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Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation

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Tested the hypothesis that self-motivation through proximal goal setting serves as an effective mechanism for cultivating competencies, self-percepts of efficacy, and intrinsic interest. 40 children (7.3–10.1 yrs of age) who exhibited gross deficits and disinterest in mathematical tasks pursued a program of self-directed learning under conditions involving either proximal subgoals, distal goals, or no goals. Results of the multifaceted assessment provide support for the superiority of proximal self-influence. Under proximal subgoals, Ss progressed rapidly in self-directed learning, achieved substantial mastery of mathematical operations, and developed a sense of personal efficacy and intrinsic interest in arithmetic activities that initially held little attraction for them. Distal goals had no demonstrable effects. In addition to its other benefits, goal proximity fostered veridical self-knowledge of capabilities as reflected in high congruence between judgments of mathematical self-efficacy and subsequent mathematical performance. Perceived self-efficacy was positively related to accuracy of mathematical performance and to intrinsic interest in arithmetic activities. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Those relationships affect the students' performance in the classroom and it is often associated with teachers' self-efficacy. Bandura & Schunk (1981) assert selfefficacy as a judgment of one's own ability to solve problems, ambiguous, unpredictable, and stressful situations. Each person has unique personal circumstances that may influence their behavior and their struggles to face some obstacles (Bandura & Adams, 1977). ...
... Self-efficacy is linked to a broad range of educational outcomes, either to performances or motivation of students, as well as teacher perseverance, passion, engagement, strategy, and teaching performance. Several studies were dedicated to proving the relationship of selfefficacy and students' performances (Bruce et al., 2010;Caprara et al., 2006;Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001) and between self-efficacy and motivation (Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Mojavezi & Tamiz, 2012;Rodríguez et al., 2014;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014, 2016because the more selfefficacious they are, the better achievements and the higher motivation students' obtain. This correlation is influenced by teachers' approach to teaching (Caprara et al., 2006) and the teachers' activities in the classroom. ...
... Despite those strong relationships with many educational outcomes, there has been reported that self-efficacy does not have any correlation with extrinsic motivation (e.g. Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Mojavezi & Tamiz, 2012). As a result, most teachers still had low self-efficacy because they did not believe in their capabilities to promote students' achievement (Shade & Stewart, 2001). ...
... Ayrıca elde edilen sonuçlara göre, biyoloji öğretmen adaylarının görüşlerinin laboratuvar performansı öncesi ve performans sonrası değiştiğini ve çoğunluğunun performans süreçleri sonrasında, deneye ilişkin özyeterliklerinin olumlu yönde etkilenerek yükseldiği görülmektedir. Nitekim, çalışmanın sonuçlarıyla paralel olarak bir çok araştırmada da, bireyin göreve ilişkin kendi performansının sonuçlarının o konuya ilişkin özyeterliliğine etki edeceği ve arttıracağı ifade edilmiştir (Bandura, & Schunk, 1981;Campbell & Hackett, 1986;Daniels & Larson, 2011;Hazell, Cotterill & Hill, 2014). ...
... Bandura (1977) da, inançların güç açısından farklı olduğunu ve özyeterlik düzeyinin değişimindeki önemli bağlantılarına işaret etmektedir. Yapılan çeşitli araştırmalarda da özyeterlik gücüne etki eden benzer sonuçlar ortaya konmuştur (Bandura, & Schunk, 1981;Brosnan, 2002;Campbell & Hackett, 1986;Saadé & Kira, 2009). Köller ve Möller (2010) ise kitaplarında özyeterliğin, bir bireyin sahip olduğunu düşündüğü becerisi ile sınırlı olduğunu bildirmişlerdir (Akt: Damerau, 2012). ...
... Ayrıca bu durum deneye ilişkin özyeterliğin gücünü oluşturan etkenlerin farklı düzeylerdeki öğretmen adaylarına adına değerlendirilmesi gerektiğini de düşündürmektedir. Bir çok araştırmada bireyin göreve ilişkin kendi performansının sonuçlarının o konuya ilişkin özyeterliğine etki edeceği ve arttıracağı bildirilmesine rağmen (Bandura, & Schunk, 1981;Campbell & Hackett, 1986;Daniels & Larson, 2011;Hazell, Cotterill & Hill, 2014), deneye ilişkin özyeterliğin gücünü etkileyen etkenlerin ayrıntılı olarak incelendiği çalışmaya rastlanmadığı için bu tür çalışmaların sayısının artırılması gerektiği söylenebilir. ...
... Δεδομένου ότι τα ποσοστά αναβλητικότητας των φοιτητών είναι εντυπωσιακά υψηλά, με αρνητικές επιπτώσεις στην ακαδημαϊκή τους επιτυχία (Kim & Seo, 2015), τα αποτελέσματα της παρούσας μελέτης μπορούν να συμβάλλουν σημαντικά σε πρακτικό επίπεδο, στο σχεδιασμό παρεμβάσεων με στόχο τον περιορισμό της ακαδημαϊκής αναβλητικότητας. Για παράδειγμα, μπορούν να εφαρμοστούν στην τριτοβάθμια εκπαίδευση στρατηγικές, που θα ενισχύσουν αφενός τη χρήση του συναισθήματος για κινητοποίηση του εαυτού (Bandura & Schunk, 1981) και αφετέρου την αυτόνομη κινητοποίηση (Van Eerde & Klingsieck, 2018). Εξάλλου, οι ικανότητες συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης έχει αποδειχθεί ότι μπορούν να καλλιεργηθούν με την κατάλληλη εξάσκηση, με στόχο την επαγγελματική και την ακαδημαϊκή επιτυχία (Hodzic et al., 2018· Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019 και ως εκ τούτου αρκετά πανεπιστήμια έχουν ενθαρρυνθεί να διεξαγάγουν μελέτες προκειμένου να προαγάγουν τη συναισθηματική νοημοσύνη μεταξύ των φοιτητών τους (Foster et al., 2017· Li & Xu, 2019. ...
... Εξάλλου, οι ικανότητες συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης έχει αποδειχθεί ότι μπορούν να καλλιεργηθούν με την κατάλληλη εξάσκηση, με στόχο την επαγγελματική και την ακαδημαϊκή επιτυχία (Hodzic et al., 2018· Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019 και ως εκ τούτου αρκετά πανεπιστήμια έχουν ενθαρρυνθεί να διεξαγάγουν μελέτες προκειμένου να προαγάγουν τη συναισθηματική νοημοσύνη μεταξύ των φοιτητών τους (Foster et al., 2017· Li & Xu, 2019. Ανάλογες έρευνες και εργαστήρια καλλιέργειας της συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης θα μπορούσαν να υλοποιηθούν και στα ελληνικά πανεπιστήμια, με στόχο να προαγάγουν οι φοιτητές τις επιμέρους ικανότητες και να τις εφαρμόζουν στην ακαδημαϊκή τους πορεία, όπως για παράδειγμα την ικανότητα χρήσης του συναισθήματος για κινητοποίηση του εαυτού, η οποία θεωρείται ότι μπορεί να αντανακλά εσωτερικά κίνητρα (Bandura & Schunk, 1981) και έχει βρεθεί ότι διευκολύνει παράγοντες κινήτρων (Vassiou, et al., 2016). ...
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H ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα φαίνεται ότι επηρεάζεται και από μη γνωστικούς παράγοντες, όπως οι συναισθηματικές ικανότητες και τα κίνητρα μάθησης. Σκοπός της μελέτης ήταν η διερεύνηση της σχέσης ανάμεσα στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα, στη συναισθηματική νοημοσύνη και στην ακαδημαϊκή κινητοποίηση. Οι συμμετέχοντες ήταν 108 προπτυχιακοί φοιτητές του τμήματος Δημοτικής Εκπαίδευσης του Πανεπιστημίου Δυτικής Μακεδονίας. Συμπλήρωσαν ερωτηματολόγιο με τις κλίμακες Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students, Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale και Academic Motivation Scale. Τα αποτελέσματα ανέδειξαν αρνητική σχέση ανάμεσα σε όλες τις ικανότητες συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης και στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα και επιπλέον αρνητική σχέση ανάμεσα στην αυτόνομη κινητοποίηση και στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα. Ειδικότερα, η κατανόηση των συναισθημάτων του εαυτού, η χρήση των συναισθημάτων για ενίσχυση της επίδοσης και η εσωτερική ρύθμιση προβλέπουν χαμηλότερα επίπεδα ακαδημαϊκής αναβλητικότητας. Τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας υποστηρίζουν τις ευεργετικές επιδράσεις της συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης και της αυτόνομης κινητοποίησης στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα και θα μπορούσαν να συμβάλουν στον τρόπο με τον οποίο τα πανεπιστημιακά τμήματα οργανώνουν το πρόγραμμα σπουδών τους αλλά και στην ανάδειξη του αντικειμένου σπουδών από τους ίδιους τους πανεπιστημιακούς δασκάλους, ώστε να ενισχυθούν οι ακαδημαϊκές επιδόσεις των φοιτητών.
