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Holotropic breathwork: An experiential approach to psychotherapy

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Abstract

Investigated the relationship between the use of Holotropic Breathwork and therapeutic changes in levels of distress associated with self-identified problems, death anxiety, self-esteem, and sense of affiliation with others. Two groups of 24 Ss (aged 22–50 yrs) were compared using a repeated measures design. One group participated in a combination of experientially oriented psychotherapy plus 6 monthly session of Holotropic Breath work (Breath work Group); the 2nd group participated only in experientially oriented psychotherapy (Therapy Group). Dependent measures were the Death Anxiety Scale, the Abasement and Affiliation subscales of the Personality Research Form-E, and a questionnaire regarding self-identified problems. The Breathwork Group showed significant reductions in death anxiety and increase in self-esteem compared to the Therapy Group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Only three studies appear to meet commonly accepted minimum criteria of methodological sophistication to be considered as constituting reliable empirical evidence (that is, those showing clear aims and hypotheses, standardized procedures, objective, quantitative measures with adequate and reported psychometric properties, some degree of control of potential confounds, and statistical analysis of results), and only one of these has been published in a peer-reviewed journal. 27 Holmes and colleagues (1996) 27 compared HB with talk-based, experientially oriented therapy (EOT). Participants were referred by a pool of clinicians who practiced EOT (such as Gestalt therapy). ...
... Only three studies appear to meet commonly accepted minimum criteria of methodological sophistication to be considered as constituting reliable empirical evidence (that is, those showing clear aims and hypotheses, standardized procedures, objective, quantitative measures with adequate and reported psychometric properties, some degree of control of potential confounds, and statistical analysis of results), and only one of these has been published in a peer-reviewed journal. 27 Holmes and colleagues (1996) 27 compared HB with talk-based, experientially oriented therapy (EOT). Participants were referred by a pool of clinicians who practiced EOT (such as Gestalt therapy). ...
... Such an account would explain the preliminary results suggesting usefulness of HB specifically among individuals who have had many months of psychotherapy with inadequate clinical progress. 27 Alternatively, it is also possible that HB exerts psychotherapeutic effects via a more direct physiologic route, and that altered consciousness is epiphenomal and unimportant to any therapeutic effects. Such an argument has been made in the case of putative antidepressant effects of ketamine, which were found to occur several days after full return to normal consciousness. ...
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To pose the question of whether Holotropic Breathwork (HB), a prolonged, voluntary hyperventilation procedure, might be useful in treatment of common psychiatric conditions such as anxiety and depressive disorders. This is a hypothesis-posing paper pertaining to a potential novel treatment. The neurophysiology and psychology of hyperventilation are reviewed, including findings demonstrating that hyperventilation leads to significant changes in central nervous system activity as measured by various technological means. Preliminary evidence suggesting efficacy for HB is reviewed. A tentative biopsychologic hypothesis is offered, suggesting a potential mechanism that may underlie putative therapeutic effects of HB. Specifically, when HB is used in the context of ongoing psychotherapy, hyperventilation may facilitate generalized extinction of avoidance behaviors, resulting in therapeutic progress. Individuals high in trait absorption and social desirability who have failed to respond adequately to psychotherapy might be those most likely to respond to HB. Recommendations for future research directions examining the therapeutic potential of HB are offered. Further research using more sophisticated methodologies than have been used to date will be necessary in order to confirm or refute the hypothesis that HB may be useful in treatment of psychiatric disorders.
... HB has been studied in the context of addiction recovery (Brewerton, Eyerman, Cappetta, & Mithoefer, 2012;Jefferys, 1996;Metcalf, 1995;Taylor & Macy, 2008), death anxiety and self-esteem (Holmes, Morris, Clance, & Putney, 1996), personality (Binarova, 2003), mood states and psychiatric symptomatology (Hanratty, 2002;Pressman, 1993), and respiratory (Terekhin, 1996) and neurophysiological (Spivak, Kropotov, Spivak, & Sevostyanov, 1994) activity. For example, Pressman (1993) conducted an experiment designed to comparatively analyze the effects of HB and music therapy on mood states. ...
... In another study, Holmes et al. (1996) comparatively analyzed HB and experientially oriented therapy (EOT) regarding numerous outcome variables. The authors reported statistically significantly greater post-test reductions in death anxiety (measured by Templer's Death Anxiety Scale; Templer, 1970) and statistically significantly greater increases in self-esteem (measured by the Personality Research Form E: Jackson, 1984) for the HB group compared to the EOT group. ...
... It has been suggested that HB may facilitate significant clinical benefits, whereby the HB method allows individuals to access, re-experience and integrate previous trauma and may lead to reductions in death anxiety and increases in self-esteem when included as an adjunct to psychotherapy (Holmes et al., 1996). Given such purported effects it would be of interest to conduct a controlled investigation of the impact of HB on variables such as general subjective distress, including anxiety and depression, using measures such as the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) momentary well-being (e.g., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form) (Watson & Clark, 1994), and self-esteem. ...
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It is a long-standing assumption that holotropic breathwork (HB) induces an altered state of consciousness. However, this assumption has not been empirically tested. Consequently, 32 participants were recruited for the present study, which aimed to use the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI) to quantify the pattern of phenomenological subsystems and Altered State of Awareness (ASA) scores associated with a HB condition relative to a comparison condition and a baseline assessment. The hypothesis that the HB group would report a different pattern of relationships among phenomenological subsystems relative to the comparison condition and baseline was partially supported. In addition, the hypothesis that, while controlling for baseline, the HB group would report higher ASA scores than the comparison group was supported. Finally, for the HB group, transliminality did not significantly improve the prediction of ASA, while controlling for baseline. Various suggestions for future research are discussed.
... Una alteración de consciencia más profunda se correspondió con cambios más pronunciados en los potenciales evocados. Holmes (1996) investigo la relación entre la RH y los cambios producidos en los niveles de malestar asociados con problemas de auto-identificación (self-identified), ansiedad a la muerte, autoestima y sensación de afiliación con los otros. Comparo dos grupos (N=24, edades entre 22 y 50 años) usando un diseño de medidas repetidas. ...
