each of four independent studies, LISREL VIII confirmatory factor analyses (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1993) illustrated that a two-factor model fit a set of goal orientation items better than a single-factor model. In addition, the latent goal orientations were found to be uncorrelated in each study. Moreover, correlational analyses indicated that demographic and substantive variables exhibited differential relationships with the latent learning goal and performance goal orientation constructs. Other analyses illustrated that the dispositional and situational aspects of goal orientation are distinguishable. Collectively, the results provided ample support for the convergent and discriminant validity of eight-item measures of each goal orientation and help to define the nomological network within which the two goal orientations reside. The importance of goal orientation as a multidimensional construct is discussed and several recommendations for further research are suggested.
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Developmental events of a sample of outstanding leaders experienced in early life were examined. Relevant sections of 120 biographies of outstanding leaders in the 20th Century were content coded using a life narrative framework. The results indicated that individuals evidencing a particular leadership type (charismatic, ideological, or pragmatic) and orientation (socialized or personalized) were linked to certain types of developmental events. Similarly, event content was found to vary between the leader styles. Specific kinds of experiences were also related to various indices of leader performance. Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
Book
I: Theoretical Ground For Cognitiveconstructivist Psychotherapy With Children And Adolescents.- The Unique Nature of Child Psychotherapy.- The Complexity of Child Therapy.- Gender as a Component To Be Considered.- The Impact of Children's Cognitive Level.- The Influence of Children's Emotional Stage.- Mobilizing the Child's Motivation for Change.- Personal Style, Interests, and Culture.- Cognitive-Constructivist Therapy with Children.- The Basic Assumptions of Cognitive Theory.- The Basics of Constructivist Therapy.- The Cognitive-Constructivist View of Therapy.- Child Development in View of Cognitive-Constructivist Theories.- Adapting Cognitive-Constructivist Psychotherapy to Children.- Basic Principles in Applying Cognitive-Constructivist Therapy with Children.- Creative Intervention.- Defining Creativity.- The Creative Process.- Characteristics of Creative People.- Art as a Creative Intervention.- Creative Psychotherapists.- Techniques to Facilitate Creativity.- II: Applying an Intervention Model.- Making Decisions on Therapy.- A Preface: Assessment as an Essential Treatment Feature from Start to Finish.- Phase 1: How to Decide If Therapy Is Needed Based on the Unique Nature of Childhood.- Phase 2: How to Classify Children's Referrals and Goals for Change.- Phase 3: How to Decide Who Should Be Treated (Setting) Based on Developmental Variables and Referral Type.- Phase 4: Creative Thinking in Selecting Appropriate Modes and Techniques for Change.- Phase 5: How to Evaluate and Maintain Treatment Outcomes.- Self-Control Therapy with Children.- Imparting Children with Self-Control Skills.- The Efficacy of the Self-Control Intervention Model (SCIM) with Children.- Description of the Self-Control Intervention Model (SCIM).- III: Childhood Disorders: Reviewsand Case Studies.- Early Childhood.- Selective MutisDl.- Literature Review.- Ben's Story of Silence.- AnxietyDisorder.- Literature Review.- Ari's Fear of Winter, Winds, and Thunderstorms.- Middle Childhood.- Trawnatized Children.- Literature Review.- The Case of Lee: Abuse, Neglect, and Adoption.- Psychosomatfc Pain.- Literature Review.- Dan, a Boy with Psychosomatic Aches.- Adolescence.- Enuresis.- Literature Review.- The Case of Sharon's Bedwetting.- Oppositional Defiant Disorder.- Literature Review.- Treating Guy: An Adolescent with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.- Childhood Depression.- Literature Review.- Jacob: Treating Depression and Helplessness.- IV: Summary And Closing Remarks.- Linking the Theoretical Ground and Case Studies in Light of the Different Phases of Intervention.- Epilogue: The Therapeutic Relationship and the Therapist's Own Creativity and Flexibility.- The Role of the Therapeutic Relationship in Decision Making and Intervention.- Therapist Flexibility and Creativity.- References.- About the Author.
