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Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised

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Abstract

This study examines the psychometric properties of the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire—Revised (CASQ–R; N. J. Kaslow & S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991), a 24-item shortened measure derived from the 48-item CASQ designed to assess children's causal explanations for positive and negative events. The data for this study come from 1,086 children, 9 to 12 years old, with equal representation of boys and girls and African American and Caucasian children. Approximately one half ( n = 475) of the youths also completed the CASQ–R 6 months later. Results revealed that although the CASQ-R was somewhat less reliable than the original CASQ, with moderate internal consistency reliability and fair test-retest reliability, it demonstrated equivalent criterion-related validity with self-reported depressive symptoms. Psychometric properties of the CASQ-R showed some variation by race, such that the overall composite demonstrated better internal consistency and criterion-related validity among Caucasian youths than among African American youths. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological
Assessment
1998, Vol.
10, No. 2,
166-170
Copyright
1998
by the
American
Psychological
Association,
Inc.
1040-3590/98/J3.00
Children's
Attributional Style
Questionnaire—Revised:
Psychometric
Examination
Martie
Thompson
and
Nadine
J.
Kaslow
Emory
University
Bahr Weiss
Vanderbilt
University
Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
University
of
Michigan
This
study
examines
the
psychometric
properties
of the
Children's
Attributional
Style
Question-
naire—Revised
(CASQ-R;
N. J.
Kaslow
& S.
Nolen-Hoeksema,
1991),
a
24-item
shortened
measure
derived
from
the
48-item
CASQ
designed
to
assess
children's
causal
explanations
for
positive
and
negative
events.
The
data
for
this
study
come
from
1,086
children,
9 to
12
yean*
old,
with
equal
representation
of
boys
and
girls
and
African
American
and
Caucasian
children.
Approximately
one
half
(n
=
475)
of the
youths
also
completed
the
CASQ-R
6
months
later.
Results revealed
that
although
the
CASQ-R
was
somewhat
less
reliable
than
the
original
CASQ,
with
moderate
internal
consistency
reliability
and
fair
test-retesl
reliability,
it
demonstrated
equivalent
criterion-related
validity
with
self-reported
depressive
symptoms.
Psychometric
properties
of the
CASQ-R
showed
some
variation
by
race,
such
that
the
overall
composite
demonstrated
better
internal
consistency
and
criterion-related
validity
among
Caucasian
youths
than
among
African
American
youths.
The
Children's Attributional Style
Questionnaire
(CASQ;
Seligman
et
al.,
1984),
also
referred
to as the K
ASTAN-CASQ,
is the
main measure
of
attributional
style
for
children.
The
CASQ
was
designed
to
test
the
attributional
reformulation
of
the
learned helplessness model
of
depression
in
children (Ab-
ramson, Seligman,
&
Teasdale,
1978).
A
meta-analysis
examin-
ing
children's self-reported depressive symptoms (assessed
by
one of
four
standard self-reported depression measures)
and
attributional
patterns
for
positive
and
negative events
as
mea-
sured
by the
CASQ revealed
that
youths
who
make more inter-
nal-stable-global
attributions
for
negative events
and
more
ex-
ternal-unstable-specific
attributions
for
positive events report
more depressive
symptoms
than
do
their
peers
with
the
reverse
attributional
style
(r
-
.50; Gladstone
&
Kaslow, 1995).
In
other words, youths
who
report
more depressive symptoms lend
to
blame themselves
for
negative events
(internal)
and
view
the
causes
of
these events
as
consistent over time (stable)
and
generalizable across situations (global),
r = .38 for
depressive
symptoms
and
negative events composite. Conversely, these
Martie
Thompson
and
Nadine
J.
Kaslow,
Department
of
Psychiatry
and
Behavioral
Sciences,
Emory
University;
Bahr
Weiss,
Department
of
Psychology,
Vanderbilt
University;
Susan
Nolen-Hoeksema,
Department
of
Psychology,
University
of
Michigan.