... Selbstwirksamkeit ist zentraler Bestandteil der sozialkognitiven Lerntheorie (SCT) 7 und bezeichnet themenunabhängig "people's sense of personal efficacy to produce and regulate events in their lives" (Bandura, 1982, S. 122). Es bezieht sich auf die Wahrnehmung und Beurteilung eigener Fähigkeiten, die vor allem deshalb von Bedeutung sind, weil sie sich unabhängig von tatsächlichen Fähigkeiten auf Motivation, Verhalten und damit auf Lernen auswirken (Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Bandura, 1993). Grundsätzlich meiden Personen Situationen, Themen und Aufgaben, von denen sie glauben, dass ihre persönlichen Fähigkeiten dafür nicht ausreichend sind, und stellen sich selbstbewusst und intrinsisch motiviert denjenigen, in denen sie sich kompetent fühlen (Bandura, 1982, S. 123). ...
... Außerdem hat Selbstwirksamkeit einen Einfluss darauf, wie ausdauernd man ist, wobei niedrige Selbstwirksamkeit dazu führt, bei Schwierigkeiten schnell aufzugeben, während ein hohes Maß an Selbstwirksamkeit dazu motiviert, auch bei Schwierigkeiten ausdauernd zu bleiben (z. B. Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Schunk, 1991). Personen mit gleichen Fähigkeiten können demnach eine Aufgabe sehr schlecht, mittelmäßig oder sehr gut meistern, je nachdem, was sie sich selbst im Hinblick auf diese Aufgabe zutrauen (Bandura, 1993, S. 119). ...
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Durch das Internet hat sich der Zugang zu Nachrichten maßgeblich verändert. Informationen stehen nicht nur unbegrenzt zur Verfügung, sondern sie sind auch zu einem omnipräsenten Bestandteil in digitalen Informationsumgebungen geworden. Dadurch werden Internetnutzer*innen, auch ohne bewusst danach zu suchen, wiederholt mit tagesaktuellen Schlagzeilen konfrontiert, z.B. wenn sie ihren Browser öffnen, oder sich auf sozialen Netzwerkseiten bewegen. Diese kurzen Nachrichtenkontakte haben aufgrund der geringen Informationsmenge wenig Potential für Lerneffekte, können jedoch das Gefühl vermitteln, sich mit einem Thema auszukennen. Vor diesem Hintergrund stellt sich die Frage, inwiefern Nachrichten in digitalen Informationsumgebungen die Entstehung einer Wissensillusion begünstigen, wie sich dieser Prozess erklären lässt und mit welchen Folgen dies verbunden ist. Im theoretischen Teil der Arbeit werden dazu Erkenntnisse zum Gedächtnis, dem Metagedächtnis und der Rolle von Medien für Wissen und Wissenswahrnehmung aufgearbeitet. In Studie 1 wird mit einer experimentellen Studie untersucht, wie sich Nachrichten auf sozialen Netzwerkseiten im Vergleich zu vollständigen Nachrichtenartikeln auf objektives und subjektives Wissen auswirken. Außerdem werden Effekte einer Wissensillusion für Einstellungen und Verhalten untersucht. Studie 2 untersucht mit qualitativen Leitfadeninterviews, welche Rolle Medien für Wissen und Lernen aus Sicht der Nutzer*innen spielen. Diese Erkenntnisse liefern Erklärungen dafür, weshalb und aufgrund welcher Merkmale unterschiedliche Nachrichtenkontakte eine Wissensillusion begünstigen können.
... The model views career management as a process and seeks to describe how individuals attempt to manage their careers via decision-making and persistence [13]. It is based on self-efficacy which can be defined as "the judgments regarding one's ability to organize and execute plans of action in situations that contain ambiguous, unpredictable, and stressful elements [14]. According to the CSM model, the sources of self-efficacy and outcome expectations for career exploration and decisionmaking are Personal Mastery (PM), Verbal Persuasion (VP), and Vicarious Learning (VL) [15]. ...
... CSM focuses on the process of career development rather than the content, on understanding people's job-related decisions throughout their lifetimes, and on adaptive career behaviours in general [13,15]. CSM model is based on Bandura's social cognitive learning theory which is a model that includes the cognitive process in which goals and actions are active, as well as the proximal antecedents selfefficacy beliefs, outcome expectations, personality, supports, and barriers [13,14]. Personal experience is the primary source of selfefficacy and expected results in CSM. ...
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This study aims to contribute to the literature on sustainable careers by studying the effect of t-anxiety on the career self-management dimensions which are Personal Mastery (PM), Verbal Persuasion (VP), and Vicarious Learning (VL), and the moderator effect of s-anxiety about layoffs due to COVID 19 pandemic on these relationships. The causal comparison screening approach was adopted. Hypotheses were investigated by the SEM method. The research data were collected online from 365 white-collar employees between July 1, and August 30, 2021, using a simple random sampling approach. The purpose of collecting the data between these dates was that the ban on lying off the employees due to the COVID 19 pandemic has been lifted on June 30, 2021. Empirically, a negative and significant relationship was found between t-anxiety and PM. It was also found that positive and significant relationships exist between t-anxiety and VP and VL. A negative relationship between s-anxiety about layoffs due to COVID 19 pandemic and PM was determined. S-anxiety about layoffs due to COVID 19 pandemic has been found to have moderating negative effect on the relationships between t-anxiety and VP and VL. High levels of anxiety (both for t-anxiety and s-anxiety) affect PM negatively whereas low levels of anxiety strengthen it. PM gets weaker in anxious individuals, while VP and VL get stronger. Because of the s-anxiety about layoffs due to COVID 19 pandemic white-collar professionals are likely to face a career shock, resulting in unsustainable trajectories.
... We propose that, similar to specificity and achievability, goal proximity should also increase the importance of political efficacy. This is in line with motivation research, which has found that setting proximal goals increases self-efficacy in individuals (Bandura & Schunk, 1981). Similarly, greater goal proximity has been shown to increase performance via greater perceived task ease (Stern et al., 2013) and motivation via greater perceived marginal impact of goal-directed actions (Koo & Fishbach, 2012), two mechanisms that closely resemble efficacy beliefs. ...
... This tradeoff, specifically the existence of the injustice pathway counterbalancing lower efficacy, distinguishes collective action goal proximity from personal goal proximity. While the increase in action intentions via efficacy when the goal is close is consistent with research on the effects of personal goal proximity found in the motivation literature (Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Koo & Fishbach, 2012;Stern et al., 2013), the absence of a direct effect of goal proximity is not. For example, based on the goal gradient hypothesis which originated in animal behavior research (Hull, 1932), studies have found that unless the goal is negative or ambivalent (Brandsta¨tter et al., 2019), people put more effort toward it as goal proximity increases (Kivetz et al., 2006;Mutter & Kundisch, 2014). ...
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Based on dual-pathway models of collective action, this research examines how social movements’ proximity to their stated goal affects potential supporters’ willingness and motivations to engage. Across three experimental studies in two different contexts, and for members of both the disadvantaged ingroups and advantaged outgroups (total N = 1,102), we find consistent support for two counteracting indirect effects of goal distance on collective action. When movements are closer to their goals, potential supporters perceive less injustice, which reduces their willingness to engage in collective action for the movements’ cause via the emotion-focused pathway. At the same time, perceptions of political efficacy increase, bolstering engagement via the problem-focused pathway. We conclude that while goal proximity does not seem to affect overall intentions to engage in collective action, it does affect the motivational paths to it, which makes it a relevant factor to consider in both research and social justice contexts.
... Self-efficacy is a similar concept, concerned with the judgements of personal capability to achieve a task and is thus closely related to feelings of expectations discussed above, for example whether you think it is likely you will be successful in achieving the task in hand (Bandura, 1997). Students with high perceptions of self-efficacy were more likely to persevere with a task than students with low self-efficacy perceptions (Bandura and Schunk, 1981). This chimes with research just discussed, where expectations and aspirations are high until they become unrealistic options for the future. ...
... be malleable and open to alteration (Schunk and Ertmer, 2000). For example, students with high perceptions of self-efficacy were more likely to persevere with a task than students with low selfefficacy perceptions (Bandura and Schunk, 1981). Whether this research informed the theories of change presented in interviews it is not possible to say and perhaps a deeper engagement in this literature and would strengthen the design of Academic Tutoring outreach activities and their associated theories of change. ...