Article
This book, written by a leading scholar in leadership, takes readers through a very realistic look at what it takes to develop leadership competencies. Focusing on four major goals, this text: provides the reader with a broader and deeper understanding of what constitutes authentic leadership development; challenges a very basic notion that leaders are born versus made; talks about the elements that comprise leadership development so readers are informed to ask the many providers of leadership development the right questions; and develops full leadership potential. There are numerous case examples used throughout the book: high-tech executives, community leaders, correctional service supervisors, bank managers in Canada, and platoon commanders in Israel. Each example is used as a general basis for discussing how people develop their leadership potential, and as models of training and evaluation. Leadership Development in Balance: MADE/Born is intended for graduate or undergraduate students of leadership, project managers, supervisors, senior executives, school principles, health care officers, or legislators. © 2005 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Presenting a follower-centered perspective on leadership, this book focuses on followers as the direct determinant of leadership effects because it is generally through follower reactions and behaviors that leadership attempts succeed or fail. Therefore, leadership theory needs to be articulated with a theory of how followers create meaning from leadership acts and how this meaning helps followers self-regulate in specific contexts. In this book, an attempt is made to develop such a theory, maintaining that the central construct in this process is the self-identity of followers. In developing this theoretical perspective, the authors draw heavily from several areas of research and theory. The most critical constructs do not come directly from the leadership literature, but from social and cognitive theory pertaining to follower's self-identity, self-regulatory processes, motivation, values, cognitions, and emotions and perceptions of social justice. Leaders may have profound effects on these aspects of followers and it is by analyzing such indirect, follower-mediated leadership effects that most ideas regarding leadership theory and practice are developed. Due to its broad theoretical focus, this book is relevant to a number of audiences. The authors' principal concern is with the development of leadership theory and the practice of leadership making the book relevant to audiences in management, applied psychology, and social psychology. They have tried to clearly define key constructs and provide practical examples so that the book could be accessible to advanced undergraduate students. However, the diversity of the underlying theoretical literatures and the complexity of the framework developed also make the book appropriate for graduate courses in those disciplines, and for readers with a professional interest in leadership theory or practice. © 2004 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
Book
"Who am I?" "How do I fit in the world around me?" This revealing and innovative book demonstrates that each of us discovers what is true and meaningful, in our lives and in ourselves, through the creation of personal myths. Challenging the traditional view that our personalities are formed by fixed, unchanging characteristics, or by predictable stages through which every individual travels, The Stories We Live By persuasively argues that we are the stories we tell. Informed by extensive scientific research--yet highly readable, engaging, and accessible--the book explores how understanding and revising our personal stories can open up new possibilities for our lives.
Article
This study began with the premise that people can use varying degrees of their selves. physically. cognitively. and emotionally. in work role performances. which has implications for both their work and experi­ ences. Two qualitative. theory-generating studies of summer camp counselors and members of an architecture firm were conducted to explore the conditions at work in which people personally engage. or express and employ their personal selves. and disengage. or withdraw and defend their personal selves. This article describes and illustrates three psychological conditions-meaningfulness. safety. and availabil­ ity-and their individual and contextual sources. These psychological conditions are linked to existing theoretical concepts. and directions for future research are described. People occupy roles at work; they are the occupants of the houses that roles provide. These events are relatively well understood; researchers have focused on "role sending" and "receiving" (Katz & Kahn. 1978). role sets (Merton. 1957). role taking and socialization (Van Maanen. 1976), and on how people and their roles shape each other (Graen. 1976). Researchers have given less attention to how people occupy roles to varying degrees-to how fully they are psychologically present during particular moments of role performances. People can use varying degrees of their selves. physically, cognitively, and emotionally. in the roles they perform. even as they main­ tain the integrity of the boundaries between who they are and the roles they occupy. Presumably, the more people draw on their selves to perform their roles within those boundaries. the more stirring are their performances and the more content they are with the fit of the costumes they don. The research reported here was designed to generate a theoretical frame­ work within which to understand these "self-in-role" processes and to sug­ gest directions for future research. My specific concern was the moments in which people bring themselves into or remove themselves from particular task behaviors, My guiding assumption was that people are constantly bring­ ing in and leaving out various depths of their selves during the course of The guidance and support of David Berg, Richard Hackman, and Seymour Sarason in the research described here are gratefully acknowledged. I also greatly appreciated the personal engagements of this journal's two anonymous reviewers in their roles, as well as the comments on an earlier draft of Tim Hall, Kathy Kram, and Vicky Parker.
Article
We constructed a 52-item inventory to measure adults′ metacognitive awareness. Items were classified into eight subcomponents subsumed under two broader categories, knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. Two experiments supported the two-factor model. Factors were reliable (i.e., α = .90) and inter-correlated (r = .54). Experiment 2 reported the knowledge of cognition factor was related to pre-test judgments of monitoring ability and performance on a reading comprehension test, but was unrelated to monitoring accuracy. Implications for educational assessment and future research were discussed.