This
study
was
funded
in
part
by
National
Institute
of
Mental
Health
Grants
1-R18-SM50265-01
and
1-RO1-MH54237-01
and
Substance
Abuse
and
Mental
Health
Services
Administration
Grant
1-HD5-
SM50265-02.
Correspondence
concerning
this
article
should
be
addressed
to
Nadine
J.
Kaslow,
Emory
University
School
of
Medicine,
Department
of
Psy-
chiatry
and
Behavioral
Sciences,
Grady
Health
System,
80
Butler
Street,
Atlanta.
Georgia
30335.
Electronic
mail
may be
sent
to
nkaslow@emory.edu.
youths
tend
to
attribute
positive
events
to
factors outside
of
themselves
(external)
and to
view
the
causes
of
these events
as
inconsistent
over time (unstable)
and
situation
specific
(spe-
cific),
r = .36 for
depressive symptoms
and
positive
events
composite.
The
CASQ,
a
48-item scale, uses
a
forced-choice
format
to
assess causal attributions. Each item presents
a
hypothetical
situation
followed
by two
statements regarding
why the
event
happened. Children
choose
the
response that best explains
why
they
believe
the
event
might have occurred. Three dimensions
of
attributions (internal-external,
stable-unstable,
global-spe-
cific)
are
assessed;
an
equal
number
of
items address each
di-
mension
for
both good
and bad
outcomes
(n = 8). In
each
pair
of
causal explanations,
one
causal dimension
is
varied
and
the
other
two
remain constant.
The
scale yields positive
and
negative
composite scores
as
well
as an
overall composite
score.
Psycho-
metric examination
of the
original CASQ
(Nolen-Hoeksema,
Girgus,
&
Seligman,
1986.
1992;
Panak
&
Garber,
1992; Selig-
man
et
al.,
1984) revealed moderate
internal
consistency
reliabil-
ities:
positive
events
(as
.47-.73),
negative events
(as =
.42
.67)
and
overall composite
(cv
=
.62). Test-retest reliabili-
ties
are
.71
and .66 for
positive
and
negative events, respectively,
across
6
months,
and .35 for the
overall composite over
12
months.
Because
of
children's
limited attention span,
the
level
of
bore-
dom
associated
with
completing
the
lengthy CASQ,
and the
fact
that
the
CASQ
typically
is one
measure
in a
larger battery,
a
shortened
measure
of the
CASQ
was
developed.
CASQ-Re-
vised
(CASQ-R;
Kaslow
&
Nolen-Hoeksema,
1991)
items
were chosen
on the
basis
of
responses
from
449
elementary
school
children
who
completed
the
original CASQ
(e.g.,
Nolen-
Hoeksema
et
al.,
1986,
1992),
and
item choice
was
based
on
psychometric
analyses
(i.e.,
positive corrected
item-total
corre-
166
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This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
CHILDREN'S
ATTRIBUTIONAL
STYLE
QUESTIONNAIRE—REVISED
167
lations
and
internal
consistency
reliability).
For
positive
events,
item-total
correlations
ranged
from
—.16
to
.33,
and
only
those
12
items
whose
item-total
correlations
were
&.14
remained
in
the
shortened
version
of the
measure.
For
negative
events,
item-
total
correlations
ranged
from
—.11
to
.27,
and
only
those
12
items
whose
item-total
correlations
were
£=.08
were
retained.
Thus,
there
are an
equal
number
of
items
for
each
attribution
dimension.
In
this
study,
we
examined
the
psychometric
properties
of the
CASQ-R
to
determine
whether
this
shortened
scale
can
func-
tion
as a
reliable
and
valid
substitute
for tie
original
CASQ.
Specifically,
we
focused
on
internal
consistency
reliability,
test-
retest
reliability,
and
criterion-related
validity.
Additionally,
we
examined
gender,
race,
and age
differences
in
internal
consis-
tency,
test-retest
reliability,
and
criterion-related
validity
for the
CASQ-R.