... Aunque sea un resultado poco representativo, va en la misma dirección que los resultados encontrados en otros estudios. Holmes (1996) encontró una reducción significativa en la puntuación de la Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) en un grupo que participó en una psicoterapia experiencial a la que se le sumó una sesión mensual de respiración holotrópica a lo largo de 6 meses, en comparación con un grupo que solo recibía psicoterapia experiencial (terapia de grupo de orientación humanista) (ambos grupos con N=22). Hanratty (2002) también uso el DAS en su estudio, no encontrando una reducción significativa en el Post1 (N=42) pero sí en el la medida que realizó 6 meses después, lo que atribuye a que se necesita un tiempo para integrar la experiencia de la RH. ...
... En relación a las medidas de autodirección y cooperación, Holmes (1996) señala un aumento en la autoestima en un grupo que combinó terapia experiencial con RH, pero no halló una sensación de afiliación mayor que en el grupo control, que sólo recibió terapia experiencial. Hanratty (2002) encontró un aumento significativo del afecto positivo (p=0,022) en la medida Post2 (a los 6 meses) de su estudio, aunque no había encontrado diferencias en el Post1. ...
... To date, few studies have examined empirically the therapeutic potential of this hyperventilation procedure, given some preliminary evidence of the clinical utility of HB (Binarova, 2003;Hanratty, 2002;Holmes et al, 1996;Pressman, 1993). Hanratty (2002) in a single group, pretestposttest study (N=44), showed that one week after participating in a weeklong HB workshop, participants showed significant reductions in distress/psychiatric symptoms and negative affect. ...
... Participants also score higher on the Marlone-Crown Social Desirability Scale and the Tellegen Absorption Scale compared with the norms for e-ISSN: 1989-6077 // p-ISSN: 2307-6607 JTR -9 the general population, indicating high trait absorption and social desirability. Holmes et al. (1996) conduced a controlled nonrandomized study, using a pretest-posttest design. The study compared a talk based experientially oriented therapy (EOT) group with a similar group that received a combination of EOT and six monthly sessions of HB. ...
... Regarding the PLT results, Binarova (2003) found a significant improvement in the purpose in life (measured by the PLT) in a group of subjects that participated for first time in a HB session (N=11; p<0.05). However, Binarova (2003) did not find differences between a HB experienced group and a nonbreathers group (both of them N=34) in PLT scores. Holmes et. al (1996) found greater reductions in death anxiety and increases in self esteem (using the DAS and the Personality Research Form-E) in a group which received a combination of HB and experientially oriented verbal psychotherapy, compared with a group which participated only in experientially oriented verbal psychotherapy. The increase in self-est ...
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The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of Holorenic Breathwork (HrnB), a pro-longed, voluntary hyperventilation procedure, on certain personality properties, meaning of life and levels of dis-tress. A total of 62 subjects, aged 18-35 years, were compared using a repeated measures design. The experimen-tal group (N=31) participated for the first time in a workshop where the hyperventilation procedure was used. Measures were taken before and after the workshop (one week and one month later). The control group subjects (N=31) did not receive any alternative treatment. The tests used were the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-R-90), the Purpose in Life Test (PLT) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R). In the experimen-tal group, there was a significant reduction in the Global Severity Index of the SCL-R-90, and a significant in-crease in the meaning of life (PLT), Self-directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-transcendence (TCI-R) one week and one month after the workshop.
... One group of quantitative studies has focused on discerning whether HB evokes altered states of consciousness (La Flamme, 1993;Rock et al., 2015;Terekhin, 1995). Most of the quantitative studies have focused on measuring the effects of HB (Afanasenko et al., 2014;Binarová, 2003;Brouillette, 1997;Byford, 1991;Hanratty, 2002;Holmes, Morris, Clance, & Putney, 1996;Metcalf, 1995;Miller & Nielsen, 2015;Pressman, 1993;Puente, 2014a), and some have used a mixed-methods approach to do so (Afanasenko et al., 2014;Binarová, 2003;Brouillete, 1997;Byford, 1991). Meanwhile, few studies have focused on the qualitative description of HB experiences (Brewerton, Eyerman, Capetta, & Mithoefer, 2011;Contreras & Zenteno, 2014;Mazorco, 2014;Robedee, 2008). ...
... The effects of HB compared to other therapeutic modalities has been scarcely explored. Holmes, Morris, Clance, and Putney (1996) conducted a study to measure the therapeutic effects of HB on the levels of distress associated with self-identified problems, death anxiety, self-esteem, and the sense of affiliation with others. All subjects were referred by clinicians who defined themselves as The participants self-selected the group they wanted, according to the researchers, because "random assignment to groups was not clinically feasible" (Holmes et al., 1996, p. 116). ...
... Data were collected (Holmes et al., 1996) using a pre-and post-test design with a follow-up after the sixth month. Three instruments with true/false scales were used for each of the variables along with a problem questionnaire (PQ), which was developed for the study, that asked people to list, describe and rate the top three problems for which they were seeking help through psychotherapy on a According to Holmes et al. (1993) HB may increase self-esteem and reduce death anxiety, and be used constitutes an adjunct therapeutic approach for people who have making progress in traditional therapy. ...
Thesis
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Holotropic Breathwork (HB) is a method of self-exploration developed by Stanislav and Christina Grof in the mid-1970s. Research has only just begun to investigate the effects of HB, while the possible influence of the context and other features of HB within the experience and its impact have not been studied in depth. This qualitative study investigated the perceived impact of HB on 6 women and 6 men (ages 25–67) in Chile, using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), an emergent method developed specifically to work with these types of subjective issues. Results revealed 10 major themes involving both intrapsychic and relational features: (a) healing purpose; (b) interest in self-exploration; (c) the psyche as an inner source of knowledge; (d) increased self-awareness; (e) resolution/closure; (f) perceived changes within the self; (g) increased awareness of self and others; (h) integration as a process; (i) influence of the HB setting; and (j) the facilitator’s role. Results provide support for some elements of the existing theory and practice of HB, but, given the influence of preparation, the reasons for seeking HB, and the integration of experiences on the perceived impact of HB, revision of some HB procedures may provide better support for workshop attendees.
... Previous research on the topic had shown inconsistent findings. Holmes et al (1996) found a significantly greater reduction in the death anxiety (measured by the DAS) in a group who received a six months treatment period, including HB, compared with a therapy only group. But did not find differences between the pre and post measures of the DAS in his study. ...
