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A second precognitive dream study with Malcolm Bessent.

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Abstract

Conducted a 16-night study with a "sensitive" who had reported precognitive dreams and who had produced statistically significant results in an earlier experiment. A "target pool" of 10 slide-and-sound sequences was created. On odd-numbered nights S was told to dream about the target which would be randomly selected the next night. On even-numbered nights, 1 of the 10 sequences was randomly selected; S was exposed to this target material and told to dream about it. 3 judges (Js) working blind and independently were exposed to the target material and read all 16 dream protocols. Js then rated all the protocols against all 8 targets. The target for the 8 precognition nights received higher ratings than any of the other pairings for that target in 5 out of 8 instances (p < .0012, 1-tailed). The target for the 8 postexperience nights did not receive higher ratings than any of the other pairings for that target in any instance. Analysis of variance produced significant results only for precognition nights (F = 4.4, p < .005). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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... The research group at the Maimonides hospital in New York carried out studies on telepathy and dreaming (Ullman, Krippner & Vaughan, 1977) and two studies on precognitive dreams (Krippner et al., 1971;1972). Participant in both studies was Malcolm Bessent, an English "sensitive" with a history of reported spontaneous precognitive dreams. ...
... The second study with a slightly different design also yielded five hits (p = .0012; Krippner et al., 1972). Among the most impressive hit was the following dream account which was rated with an average agreement of 98.3 % by the three judges: ...
... We have found that the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli is predictably guided by contextual variables such as the perceiver's psychophysical state, embedded environmental cues, symbolic-metaphorical references, demand characteristics of the situation, and prior beliefs and expectations (Lange, Houran, Harte, & Havens, 1996;Houran, Lange, & Crist-Houran, 1997). Consistent with the findings by Krippner et al. (1971Krippner et al. ( , 1972, it seems likely therefore that dreams are subject to the same influences as well (Houran, 1998). ...
Article
Using a framework derived from nonlinear dynamics, two studies investigated a cusp model of precognitive dreaming using the GEMCAT II software for catastrophe estimation. As predicted, Study I (N = 50) and Study II (N = 59) both indicated that tolerance of ambiguity and dream recall loaded significantly on the cusp's latent bifurcation variable (Y), whereas belief in the paranormal functioned as an asymmetry variable (X) (all p < .05). The validity of the proposed model is supported by the findings that a competing linear model, as well as an alternative cusp formulation in which the roles of the X and Y indicators were reversed provided a significantly poorer fit to the data in both experiments (p < .001) than the hypothesized cusp formulation. The differential fit of the three models is reflected both in the models' (Pseudo-) R2- values and via standard non-parametric tests over the models' squared residuals. The findings support the hypothesis that some experiences of precognitive dreams (represented by the statement "There have been events that I dreamed about before the event occurred") are illusions, i.e., coincidences between the contents of dreaming and waking experience that are noticed due to frequency of dream recall and given credence due to the combined effects of belief in the paranormal and a tolerance of ambiguity.
... By "well-controlled," we mean the following: (a) Participants were asked to attempt to dream about a target they would see the next day (i.e., images, staged multisensory experiences, or video clips); (b) a random-number generator was used to select one target from a pool of at least four available targets (e.g., a video clip of a birthday party) and only that one target was later shown to the dreamer; (c) on each trial the experimenters selected the target only after dream reporting was complete and submitted to the experimenters, and before the experimenters read the dream reports; (d) independent judges naïve to the identity of the actual target judged the similarity between dream content and the target; (e) judges' responses were considered final. Researchers reported significant results using binomial statistics (␣ ϭ 0.05, two-tailed tests) in three out of four of these studies (Krippner, Honorton, & Ullman, 1972;Krippner, Ullman, & Honorton, 1971;Watt, 2014). The fourth study (Watt, Wiseman, & Vuillaume, 2015) did not show statistically significant results but the effect was in the predicted direction (ES ϭ 0.11; N ϭ 20 with one trial per person). 1 Four other peer-reviewed experiments deserve consideration (Luke, 2002;Luke & Zychowicz, 2014;Luke, Zychowicz, Richterova, Tjurina, & Polonnikova, 2012;Sherwood, Roe, Simmons, & Biles, 2002), although they do not fit our methodological constraints. ...