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The issue of social class related inequalities in access to Higher Education (HE) has been high on the political agenda for nearly two decades. In spite of significant funding, channelled through university-led outreach activities to encourage disadvantaged young people into university, the social gap in HE participation persists. As a result, universities are under increasing pressure to provide hard evidence of 'what works' in terms of the outreach they deliver under the Government's Widening Participation (WP) agenda. Recent large-scale research identifies prior attainment at Key Stage 4 (GCSE) as the main barrier to HE access for disadvantaged students, and as a result the Office for Students (OfS) now require universities to raise students' pre-entry attainment. This research examines the potential for university-led outreach activities to help disadvantaged students over this attainment hurdle. Two of the three research questions posed draw on big data collected through HEAT, a system whereby universities in England record data on the students engaged in their outreach activities, tracking their subsequent progress in terms of school attainment and eventual HE entry. Research question one examines the extent to which outreach delivered in the past has been targeted towards the 'right' students, most in need of assistance with this level of attainment. I find a considerable amount of resource has been mis-targeted. In the second research question, I devise a quasi-experimental method that makes the best use of HEAT's collective tracking data to explore whether outreach activities are able to raise students' attainment. Results show a positive impact on attainment, although this is accompanied with a 'health warning' regarding the important unresolved issues of epistemology associated with my approach. The third research question moves away from HEAT's quantitative data and draws on qualitative methods to understand the specific activities universities are delivering to raise attainment, and how these might be expected to work. Content analysis of institutional Access Agreements provides a good starting point, and from this I generate a typology of attainment-raising activities being delivered by universities. This line of enquiry is extended through interviews with WP managers from 30 universities where Academic Tutoring delivered by student ambassadors emerges as the most common attainment-raising activity. This choice is seemingly driven by the demanding requirements on universities to show hard evidence of impact on exam results. However, closer examination of the processes and mechanisms through which Academic Tutoring activities are expected to work are not sufficiently theoretically convincing. ii I conclude the research with a series of recommendations for policy. These include lessening the strict requirements on universities to demonstrate impact when it comes to raising attainment in schools. This may encourage more creative activities, less reductionist in their approach than Academic Tutoring which appears to replicate what is already happening in schools. I also suggest that HEAT should be utilised for its monitoring capacity rather than being a 'scientific' predictor of impact evaluation. Government should investigate using HEAT as a mechanism to provide the OfS with data on the types of students receiving outreach and where they live in the country. Further research is also needed to better understand the circumstances under which Academic Tutoring outreach activities, which are already being delivered by universities, may be able to add value to the complex issue of raising attainment in schools. iii
... Relatedly, past work has shown that people are more motivated and persistent in achieving goals that seem easier to attain (Bandura and Schunk 1981;Kivetz, Urminsky, and Zheng 2006). Thus, emphasizing that many others find it easy to pursue a given goal may be effective at motivating struggling consumers. ...
... This research also contributes to the goal pursuit literature by documenting a novel factor -a difficult goal pursuit norm -that increases consumer motivation. Previous research largely suggests that highlighting the difficulty of the goal may decrease motivation because it reduces the perceived ease of goal attainment (Bandura and Schunk 1981;Cheema and Bagchi 2011;Huang, Jin, and Zhang 2017;Kivetz, Urminsky, and Zheng 2006). Our work runs counter to these findings, suggesting that setting a difficult goal pursuit norm facilitates motivation by increasing the perception of self-attainability for struggling individuals. ...
... There is increasing evidence to suggest that self-efficacy is a central construct in entrepreneurship research (Krueger and Bazeal 1994, Forbes 2005, Markham et al. 2005, Hmieleski and Corbett 2007, Zellweger et al. 2010) and there is a growing body of research into the development of entrepreneurial self-efficacy scales for adults (Chen et al. 1998, De Noble et al. 1999, Baum and Locke 2004, McGee et al. 2009. The concept of self-efficacy originates in social cognitive theory, and states that people who expect to perform well at a task, will do better than people who expect to perform badly (Bandura and Schunck 1981, Gist 1992, Bandura 1997, 1986. Chen et al.'s (1998) measure of entrepreneurial selfefficacy successfully differentiated entrepreneurs from non-entrepreneurs. ...
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The contribution of this research to existing entrepreneurship theory is to present a conceptual model for understanding enterprise potential in young people in an educational context, and to demonstrate how enterprise potential can be measured. The overall aim of this research was to develop an evaluation tool which can be used in future evaluation studies of enterprise education. The tool can be used to overcome some of the limitations of evaluation studies, which have been identified by researchers. Longitudinal studies using the tool will enable consistent comparison of entrepreneurial attitudes, and it is recommended that it is used in conjunction with objective measures of entrepreneurial behaviour such as actual start-up activity. Enterprise potential was conceptualised as high entrepreneurial self-efficacy which was operationalised as positive attitudes towards five dimensions: leadership, achievement, personal control, creativity and intuition. Based on this conceptual framework the attitudes to enterprise (ATE) test was developed. This new measure provides a tool to evaluate enterprise programmes, enabling researchers to take into account other moderating factors, which may influence attitudes towards enterprise such as gender, type of school, ethnic background, and a family background of business ownership. For policy makers the tool can provide evidence of the efficacy of different types of enterprise education programmes for different target groups, thus helping to identify how best to target resources and investment. A series of validity and reliability tests was used to develop and refine the ATE test including: factor analysis; Cronbach alpha tests; discriminant and nomological validity tests; and a test for criterion validity using a second independent sample. Limitations to this testing indicate a need for further tests particularly criterion validity tests, using new, larger and more diverse samples.
... Assim, neste estudo em particular, vamos nos ater aos níveis de autoeficácia dos sujeitos relacionados ao seu desempenho na disciplina de Física que se estabelecem a partir das diferentes fontes e também conduzem seus comportamentos na instituição de um Contrato Didático e em suas estratégias de aprendizagem 7 . A relação entre os níveis de autoeficácia dos alunos e suas estratégias de aprendizagem foram objeto de importantes estudos nas últimas décadas (Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990;Schunk & Swartz, 1993;Chemers, Hu & Garcia, 2001;Caraway, Tucker, Reinke & Hall, 2003;Usher & Pajares, 2008, Dantas et al., 2015Ganda & Boruchovitch, 2018), além da preocupação com os aspectos motivacionais ligados às crenças de autoeficácia (Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Salomon, 1984;Bandura, 1997;Rodrigues & Barrera, 2007;Martinelli & Sassi, 2010;Azzi, Casanova & Dantas, 2010;Souza, 2010;Alvernini & Lucidi, 2011;Ferreira & Custódio, 2013) e com o desempenho escolar dos estudantes nas mais variadas áreas do saber (Zimmerman, 1995;Schunk, 1995;Jacob, 2001;Neves, 2002;Pinquart, Juang & Silbereisen, 2003, Gore, 2006Guerreiro, 2007;Souza & Brito, 2008;Usher, 2009, Lopes & Teixeira, 2012Bailey, Lombardi, Cordova & Sinatra, 2017;Espinosa et al. 2017). ...
Article
Resumo As crenças de autoeficácia se consolidaram, nas últimas décadas, como importante preditor do desempenho acadêmico dos estudantes nos mais diferentes níveis de ensino. Neste estudo, buscamos analisar a relação entre os níveis de autoeficácia de estudantes do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio e seus diferentes comportamentos a respeito de seu desempenho escolar em Física a partir da instituição de um Contrato Didático. Realizamos uma pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, por meio de um estudo de caso, com dois estudantes de uma escola pública do Estado de São Paulo. Durante o período de quatro meses, a participação dos alunos nas aulas de Física foi gravada. Após o término das gravações, os alunos, com os melhores desempenhos escolares, participaram de uma entrevista semiestruturada. Observamos comportamentos distintos dos dois participantes do estudo. Enquanto um deles demonstrava grande empenho durante as atividades propostas, o outro apresentava um comportamento muito disperso. Contudo, os dois sujeitos sempre recebiam as maiores notas de desempenho na disciplina de Física. Percebemos que, para o primeiro, o reconhecimento de suas capacidades pela professora e de seus familiares, além da perspectiva de participar ativamente do processo de ensino e aprendizagem, alimentava seu nível de autoeficácia em Física. O segundo, estabelecia um padrão de comparação com os demais colegas de turma demonstrando que o contexto das aulas de Física estava aquém de suas reais capacidades, o que acabará por justificar suas ações pouco efetivas durante as aulas. Assim, pudemos observar diferentes estratégias de aprendizagem para a manutenção do Contrato Didático que nem sempre permitiam uma maior aproximação com o saber físico, contudo, promoviam suporte para suas crenças autoeficácia em Física. Palavras-Chave: Crenças de autoeficácia; Contrato Didático; Contrato Diferencial, Desempenho Escolar; Ensino de Física. Abstract The Self-efficacy beliefs have been consolidated in recent decades as an important predictor of students' academic performance at the most different levels of education. In this study, we sought to analyze the relationship between the levels of self-efficacy of students in the third year of high school and their different behaviors regarding their school performance in Physics from the institution of a Didactic Contract. We conducted a qualitative research, through a case study, with two students from a public school in the state of São Paulo. During the four-month period, students' participation in physics classes was recorded. After the end of the recordings, the students, with the best school performance, participated in a semi-structured interview. We observed different behaviors of the two students participants. While one of them showed great V26 (3)-Dez. 2021 pp. 01-23
... General self-efficacy is learners' overall confidence in their ability to perform well across diverse tasks and situations. General self-efficacy is a motivational trait (Chen et al., 2000) which tends to be positively correlated with engagement (Bandura, 1989;Bandura & Schunk, 1981), persistence (Bandura, 1977;Pajares, 1997), and task completion (Eden, 1984(Eden, , 1988Pajares, 1996). In essence, general self-efficacy is a "can do" attitude that is linked to conscientiousness , determines exerted effort, and enables students to adapt effectively to novel and challenging situations (Judge et al., 1998;Pulakos et al., 2000). ...