We
also
tested
mean
differences
across
gender,
race,
and
age on the
CASQ-R
overall
composite
scale,
the
CASQ-
R
positive
composite
score,
the
CASQ-R
negative
composite
score,
as
well
as the
Vanderbilt
Depression
Inventory
(VDI;
Weiss
&
Garber,
1995).
Method
Participants
Participants
for
this study consisted
of
1,086 children,
9 to 12
years
old, enrolled
as
elementary
and
middle school students (Grades 3-6;
M,s,
-
10.34,
SD =
1.03)
from
nine public schools
in a
midsized
southeastern
city.
Approximately half
(n
=
475)
of the
students also
completed
the
battery
of
measures
at
Time
2, 6
months
after
Time
1.
There were
no
differences
between those youths
who
completed Time
2
measures
and
youths
who did not
complete Time
2
measures
on
CASQ-R
scores
at
Time
1 or on
receipt
of
treatment. However, those
youths
who
completed Time
2
measures
(M
=
1.14,
SD =
0.80) were
more
likely
than youths
who did not
complete Time
2
measures
(M =
1.04,
SD =
0.78)
to
report more
depression,
F(l,
1084)
=
4.95,
p <
.05.
The
sample consisted
of 48%
boys
(n =
515)
and 53%
girls
(n =
570);
56%
African
American youths
(n =
613)
and 44%
Caucasian
youths
(n
=
473).
Although
the
original sample contained children
from
other ethnic groups
(n =
118),
those
children were
not
included
in
the
present study
as the
cell
sizes
for
these
other groups were
too
small
for
data-analytic purposes.
No
data
on the
socioeconomic
status
of
the
participants were available
at the
individual
level. However,
the
schools that participated
in the
project
typically included students
from
a
variety
of
middle-class
and
lower class neighborhoods.
The
average
family
income across
the
schools
was
$29,084.
Measures
Children's
Atlributional
Style
QuestionnaireRevised.
The
CASQ-R
includes
24
forced-choice items, half addressing positive outcomes
and
half
addressing
negative outcomes. Scale
items
are
presented
in the
Appendix.
For the 12
positive events,
2
items
tap the
internal-external dimension,
7
items
assess
the
stable-unstable dimension,
and 3
items address
the
global-specific dimension.
For the 12
negative events,
3
items
tap the
internal-external dimension,
6
items
assess
the
stable-unstable
dimen-
sion,
and 3
items address
the
global-specific dimension. Positive, nega-
tive,
and
overall
(positive
composite
minus
negative composite) scores
are
derived.
The
lower
the
positive composite score,
the
higher
the
nega-
tive
composite
score,
and the
lower
the
overall composite
score
the
more
depressive
is the
attributional
style.
The
mean
for the
overall composite
on
the
CASQ-R
was
4.87
(SD =
3.39)
at
Time
1 and
4.96
(SD =
3.49)
at
Time
2. The
causal attributions endorsed
by the
child
are
scored
in
a
manner similar
to
those used with
the
original CASQ.
Vanderbilt
Depression
Inventory.
The VDI is a
26-item
self-report
scale
for
self-reported depression, which uses
a 1 -4
Likert
format.
The
VDI
incorporates
a
developmental framework
for
assessing
depressive
symptoms
and
depression-related symptoms
as
depicted
in the
Diag-
nostic
and
Statistical
Manual
of
Mental
Disorders (3rd ed.,
rev.;
DSM-I1I-R;
American Psychiatric Association,
1987).
The
scale
has
good
test-retest
reliability
and
convergent validity.
In a
separate sample
(Weiss
&
Catron,
1994),
the VDI (a)
correlated
.71
with
the
Children's
Depression Inventory
(Kovacs,
1985),
(b) had a
1-week
test-retest
reliability
of
.62,
and (c) had an
internal consistency reliability
of
.88.