Article
We present a theoretical analysis of the follower's role in the charismatic leadership process. Specifically, we distinguish between two types of charismatic relationships - personalized and socialized - and present general propositions about how followers' self-concepts may determine the type of charismatic relationship they form with the leader. We then develop more specific propositions about the follower's role in various stages of the charismatic relationship process, and we conclude by outlining the implications of the propositions and suggesting further opportunities for theoretical extension.
Article
We used a standardized data collection method for assessing the complexity of an individual's cognitions about self and other people. To assess the construct validity of self-complexity, 472 college undergraduates were assessed using this method and concurrently assessed for depression, anxiety, social desirability, and positive/negative affectivity. Evidence for the validity of the self-complexity construct was adduced. Self-complexity could be distinguished from complexity of others, positive/negative affectivity, and social desirability in that self-complexity predicted depressive symptomatology independently of the influence of those factors. We discuss methodological issues in the assessment of cognitive structure in light of our findings and those of other investigators.
Article
This investigation examined the practice of tranformational leadership at two levels of management in a New Zealand government agency. Transformational leadership was defined as the extent to which a manager is seen as charismatic, as treating each subordinate as an individual, and as intellectually stimulating. Like falling dominoes, transformational leadership at a higher level of management was expected to appear concomitantly at the next lower level. Analyses of leadership behavior questionnaire data collected independently at the two levels of management generally provided support for this falling dominoes effect. However, one exception was that more charismatic first-level supervisors said they required less charisma in the second- level managers to whom they directly reported. implications were drawn con cerning the importance of developing transformational leadership abilities at upper levels of management to enhance the likelihood of such leadership at lower levels.
Article
The Pygmalion effect is a type of self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) in which raising manager expectations regarding subordinate performance boosts subordinate performance. Managers who are led to expect more of their subordinates lead them to greater achievement. Programmatic research findings from field experiments are reviewed, and our present knowledge about the Pygmalion effect in the management of industrial, sales, and military organizations is summarized. A model is presented in which leadership is hypothesized to be the key mediator through which manager expectations influence subordinate self-efficacy, performance expectations, motivation, effort, and performance. The behaviors that comprise the Pygmalion Leadership Style are described. Besides creating the one-on-one Pygmalion effect, additional ways for managers to assert their leadership by creating productive organizationwide SFP are suggested. An agenda for research on SFP applications is proposed.
Article
There has been a recent resurgence of interest in group cognition in the field of organizational science. However, despite the apparent enthusiasm for the notion of the group mind in some modern guise, important conceptual work is needed to examine the concept critically. We attempt to do this in our treatment of the content, form, function, antecedents, and consequences of team mental models. In addition, we illustrate how the construct can bring explanatory power to theories of team performance and offer other implications for research and practice.
Article
Past work has documented and described major patterns of adaptive and maladaptive behavior: the mastery-oriented and the helpless patterns. In this article, we present a research-based model that accounts for these patterns in terms of underlying psychological processes. The model specifies how individuals' implicit theories orient them toward particular goals and how these goals set up the different patterns. Indeed, we show how each feature (cognitive, affective, and behavioral) of the adaptive and maladaptive patterns can be seen to follow directly from different goals. We then examine the generality of the model and use it to illuminate phenomena in a wide variety of domains. Finally, we place the model in its broadest context and examine its implications for our understanding of motivational and personality processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of interest among theorists and researchers in autobiographical recollections, life stories, and narrative approaches to understanding human behavior and experience. An important development in this context is D. P. McAdams's life story model of identity (1985; see also records 1993-97296-000 and 1996-06098-001), which asserts that people living in modern societies provide their lives with unity and purpose by constructing internalized and evolving narratives of the self. The idea that identity is a life story resonates with a number of important themes in developmental, cognitive, personality, and cultural psychology. This article reviews and integrates recent theory and research on life stories as manifested in investigations of self-understanding, autobiographical memory, personality structure and change, and the complex relations between individual lives and cultural modernity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
discuss the place of self in social cognition, with special emphasis on the self as a knowledge structure the fact of self / the self as a conceptual structure / assessing the self-concept / the development of the self-concept / the self in cultural context / the self as a memory structure / meaning-based representations of the self / perception-based representations of the self / I and me (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