... n which the volunteers shown a personal orientation toward the present, and in the degree of autonomy and self-direction. Puente (2007Puente ( , 2013Puente ( , 2014, similar to this study, also found a significant increase in the score of the self-directedness dimension of the TCI-R one week, one month and six months after a HrcB weekend workshop. Holmes et. al (1996) found an increase in self-esteem using the Personality Research Form-E. The increase in self-esteem can be related to the increase in Inner Directed Support found in the present study. ...
... 106). Holmes, Morris, Clance, and Putney (1996) offered one of the few empirical studies on the effectiveness of HB as an adjunct to verbal therapy. Their study compared two groups: one using verbal therapy only and the second using HB in conjunction with verbal therapy. ...
... Previous research on the topic had shown inconsistent findings. Holmes et al (1996) found a significantly greater reduction in the death anxiety (measured by the DAS) in a group who received a six months treatment period, including HB, compared with a therapy only group. But Hanratty (2002) did not find differences between the pre and post measures of the DAS in his study. ...
... n which the volunteers shown a personal orientation toward the present, and in the degree of autonomy and self-direction. Puente (2007Puente ( , 2013Puente ( , 2014, similar to this study, also found a significant increase in the score of the self-directedness dimension of the TCI-R one week, one month and six months after a HrcB weekend workshop. Holmes et. al (1996) found an increase in self-esteem using the Personality Research Form-E. The increase in self-esteem can be related to the increase in Inner Directed Support found in the present study. ...
Article
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The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of Holotropic Breathwork (HB), on levels of distress, meaning of life, death anxiety and personal orientation in a young adult sample in the context of a weeklong workshop, and also the subjective effects and persistent effects of HB. A single group, Pre-Post test design, with three follow-ups (1, 6 months and 12 months after the workshop) was used. A total of 29 subjects, aged 18-35 years, participated in the study. The tests used were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Purpose in Life Test (PIL), the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS), the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the States of Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Brief Persisting Effects Questionnaire (BPEQ). Measures were taken before and after the workshop (four weeks, and 6 months later, for the BSI, PLT, POI and DAS, and 12 months after, for the BPEQ) and during the workshop (for the SCQ). No significant differences were found one month after the workshop. Significant increases of Temporal Competency scale, and in 5 subscales of the PEQ were found six months after the weeklong workshop. HB also occasioned mystical-type or peak experiences in 6 participants. At 12 months, volunteers rated the HB experience as having substantial personal meaning and spiritual significance, and attributed to the experience an increase of personal wellbeing and life satisfaction. RESUMEN. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo principal explorar los efectos de la respiración holotrópica (RH), en el nivel de malestar subjetivo, percepción del sentido de la vida, ansiedad ante la muerte y la orientación personal en una muestra de adultos jóvenes en el contexto de un taller residencial de una semana de duración, así como los efectos subjetivos y los efectos persistentes de la RH. Se utilizó un diseño Pre-Post de medidas repetidas (realizadas 1 6 y 12 meses después del taller de RH) y de grupo único. Un total de 29 sujetos, de entre 18-35 años, participó en el estudio. Las pruebas utilizadas fueron el Inventario Breve de Síntomas (IBS), el Purpose in Life Test (PLT), la Escala de Ansiedad Ante la Muerte (EAAM), el Inventario de Orientación Personal (IOP), el Cuestionario de Estados de Conciencia (CEC) y Cuestionario Breve de Efectos Persistentes (CBEP). Las medidas fueron tomadas antes y después del taller (cuatro semanas y 6 meses más tarde, para la IBS, PLT, IOP y el EAAM, y 12 meses después, para el CBEP) y durante el taller (para el CEC). No se encontraron diferencias significativas un mes después del taller. Se encontraron aumentos significativos en la escala Competencia Temporal, y en 5 subescalas del IOP seis meses después del taller. La RH también ocasionó experiencias cumbre y/o de carácter místico en 6 participantes. A los 12 meses, la experiencia de la RH es frecuentemente valorada por los voluntarios como personal y espiritualmente significativa, y se le atribuye un aumento del bienestar personal y la satisfacción vital.
... A positive correlation between both a statistically significant decrease in death anxiety and a statistically significant increase in self-esteem was found in the participants who received the combined protocol of HB and verbal therapy, when compared to those who only received verbal therapy. Holmes et al. (1996) selected their measurement criteria for the study based on S. Grof's statement that -Holotropic Breathwork experiences often lead to a marked reduction in death anxiety, increases in selfesteem, and increases in one's sense of connection with others‖ (S. Grof, as cited in Holmes et al., 1996, p. 116). ...
... Evident in the emotional contraindications are both the challenges and the potential healing benefits of using HB as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Anecdotal and research-based evidence indicate a strong potential for bringing unconscious material into consciousness and a movement toward mental health (Binarova, 2003;Brewerton et al., 2012;Grof andGrof, 2010;Holmes et al, 1996). Eyerman's (2013) report on the long term use of HB in an inpatient psychiatric hospital with no adverse effects is some of the strongest, research-based evidence available on the safety of HB in populations which would normally be screened out of a brief workshop setting. ...
Article
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The psychoanalytic viewpoint proposes that insight into one's unconscious thoughts, feelings, and motivations can be helpful in understanding and changing personal constructs (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2013). Conversely, anything that stands in the way of accessing that material may present a barrier to effective psychotherapy. Holotropic Breathwork, a process of rapid, deep breathing to evocative music, induces a non-ordinary state of consciousness (NOSC) (Taylor, 2007), which reportedly allows deeper access to the unconscious. Rhinewine and Williams (2007) offer a hypothetical, bio-psychological explanation of the disinhibiting mechanism of holotropic NOSC's, which reduce the self-protectiveness of the logical/thinking part of the brain, and potentially result in opening to new insights. Ryan and Deci's (2008) Self-determination Theory (SDT) model offers a current and accepted framework from which to explain the potential effectiveness of the therapeutic setting and practice of HB. SDT proposes that there are three universal psychological needs which are essential for the occurrence of growth toward psychological health and well-being: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This paper describes how Holotropic Breathwork fulfills those three needs, potentially resulting in therapeutic benefit. An overview of research on the healing benefits of NOSC's, and in particular, on the use of HB as an adjunct to psychotherapy is included to support the argument that HB may be beneficial in this context.