In
the
present
study,
the VDI
demonstrated
good
internal consistency
reliability,
a
=
.90
among both
African
American
and
Caucasian
participants.
Procedures
The
present
study
was
based
on
archived data originally collected
by
the
school system
as
part
of
mental health screenings conducted
to
identify
children
in
need
of
school counseling services (see Catron
&
Weiss,
1994).
In the
present sample,
8% of the
children received treat-
ment
between
Times
1 and 2.
There
were
no
between-group
differences
on
Time
2
CASQ-R
scores
based
on
receipt
of
treatment.
These
data
were
provided
by the
school system
and
given
to us
with
all
identifying
information
(e.g., names) removed. School personnel read measures
to
the
children
in
groups
of
20-25
to
facilitate accurate understanding
and
completion
of the
scales.
Three
adults helped administer
the
question-
naires.
One
adult
read
the
survey
aloud,
and the
other
two
adults
circu-
lated
the
room
to
ensure that
all
students were following instructions
appropriately.
The
reader waited
until
all
children
had
answered
an
item
before
proceeding
to the
next item. This administration
procedure
has
been used
in
prior studies with
the
CASQ
(Kaslow,
Rehm,
&
Siegel,
1984).
Results
Internal
Consistency
Reliabilities
We
calculated
Cronbach
alphas
using
Times
1 and 2
CASQ-
R
data
for the
overall,
positive,
and
negative
composite
scores.
The
reliability
coefficients
at
Times
1 and 2
were
very
similar
and
in the
moderate
range.
Specifically,
for the
overall
composite
at
Times
1 and 2,
both
as =
.61;
for the
positive
composite
at
Times
1 and 2, as = .53 and
.60,
respectively;
and for the
negative
composite
at
Times
1 and 2, as = .45 and
.46,
respectively.
Internal
consistency
reliabilities
also
were
computed
sepa-
rately
by
gender,
race,
and age
categories
for
Time
1
data
only.
For
these
analyses,
age was
dichotomized:
9-11-
and
12-14-
year-olds.
We
used
Fisher's
r-to-j
transformation
to
test
the
differences
in
reliability
coefficients
and
correlation
coefficients.
Results
revealed
that
the
overall
composite
for the
CASQ-R
was
equally
reliable
for
boys
(a =
.58)
and
girls
(a =
.63),
as
well
as for
younger
(a =
.58)
and
older
children
(a =
.64).
In
terms
of
internal
consistency
differences
across
racial
categories,
the
CASQ-R
was
more
internally
consistent
for
Caucasian
youths
(a =
.66)
than
for
African
American
youths
(a
=
.55),
Z =
2.86,
p <
.01.
Test—Retest
Reliabilities
Test—retest
reliabilities
for the
overall,
positive,
and
negative
composite
scores
were
conducted
to
assess
the
stability
of
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This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
168
THOMPSON, KASLOW. WEISS,
AND
NOLEN-HOEKSEMA
Table
1
Intercorrelations
of
Children's
Attributional
Style
QuestionnaireRevised
Composites
and
Vanderbilt
Depression
Inventory
(VDI)
Scores
Measure
CASQ-R
Composite
Overall Positive Negative
VDI
CASQ-R
Overall
Composite
Positive Composite
Negative Composite
VDI
.85***
-.77***
-.40***
-.34***
-.31***
.35***
***
p <
.001.
more self-reported symptoms
of
depression,
and
lower scores
on
the
positive
composite (i.e.,
a
more depressive
attribulional
style
for
good
events)
and
lower
scores
on the
overall
composite
(i.e.,
more
internal—stable—global
attributions
for bad
events
and
more external-unstable-specific
attributions
for
good
events)
were associated
with
more elevated
VDI
scores.
Thus,
children
with more
maladaptive
attributional styles
on the
CASQ-R
endorsed more symptoms
of
depression
on the
VDI.
Criterion-related
validity
also
was
computed separately
by
gender,
race,
and age
categories.