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The overall project Denken lernen - Probleme lösen has been expanded in recent years after an initial sub-project in elementary school to include one for the lower secondary level. Schools throughout Austria were provided with the micro:bit and related materials. A training initiative for teachers was rolled out. In this article I would like to present a part of the evaluation results of this project. The investigation covers two aspects: the students' ability to solve problems and the students' opinions and views on working with the micro:bit.
... specific (Jansen, Scherer, & Schroeders, 2015;Jansen, Schroeders, Lüdtke, & Marsh, 2019), which justifies the hypothesis of a causality between them (Hidi, Berndorff, & Ainley, 2002). Prior research about the interplay between interest and self-efficacy has highlighted reciprocal associations between the two (Ainley, Buckley, & Chan, 2009;Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Bong, Lee, & Woo, 2015;Chen et al., 2016;Fryer, Thompson, Nakao, Howarth, & Gallacher, 2020;Grigg, Perera, McIlveen, & Svetleff, 2018;Hidi, Ainley, Berndor, & Del Favero, 2007;Niemivirta & Tapola, 2007;Nuutila et al., 2020). However, longitudinal studies in secondary schools that account for the fact that self-directed learning temporarily expands regular instruction have yet to be conducted (Fryer & Ainley, 2019). ...
Article
Interest and self-efficacy are two key components of motivation and learning, both of which decrease during adolescence. The situated expectancy-value theory (SEVT), recently formulated by Eccles and Wigfield (2020), provides a detailed perspective on critical components of learning situations and the ways in which competence beliefs (e.g., self-efficacy) and value perceptions (e.g., interest) work together to impact students’ achievement. This four-wave study includes data from 754 German secondary school students (MAge = 13.56; SD = 1.2; 49.4% girls). The study analysis employed two latent change models and a latent neighbor change model with covariates (sex, age, grades) to examine the development and interconnections between interest and self-efficacy. The schools included in the sample expand instruction via two self-directed learning intervals during the school year. During the self-directed learning intervals, learning was driven by the students’ preferences for subject matter rather than curricular objectives. The findings indicate that students’ interest and self-efficacy increased not only during self-directed learning but also over the course of the school year. The results suggest that an instructional environment that has been enriched by SDL intervals benefits the interplay between interest and self-efficacy.
... Computer anxiety is defined as an individual's temperament that distinguishes various situations involving computers, but finds these circumstances threatening and beyond their control (Lankford et al., 1994;Todman & Monaghan, 1994). Individuals that are prone to CA can be vulnerable to stress, tension, and apprehension in situations that involve computers (Smith & Caputi, 2001), due to the impact cognitive beliefs have on one's ability to regulate behavior (Bandura & Schunk, 1981). Matsumura and Hann (2004) identify CA as a transitional emotional state that includes cognitive expressions, such as negative thoughts or doubts about computing competence. ...
... 620). For example, Bandura and Schunk (1981) found that a wise intervention designed to improve the math performance of struggling elementary school students' selfefficacy had much more positive effects when it was paired with giving students' high-quality learning materials. ...
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There is a gender performance gap in the MBA classroom, in which men perform better than women, particularly in quantitative courses. We examined whether greater congruence between participants' self-construal levels and the self-affirmation in which they engaged would mitigate the gender performance gap. In Study 1, participants varying in their self-construal levels were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) an individual self-affirmation condition in which they wrote about a value that is important to them, 2) a collective self-affirmation condition in which they wrote about a value that is important to them and their ingroup, and 3) a control condition in which they wrote about a value important to someone else. We found that: 1) the gender performance gap was mitigated among those who individually self-affirmed and 2) the gender performance gap was particularly likely to be diminished under conditions of congruent self-affirmation (when those who were relatively high in independent self-construal engaged in individual self-affirmation and when those who were relatively high in interdependent self-construal engaged in collective self-affirmation). Conceptually analogous results emerged in Study 2 conducted on a considerably larger on-line sample. The discussion centers on: (1) the implications of our findings for the emerging literature on wise interventions, and (2) the practical value of encouraging individuals to engage in self-affirmation to counteract the harmful effects of stereotype-threat.
... At its core, the claim of relevance relies on evidence that general self-efficacy plays a role in academic success. To wit, if self-efficacy is conceptualized as a motivational trait [42] linked to learners' engagement/motivation [43,44], it is expected to translate into actions (e.g., completion rates, dedication, commitment, goal-setting, etc.) conducive to academic accomplishments in specific tasks as well as overall [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52]. However, evidence also exists either of an inverse relationship between self-efficacy and educational success (when self-efficacy becomes over-confidence) or of no relationship at all [53][54][55]. ...
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The present research concerns the extent to which explanations for desirable or undesirable academic outcomes (grades) as well as cultural orientation could account for self-efficacy beliefs of female undergraduate students from two societies with dissimilar cultural traditions. The United States of America (U.S.) was selected for its individualistic culture, whereas the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was chosen for its mix of traditional collectivist and individualistic values. A matched-pairs design ensured that students’ self-efficacy levels were equated between cultural groups (n = 560; 280 matched pairs). The research uncovered cultural differences in the choice of explanations and in the extent to which explanations might contribute to self-efficacy beliefs. These findings represent a blueprint for informing instructional interventions intended to effectively prepare students from different cultures for academic success.
... Assim, neste estudo em particular, vamos nos ater aos níveis de autoeficácia dos sujeitos relacionados ao seu desempenho na disciplina de Física que se estabelecem a partir das diferentes fontes e também conduzem seus comportamentos na instituição de um Contrato Didático e em suas estratégias de aprendizagem 7 . A relação entre os níveis de autoeficácia dos alunos e suas estratégias de aprendizagem foram objeto de importantes estudos nas últimas décadas (Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990;Schunk & Swartz, 1993;Chemers, Hu & Garcia, 2001;Caraway, Tucker, Reinke & Hall, 2003;Usher & Pajares, 2008, Dantas et al., 2015Ganda & Boruchovitch, 2018), além da preocupação com os aspectos motivacionais ligados às crenças de autoeficácia (Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Salomon, 1984;Bandura, 1997;Rodrigues & Barrera, 2007;Martinelli & Sassi, 2010;Azzi, Casanova & Dantas, 2010;Souza, 2010;Alvernini & Lucidi, 2011;Ferreira & Custódio, 2013) e com o desempenho escolar dos estudantes nas mais variadas áreas do saber (Zimmerman, 1995;Schunk, 1995;Jacob, 2001;Neves, 2002;Pinquart, Juang & Silbereisen, 2003, Gore, 2006Guerreiro, 2007;Souza & Brito, 2008;Usher, 2009, Lopes & Teixeira, 2012Bailey, Lombardi, Cordova & Sinatra, 2017;Espinosa et al. 2017). ...
Article
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As crenças de autoeficácia se consolidaram, nas últimas décadas, como importante preditor do desempenho acadêmico dos estudantes nos mais diferentes níveis de ensino. Neste estudo, buscamos analisar a relação entre os níveis de autoeficácia de estudantes do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio e seus diferentes comportamentos a respeito de seu desempenho escolar em Física a partir da instituição de um Contrato Didático. Realizamos uma pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, por meio de um estudo de caso, com dois estudantes de uma escola pública do Estado de São Paulo. Durante o período de quatro meses, a participação dos alunos nas aulas de Física foi gravada. Após o término das gravações, os alunos, com os melhores desempenhos escolares, participaram de uma entrevista semiestruturada. Observamos comportamentos distintos dos dois participantes do estudo. Enquanto um deles demonstrava grande empenho durante as atividades propostas, o outro apresentava um comportamento muito disperso. Contudo, os dois sujeitos sempre recebiam as maiores notas de desempenho na disciplina de Física. Percebemos que, para o primeiro, o reconhecimento de suas capacidades pela professora e de seus familiares, além da perspectiva de participar ativamente do processo de ensino e aprendizagem, alimentava seu nível de autoeficácia em Física. O segundo, estabelecia um padrão de comparação com os demais colegas de turma demonstrando que o contexto das aulas de Física estava aquém de suas reais capacidades, o que acabará por justificar suas ações pouco efetivas durante as aulas. Assim, pudemos observar diferentes estratégias de aprendizagem para a manutenção do Contrato Didático que nem sempre permitiam uma maior aproximação com o saber físico, contudo, promoviam suporte para suas crenças autoeficácia em Física.
... The basic foundations for approaches related to adherence include theoretical concepts and behavioral change models such as 1) transtheoretical theory and the stages of change model; 2) health belief model; 3) social cognitive theory; 4) relapse prevention model; and 5) social ecological model. [89][90][91] The 5 stages of change are the 1) pre-contemplation stage, in which patients do not take changes into consideration; 2) the contemplation stage, in which they are considering changes but are not prepared to act; 3) the preparation stage, in which they are ready to act within a couple of months; 4) the action stage, in which they are showing behavioral changes; and 5) the maintenance stage, in which they implement measures and strategies to prevent a relapse. This model can be applied in combination with other models. ...
Article
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In primary prevention for cardiovascular diseases, there are significant barriers to adherence including freedom from symptoms, long latency for therapeutic benefits, lifelong duration of treatment, and need for combined lifestyle changes. However, to implement more systematic approaches, the focus on adherence improvement needs to be shifted away from patient factors to the effects of the treatment team and healthcare system. In addition to conventional educational approaches, more patient-oriented approaches such as patient-centered clinical communication skills, counseling using motivational strategies, decision-making by patient empowerment, and a multidisciplinary team approach should be developed and implemented. Patients should be involved in a program of self-monitoring, self-management, and active counseling. Because most effective interventions on adherence Korean Circ J. 2022 Jan;52(1):e10 https://doi.
