Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Sample of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Yale Child Study Center, Yale University, P.O. Box 207900, New Haven, CT, USA.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.06). 10/2008; 39(3):405-13. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-008-0637-8
Source: PubMed


Objective To evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) problems in a large, well-characterized sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Methods One hundred seventy two children entering one of two trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network were assessed comprehensively prior to starting treatment and classified with regard to GI symptoms. Results Thirty nine (22.7%) were positive for GI problems, primarily constipation and diarrhea. Those with GI problems were no different from subjects without GI problems in demographic characteristics, measures of adaptive functioning, or autism symptom severity. Compared to children without GI problems, those with GI problems showed greater symptom severity on measures of irritability, anxiety, and social withdrawal. Those with GI problems were also less likely to respond to treatment.

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    • "A rating of mild was given when the problem was present, but not a source of impairment and there was no need for intervention; a rating of moderate was used if the problem caused some impairment or required intervention to prevent impairment, and a rating of severe was used when the Disorders problem caused impairment and required intervention (Nikolov et al., 2009). In the study by Nikolov et al. (2009), a pre-treatment rating of moderate or severe on the Side Effects Review Form in response to one or more GI questions was classified as the presence of a GI symptom. Hansen et al. (2008) used the CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) gastrointestinal history form, which includes 10 items describing current gastrointestinal symptoms as well as questions relating to food allergies and diet restrictions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric problems are common among persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). And, this phenomenon has been well known for some time. The purpose of this chapter is to define the characteristics of this problem, its prevalence, and how the disorder interfaces with and affects ASD.
    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2015
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    • "Other authors have also investigated the relationship between GI problems and anxiety. Nikolov et al. (2009) found that when compared to children without gastrointestinal problems , those with gastrointestinal problems showed greater symptom severity on measures of irritability, anxiety, and social withdrawal. Williams et al. (2012b) found that clinical anxiety is associated with chronic GI symptoms in children with autism. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Topics explored are the prevalence of AD/HD, the importance of studying AD/HD, as well as the questionnaire measures used to measure AD/HD in individuals with ASD. Research on the relationship between AD/HD in ASD and parental stress and psychological distress, developmental regression, language and communication, adaptive behavior, social skills, autism severity, challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, gastrointestinal symptoms, sleep problems, epilepsy, sensory issues, motor difficulties, and quality of life are also discussed. Research on cardiac reactivity and executive functioning are also explored. Finally, recommendations for treatment are given as well as areas where future research is needed.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
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    • "Although an ASD diagnosis is defined by the American Psychiatric Association, other features, more physical or health related, are associated with an ASD diagnosis. For example, children with ASD are more likely to have headaches/migraines, respiratory and food allergies,[2] gastrointestinal (GI) problems,[34] and infections[5] than typically developing children. "
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    ABSTRACT: Research indicates that some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience a developmental regression. The study examined the percentage of children with autism, pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), ASD, and Asperger syndrome (AS) who were considered to be delayed (D), regressed (R), or delayed and later regressed (DR) and examined any relationship with autism severity, time of onset, factors associated with onset, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, race, age, and gender. The study reviewed developmental and medical information based on parental reports of 135 children with a diagnosis of autism, PDD, ASD, or AS. The number of children in the D group was 53 (39.2%) with 19 (14.1%) in the DR group and 63 (46.7%) in the R group. Thus, 82 children (60.7%) were reported to have R. In regard to onset of symptoms, there was a significant difference between the D and R groups as well as between the DR and R groups. The analyses showed that there was no significant relationship between age, gender, race, severity, or GI symptoms and membership in any group; D, DR, or R. The majority of parents reported that the regression was preceded by or was associated with vaccinations (57.3%) or another medically related event (11.0%). The findings are consistent with previous research and reinforce our understanding of regression in those children with an ASD diagnosis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · North American Journal of Medical Sciences
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