Group process and learning: A grounded theory model of group supervision

Training and Education in Professional Psychology (Impact Factor: 1.58). 07/2010; 4(3):194-203. DOI: 10.1037/a0018970


While there is a small but growing body of literature on group supervision, it has been limited to a handful of qualitative studies, and quantitative studies that have focused on specific aspects of the supervision process. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model of the process of group supervision and its relation to student learning. A grounded theory design with some features of consensual qualitative research was utilized to achieve this goal. Fifteen counseling psychology doctoral students and three supervisors comprising 13 supervision groups completed questionnaires following each group supervision session over the course of six semesters. Varying degrees of safety were reported by participants and group supervision was either facilitated by safety or inhibited by a lack of safety. However, when students reported feeling safe, a greater variety of learning occurred than when they reported they felt less safe. Also, within a supervision group, students experienced the group differently based on their ability to manage anxiety and develop supportive relationships with other peers in the group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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    • "A potential advantage to this model is that providers are exposed to a broader sample of case material and peer examples than they would be in individual consultation, with more specific and accurate feedback than they could receive in group consultation with no observation. However, research findings have suggested that group supervision requires a sense of safety and supportive relationships to facilitate learning (Fleming et al. 2010). In the context of settings such as community mental health settings, which are often characterized by high caseloads and stressful environments, clinicians may experience discomfort when receiving feedback or allowing others to observe their sessions (Stirman et al. 2012), and this might limit the benefits of feedback. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the central role of training and consultation in the implementation of evidence-based psychological interventions (EBPIs), comprehensive reviews of research on training have highlighted serious gaps in knowledge regarding best practices. Consultation after initial didactic training appears to be of critical importance, but there has been very little research to determine optimal consultation format or interventions. This observational study compared two consultation formats that included review of session audio and feedback in the context of a program to train clinicians (n = 85) in community mental health clinics to deliver cognitive therapy (CT). A "gold standard" condition in which clinicians received individual feedback after expert consultants reviewed full sessions was compared to a group consultation format in which short segments of session audio were reviewed by a group of clinicians and an expert consultant. After adjusting for potential baseline differences between individuals in the two consultation conditions, few differences were found in terms of successful completion of the consultation phase or in terms of competence in CT at the end of consultation or after a 2 year follow-up. However, analyses did not support hypotheses regarding non-inferiority of the group consultation condition. While both groups largely maintained competence, clinicians in the group consultation condition demonstrated increases in competence over the follow-up period, while a sub-group of those in the individual condition experienced decreases. These findings, if replicated, have important implications for EBP implementation programs, as they suggest that observation and feedback is feasible in community mental health setting, and that employing this method in a group format is an effective and efficient consultation strategy that may enhance the implementation and sustainability of evidence-based psychotherapies.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research
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    • "De hecho, los estudiantes de doctorado, desde el inicio de sus estudios, combinan la expectativa de formarse como investigadores con la expectativa de contar con el apoyo de un equipo durante el proceso de aprendizaje (Yániz y Villardón, 2013). Fleming et al. (2010) estudian los procesos grupales en la formación doctoral. De la revisión realizada concluyen que no existe un modelo teórico sobre tutoría grupal y pretenden elaborarlo basándose en la teoría fundamentada. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes a proposal of a Tutoring and Support Plan for PhD students, designed and conducted by the Competences and Values Development Team of Deusto University. This plan aims to provide the training of the members of the research team with strategies and it is also conceived as an alternative to avoid the feeling of loneliness experienced by PhD students while doing their theses as well as to minimize the dropout rate. The basics of the plan are aimed at developing learning autonomy, collaborative work competence on research teams, reflection practising and scientific knowledge construction. The objectives, the main activities and the results based on the opinions of people involved in the Plan are included in this paper. The evaluation of the Plan carried out both by directors and students is positive. Key Words: PhD tutoring, PhD thesis supervision, autonomy, learning community, PhD studies
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Group supervision is commonly employed in graduate psychology training but has received insufficient attention in research. Supervisees' own perceptions and experiences in group supervision can provide valuable information in guiding our understanding and exploration of the benefits and uses of this form of training. This paper reviews 11 empirical studies exploring supervisee perceptions of group supervision experiences. Research, to date, appears to be largely in line with conceptual hypotheses regarding the benefits of group supervision experiences, and implications are discussed with regard to current practice. However, this review also points to the need for more in-depth and advanced research efforts in the area that can further explore supervisee experiences and identify means of optimizing this experience as a component of clinical training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Training and Education in Professional Psychology
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