... This activity can help translate a goal intention (e.g., "I will try harder in engineering because everyone goes through setbacks") to an implementation intention (e.g., "Despite my low grade in engineering this semester, I will try harder by reviewing lecture materials, completing practice problems, and attending office hours because I believe that my knowledge can grow with effort;" Gollwitzer, 1993;Wormington et al., 2019). The actual implementation of the goal can become clearer when people generate proximal subgoals through writing because they can lay out a specific plan of how, when, and where it will be attained (Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Gollwitzer, 1999). ...
Article
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The saying-is-believing effect is an important step for changing students’ attitudes and beliefs in a wise intervention. However, most studies have not closely examined the process of the saying-is-believing effect when individuals are engaged in the activity. Using a qualitative approach, the present study uses an engagement framework to investigate (a) components of engagement in the saying-is-believing effect; and (b) how differently students may engage in a saying-is-believing exercise. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 undergraduates in a scholarship program for low-income transfer students from community college. Analysis using inductive and deductive approaches found that students varied on the extent to which they experienced the effectiveness of the saying-is-believing effect through affective, cognitive, and behavioral experiences. The study offers examples of how people can indeed differ in the extent to which they experience the saying-is-believing effect, and the implications for designing more effective interventions. Specifically, students’ positive affective experiences from seeing the larger goal of creating videos may be important components for the saying-is-believing effect to work. Behavioral experiences, such as learning soft skills, academic skills learned indirectly from the intervention, and academic skills learned directly from the intervention were accompanied by both positive affective and cognitive experiences. Findings show the importance of students’ differential engagement in saying-is-believing exercises both for building more effective wise interventions and interpreting heterogeneity in intervention effectiveness.
... Challenges that are too great for students can result in anxiety and reduced feelings of success (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997). To maintain an optimal level of challenge, teachers can (a) scaffold tasks; (b) provide enough time for students to complete tasks; and (c) condense long-term goals or large, difficult tasks into smaller units to temper the difficulty of tasks (Bandura & Schunk, 1981). Support for competence. ...
Article
Observations of the first days of school in eight sixth-grade classrooms identified three different classroom environments. In supportive environments teachers expressed enthusiasm for learning, were respectful, used humor, and voiced expectations that all students would learn. In ambiguous environments teachers were inconsistent in their support and focus on learning and exercised contradictory forms of management. In nonsupportive environments teachers emphasized extrinsic reasons for learning, forewarned that learning would be difficult and that students might cheat or misbehave, and exercised authoritarian control. Teachers’ patterns of motivational and organizational discourse during math classes near the end of the year were consistent with the messages they expressed at the beginning of the year. When student reports of avoidance behaviors in math from fall and spring were compared with the qualitative analyses of these environments, students in supportive classrooms reported engaging in significantly less avoidance behavior than students in ambiguous or nonsupportive environments.
... Specificity has benefits in combination with challenging goals (e.g., a specific and challenging goal is superior to a specific and easy goal or a vague and challenging goal). A central assumption as to why specificity has positive performance effects is that a specific goal description provides a concrete anchor and feedback for self-monitoring processes that regulate ongoing behavior [30]. Such self-monitoring mechanisms are different from the mechanism assumed to mediate the positive effects of the inclusion of situational cues in thought about future actions: We hypothesize that the overlap of situation and response in thought leads to associative links that-after being established-make self-monitoring unnecessary. ...
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Successful everyday self-regulation often hinges on implementing intended responses at a later time–often in specific situations. We address this self-regulation challenge by examining the role of individuals’ thought about intended actions–and specifically whether it does or does not include situational cues. We hypothesized that including situational cues when thinking about intended actions enables stimulus-response learning, thereby increasing the likelihood of implementing the intended actions. Consequently, we pre-registered and found ( N = 392, age range 18–94) a positive relationship between the self-reported habitual inclusion of situational cues in thought about intended actions and everyday self-regulation success (assessed by self-reported self-efficacy and self-control beliefs). In addition, we provide exploratory evidence that the inclusion of situational cues in thought about intended actions mediates the relationship between conscientiousness and self-regulation success. We discuss the results and the theoretical perspective in relation to how self-control outcomes can be explained by associative learning.
... (2) Motivational processes. Self-efficacy is key in the self-regulation of motivation (41). Individuals motivate themselves and guide their actions based on their beliefs of what they can do and set goals for themselves and plan the course of action accordingly. ...
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The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework recognizes that an individual's functioning post-stroke reflects an interaction between their health condition and contextual factors encompassing personal and environmental factors. Personal factors significantly impact rehabilitation outcomes as they determine how an individual evaluates their situation and copes with their condition in daily life. A key personal factor is self-efficacy—an individual's belief in their capacity to achieve certain outcomes. Self-efficacy influences an individual's motivational state to execute behaviors necessary for achieving desired rehabilitation outcomes. Stroke rehabilitation practice and research now acknowledge self-efficacy and motivation as critical elements in post-stroke recovery, and increasing evidence highlights their contributions to motor (re)learning. Given the informative value of neuroimaging-based biomarkers in stroke, elucidating the neurological underpinnings of self-efficacy and motivation may optimize post-stroke recovery. In this review, we examine the role of self-efficacy and motivation in stroke rehabilitation and recovery, identify potential neural substrates underlying these factors from current neuroimaging literature, and discuss how leveraging these factors and their associated neural substrates has the potential to advance the field of stroke rehabilitation.
... The relationship between students' self-efficacy and their English language achievement was investigated by Mahyuddin et al. (2006) who concluded that students with high self-efficacy often display greater performance compared to those with low self-efficacy levels. In addition, various studies support the fact that the choice to engage in a task, the effort expended in performing it, and the persistence shown in accomplishing it, as well as the standard of the performance, are all affected by self-efficacy beliefs (Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Bouffard-Bouchard, 1990;Busch, 1995;Byrne et al., 2014;Mone, 1994;Mooi, 2006;Robertson & Sadri, 1993;Zimmerman, 1995). Moreover, the conceptual meaning and predictive validity of self-efficacy beliefs in relation to performance could vary depending on measurement timing (Mone et al., 1995). ...
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This study measures the levels of self-efficacy beliefs to determine how this correlates with academic success in introductory tertiary accounting within a South African context. Also, self-efficacy beliefs are compared to determine if significant differences exist based on gender, academic language, type of study funding and different professional programmes studied. The study applies social cognitive theory and gathers quantitative data using questionnaires with statistical analysis to determine self-efficacy belief levels in a first-year accounting module. The means of several variables were compared via t-tests or ANOVAs. Hereafter, regression analysis was applied to determine if self-efficacy beliefs significantly impact academic performance. Findings indicate that most first-year accounting students felt confident in their self-efficacy beliefs. Significant differences were observed in students' self-efficacy beliefs based on gender, academic language and type of programme studied, but not based on type of study funding. Several self-efficacy beliefs correlated significantly with academic performance, though differences were observed for different types of programmes. As limited consideration of the impact of self-efficacy beliefs within the discipline of accounting prevails in the literature, and even less so in South Africa, the study serves to enhance accounting educators' understanding on how self-efficacy beliefs impact academic performance at the first-year level.
... Another important variable, albeit understudied, is intrinsic interest. Bandura and Schunk (1981) reported that self-efficacy and intrinsic interest were positively correlated with learning outcomes. Students' interest in a topic affects their learning positively (Ainley, Hidi, & Berndorff, 2002). ...
Article
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About four million people living in Turkey or abroad with a Turkish passport enrolled in distance education schools to have the opportunity to complete their compulsory formal education in the spring of 2018-19. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine distance education students' acceptance of online learning systems, their attitudes towards online learning, and their self-directed learning skills and the relationship between them. Some of the main results are as follows: A six-variable model (perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, general acceptance, individual awareness, usefulness, application effectiveness) played a significantly explanatory role in dependent variables (subscales of self-directed learning skills). Perceived usefulness and usefulness positively predicted motivation, suggesting that the higher the perceived usefulness, the higher the motivation. General acceptance and application effectiveness negatively predicted self-monitoring. Female participants were more motivated by online learning environments than males
... (Bandura, 1977;Bandura & Schunk, 1981적 자기효능감(17문항)과 사회적 자기효능감(6 문항)의 두 차원으로 이루어져있으나 이 연구 에서는 일반적 자기효능감을 측정하기 위한 17문항만을 사용하였다. Likert식 5점 척도로 채점되며, 홍혜영(1995)의 연구에서 내적 합치 도(Cronbach's α)는 .86이었다. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to verify the mediation effect of rumination(brooding/reflection) and self-efficacy in the relationship between emotional clarity and depression among adult. For this, 261 participants across the country conducted the survey through online forms. The measurement tools used for this study include TMMS, K-RRS, SES, and CES-D. For the collected data, SPSS(23.0) was used for descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, bootstrapping was performed by using PROCESS Macro(ver.3.4)’s. The result of this study are as follows. First, emotional clarity, rumination(brooding/reflection), self-efficacy, depression had meaningful correlations. Secondly, emotional clarity affects depression, mediating effect of rumination and self-efficacy was significant. Third, emotional clarity affect depression, mediating effect of brooding, and self-efficacy was significant. Fourth, emotional clarity affect depression, reflection, and self-efficacy did not mediated. This study revealed that rumination and self-efficacy are dually mediated in emotional clarity and depression. In addition to this, when rumination was divided into brooding and reflection, different mediation results have appeared. As a result, the significance, limitation, and suggestion of the study were discussed.