... Although the Grofs' model does not represent a full psychotherapeutic approach (with the typical development of a psychotherapeutic relationship over time), it brings in instruments of high quality for promoting dramatic changes in states of consciousness and for deep inner experi- ence. These ideas revolve around the importance of perinatal experiences, which have received some research confirmation (Chamberlain, 1998;Holmes, Morris, Clance, & Putney, 1996). The Grofs' (2010) work can be seen as related to a group of regression therapy models, such as the ones developed by TenDam (1996), Netherton andShiffrin (1979), andWoolger (2004). ...
... The evidence for transpersonal psychotherapy is relatively lacking compared to the many more conventional psychotherapies. However, there are case studies (e.g., Clinton, 2006;Deatherage, 1975;Galegos, 1983;Miller, 2005;Segall, 2005;Urbanowski & Miller, 1996), as well as other research studies (e.g., Clinton, 2006;Deatherage, 1975;Grepmair et al., 2007;Holmes et al.,1996;Peres, Newberg, et al., 2007;Peres, Simão, & Nasello, 2007). S. Grof's (2000) model, as one example, has received supporting evidence in a number of doctoral disserta- tions about its theoretical value, therapeutic efficacy, how it can help in self-discovery, reducing fear and increasing self-confidence, love and compassion, and bringing useful life-changes, and even its power to uncover archetypal depths of the human mind (Archambault, 2010;Binns, 1997;Brouillette, 1997;Cervelli, 2009;Hanratty, 2002;Pressman, 1993). ...
Chapter
Transpersonal psychotherapies tend to focus on the essential role of consciousness, while psychotherapeutic change is sought through changing consciousness states, including identity as reflected in accumulated states of consciousness. One model of how various transpersonal psychotherapies can be integrated conceptually based on identity is provided by Self-Expansiveness Therapy. Transpersonal psychotherapists generally assume that what can broadly be called spirituality is an important part of consciousness and identity. Transpersonal psychotherapists can help their clients process experiences and insights through verbal dialogue, but transpersonal psychotherapies also often go beyond using just verbal techniques to include use of a full array of classic and contemporary transformative practices to help clients get both deeper and faster insights about themselves. In transpersonal psychotherapy, the psychotherapeutic relationship during modified states of consciousness can help clients bring these condensed experiences (COEX) patterns into present experience and decide if and when they want to change them.
... A few studies conducted on the subject tend to present the effects of holotropic breathing as reducing anxiety (Puente, 2014b), reducing negative affects (Hanratty, 2002), fear of death (Holmes et al., 1996), certain pathological (Puente, 2014a;2014b) and psychological (Pressman, 1993) symptoms and consequently favoring the increase of positive affects (Hanratty, 2002), self-esteem (Holmes et al., 1996), meaning and acceptance of life (Binarova, 2003). In their research, Miller and Nielsen (2015) argue that this practice could develop a more organized nature, characterized by an evolution and progression in self-awareness. ...
... A few studies conducted on the subject tend to present the effects of holotropic breathing as reducing anxiety (Puente, 2014b), reducing negative affects (Hanratty, 2002), fear of death (Holmes et al., 1996), certain pathological (Puente, 2014a;2014b) and psychological (Pressman, 1993) symptoms and consequently favoring the increase of positive affects (Hanratty, 2002), self-esteem (Holmes et al., 1996), meaning and acceptance of life (Binarova, 2003). In their research, Miller and Nielsen (2015) argue that this practice could develop a more organized nature, characterized by an evolution and progression in self-awareness. ...
Article
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This study addresses altered states of consciousness through Holotropic breathwork. This technique can induce a state of deep trance, giving access to different levels of identity construction, particularly on the emotional, somatic and psychological level. This considerable piece of introspective work falls within the school of transpersonal psychology whose major contribution is the integration of transcendent nature into human dimension. The objective is to estimate the transcendent impact of this psychotherapeutic method. The sample consists of 115 male and female participants who have tried this technique at least once. Data were collected through the Adult Transcendence Inventory (Levenson, 2005), in order to assess the level of decentration. Our statistically validated results indicate a predominantly positive impact of this psychotherapy, demonstrating a transcendental effect of the holotropic method.
... Participants who practiced six monthly sessions of HB combined with experiential psychotherapy were found to have increases in self-esteem and significantly reduced death anxiety compared to a group who participated in experiential psychotherapy alone (Holmes et al., 1996). However, research regarding sustaining positive transformations and effectively integrating those experiences is sparse. ...
... Literature on Holotropic Breathwork (HB) has identified therapeutic potentials. These include: fostering healing and changes in experiences of non-ordinary states of consciousness (Brouillette, 1997); increasing self-esteem and significantly reducing death anxiety (Holmes et al., 1996); expanded identity and an authentic motivation and willingness to improve relationship quality with family members, specifically with parents (Landaeta, 2018); increasing life satisfaction and personal wellbeing (Puente, 2014); and experiencing transformation, conscious wholeness, and psychospiritual healing through an experience of "at-one-ment" (e.g. atonement) (Smirnova, 2013). ...
Research
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Utilizing autoethnography methodology blended with Moustakas’ (1990) heuristic research data collection and analysis elements of intuition and immersion, the study explored my experience of intuition and immersions within the Holotropic Breathwork® community. Holotropic Breathwork® was developed by Stanislav Grof and Christina Grof (2010) as a technique for self-exploration and experiential psychotherapy. I was the researcher and only participant in this study. This involved my engagement in the practice of Holotropic Breathwork®, in enhanced states of awareness, from 2016 to 2019 at eight Holotropic Breathwork® immersions, each five-and-a-half days long, with a total of 16 breathwork sessions as a breather. Relevant literature and personal experience on intuition and Holotropic Breathwork® were critically reviewed to engage the topic and research questions. Data collection, analysis, and interpretation was conducted over a two year experiential and immersive autoethnographic writing process. Data collected for analysis included journal entries, reflexive notes, cultural texts and books, pictures, collages, vision boards, videos, artifacts, and personal secrets and stories. Data analysis followed a synthesis of Chang’s (2008) suggested cyclical process of data collection, analysis, and interpretation, the use of intuition as defined by Moustakas (1990) and the simple strategy as highlighted by Adams et al. (2014) by analyzing and interpreting through the process of making sense through story to identify themes. Specifically, I incorporated intuition to access emotionally charged memories and material from my past for examination. I applied self-care strategies and sought trusted support to cope and process emotional pain due to anxiety, depression, fear, insecurities, distress, and self-distrust. The study revealed the courage to ask for what I need, immersive self-care, trusted support with lived experience, and trusting myself in the present moment from my experience of intuition and immersions in the Holotropic Breathwork® community. The findings of this autoethnography support the use of intuition in research and the integration of Holotropic Breathwork® experiences derived from further self-exploration and the therapeutic writing of autoethnography. Future research on intuition and Holotropic Breathwork® may benefit from utilizing intuition to investigate links between Holotropic Breathwork® experiences, intuition, immersion, self-care, support networks, and self-trust.