J. A. Singer tells the dramatic stories of a group of men, detailing how they fell into the depths of drug and alcohol addiction, and explores with them their efforts to battle despair and find meaning in their lives. Representing the full spectrum of American life, these tragic histories of a millionaire businessman, a former major league baseball player, a Vietnam War veteran, a gay convict, and others are painful examples of how addiction manifests itself in every corner of society. Throughout, Singer pursues the question of why the traditional means of addiction treatment have such limited success in helping these men achieve meaningful sobriety. Drawing on his research in personality, Singer provides an innovative set of recommendations about treatment strategies and appropriate psychotherapy for those suffering from severe addictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Agentic Leadership Efficacy (ALE) offers a new theoretical framework to address what constitutes leader emergence, engagement, and performance. ALE advances leadership development theory by addressing how leaders' self-schema adapt over time as part of the overall leader development process, and in defining the relation of those cognitive processes and frameworks to enhanced leader performance. ALE is inclusive of elements of both self and means-efficacy and is defined as a leader's appropriation of his or her role and environment (agency), and the self-schematic efficacy beliefs (confidence) in his or her perceived leadership capabilities to organize the positive psychological capabilities, motivation, means and courses of action required to attain effective, sustainable performance across a specific leadership domain. This study offers many practical implications for leadership development and performance. The nomological network of ALE was tested over a 38 week experimental design. Among other findings, results showed that ALE is malleable and can be developed through targeted leadership development. ALE can be measured in three distinct dimensions; specifically, agentic leadership efficacy for thought and self-motivation, action, and means. Leaders also have differing levels of efficacy for transactional and transformational leadership behaviors across those three domains. We established that specific domains of a leader's efficacy beliefs can be targeted and developed and that those areas of increased efficacy will in turn manifest in greater frequency of behaviors corresponding to those targeted domains. Levels of ALE were found to predict levels of leader motivation and also both transformational and transactional leadership behaviors. Transformational leadership behaviors in turn mediated the linkage between leadership efficacy and various leadership performance measures. We also proposed a new construct called developmental readiness , and demonstrated that the three dimensions of meta-cognitive ability, self-concept clarity, and learning goal orientation have significant impacts on initial levels ALE and also on the propensity and ability for further development of ALE. We hold that these facets of developmental readiness will impact any leader development program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Memories of specific life episodes, termed personal event memories, have only recently become a focus of systematic research. In this article, memories of momentous events are analyzed from a functional perspective. First, personal event memory is defined. Second, research on the temporal organization of specific memories across the life span is described. Third, psychological functions served by remembering momentous events are illustrated. Fourth, variations in the structure and content of autobiographical memory are identified. Finally, potential connections to clinical and educational practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Contemporary leadership theory and practice describes authenticity in relation to self-awareness of one's fundamental values and purpose, and attributes the motivational effects of leadership to the consistency of leader's values and behaviors and the concordance of their values with those of followers. Drawing from hermeneutic philosophy, I offer a different perspective on authenticity in leadership that is based on the framework of the narrative self. This framework suggests that authenticity is not achieved by self-awareness of one's inner values or purpose, but instead is emergent from the narrative process in which others play a constitutive role in the self. Implications of this framework for research and for the practice of ethical leadership are discussed. bWho am I, so inconstant, that notwithstanding you count on me?Q (Ricoeur, 1992: 168).
Article
We expand the conceptualization of positive leadership and hypothesize that leaders' ability to influence followers across varied complex situations will be enhanced through the development of a rich and multifaceted self-construct. Utilizing self-complexity theory and other aspects of research on self-representation, we show how the structure and structural dynamics of leaders' self-constructs are linked to their varied role demands by calling forth cognitions, affects, goals and values, expectancies, and self-regulatory plans that enhance performance. Through this process, a leader is able to bring the “right stuff” (the appropriate ensemble of attributes) to bear on and succeed in the multiple challenges of leadership. We suggest future research to develop dimensional typologies related to leadership-relevant aspects of the self and also to link individual positive self-complexity to more aggregate positive organizational processes. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
In this paper, we first develop the concepts of authentic leaders, authentic leadership, and authentic leader development. We suggest a definition of authentic leaders, which is based on the leader's self-concept: his or her self-knowledge, self-concept clarity, self-concordance, and person-role merger, and on the extent to which the leader's self-concept is expressed in his or her behavior. Following, we offer a life-story approach to the development of authentic leaders. We argue that authentic leadership rests heavily on the self-relevant meanings the leader attaches to his or her life experiences, and these meanings are captured in the leader's life-story. We suggest that self-knowledge, self-concept clarity, and person-role merger are derived from the life-story. Therefore, the construction of a life-story is a major element in the development of authentic leaders. We further argue that the life-story provides followers with a major source of information on which to base their judgments about the leader's authenticity. We conclude by drawing some practical implications from this approach and presenting suggestions for further research.