No
differences
in
criterion-
related
validity
were noted among
boys
(r
=
—.36)
and
girls
(r
=
—.43)
or
among younger
(r =
—.37)
and
older
(r =
—.44)
youths.
However,
the
CASQ-R
demonstrated
better
criterion-
related validity
for
Caucasian
youths
(r =
—.46)
than among
African
American youths
(r =
-.31),
Z
=
2.20,
p <
.01.
CASQ-R
scores over
6
months.
We
calculated
test-retest
reli-
abilities using data
from
the 475
youths
who
completed
the
CASQ
at
Times
1 and 2.
Correlations revealed that
the
overall
composite
(r =
.53,
p <
.001),
the
positive
composite
(r =
.53,
p <
.001),
and the
negative composite
(r =
.38,
p <
.001)
were
fairly
stable over
6
months.
Test—retest
reliabilities also were computed separately
by
gender,
race,
and age
categories.
Results
revealed
that
the
overall
composite
CASQ-R
was
equally stable among boys
(r =
.49)
and
girls
(r =
.57),
among
African
American youths
(r =
.52)
and
Caucasian youths
(r =
.54),
and
among younger
(r =
.55)
and
older
(r
.47)
youths.
Mean
Differences
on
CASQ-R Scales
and the VDI
We
used analysis
of
variance
(ANOVA)
to
determine
whether
there
were mean differences between
boys
and
girls,
African
American
and
Caucasian
youths,
and
younger
and
older
children
on
the
three
CASQ-R
composite
scores
and the VDI
measure.
Means
and
standard
deviations
are
presented
in
Table
2. The
only
between-group
differences
to
emerge were both
on the
CASQ—R
negative composite
such
that
9—10-year-olds,
^(1,
1084)
=
6.29,
p <
.01,
and
Caucasian
youths,
F(1,
1084)
=
4.64,
p <
.05,
scored
significantly
higher than their respective
counterparts
on
negative attributional
style.
Criterion-Related
Validity
As
seen
in
Table
1,
CASQ-R
positive, negative,
and
overall
scores
from
Time
1
correlated
significantly
and in the
predicted
direction
with
children's scores
on the VDI
(all
ps
<
.001).
Specifically,
higher
scores
on the
negative composite (i.e.,
a
depressive
attributional
style
for bad
events) were related
to
Discussion
The
CASQ-R
demonstrated good criterion-related validity,
moderate internal consistency reliability,
and
fair
test-retest
re-
liability
in a
community
sample
of
9-12-year-olds. Analyses
revealed that children
with
more maladaptive
attributional
styles
endorsed
more symptoms
of
depression.
The
CASQ-R
is a
Table
2
Mean
Differences
on
Children's
Attributional
Style
QuestionnaireRevised
(CASQ-R)
Composites
and
Vanderbilt
Depression Inventory (VDI) Scores
Across
Gender,
Race,
and Age
CASQ-R
overall
score
Variable
Gender
Boy
Girl
Race
African
American
Caucasian
Age
9-10
Years
11-12
Years
M
4.83
4.91
4.93
4.78
4.73
5.13
SD
3.36
3.42
3.22
3.60
3.35
3.66
CASQ-R
positive
score
M
7.62
7.58
7.56
7.65
7.59
7.61
SD
2.19
2.34
2.20
2.36
2.20
2.36
CASQ-R
negative
score
M
2.79
2.67
2.62*
2.87
2.86**
2.57
SD
1.90
1.84
1.82
1.95
1.91
1.83
VDI
M
1.05
1.11
1.07
1.10
1.09
1.08
score
SD
0.77
0.79
0.76
0.82
0.81
0.75
Note.
African
Americans were
significantly
different
from
Caucasians
on
CASQ-R
negative score
at p
<
.05.
Nine-to-10-year
olds
were
significantly
different
from
11 to 12
year olds
on
CASQ-R
negative
score
at p <
.01.
*p
<
.05.
**p
<
.01.