... A published study by Holmes, Morris, Clance, and Putney (1996) investigated the use of Holotropic Breathwork in comparison to conventional group therapy and claimed it had important therapeutic benefits. The study found "the Breathwork Group show[ed] greater change over time than the Therapy Group" (p. ...
... Furthermore, the co-researchers continued to return to engage breathwork because of a persistent desire to develop their sense of psychological well-being, self-awareness, and relationships with others. Despite differences in how the non-ordinary state of consciousness is achieved, similar transformations are reported following the experience of a NOSC, which suggests therapeutic value to having an NOSC encounter (Holmes et al., 1996;van Lommel, 2013). However, the intentional engagement and preparation for a NOSC is most ideal. ...
Research
This study addressed the experience of Sacred Breathwork, a psychospiritual engagement of non-ordinary states through evocative music and abdominal breathing, by asking, What is the experience of Sacred Breathwork? A heuristic model of qualitative research was utilized, incorporating the six stages of heuristic study: initial engagement, immersion, incubation, illumination, explication, and creative synthesis. Eight co-researchers were interviewed and 10 themes were explicated to help uncover this phenomenon. These themes were: (1) A lack of familiarity with Sacred Breathwork; (2) psychological breakthroughs were experienced; (3) importance of safety, community, and facilitator commitment; (4) impact of disruptive intellectual and outside influences; (5) emotional regulation improvement; self-confidence and maturation regarding life issues; (6) limitations restricting acceptance and surrender to the anomalous; (7) both intentional and unintentional occurrences aided profound experiences; (8) creative process was revealed as arduous evoking remembrance and further self-discovery; (9) Sacred Breathwork was conceptualized as a sacred ceremony that fostered self-directed, profound, and sustainable change; and (10) how a flawed but open and spiritually driven community fostered vulnerability and honest self-growth. This study can assist psychotherapists, educators, healers, and society at large in understanding the practice and experience of healing through non-ordinary states of consciousness, such as Sacred Breathwork. The results of this study can be helpful to clients interested in holistic and spiritual approaches in need of healing and self-empowerment. Keywords: Consciousness, Cultural Misappropriation, Indigenous, Shamanic, Spirituality,
...  Holotropic breathwork-Accelerated breathing, evocative music, and restricted sensory environment influence a person's mental, emotional and/or physical state, and ability to enter a non-ordinary state of consciousness with therapeutic effect (Brewerton, Eyerman, Cappetta, & Mithoefer, 2012;Eyerman, 2013;S. Grof & C. Grof, 2010;Holmes, Morris, Clance, & Putney, 1996;K. Taylor, 2003). ...
... Body Work Body work involves awareness and modification of breathing patterns (and sometimes therapeutic massage); it is a little-researched task in experiential therapy. Holmes, Morris, Clance, and Putney (1996) investigated the relationship between the use of Breath work and therapeutic changes in levels of distress associated with self-identified problems, death anxiety, self-esteem, and sense of affiliation with others. Two treatments were compared with 24 adult clients, with one group participating in a combination of experientially-oriented psychotherapy plus six monthly sessions of Breath work; the second group participated only in experientiallyoriented psychotherapy. ...
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reviews the research literature from 1978 to 1992 on [experiential] therapies, succeeding several major reviews of research on empathy and the client-centered relationship conditions / relevant research on experiential marital, family, and group therapy is included (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Most of the research conducted to date has studied Holotropic Breathwork, the form of breathwork developed by Stan and Christina Grof. Holotropic Breathwork, in combination with experientially oriented verbal psychotherapy, facilitates a reduction in death anxiety and an increase in self-esteem (Holmes, 1994;Holmes, et al, 1996). Holotropic breathwork has been shown to be effective and useful in the treatment of chronic alcoholism in a narcological setting (Zaritskii, 1996). ...
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Breathwork is a powerful therapeutic modality. It provides a means to work on several levels: the physical, the emotional/psychological, and the spiritual. It accesses perinatal material (in utero and birth experience) and transpersonal material (archetypal, shamanic, and cosmic experience) as well as early childhood and repressed biographical material. Breathwork provides an excellent means of getting past resistance, including transpersonal defenses. We explore the connections between breathwork and several other related portals to transpersonal experience, and their relevance to breathwork: the "shamanic state of consciousness" (SSC), hypnosis, out-of-body experiences (OBE), near-death experiences (NDE), lucid dreaming state, the "clairvoyant reality," hallucinogenic drug states, and hypostimulation or hyperstimulation states. Each generates an increase in primary process thinking, a feeling of acute increased awareness, a lowering of perceptual boundaries, and shares a unique psychobiological signature with the breathwork state, namely high-voltage, slow-wave hippocampal-septal hypersynchrony (HSHH). We review research on the physiological effects of primal therapy and hyperventilation, and on statebound body memory, as it relates to breathwork. The breath is the frontier meeting ground of opposing, but complementary, internal aspects of an individual: brain laterality, the waking and dream states, the sympathetic/parasympathetic nervous systems (reactive and maintenance), "doing" and just "being." Breathwork is a powerful means of accessing and healing prenatal and birth trauma, as well as the fear of death and existential "death urge" that may result from that trauma. Breathwork connects people with their spiritual source, promoting "regression in the service of transcendence."
... HB has been reported to improve abstinence, existential anxiety, self-esteem and psychiatric symptomatology (60)(61)(62). Several long-term outcome studies, ranging from 12 weeks to 6 months, showed HB participants had reduced psychiatric symptoms at follow-up, as compared to controls or their status pre-intervention (62). ...