Article
The self-complexity (SC) theory is a structural model of self-knowledge that suggests individual differences in the complexity of knowledge about the self are predictive of emotional stability and reactivity to stress. Various studies have identified problems concerning the consistency, reliability and validity of the often used measure of SC, the dimensionality statistic (H; Scott, 1969). Addressing these issues, the present study proposes 2 alternative measures of the components of SC and examines psychometric properties of these measures. Results of this study indicate a lack of a general factor underlying the dimensionality statistic. In addition, they offer support for the benefit of distinguishing between 2 components of self-complexity: quantity of self-aspects and overlap among them.
Article
A theory of leadership development is advanced, suggesting that changes in leadership skills may be viewed from the perspective of a general theory of learning and expertise, with consideration of the associated changes in information processing and underlying knowledge structures that occur as skill develops. More specifically, we propose that leadership performance is organized in terms of a progression from novice to intermediate to expert skill levels. At each skill level, the emphasis is on qualitatively different knowledge and information processing capabilities. In addition, because leadership skill development requires proaction on the part of the leader, we propose that identity, meta-cognitive processes, and emotional regulation are critical factors in developing the deeper cognitive structures associated with leadership expertise. Finally, expert leaders may develop unique skills in grounding their identities and leadership activities in coherent, self-relevant, authentic values.
Article
A multilevel model is offered proposing that organizational learning is an interdependent system where effective leaders enact intervention strategies at the individual (micro), network (meso), and systems (macro) levels. We suggest that leaders approach organizational learning by setting the conditions and structure for learning to occur, while limiting direct interference in the actual creative processes. First, leaders may increase the level of developmental readiness of individual followers, thereby increasing their motivation and ability to approach learning experiences and adapt their mental models. These individuals then serve as catalysts of learning within and between social networks. Second, leaders may promote the diffusion of knowledge between these knowledge catalysts within and across social networks through influencing both the structure and functioning of knowledge networks. Finally, leaders may target actions at the systems level to improve the diffusion to, and institutionalization of, knowledge to the larger organization.
Article
This Special Issue is the result of the inaugural summit hosted by the Gallup Leadership Institute at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 2004 on Authentic Leadership Development (ALD). We describe in this introduction to the special issue current thinking in this emerging field of research as well as questions and concerns. We begin by considering some of the environmental and organizational forces that may have triggered interest in describing and studying authentic leadership and its development. We then provide an overview of its contents, including the diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives presented, followed by a discussion of alternative conceptual foundations and definitions for the constructs of authenticity, authentic leaders, authentic leadership, and authentic leadership development. A detailed description of the components of authentic leadership theory is provided next. The similarities and defining features of authentic leadership theory in comparison to transformational, charismatic, servant and spiritual leadership perspectives are subsequently examined. We conclude by discussing the status of authentic leadership theory with respect to its purpose, construct definitions, historical foundations, consideration of context, relational/processual focus, attention to levels of analysis and temporality, along with a discussion of promising directions for future research.
Article
The concept of leader efficacy has received relatively little attention in the leadership literature. This is somewhat surprising given that effective leadership requires high levels of agency (i.e., deliberately or intentionally exerting positive influence) and confidence. This review uses existing theory and research on leader efficacy as a point of departure for proposing an expanded and multi-level framework for understanding the domain of leadership efficacy that includes leader, follower, and collective efficacies. The primary goals are to provide a conceptual framework to stimulate future theory and research on building efficacious leadership and to understand how such leadership develops and has implications for effective performance.
Article
This study investigated the influence of genetic factor and personality on leadership role occupancy among a sample of male twins. Identical twins (n = 238) who share 100% of their genetic background were compared with fraternal twins (n = 188) who are expected to share only 50% of their genetic background. Results indicated that 30% of the variance in leadership role occupancy could be accounted for by genetic factor, while non-shared (or non-common) environmental factor accounted for the remaining variance in leadership role occupancy. Genetic influences also contributed to personality variables known to be associated with leadership (i.e., social potency and achievement). Furthermore, the results indicated that the genetic influence on leadership role occupancy was associated with the genetic factors influencing the personality variables, but there was no definitive evidence whether these personality variables partially mediated the relationship between genetic factor and leadership. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for leader selection and training.