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
CHILDREN'S
ATTRIBUTIONAL
STYLE
QUESTIONNAIRE—REVISED
169
briefer
and
easier-to-use measure
than
the
original CASQ.
In
addition,
it
appears
to
provide equivalent validity
to the
original
measure
in
that
the
correlations between
attributional
style
and
self-reported depressive symptoms
are
similar, although
differ-
ent
measures were used
to
assess
depressive symptoms. How-
ever,
the
reliability data
for the
CASQ-R
are
weaker.
Specifi-
cally,
internal consistency
and
test-retest
reliabilities
are
some-
what
lower
than
those obtained
for the
original measure. This
difference
is not
surprising given that
the
original CASQ
in-
cluded twice
as
many items
as the
CASQ-R.
Caution should
be
exercised when generalizing results
from
this
study
to
other
ethnic
groups,
as
these
findings are
based
only
on
Caucasian
and
African
American youths.
Additional
analyses examining gender,
race,
and age
differ-
ences
in
psychometric properties
of the
CASQ-R
revealed that
the
scale
may be
more
internally
consistent
and
have better
criterion-related
validity
among Caucasian
youths
than among
African
American youths. Because
the
CASQ-R
was
developed
on
Caucasian
youths,
it is not
surprising that
the
psychometric
properties
of the
scale
were
significantly
better
for
Caucasian
youths
than
for
their
African
American
peers.
Furthermore, mean
differences
on the
CASQ-R
scales
across race revealed that
Caucasian
youths evidenced more
maladaptive
attributional
styles
for
negative events than
did
African
American children.
Although
little
is
known about attributions across racial groups,
research
on
racial
differences
in
locus
of
control
has
indicated
that
African American
youths
evidence
a
more external locus
than
do
their Caucasian counterparts (Wade,
1996).
The finding
that Caucasian youths
in
this
sample reported more internal,
global,
and
stable
attributions
for
negative events
is
consistent
with
previous research
on
locus-of-control
differences between
African
American
and
Caucasian children. However, caution
should
be
exercised
in
focusing
on the
three dimensions within
each positive
and
negative event
composite,
as
there
are an
unequal
number
of
items
assessing each
of the
three subscales.
In
developing
the
CASQ-R,
the
decision
was
made
to
give
priority
to the
psychometric properties
of the
items, resulting
in
this
disproportionate
representation
of
items assessing
the
global-specific,
internal-external,
and
stable-unstable dimen-
sions.
For
this
reason,
our
analyses focused
only
on the
total,
positive,
and
negative composites.
Researchers interested
in
examining attributional styles
in
children
should engage
in a
cost-benefit analysis
when
deciding
whether
to use the
CASQ
or the
CASQ-R.
If
time
is not an
issue,
we
recommend that researchers
use the
original
48-item
CASQ because
it
appears
to be a
more reliable measure. How-
ever,
if
time constraints
are
present, then
the
CASQ-R
is a
psychometrically
adequate measure that provides
a
reasonable
assessment
of
children's
attributional
styles.
References
Abramson,
L. Y,
Seligman,
M. E. P., &
Teasdale,
J.
(1978).
Learned
helplessness
in
humans: Critique
and reformulation.
Journal
of
Ab-
normal
Psychology,
87,
49-74.
American Psychiatric Association.
(1987).
Diagnostic
and
statistical
manual
of
mental disorders.
(3rd ed.,
rev.).
Washington,
DC:
Author.
Catron.
X, &
Weiss,
B.
(1994).
The
Vanderbilt
School-Based
Counsel-
ing
Program. Journal
of
Emotional
and
Behavioral
Disorders,
2,
247-253.
Gladstone,
T. R. G., &
Kaslow,
N. J.
(1995).
Depression
and
attributions
in
children
and
adolescents:
A
meta-analytic
review. Journal
of
Abnor-
mal
Child Psychology,
23,
597-606.
Kaslow,
N.