Article
Abstract Current treatments for addiction are frequently ineffective. Hallucinogenic therapy has been indicated as helpful for a range of substance use disorders, yet this approach remains understudied and publicly unavailable. It is nonetheless a promising treatment, which has significant, long-term beneficial effects with single doses and a profile characterized by general safety, low toxicity, and non-addictiveness. However, pharmacological interventions, such as hallucinogens, should not be offered if the same effects (e.g. psychological insights/mystical experiences) and outcomes (e.g. decreased drug use) could be achieved absent pharmacological intervention. To date, there have been no clinical comparisons of drug-induced altered states with non-drug-induced states for addiction treatment. We propose and then outline a clinical trial to address this gap in knowledge. The proposed design would evaluate abstinence outcomes in a population of prescription opioid abusers after exposure to one of three conditions: a drug-induced altered state using psilocybin, a non-drug-induced altered state via hyperventilation (Holotropic Breathwork), and an active placebo with niacin. The outcomes of such a study would reveal important differences in therapeutic potential by discriminating hallucinogen-dependent effects from those psychological effects resulting from altered states.
... Although widely advocated with a colorful portfolio of benefits and transformative power, with many people going through trainings, one can observe a cruel law coming into play: unless you follow the rules of the game of science, use its methods to prove your worth, you will not become visible. The scientific studies of Holotropic Breathwork can be counted on one hand, at least those published in the peer-reviewed literature (Holmes, Morris, Clance, & Putney, 1996;Spivak, Kropotov, Spival, & Sevostyanov, 1994). None of these is a serious trial showing that Holotropic Breathwork is clinically superior to not doing anything, listening to loud music only, or lying together with friends for days on end and telling stories. ...
... Sarah Holmes, Robin Morris, Pauline Clance, and Thompson Putney used a quasi-experimental, two-group, repeated-measures design to investigate HB as an adjunctive experiential treatment for distress associated with selfidentified problems, death anxiety, self-esteem, and sense of affiliation (Holms, Morris, Clance, & Putney, 1996). They compared the effectiveness an experientially-oriented, verbal psychotherapy such as Gestalt or Dynamic Therapy (Therapy Group, n = 24) with that same type of psychotherapy augmented with six monthly breathwork sessions lasting from 1.5 to 3 hours. ...
... Although widely advocated with a colorful portfolio of benefits and transformative power, with many people going through trainings, one can observe a cruel law coming into play: unless you follow the rules of the game of science, use its methods to prove your worth, you will not become visible. The scientific studies of Holotropic Breathwork can be counted on one hand, at least those published in the peer-reviewed literature (Holmes, Morris, Clance, & Putney, 1996;Spivak, Kropotov, Spival, & Sevostyanov, 1994). None of these is a serious trial showing that Holotropic Breathwork is clinically superior to not doing anything, listening to loud music only, or lying together with friends for days on end and telling stories. ...
Chapter
This chapter briefly discusses the history of psychology as a discipline and the history and sources of transpersonal psychology as a subdomain in order to explain the frictions and possible points of departure. The author points out some criticisms and unsolved problems and develops a future perspective. He recommends to reinvent the transpersonal enterprise along the lines originally intended by the founding fathers of psychology, William James and Franz Brentano: a psychology, a science—and culture—of consciousness, in order to get rid of some of the problems besetting transpersonal psychology. In order to understand why the newly inaugurated transpersonal psychology has not convinced others that its approach is truly innovative and is helping to transform people to access their higher potential, it is important to now turn to what has been termed the spiritual positivism of transpersonal psychology, and also to the epistemological questions involved.
... To date, few studies have examined empirically the therapeutic potential of this hyperventilation procedure. However, there is some preliminary evidence of the clinical utility of HB (Binarova, 2003;Brewerton et al, 2012;Eyerman, 2013;Hanratty, 2002;Holmes, 1996;Pressman, 1993;Puente, 2013, 2014a, Puente, 2014b. ...
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine changes in physiological and psychological meas- ures in a group of healthy volunteers following participation in a Holorenic Breathwork (HrcB) session. A single group, pretest/posttest design was used. A total of 11 subjects, aged 30-47 participated in the study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: +18 years, Spanish speaking and no know-diagnosed mental disorder. The intervention consists in a single HrcB session. The psychological measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Physiological measures included the HRV. Participants completed the psycho- logical assessments and provided a HRV measure at baseline (pre-HB), and within 15-30 minutes after the HB session (post-HB). Significant improvements in HRV, as well as reductions in the state anxiety level, were observed from baseline to post-HB. Reductions in state anxiety levels were associated with reductions in the HRV levels. Thus, positive improvements in levels of anxiety were associated with in- creased HRV levels. RESUMEN: El propósito de este estudio piloto fue evaluar los cambios en ciertas medidas fisiológicas y psi- cológicas en un grupo de voluntarios sanos después de la participación en una sesión de Respiración Holorénica (RHrn). Se empleo un diseño pretest /postest de un solo grupo. Un total de 11 sujetos de entre 30 -47 años participaron en el estudio. Los criterios de inclusión fueron los siguientes: +18 años, hablar en español y ausencia de diagnóstico de trastorno mental. La intervención consistió en una única sesión de RHrn. Las medida psicológica de ansiedad se realizó empleando el Inventario de Ansiedad Estado- Rasgo (STAI). La medida fisiológica estudiada fue la Variabilidad de la Frecuencia Cardiaca (VFC). Los participantes completaron las evaluaciones psicológicas y proporcionaron una medida de la VFC en el momento basal (pre-RHrn), y unos 15-30 minutos después de la sesión de RHrn (post-RHrn). Se observa- ron mejoras significativas en la VFC, así como reducciones en el nivel de ansiedad estado entre las medi- das pre-RHrn y post-RHrn. Las reducciones en los niveles de ansiedad estado se asociaron con reduccio- nes en los niveles de la VFC. Así, las mejoras positivas en los niveles de ansiedad se asociaron con un aumento de los niveles de la VFC.
... Other studies point to evidence of possible health benefits of HB. These include: reduced psychiatric symptomatology, improvement in the treatment of chemical dependence, improved marital relationship and increased self-awareness (Brewerton et al. 2012;Chow et al. 2008;Holmes et al. 1996;Lalande et al. 2012;Rhinewine and Williams 2007;Young et al. 2010). ...
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The Altered States of Consciousness in Transpersonal Approach Psychotherapy: Systematic Review and Guidelines for Research and Clinical Practice.
... Other studies point to evidence of possible health benefits of HB. These include: reduced psychiatric symptomatology, improvement in the treatment of chemical dependence, improved marital relationship and increased self-awareness (Brewerton et al. 2012;Chow et al. 2008;Holmes et al. 1996;Lalande et al. 2012;Rhinewine and Williams 2007;Young et al. 2010). ...