Article
In this study we set out to conduct a comprehensive quantitative research analysis of literature reporting results on the causal impact of leadership by focusing on examining what we refer to as ‘leadership interventions.’ We defined leadership interventions as those studies where the researcher overtly manipulated leadership as the independent variable through training, assignment, scenario or other means. Our focus included both examining experimental and quasi-experimental as well as lab and field studies conducted in public and private organizations. Our goal was to address a simple question: do leadership interventions have the intended impact and if so to what degree? We conducted a comprehensive review of the published and unpublished literature and uncovered 200 lab and field studies that met our criterion as leadership intervention studies. We report here the findings of a series of meta-analyzed effects comparing the relative impact of leadership interventions across intervention types, leadership theories, and several common dependent variables. Overall, leadership interventions produced a 66% probability of achieving a positive outcome versus a 50–50 random effect for treatment participants, but this effect varied significantly when assessing moderators such as type of leadership theory.
Article
Leadership is typically understood as a process of social influence. The effective exercise of influence, however, requires leaders to think. In the present effort, we examine the major approaches used to understand leader cognition noting that cognitive models are typically domain based. Subsequently, we examine leader cognition in one domain held to be critical to leader performance — cognition under conditions of crisis or change. Leaders typically formulate solutions to the problems broached by crises through generation of sensemaking systems. The generation of sensemaking systems is held to depend on case-based, or experiential, knowledge as well as multiple processes (e.g., scanning, case analysis, forecasting). The implications of these knowledge structures and processing operations for understanding leader performance are discussed.
Article
One of the most important findings that has emerged from human behavioral genetics involves the environment rather than heredity, providing the best available evidence for the importance of environmental influences on personality, psychopathology, and cognition. The research also converges on the remarkable conclusion that these environmental influences make two children in the same family as different from one another as are pairs of children selected randomly from the population. The theme of the target article is that environmental differences between children in the same family (called “nonshared environment”) represent the major source of environmental variance for personality, psychopathology, and cognitive abilities. One example of the evidence that supports this conclusion involves correlations for pairs of adopted children reared in the same family from early in life. Because these children share family environment but not heredity, their correlation directly estimates the importance of shared family environment. For most psychological characteristics, correlations for adoptive “siblings” hover near zero, which implies that the relevant environmental influences are not shared by children in the same family. Although it has been thought that cognitive abilities represent an exception to this rule, recent data suggest that environmental variance that affects IQ is also of the nonshared variety after adolescence. The article has three goals: (1) To describe quantitative genetic methods and research that lead to the conclusion that nonshared environment is responsible for most environmental variation relevant to psychological development, (2) to discuss specific nonshared environmental influences that have been studied to date, and (3) to consider relationships between nonshared environmental influences and behavioral differences between children in the same family. The reason for presenting this article in BBS is to draw attention to the far-reaching implications of finding that psychologically relevant environmental influences make children in a family different from, not similar to, one another.
Article
A social identity theory of leadership is described that views leadership as a group process generated by social categorization and prototype-based depersonalization processes associated with social identity. Group identification, as self-categorization, constructs an intragroup prototypicality gradient that invests the most prototypical member with the appearance of having influence; the appearance arises because members cognitively and behaviorally conform to the prototype. The appearance of influence becomes a reality through depersonalized social attraction processes that make followers agree and comply with the leader's ideas and suggestions. Consensual social attraction also imbues the leader with apparent status and creates a status-based structural differentiation within the group into leader(s) and followers, which has characteristics of unequal status intergroup relations. In addition, a fundamental attribution process constructs a charismatic leadership personality for the leader, which further empowers the leader and sharpens the leader-follower status differential. Empirical support for the theory is reviewed and a range of implications discussed, including intergroup dimensions, uncertainty reduction and extremism, power, and pitfalls of prototype-based leadership.
Article
I propose that the ways people respond to their own symptoms of depression influence the duration of these symptoms. People who engage in ruminative responses to depression, focusing on their symptoms and the possible causes and consequences of their symptoms, will show longer depressions than people who take action to distract themselves from their symptoms. Ruminative responses prolong depression because they allow the depressed mood to negatively bias thinking and interfere with instrumental behavior and problem-solving. Laboratory and field studies directly testing this theory have supported its predictions. I discuss how response styles can explain the greater likelihood of depression in women than men. Then I intergrate this response styles theory with studies of coping with discrete events. The response styles theory is compared to other theories of the duration of depression. Finally, I suggest what may help a depressed person to stop engaging in ruminative responses and how response styles for depression may develop.