... specific (Jansen, Scherer, & Schroeders, 2015;Jansen, Schroeders, Lüdtke, & Marsh, 2019), which justifies the hypothesis of a causality between them (Hidi, Berndorff, & Ainley, 2002). Prior research about the interplay between interest and self-efficacy has highlighted reciprocal associations between the two (Ainley, Buckley, & Chan, 2009;Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Bong, Lee, & Woo, 2015;Chen et al., 2016;Fryer, Thompson, Nakao, Howarth, & Gallacher, 2020;Grigg, Perera, McIlveen, & Svetleff, 2018;Hidi, Ainley, Berndor, & Del Favero, 2007;Niemivirta & Tapola, 2007;Nuutila et al., 2020). However, longitudinal studies in secondary schools that account for the fact that self-directed learning temporarily expands regular instruction have yet to be conducted (Fryer & Ainley, 2019). ...
... specific (Jansen, Scherer, & Schroeders, 2015;Jansen, Schroeders, Lüdtke, & Marsh, 2019), which justifies the hypothesis of a causality between them (Hidi, Berndorff, & Ainley, 2002). Prior research about the interplay between interest and self-efficacy has highlighted reciprocal associations between the two (Ainley, Buckley, & Chan, 2009;Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Bong, Lee, & Woo, 2015;Chen et al., 2016;Fryer, Thompson, Nakao, Howarth, & Gallacher, 2020;Grigg, Perera, McIlveen, & Svetleff, 2018;Hidi, Ainley, Berndor, & Del Favero, 2007;Niemivirta & Tapola, 2007;Nuutila et al., 2020). However, longitudinal studies in secondary schools that account for the fact that self-directed learning temporarily expands regular instruction have yet to be conducted (Fryer & Ainley, 2019). ...
Article
Interest and self-efficacy are two key components of motivation and learning, both of which decrease during adolescence. The situated expectancy-value theory (SEVT), recently formulated by Eccles and Wigfield (2020), provides a detailed perspective on critical components of learning situations and the ways in which competence beliefs (e.g., self-efficacy) and value perceptions (e.g., interest) work together to impact students’ achievement. This four-wave study includes data from 754 German secondary school students (MAge = 13.56; SD = 1.2; 49.4% girls). The study analysis employed two latent change models and a latent neighbor change model with covariates (sex, age, grades) to examine the development of and interconnections between interest and self-efficacy. The schools included in the sample expand instruction via two self-directed learning intervals during the school year. During the self-directed learning intervals, learning was driven by the students’ preferences for subject matter rather than curricular objectives. The findings indicate that students’ interest and self-efficacy increased not only during self-directed learning but also over the course of the school year. The results suggest that an instructional environment that has been enriched by SDL intervals benefits the interplay between interest and self-efficacy.
... specific (Jansen, Scherer, & Schroeders, 2015;Jansen, Schroeders, Lüdtke, & Marsh, 2019), which justifies the hypothesis of a causality between them (Hidi, Berndorff, & Ainley, 2002). Prior research about the interplay between interest and self-efficacy has highlighted reciprocal associations between the two (Ainley, Buckley, & Chan, 2009;Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Bong, Lee, & Woo, 2015;Chen et al., 2016;Fryer, Thompson, Nakao, Howarth, & Gallacher, 2020;Grigg, Perera, McIlveen, & Svetleff, 2018;Hidi, Ainley, Berndor, & Del Favero, 2007;Niemivirta & Tapola, 2007;Nuutila et al., 2020). However, longitudinal studies in secondary schools that account for the fact that self-directed learning temporarily expands regular instruction have yet to be conducted (Fryer & Ainley, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Interest and self-efficacy are two key components of motivation and learning, both of which decrease during adolescence. The situated expectancy-value theory (SEVT), recently formulated by Eccles and Wigfield (2020), provides a detailed perspective on critical components of learning situations and the ways in which competence beliefs (e.g., self-efficacy) and value perceptions (e.g., interest) work together to impact students’ achievement. This four-wave study includes data from 754 German secondary school students (M Age = 13.56; SD = 1.2; 49.4% girls). The study analysis employed two latent change models and a latent neighbor change model with covariates (sex, age, grades) to examine the development of and interconnections between interest and self-efficacy. The schools included in the sample expand instruction via two self-directed learning intervals during the school year. During the self-directed learning intervals, learning was driven by the students’ preferences for subject matter rather than curricular objectives. The findings indicate that students’ interest and self-efficacy increased not only during self-directed learning but also over the course of the school year. The results suggest that an instructional environment that has been enriched by SDL intervals benefits the interplay between interest and self-efficacy.
... Así, en su revisión de la bibliografía sobre creencias sobre el aprendizaje de idiomas, Bernat y Gvozdenko (2005) se hacen eco de la opinión de diversos autores en relación con el hecho de que los aprendientes llevan consigo al aula de idiomas una compleja red de actitudes, experiencias, expectativas, creencias y estrategias de aprendizaje (Oxford, 1992;Nyikos y Oxford, 1993;Benson, 2001) y agrupan diferentes conclusiones que han recogido distintos estudios y autores (Bandura y Schunk, 1981;Cotterall, 1995;Ehrman y Oxford, 1989;Oxford, 1990;Ryan, 1984;Sakui y Gaies, 1999;Schommer, 1990) en relación con las actitudes hacia la enseñanza, percepciones y creencias que las determinan. Otras revisiones de los trabajos realizados acerca del pensamiento de los aprendientes de idiomas son, por ejemplo, las llevadas a cabo por Riley (1997), Benson y Lor (1999) o Barcelos (2003). ...
Conference Paper
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Este artículo adopta una noción de competencia desde una perspectiva fenomenológica interpretativa, que vincula de forma específica el conjunto de creencias y representaciones que maneja el docente sobre sí mismo y sobre la realidad que lo rodea con su competencia y actuación profesional. Al mismo tiempo, defiende la naturaleza compleja de los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje y del hecho organizacional que, desde nuestro punto de vista, reside no tanto en los aspectos y estructuras formales de las organizaciones como en las personas que las integran y en sus interacciones. Combinamos ambas perspectivas para sostener que un desarrollo de la competencia docente en el ámbito de las lenguas para fines específicos pasa por abrir incrementalmente la puerta a explorar esa complejidad y a incorporarla a nuestro sistema de creencias y a nuestras prácticas profesionales.
... Die Idee der Selbstwirksamkeit wurde von Bandura (1977Bandura ( , 1997Bandura & Schunk, 1981) als ein hervorbringendes Können sowie als Reflexionsfähigkeit in Bezug auf die eigenen Fähigkeiten und Fertigkeiten sowie deren Bedeutung und Umsetzung in unserem Leben definiert. Die Selbstwirksamkeit vereint als Kompetenzbündel eher im Sinne von Literacy kognitive, soziale, emotionale und verhaltensorientierte Aspekte. ...
Article
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Unter Berücksichtigung vielseitiger Aspekte und Mehrfachbelastungen, die auf Kinder und Jugendliche wirken, verlangt eine Pädagogik der Naturerziehung und -bildung eine besondere Förderung und ein Erfahren-Können von emotionalen Kompetenzen sowie die Unterstützung von affektiven und sozialen Lernprozessen. Der vorliegende Beitrag führt zunächst in die umfassende Idee der Bewältigungsfähigkeit ein, die mit der inklusiven Umweltbindung verbunden wird und woraus als Appell ableitbar ist, dass Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung (BNE) auf ein lebenslanges Lernen ausgerichtet sein muss. Das soziale Lernen und die Persönlichkeitsbildung sind mit Bezug auf die Naturpädagogik und Umweltbildung/-erziehung in den österreichischen Grundsatzerlässen wiederzufinden, dabei wird ein altersgemäß konkretes Erleben, Reflektieren, Erfahren und Handeln eingefordert. Diese Zielbilder können nur durch die Förderung von Emotionen, Selbstwirksamkeit, Selbst-Wirkkräftigkeit und Empathie ins Leben gebracht werden, daher erscheint eine Klärung dieser Konstrukte und Ideen notwendig. Aus den Klärungen heraus entwickelt der Beitrag zentrale Ansätze für eine Förderung und möchte damit aufzeigen, wie eine Bewältigungsfähigkeit auch und vor allem in Beziehung mit der Naturpädagogik und der BNE ausgebildet werden kann.