... The experimenters then sent a website link to this one video clip to the dreamer. The two earlier dream precognition studies were similarly well controlled, but those studies used only one dreamer who performed multiple trials (Krippner et al., 1972;Krippner, Ullman, & Honorton, 1971). ...
... To better assess whether dreams can reveal veridical information about truly unpredictable future events, what is needed are repeated studies performed across multiple laboratories. Those studies should ideally use the same controlled groupstudy methods employed by with larger sample sizes and controls for selfselection bias, or with controlled singleparticipant methods (see Krippner et al., 1972;Krippner, Ullman, & Honorton, 1971). ...
Article
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Prospection, the act of attempting to foresee one’s future, is generally assumed to be based on conscious and nonconscious inferences from past experiences and anticipation of future possibilities. Most scientists consider the idea that prospection may also involve influences from the future to be flatly impossible due to violation of common sense or constraints based on one or more physical laws. We present several classes of empirical evidence challenging this common assumption. If this line of evidence can be successfully and independently replicated using preregistered designs and analyses, then the consequences for the interpretation of experimental results from any empirical domain would be profound.
... Finally, while precognitive dreaming is the most common precognitive experience, controlled tests of precognitive dreaming have been few and far between (Radin and Mossbridge 2018). Except when a pre-screened skilled participant was used as the dreamer (e.g., Krippner et al. 1971Krippner et al. , 1972, the overall results of precognitive dreaming experiments have been equivocal, probably as a result of most people's ability to connect their dream content to future events even when there is only a very weak relationship between them -giving them the belief that they are skilled at precognitive dreaming. As a result of these caveats about other forms of precognition, it seems that precognitive experiences at the extremes -presentiment (or predictive anticipatory activity) on one hand and precognitive remote viewing on the other -may be the easiest to study in controlled experiments. ...
Conference Paper
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The rigorous scientific study of precognition, the human ability to accurately predict future events that are not predictable based on information about the past or from the five senses, spans the last 90 years. This review parcels out different types of precognition, describes the basic principles of precognition research, and discusses the evidence and potential mechanisms for two very different forms of precognition-largely unconscious precognition with short lead times (e.g., presentiment) and largely conscious precognition with longer lead times (e.g., precognitive remote viewing).
... Finally, while precognitive dreaming is the most commonly reported precognitive experience (Rosenberg 2016), controlled tests of precognitive dreaming have been few and far between (Mossbridge & Radin 2018). Except when a pre-screened skilled participant was used as the dreamer (e.g., Krippner et al. 1971Krippner et al. , 1972, the overall results of well-controlled precognitive dreaming experiments have thus far been equivocal. This may be a result of most people's ability to connect their dream content to future events even when there is only a very weak relationship between them, giving them the belief that they are skilled at precognitive dreaming and providing motivation to enroll in precognitive dreaming experiments. ...
Preprint
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This paper is very similar to an earlier non-peer reviewed version submitted to Behind and Beyond the Brain: The Mystery of Time 13th Symposium of the Bial Foundation 2022. Highlights: • Precognition is the scientific term for physiology, behavior, perception and cognition that seems to reflect future events that should not be predictable by usual means. • There are many kinds of precognitive phenomena, but two are described in detail: Presentiment (physiological precognition) and precognitive remote viewing (perceptual and cognitive precognition). • Presentiment and precognitive remote viewing have very different characteristics, suggesting they draw from distinct mechanisms. • A physical-time-symmetry (PTS) model may explain presentiment, and a pervasive-universal-consciousness (PUC) model may explain precognitive remote viewing. • Each model has testable elements and is therefore falsifiable.
... ▪ five studies with a total of 47 trials (one by Ullman, 1969;two by Ullman & Krippner, 1969;and two by Ullman, Krippner, & Feldstein, 1966); ▪ four studies with a total of 36 trials (Krippner, Honorton, & Ullman, 1972Krippner, Honorton, Ullman, Masters, & Houston, 1971); ▪ three studies with a total of 18 trials (all three by Ullman, Krippner, & Vaughan, 1973). ...
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Partiendo de la convención que postula que los pilares de la labor clínica son el análisis personal; la formación teórica y la supervisión; el presente trabajo intentará recorrer una serie de fenómenos que hacen vigente esta convención. Considerar que la labor clínica es lo suficientemente compleja al punto de necesitar de tres sólidos pilares para su sostenimiento requiere reflexionar desde la teoría, la técnica y la clínica misma cuales son las causas que hacen necesarios los pilares mencionados. Así, se intentará recorrer distintos conceptos que nos permitirán adentrarnos en la mirada íntima del analista.