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Transpersonal approach in psychotherapy is a controversial field, and there is a lack in scientific information. A search of Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, PsycINFO and SciELO databases using: [“Altered states of consciousness” AND “Psychotherapy”] and [“Transpersonal” AND “Psychotherapy”] in December 2017 was conducted. From 629 articles found, 14 empirical studies were analyzed. Studies were conducted with adults, most of them women. The benefits were improvement in the treatment of substance use disorder; increased sensation of relaxation, relief of physical pain. Future studies should have rigorous experimental designs; define concepts clearly; detail the method used; present clear guidelines for the ethical boundaries.
... Participants are encouraged to use a specific technique of breathing that activates other realms of the psyche for emotional, cognitive, and spiritual integration (Pressman, 1993). In this state, the unconscious mind, as opposed to the conscious mind, chooses salient material to process (Cervelli, 2009;Chou et al., 2008;Holmes, Morris, Clance, & Putney, 1996). Clinicians should receive specialized training in breath therapy before utilizing with clients. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of Integral Breath Therapy (IBT) as an appropriate intervention for facilitating meaning-making out of a traumatic loss and reducing symptoms of complicated grief, specifically for those bereaved by suicide. The narrative mixed methods design included pre- and post- measures of the Inventory of Complicated Grief with eight participants selected from a South Texas bereavement facility. The following themes emerged from the pre-interviews: Isolation/Avoidance, Disbelief/Shock, Shattered Sense of Self, Holding On, Guilt/Blame, and Rupture with Spirituality, while themes from the post-interview were Connection, Purpose, Hope, Acceptance, Sense of Self, and Catharsis/Letting Go.
... Holmes and colleagues' research was published in a peer-reviewed journal. 4 Pressman's PhD thesis (1993) and Hanratty's PhD thesis (2002) are unpublished. 3 The primary purpose of this pilot study was to examine empirically the therapeutic value of HB. ...
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Objectives: To investigate whether Holotropic Breathwork™ (HB; Grof Transpersonal Training, Mill Valley, CA) has any significance in the development of self-awareness. Design: A quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. A single case design was replicated. The statistical design was a related within-subject and repeated-measures design (pre-during-post design). Setting/location: The study was conducted in Denmark. Participants: The participants (n = 20) were referred from Danish HB facilitators. Nine were novices and 11 had experience with HB. Intervention: Four HB sessions. Outcome measures: The novices (n = 9) underwent positive temperament changes and the experienced participants (n = 11) underwent positive changes in character. Overall, positive self-awareness changes were indicated; the participants' (n = 20) scores for persistence temperament, interpersonal problems, overly accommodating, intrusive/needy, and hostility were reduced. Changes in temperament were followed by changes in paranoid ideation scale, indicating a wary phase. Results: Participants (n = 20) experienced reductions in their persistence temperament scores. The pretest mean (mean ± standard deviation, 114.15 ± 16.884) decreased at post-test (110.40 ± 16.481; pre–during-test p = 0.046, pre–post-test p = 0.048, pre–post-test effect size [d] = 0.2). Temperament changes were followed by an increase in paranoid ideation; the pre-test mean (47.45 ± 8.88) at post-test had increased to a higher but normal score (51.55 ± 7.864; pre–during-test p = 0.0215, pre–post-test p = 0.021, pre–post-test d = 0.5). Pre-test hostility mean (50.50 ± 10.395) decreased at post-test (47.20 ± 9.001; p = 0.0185; d = 0.3). The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems total pre-test mean (59.05 ± 17.139) was decreased at post-test (54.8 ± 12.408; p = 0.044; d = 0.2). Overly accommodating pre-test mean (56.00 ± 12.303) was decreased at post-test (51.55 ± 7.797; p = 0.0085; d = 0.4). The intrusive/needy pre-test score (57.25 ± 13.329) was decreased at post-test (52.85 ± 10.429; p = 0.005; d = 0.4). Conclusions: The theoretical conclusion is that HB can induce very beneficial temperament changes, which can have positive effects on development of character, measured as an increase in self-awareness.
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One research question guided the autoethnographic inquiry: “What is the experience of intuition and immersion in the Holotropic Breathwork community?” The experience of intuition and Holotropic Breathwork are subjective. An autoethnography is proposed to allow focus on personal and evocative narratives of the author. Specifically, Jones, Adams, and Ellis method for autoethnographic data analysis was followed to bring the reader into the experience while being vulnerable. Data analysis revealed (1) appropriate set and setting, (2) mutual support, and (3) self-trust as salient themes. Future considerations to inform possible alternatives and integrative methods for coping with anxiety, depression, and enhancing quality decision making given the experience of intuition and immersions in the Holotropic Breathwork community are discussed.
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In the middle 70´s, after two decades working with LSD and other psychedelic substances in psychotherapy, Stanislav Grof developed the holotropic breathwork. This method was developed as a non-drug way of accessing non-ordinary states of consciousness or “holotropic states”. The word “holotropic” is derived from the Greek words “holos” and “trepein”, and means “moving toward wholeness” (Grof, 2002). The holotropic breathwork involves a number of diverse elements, including music, elective bodywork and accelerated breathing (the instruction is to breathe “deeply and mindfully”). To date, few studies have examined empirically the therapeutic potential of this hyperventilation procedure (Binarova, 2003; Hanratty, 2002; Holmes, 1996; Pressman, 1993). Other similar hyperventilation procedures have been developed afterwards. In the late 80´s the anthropologist Josep Maria Fericgla developed the holorenic breathwork, based in the Kapalabhati breathing, different shamanic and Sufi breath methods and the holotropic breathwork. This hyperventilation technique consists in an increased breath rhythm, reaching to 140-160 breaths per minute, involving also other elements (Fericgla, 2000). The present study explores the effects and efficacy of this hyperventilation procedure in a psychotherapeutical context. Objectives: Analyse the effects of a prolonged and voluntary hyperventilation procedure, the holorenic breathwork (HB), in the context of a experiential workshop about the death, the “Workshop on Experiencing the Integration of One’s Death”. The present study analyse, specifically, the relationship between the use of the holorenic breathwork and the possible changes in certain personality properties, meaning of life and levels of distress, measured with different psychometric test.