... In addition to the one-path indirect effect, contextual factors might have an indirect effect on learners' adaptability through the chain mediating role of self-efficacy and motivation owing to their positive association. Social cognitive theory postulated that one's belief in abilities to cope with challenges and make progress to achieve the desired outcomes was apt to generate and sustain motivation (Bandura and Schunk, 1981;Schunk, 2001). Regarding self-regulated learning, Zimmernan and Schunk (2001) indicated that self-efficacy affected students' motivation of activity choice, effort and persistence in self-regulation. ...
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Objective Few research efforts have substantially introduced relevant studies on Chinese students’ adaptability in relation to the ineffectiveness of blended learning mode in College English. This study is guided by social cognitive theory, and related literature has been reviewed concerning adaptability. In this study, we aim to examine the involved relationships among contextual factors, self-efficacy, motivation, and adaptability to blended learning mode among non-English majored Chinese learners in the College English course. Methods The quantitative research method was employed in this study, and 595 respondents were eventually collected to enable the data analysis. The structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to analyze the data. Results (1) The non-English majored learners’ adaptability to blended learning mode in College English was at a low level with a mean value of 2.26, indicating that students still suffer difficulties from class conducted in blended learning; (2) the fit indices were at the level of good fit, and it suggested the structural model had an overall good fit to the data as shown: x 2/ df = 2.496, RMESA = 0.050, GFI = 0.956, AGFI = 0.936, NFI = 0.968, RFI = 0.959, IFI = 0.980, TLI = 0.975, CFI = 0.980; (3) adaptability was positively related to contextual factors, self-efficacy, and motivation ( p < 0.001); (4) contextual factors exerted an indirect effect on the adaptability not only through the separate mediating role of self-efficacy and motivation, but through the chain mediating role of self-efficacy and motivation ( p < 0.01). Implications This study theoretically extends previous studies on adaptability by investigating the affecting factors in the framework of social cognitive theory. More practically important is that this study sheds light on the impact mechanism of positive and enjoyable environment, self-efficacy and motivation on non-English majored learners’ adaptability to blended learning mode in English course, which would provide a vital insight for administrators and College English instructors to reconsider the role of learners’ responses in the mixed mode to improve their English achievement more effectively, as well as to enhance and promote their user experience of the offered blended learning service.
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Chapter
Mounting evidence demonstrates that the presence of interest is foundational for both motivation and continued engagement. Interest describes the ways that individuals engage with activities or content (e.g., mathematics, music); it refers to both the psychological state during engagement, as well as the motivation to reengage. In this article, we describe updates to the four-phase model of interest development (Hidi & Renninger, 2006), which depicts interest as evolving through phases that are coordinated with other variables such as goals, self-efficacy, and self-regulation. We review studies that provide details about sociocultural influences, the physiological basis of interest, the relation of interest to curiosity and to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and the approach of the four-phase model in relation to situated expectancy-value theory and to studies of vocational and occupational interests. We then consider the relation of the four-phase model to goals, self-efficacy, and self-regulation, and suggest clear benefits of examining interest along with these variables. Finally, we conclude that research on interest underscores the critical importance of leveraging its power for the motivation and engagement of all learners.
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Thesis
Dyslexia is the most prevalent learning disability and the lack of automaticity in word recognition is one of its main characteristics. This thesis is dedicated to the gamification of in-home dyslexia remediation by focusing on the development of automaticity for children aged from five to nine years old. An extensive research on the effective principles of automaticity training, led to the creation of a novel training model for automaticity acquisition. Training for automaticity requires countless repetitions, and adherence is crucial. Gamification concept was proposed to increase motivation, engagement, and adherence. Based on the automaticity-training model, a gamification model was developed for placing each game element at its appropriate phase of automaticity acquisition. The effectiveness of this gamification model was validated by a randomized controlled trial. Furthermore, an optimization model was developed to provide individualized training sessions based on the level of the learner. For estimating the difficulty level of the content, four lexical skills were modelled using artificial neural networks and linear regression. For each lexical skill, the top 10 lexical variables were identified through forward stepwise analysis. The accuracy of the models based on mean absolute error reached 90.58% for auditory word recognition, 92.08% for visual word recognition, 84.83% for spelling, and 86.98% for word decoding. Finally, based on these developments, four games were created and provided on multiple platforms. The evaluation of the usability study confirmed the viability of the intelligent system and the games scored 80% on the system usability scale.
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Self-directed learning (SDL) is necessary for successful learning in MOOCs. Motivation is one of the critical elements of SDL. This mixed-method study examined the design and delivery of MOOCs to motivate learners for SDL. The data collection methods included semi-structured interviews with 22 MOOC instructors, a document review of 22 MOOCs, and an online survey with 198 participants. The researchers found that MOOC instructors valued motivating learners for SDL. The strategies to motivate learners included entering motivations (i.e. decisions to participate in a course) and task motivations (i.e. learners’ persistence in learning activities). For entering motivation, MOOC instructors used strategies, such as identifying the value and needs of learning, increasing self-efficacy, and using incentives. For task motivation, MOOC instructors adopted engaging instructional strategies, well-designed learning materials, immediate and constructive feedback, and social interaction. Besides, technology played an essential role in motivating learners. Implications for instructors and instructional designers were discussed at the end of the paper.
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Purpose Although the sense of entitlement was traditionally associated with a range of maladaptive personality characteristics, the purpose of the current study is to take an initial step to explore a positive implication of psychological entitlement. Design/methodology/approach The target population for this study comprises employees from various industries in Taiwan. To examine the research hypotheses, structural equation modeling techniques were employed to perform a mediation analysis and conditional process analysis. Findings The results of this research showed that career ambition mediates the relationship between psychological entitlement and job involvement, where psychological entitlement is positively related to career ambition, and career ambition is positively related to job involvement. Nonetheless, the authors' data did not support the proposed moderation effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between career ambition and job involvement. Originality/value This work is among the first to investigate how an employee's psychological entitlement is associated with his/her job involvement and the boundary conditions that affect this relationship.
Research
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Due to the unexpected circumstances brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, all of the life aspects worldwide have been affected from livelihood, economy, and most especially education. Since physical contact with people is strictly prohibited, the majority of the schools and universities worldwide have shifted from traditional learning to online and distance modes of learning, and considering the new mode of learning there were multiple studies that highlight the important role of motivation in the academic performance of the student, especially in a virtual learning environment. Upon reading the literature it can be said that there are studies that still lacking in some aspects and this was due to the differences between respondents, location, and context. This study utilized the Scale for Motivation Towards Learning Geography adapted from Yildirim (2017), this descriptive-quantitative study aims to determine and understand the level of motivation of students in learning social studies in the virtual environment and to identify if there is a significant difference between students' gender and class level and their motivation to learn about social studies online between the four factors identified by Yildirim (2017) which are interest, confidence, information acquisition, and performance. The study has a total of 127 college students from Western Mindanao State University who are taking up social studies subjects. The results revealed that respondents have a "High Motivation" and are still motivated amidst the challenges brought by the pandemic. Respondents show that interest, confidence, information acquisition, and performance are still positive even in the virtual learning environment, and the love of learning social studies is still manifested. It was also noted that virtual learning or online learning helps the respondents to continue excelling in the class through a variety of social media apps that help boost their confidence and instill more interest in learning social studies.
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Chapter
Online education is one of the most dynamic and enriched forms of learning available today. The aim of the present study is to reveal the self-regulated learning levels of pre-service teacher and to determine whether these levels change in terms of their gender and class. The sample of the study consists of Aksaray University Educational Sciences Department students who received online education due to the COVID-19 global epidemic in the 2020-2021 academic year. The data of the study were collected with the “Self-Regulation in Self-Paced Open and Distance Learning Environments Scale.” The first result of the study revealed that the self-regulated learning levels of the participants were close to medium. The self-regulation scores of male students receiving online education at university were also found to be significantly higher than the scores of female students. The final result obtained from the research is the existence of a significant difference between grade level and self-regulated learning skills.
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Although temporal conceptualizations of motivational processes have not held center stage in motivation science, the situation is currently changing. Drawing on work in the subfield of language learning motivation, where the motivational endurance needed to master a second language has been a major concern, the aim of this article is to contribute to the body of work currently exploring motivational persistence. After outlining the broader academic context of motivation and time, and describing the disciplinary trajectory of research into language learning motivation, we present two interrelated and multifaceted frameworks that seek to explain long-term motivation and motivational persistence: (a) the notion of a “directed motivational current,” which refers to a period of intense, enduring, and self-sustaining engagement within an activity-sequence, and which is phenomenologically akin to an extended flow experience, and (b) a multicomponent framework of long-term motivation that offers a general account of sustained effort in learning. This framework integrates diverse components, such as self-concordant vision, habitual actions, progress checks, and affirmative feedback, and references a motivational process that is characterized by positive emotional loading and passion, and is supported by self-control capacity and self-regulatory skills.
Thesis
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Taking off as a flat-structured startup promotes flexibility and inclusion as even the regular employees can take significant roles in development processes. However, the eventual scale-up brings challenges regarding control, clarity, and most importantly - performance. Studying recruiting company BlackSwanExist as the exemplifying case, this paper examines how leadership tactics are utilised to enhance employee performance in the context of lacking processes. As part of the study, Path-Goal theory and Shared Leadership concepts were applied to analyse data from semi-structured interviews with nine employees about management and leadership procedures within the company. We concluded that BSE Managers seek to improve employee performance by maintaining a considerate environment and providing development opportunities.