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In order to further our understanding about the limits of human consciousness and the dream state, we report meta-analytic results on experimental dream-ESP studies for the period 1966 to 2016. Dream-ESP can be defined as a form of extra-sensory perception (ESP) in which a dreaming perceiver ostensibly gains information about a randomly selected target without using the normal sensory modalities or logical inference. Studies fell into two categories: the Maimonides Dream Lab (MDL) studies (n = 14), and independent (non-MDL) studies (n = 36). The MDL dataset yielded mean ES = .33 (SD = 0.37); the non-MDL studies yielded mean ES = .14 (SD = 0.27). The difference between the two mean values was not significant. A homogeneous dataset (N = 50) yielded a mean z of 0.75 (ES = .20, SD = 0.31), with corresponding significant Stouffer Z = 5.32, p = 5.19×10-8, suggesting that dream content can be used to identify target materials correctly and more often than would be expected by chance. No significant differences were found between: (a) three modes of ESP (telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition), (b) senders, (c) perceivers, or (d) REM/non-REM monitoring. The ES difference between dynamic targets (e.g., movie-film) and static (e.g., photographs) targets was not significant. We also found that significant improvements in the quality of the studies was not related to ES, but ES did decline over the 51-year period. Bayesian analysis of the same homogeneous dataset yielded results supporting the 'frequentist' finding that the null hypothesis should be rejected. We conclude that the dream-ESP paradigm in parapsychology is worthy of continued investigation, but we recommend design improvements.
Chapter
Although claims of psychic phenomena have been with us since antiquity, the beginning of organized research into the nature of these phenomena is usually associated with the founding in 1882 of the Society for Psychical Research in London. The S.P.R. was the brainchild of a group of distinguished scholars who were concerned primarily with the question of survival after death, and who believed that scientific research might provide a more satisfactory resolution of this problem than had the current religious dogma (Gauld, 1968). The S.P.R., as well as its sister society established a few years later in America, devoted its energies to two principal lines of ESP research. The first was a thorough investigation of reports of “real-life” psychic experiences (e.g., telepathy, apparitional experiences, hauntings) with the purpose of demonstrating that they could not be adequately explained by “normal” causes (e.g., Gumey, Myers, and Podmore, 1886/1970; Myers, 1903/1975). The second approach involved the investigation of spiritualist mediums who claimed the ability to communicate with the dead. Although some of these mediums proved to be fraudulent, others consistently were able to provide investigators with remarkably detailed information about deceased persons, information that it is difficult to conceive of their having acquired by normal means. Perhaps the most outstanding of these mediums were Leonore Piper (Hodgson, 1897–1898) and Gladys Leonard (Smith, 1964). Whether the information received by these mediums originated from the “other side” or simply reflected their own ESP is still an unresolved issue in parapsychology, although most parapsychologists today recoil from the spiritualistic interpretation.
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Surveys and collections of spontaneous cases suggest that a large number of people have had experiences during their dreaming life that they interpret as instances of so-called "extrasensory perception" or ESP. Interpretation of these accounts is made difficult by the lack of control over the circumstances in which they occur, which leaves open the possibility that such experiences can be explained in terms of ordinary modes of communication or inference and errors of perception and memory. Experimentation allows for the control of these ordinary explanations, so that we can determine if any anomalous exchange of information remains unaccounted for. In this chapter we review the experimental studies of dream ESP that have been conducted to date, beginning with a substantial and influential series of experiments conducted at the Maimonides Medical Center and continuing with those conceptual replications that have followed, termed "post-Maimonides studies." Combined effect size estimates for both sets of studies suggest that judges could correctly identify target materials more often than would be expected by chance, using dream reports. The Maimonides studies were significantly more successful (p < 0.05) than post-Maimonides studies, which may be due to procedural differences, including the fact that post-Maimonides receivers tended to sleep at home and were generally not deliberately awakened from REM sleep. Methodological shortcomings of some studies are discussed. Nevertheless, we conclude that home dream ESP research has been successful and offers a more cost-effective and less labor-intensive alternative to sleep-laboratory-based research.
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