J.,
&
Nolen-Hoeksema,
S.
(1991).
Children's Attributional
QuestionnaireRevised.
Unpublished manuscript, Emory University,
Atlanta,
GA.
Kaslow,
N.
J.,
Rehm,
L. P., &
Siegel,
A.
W.
(1984).
Social
and
cognitive
correlates
of
depression
in
children:
A
developmental perspective.
Journal
of
Abnormal
Child
Psychology,
12,
605-620.
Kovacs,
M.
(1985).
The
Children's Depression Inventory
(GDI).
Psy-
chopharmacology
Bulletin,
21,
995-998.
Nolen-Hoeksema.
S.,
Girgus,
J.
S.,
&
Seligman,
M. E. P.
(1986).
Learned helplessness
in
children:
A
longitudinal study
of
depression,
achievement,
and
explanatory style. Journal
of
Personality
and
Social
Psychology,
51,
435-442.
Nolen-Hoeksema,
S.,
Girgus,
J.
S.,
&
Seligman,
M. E. P.
(1992).
Pre-
dictors
and
consequences
of
childhood
depressive symptoms:
A 5-
year
longitudinal study. Journal
of
Abnormal Psychology,
101,
405-
422.
Panak,
W. R, &
Garber,
J.
(1992).
Role
of
aggression, rejection,
and
attributions
in the
prediction
of
depression
in
children. Development
and
Psychopathology,
4,
145-165.
Seligman,
M. E. P.,
Peterson,
C.,
Kaslow,
N.
J.,
Tanenbaum,
R.
L.,
Alloy,
L.
B.,
&
Abramson,
L. Y.
(1984).
Explanatory style
and
depressive
symptoms
among school children. Journal
of
Abnormal
Psychology,
93,
235-238.
Wade,
J.
(1996).
An
examination
of
locus
of
control/fatalism
for
Blacks,
Whites, boys,
and
girls over
a two
year
period
of
adolescence.
Social Behavior
and
Personality,
24,
239-248.
Weiss,
B.,
&
Catron,
T. (
1994).
The
specificity
of
comorbidity
of
aggres-
sion
and
depression
in
children. Journal
of
Abnormal Child
Psychol-
ogy,
22,
389-401.
Weiss,
B.,
&.
Garber,
J.
(1995).
The
Vanderbilt
Depression Inventory:
A
self-report
inventory
of
depressive symptoms
for
developmental
comparisons. Unpublished manuscript, Vanderbilt University, Nash-
ville,
TN.
(Appendix
follows)
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
170
THOMPSON,
KASLOW,
WEISS,
AND
NOLEN-HOEKSEMA
Appendix
Scale Items From
the
Children's
Attributional
Style
Questionnaire—Revised
1.
You get an "A" on a
test.
A.
I am
smart.
B. I am
good
in the
subject that
the
test
was in.
2.
Some kids that
you
know
say
that they
do not
like
you.
A.
Once
in a
while
people
are
mean
to me.
B.
Once
in a
while
I am
mean
to
other
people.
3. A
good
friend
tells
you
that
he
hates
you.
A. My
friend
was in a bad
mood that day.
B. I
wasn't
nice
to my
friend that
day.
4. A
person steals money from
you.
A,
That
person
is not
honest.
B.
Many
people
are not
honest.
5.
\bur
parents
tell
you
that something that
you
make
is
very good.
A. I am
good
at
making some things.
B. My
parents like some things
I
make.
6.
You
break
a
glass.
A. I am not
careful
enough.
B.
Sometimes
I am not
careful enough.
7.
YJU
do a
project with
a
group
of
kids
and it
turns
out
badly.
A.
I
don't work well with
the
people
in
that
particular
group.
B.
I
never work well
witii
groups.
8. You
make
a new friend.
A.
I am a
nice
person.
B,
The
people
that
I
meet
are
nice.
9.
^bu
have been getting along well
with
your
family.
A. I am
usually
easy
to get
along with when
I am
with
my
family.