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The present set of studies tested the explanatory and predictive generality of self-efficacy theory across additional treatment modalities and behavioral domains. Microanalysis of changes accompanying symbolic modeling indicates that this mode of treatment enhances coping behavior partly through its effects on perceived efficacy. Cognizing modeled mastery of threats increased phobics' self-percepts of efficacy, which, in turn, predicted their specific performance attainments on tasks of varying threat value. Examination of efficacy probes revealed that making efficacy judgments has no effect on subsequent avoidance behavior or on fear arousal. The close congruence found between changes in self-efficacy and different forms of coping behavior in the treatment of agoraphobia provides some evidence for the generality of efficacy theory across different areas of functioning. Microanalysis of anticipatory and performance fear arousal accompanying varying strengths of self-efficacy also lends support for the social learning conception of fear arousal in terms of perceived coping inefficacy.
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Many studies have demonstrated the relatively successful performance implications of formalized goal-setting programs in organizations. However, these findings typically do not identify the specific factors behind such techniques that are largely responsible for their success. Toward this end, research relating to 6 factor analytically derived attributes of employees' task goals is reviewed to ascertain which attributes are more consistently related to performance. The 6 task-goal attributes are goal specificity, participation in goal setting, feedback, peer competition, goal difficulty, and goal acceptance. Although goal specificity and goal acceptance were found to be most consistently related to performance, several intervening variables emerged that tended to affect significantly the impact of certain attributes on performance. Findings are discussed within a motivational framework. It is argued, based on the data, that performance under goal-setting conditions is a function of at least 3 important variables: the nature of the task goals, additional situational-environmental factors, and individual differences. (3 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the predictions of A. Bandura's (see record 1977-25733-001) theory of self-efficacy (SE) in a competitive, motor-performance situation. 30 university students of each sex were randomly assigned to either a high- or a low-SE condition in a sex-by-trials factorial design. SE was manipulated by having Ss compete against a confederate on a muscular leg-endurance task. Because SE theory predicts that expectation–performance differences are maximized in the face of obstacles and aversive consequences, the experiment was rigged so that Ss lost to the confederate on both trials. Results support SE predictions, with high-SE Ss (HSEs) extending their legs significantly longer than low-SE Ss (LSEs). After failing on Trial 1, HSEs extended their legs for a longer time than LSEs on Trial 2. Postexperimental questionnaire data indicate significant differences in cognitive states (e.g., expectations, attributions, self-talk) between HSEs and LSEs and between males and females. Results are discussed in terms of learned helplessness and differing patterns of sex-role socialization. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested the hypothesis that learned helplessness can be induced through modeling and that the effects are mediated by perceived similarity in competence. 40 male college students observed a model fail at anagram tasks under variations in perceived similarity. Ss who perceived the unsuccessful model to be of comparable ability and those given no competence feedback persisted less throughout the tasks than Ss who perceived the model as less competent than themselves and control Ss who did not observe a model. The latter 2 groups did not differ in their initial level of persistence, but their performances diverged on succeeding trials, with Ss who perceived themselves as more competent than the model showing higher persistence. A similar pattern of results was obtained for the effects of perceived similarity on Ss' expectations of self-efficacy. A microanalysis revealed that regardless of treatment condition, the higher the Ss' expected efficacy, the longer they persisted. The strength of this relationship increased over trials, suggesting that Ss came to rely more heavily on their judgments of self-efficacy in regulating their expenditure of effort as the experiment progressed. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the conditions under which information regarding competence would mitigate the negative side effects of rewards on the intrinsic interest of preschool and middle elementary school children. 144 nursery school and 3rd–5th graders engaging in a task of high initial interest anticipated a reward made contingent either upon meeting a standard based on absolute performance level or upon task engagement alone, or they were not rewarded. In addition, Ss were provided with direct information concerning competence presented in terms of social comparison. Results indicate that the preschool children were primarily affected by information about meeting the absolute standard but not the social comparison information. That is, the overjustification effect did not occur when attaining a reward was made contingent on meeting an absolute standard of performance. Social comparison information superseded the effect of the contingency of the reward on subsequent interest in the target task for the older children. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present experiment tested the hypothesis that self-regulation of refractory behavior varies as a function of goal proximity. Obese subjects were assigned to conditions in which they either monitored their eating behavior, monitored their eating behavior and set subgoals for reducing the amount of food consumed, or received no treatment. Within the goal-setting conditions, subjects adopted either distal goals defined in terms of weekly goal limits or proximal goals specifying the goal limits for each of four time periods during each day. Goal setting enhanced self-directed change as measured by reductions in both eating behavior and weight. The higher the goal attainments, the greater were the losses in weight. Proximal and distal goal setting yielded comparable overall results because the majority of subjects assigned remote goals altered this condition by adopting proximal goals to augment control over their own behavior. Within the distal goal-setting condition, the adherents to distal goals achieved relatively small changes, whereas those who improvised proximal subgoals for themselves attained substantial reductions on the multifaceted measures of self-directed change. The combined evidence lends support to the motivational and regulative functions of proximal intentions and highlights the reciprocal influence processes that operate in self-directed change.
Previous research and theory has indicated that (a) goals and intentions are the most immediate motivational determinants of task performance; (b) external incentives affect behavior through their effects on goals; and (c) emotional (affective) reactions are the result of value judgments. The present research was concerned primarily with the problem of how evaluations and emotions lead to goal-setting. It was argued that being dissatisfied with one's past performance generates the desire (and goal) to change one's performance, whereas satisfaction with one's performance produces the desire (and goal) to repeat or maintain one's previous performance level. Five experiments were reported in which: (a) satisfaction was predicted from value judgments; (b) goal-setting was predicted from satisfaction; and (c) performance was predicted from goals. In nearly all cases the correlations were both high and/or significant. It was found, however, that in some cases the level of performance that yielded satisfaction in the past was not necessarily that which produced it in the future. In these cases it was the individual's anticipated (rather than past) satisfaction that best predicted subsequent goal-setting. The relationship of the present theory to other theories of task motivation is discussed briefly (e.g., Dulany; Miller, Galanter, & Pribram; Porter & Lawler; Ryan; and Vroom).
Article
The study examined Deci's (Deci, E. L. Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum Press, 1975) hypotheses regarding the effects of contingent rewards on intrinsic task interest. Seventy-two male university students worked on a series of puzzles and were given either a high value reward ($1.50) or a low value reward ($.45). The money was given either contingent upon the simple execution of the task (task-contingent), contingent upon the ostensible attainment of a performance criterion level (criterion-contingent), or noncontingent and unexpected (control). Compared to the high payment control subjects, subjects who received the task-contingent high reward rated the task as less interesting, while subjects who received the criterion-contingent high reward rated it as more interesting. Also, subjects expressed less interest in the task after receiving the high task-contingent reward than the low task-contingent reward, but indicated greater interest after receiving the high criterion-contingent reward than the low criterion-contingent reward. It was concluded that substantial support was obtained for Deci's (1975) cognitive evaluation theory.
Article
The present experiment was designed to test the theory that psychological procedures achieve changes in behavior by altering the level and strength of self-efficacy. In this formulation, perceived self-efficacy. In this formulation, perceived self-efficacy influences level of performance by enhancing intensity and persistence of effort. Adult phobics were administered treatments based upon either performance mastery experiences, vicarious experiences., or they received no treatment. Their efficacy expectations and approach behavior toward threats differing on a similarity dimension were measured before and after treatment. In accord with our prediction, the mastery-based treatment produced higher, stronger, and more generalized expectations of personal efficacy than did the treatment relying solely upon vicarious experiences. Results of a microanalysis further confirm the hypothesized relationship between self-efficacy and behavioral change. Self-efficacy was a uniformly accurate predictor of performance on tasks of varying difficulty with different threats regardless of whether the changes in self-efficacy were produced through enactive mastery or by vicarious experience alone.
Article
The present article presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of per- sonal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of ob- stacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from four principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. The more de- pendable the experiential sources, the greater are the changes in perceived self- efficacy. A number of factors are identified as influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arising from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and be- havioral changes. Possible directions for further research are discussed.
Article
Evaluated the utility and validity of A. Bandura's (see record 1977-25733-001) self-efficacy theory and G. A. Marlatt's (1978) theoretical model of relapse in a study of 78 cigarette smokers (aged 16–70 yrs) from 2 cessation programs. Pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up assessments of smoking behavior, self-efficacy, and mood states (Profile of Mood States) were obtained. Efficacy state was found to be significantly enhanced as the result of both treatment programs. Ss' scores on the 7 clusters from a posttreatment efficacy state inventory were used as predictor variables in a multiple regression analysis to predict which Ss would relapse and how long, on a dichotomous time variable, they would remain abstinent before relapse. A microanalysis revealed an extremely high correspondence between the cluster of smoking situations in which relapsing Ss experienced a low degree of self-efficacy and the situation in which relapse first occurred. Analysis of mood and efficacy data during follow-up indicated that relapsing Ss demonstrated aspects of a cognitive dissonance reaction and a personal attribution effect that were consistent with Marlatt's description of the abstinence violation effect. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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