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Background Holotropic breathwork (Grof ® Breathwork), was developed by Stanislav Grof and Christina Grof as a ‘non-drug’ alternative technique to evoke altered states of consciousness (ASC). Interestingly, although HBW has been anecdotally reported to evoke experiences and mental health effects corresponding to those of psychedelic substances, the scientific literature on the matter is scarce. Aims The objective of this study was to assess the (sub)acute and long-term effects of HBW on satisfaction with life, and whether these depend on the depth of the experience evoked by the HBW session. Methods A naturalistic observational design was employed in the present study. Between January 2019 and July 2020, 58 Czech-speaking participants who had an experience with HBW were assessed using three separate anonymous online-surveys created and hosted on Qualtrics. Assessments of mindfulness, satisfaction with life, depression, anxiety, and stress were made once prior to (baseline), and two times following (sub-acutely and 4-weeks) the participants’ experience with HBW. The ego dissolution inventory and the 5-dimensional altered states of consciousness scale was used to quantify the HBW experience. Results Despite low ratings of the psychedelic experience (mean range of 0–34% out of 100%), ratings of non-judgement significantly increased sub-acutely following the HBW session and persisted for 4-weeks. Stress-related symptoms significantly decreased while satisfaction with life significantly increased at 4-weeks after HBW. Conclusion An experience with HBW may be associated with improvement in non-judgement, satisfaction with life, and reductions of stress-related symptoms.
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Purpose This study has two aims. It aims to analyse three essential pre-conditions of an authentic sustainability curriculum (ASC). The theoretical analysis involves the definition of authenticity through the learning outcomes (LOs) framework called authentic minimum (AM). This paper also aims to gauge students’ views on economic growth, sustainability and mindfulness. Design/methodology/approach The theoretical aim was accomplished by extensive study of and critical reflections on the relevant literature. The empirical research was qualitative using an online questionnaire as survey instrument consisting of predominantly open-ended questions involving students of two economic faculties. Directed content analysis and nonparametric quantitative methods were used to assess the answers. Findings Viable sustainability goals are in stark contrast with the promotion of sustainable economic growth in sustainable development goals 8 and the reigning neoliberal agenda. The empirical findings provide valuable insights into how undergraduate students view mindfulness, economic growth and aspects of sustainability. Research limitations/implications The empirical research has some obvious limitations that warrant caution in generalizing the results. The authors used a sample of convenience and the base population of the survey consisted only in students of economics in two economic faculties of two Hungarian universities. Practical implications Practical implications of the present paper are many all sharing; however, the need for existential courage on the part of teachers, students and leaders of higher education institutions. Existential courage is required for profound personal transformation, for going against mainstream ideology and the possible confrontations with colleagues, leaders of institutions, students, friends or family members. Originality/value On the theoretical side, the concept of ASC was introduced with AM as its LOs framework. For the first time, an attempt was made to interpret authenticity in sustainability education as an integration of mindfulness, human and environmental ethics and a firm opposition to economic growth and neoliberal ideals. The analysis of qualitative data supported earlier research and also provided unique findings in the examined areas.
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This paper asserts that, although most men circumcised as infants have no conscious recollection of the trauma, the unexpected re-experiencing of the pain and shock of circumcision by men in regressive therapies suggests that the experience is never forgotten by the unconscious mind, the source, as has been understood since Freud, of most psychological problems. The history, aims, and methods of a range of regressive therapies are briefly surveyed. Descriptions of men’s discovery in regressive therapy of the profound impact circumcision has had on their lives are described. The presenter outlines his own reexperiencing of circumcision in primal and bioenergetic therapy over a 30-year span. Repatterning or corrective emotional experience is explained as an effort to enable circumcised men to regain confidence and self-assertion, characteristics damaged by the impact of the infant male’s helpless victimization during circumcision. Restoring is also mentioned as a necessary palliative endeavor for victims (including doctors) of this practice. KeywordsPsychotherapy-Trauma-Unconscious mind-Regressive therapy-Foreskin restoration-Shock-Masturbation-Limbic system-Terror-Rate-Dissociation-Arthur Janov-Repatterning-Ridged band-Circumstraint-Erogenous nerves-Shame
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To understand nurses' experiences of caring for dying patients who have "air hunger." When air hunger occurs in people who are close to death, it often triggers increasing panic and breathlessness. Describing this phenomenon is an initial step toward a more informed and consistent response to air-hungry patients. Phenomenological study of 10 hospice, long-term care, oncology, or emergency medicine nurses who cared for air-hungry dying patients. Analysis was based on van Manen's guidelines for interpretive phenomenology. Interviews with two family members who witnessed their dying spouses suffer from air hunger were used to complement the nurses' accounts. Themes of (a) the patient's look-panic beckons, (b) surrendering and sharing control, and (c) fine-tuning dying indicated ways nurses responded to relieve a patient's air hunger, including being prepared before air hunger occurs, calming patients and families, medicating patients, improvising care, attending to family members' needs, and drawing a distinction between palliating and killing. The three themes provide a framework for a new vision of "doing everything" for a dying person who suffers from air hunger. Care encompasses knowing what to do as well as how to stay present during suffering.
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Using the breath as a vehicle for accessing psychological material is a topic rarely discussed in the counseling literature, despite the use of conscious engagement with the breath by many spiritual traditions for the purpose of personal transformation. This article describes 3 types of conscious breathing (circular breathing, conscious connected breathing, and fast and full breathing) and the use of therapeutic breathwork within the counseling process. The authors describe the many facets of the breathwork experience, provide a case study, and address clinical considerations when engaging in breathwork with clients.
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Although the trend toward psychotherapy integration and eclecticism has gathered momentum, research on eclectic approaches to psychotherapy has lagged behind. To address this gap, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) held a 2-day workshop in March 1986 on psychotherapy integration. Fourteen psychotherapy researchers were invited to consider the key issues associated with psychotherapy integration in order to advise the NIMH on guidelines for launching a program to stimulate relevant empirical research. Recommendations were developed to initiate such a research program that encompassed (a) conceptual clarification, (b) efficacy studies of systematic eclectic therapies, (c) the role of traditional psychotherapy process research, and (d) the training of integrative or eclectic therapists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
On the nature of the psyche
JUNG, C. G. (1960). On the nature of the psyche. Collected Works, vol. 8, Bollingen Series XX. Princeton: Princeton University Press.