B.
Once
in a
while
I am
easy
to get
along with when
I am
with
my
family.
10.
You get a bad
grade
in
school.
A.
I am not a
good
student.
B.
Teachers give hard tests.
11.
You
walk into
a
door
and you get a
bloody
nose.
A.
I
wasn't looking where
I was
going.
B. I
have been
careless
lately.
12. You
have
a
messy room.
A. I did not
clean
my
room that
day.
B.
I
usually
do not
clean
my
room.
13.
Your
mother makes
you
your favorite dinner.
A.
There
are a few
things that
my
mother
will
do to
please
me.
B. My
mother usually likes
to
please
me.
14. A
team
that
you are on
loses
a
game,
A.
The
team members
don't
help each other
when
they
play
together.
B.
That
day the
team members didn't help
each
other.
15. You do not get
your
chores
done
at
home.
A.
I was
lazy that
day.
B.
Many days
I am
lazy.
16. You go to an
amusement park
and you
have
a
good
time.
A.
I
usually enjoy myself
at
amusement
parks.
B. I
usually
enjoy
myself
in
many
activities.
17.
You go to a
friend's party
and you
have fun.
A.
Your
friend usually gives
good
parties.
B.
\bur
friend
gave
a
good
party that day.
18. You
have
a
substitute teacher
and she
likes
you.
A.
I was
well
behaved
during class that
day.
B. I am
almost
always
well behaved during class.
19.
You
make your
friends
happy.
A.
I am
usually
a fun
person
to be
with.
B.
Sometimes
I am a fun
person
to be
with.
20.
\ou
put a
hard puzzle together.
A.
I am
good
at
putting puzzles together.
B.
1 am
good
at
doing many things.
21. You try out for a
sports team
and do not
make
it.
A.
I am not
good
at
sports.
B.
The
other kids
who
tried
out are
very
good
at
sports.
22. You
fail
a
test,
A.
All
tests
are
hard.
B.
Only
some
tests
are
hard.
23.
you
hit a
home
run in a
ball game.
A.
I
swung
the bat
just
right.
B. The
pitcher threw
an
easy pitch.
24.
You do the
best
in
your class
on a
paper.
A.
The
other
kids
in my
class
did not
work hard
on
their
papers.
B.
I
worked hard
on the
paper.
Note.
From
the
Children's Attributional
Scale
Questionnaire—Revised,
by
N. J.
Kaslow
and S.
Nolen-Hoeksema,
1991.
Unpublished manuscript.
Copyright,
1991,
by N. J.
Kaslow
and S.
Nolen-Hoeksema.
For
permission
to
use
this scale,
please
contact Nadine
J.
Kaslow, Emory University School
of
Medicine, Department
of
Psychiatry
and
Behavioral Sciences,
Grady
Health
System,
80
Butler Street,
Atlanta,
Georgia
30335.
Received
October
6,
1997
Revision
received
January
27,
1998
Accepted
February
19,
1998
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
... Children's attributional style questionnaire-revised. Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (CASQ-R; Thompson, Kaslow, Weiss, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1998) was used to assess attributional style. An Italian version of the questionnaire was developed ad hoc for the present study. ...
... Differently, high scores for Composite Score for Positive Events indicate the tendency to attribute positive events to global, stable, and internal causes. Previous studies showed good psychometric properties (Gladstone & Kaslow, 1995;Thompson et al., 1998). Internal consistency indices in the present research were slightly lower than the values of previous studies (Gladstone & Kaslow, 1995;Thompson et al., 1998). ...
... Previous studies showed good psychometric properties (Gladstone & Kaslow, 1995;Thompson et al., 1998). Internal consistency indices in the present research were slightly lower than the values of previous studies (Gladstone & Kaslow, 1995;Thompson et al., 1998). Cronbach's α was 0.47 for overall composite score, 0.40 for Composite Score for Positive Events, and 0.36 for Composite Score for Negative Events. ...