Self-determination theory and basic need satisfaction: Understanding human development in positive psychology

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Abstract
Positive Psychology has focused attention on positive human experiences and healthy outcomes, which is an important step toward a fuller understanding of human functioning in the social world. We argue, however, that the positive psychology movement has not gone far enough in specifying a meta-theoretical basis for a true positive psychology and that a full understanding of optimal experience and healthy development can not be achieved without relating those processes and outcomes to non-optimal experiences and diminished functioning. In this article we discuss self-determination theory, specifying an organismic-dialectical meta-theory and suggesting that the concept of basic psychological needs provides a useful basis for predicting whether the social environment will support optimal functioning or will, alternatively, promote maladaptation and ill-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • ... These inbuilt needs can be divided into three categories: relatedness, competence, and autonomy (Ryan & Deci, 2000a). Competence can be referred to as the confidence in one's abilities (Ryan & Deci, 2000a), and also the need to feel useful in one's surrounding, the feeling of efficiency when one attempts to interact with their world (Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004). An individual can achieve a proper feeling of competence, through either competition with others or with oneself, and this could be as a result of increased intrinsic motivations. ...
    ... The feeling of belonging to a social group or unit is referred as Relatedness (Ryan & Deci, 2000a), also the act of feeling linked to and having care for other people (Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004). ...
    ... The ability to self-regulate one's behaviours and actions in the process of achieving proposed goals is referred to as Autonomy (Ryan & Deci, 2000a). Autonomy frequently displays itself in one's abilities to "act in accord with [one's] integrated sense of self" (Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004). Every individual experience varying motivation based on their opinioned relationship to the three domains. ...
    Article
    Throughout the 21st century, change has been a predominant theme in the workplace. Increased technology and globalization are two key contributors to the changing landscape. The costs of occupational health and well-being are increasingly being considered as sound “investments” as healthy and engaged employees yield direct economic benefits to the company. The concept of work engagement plays a vital role in this endeavour because engagement entails positive definitions of employee health and promotes the optimal functioning of employees within an organizational setting. The present article reviewed existing human resource management and leadership literature and then proposes a framework that links employee engagement, workplace spirituality and ethical leadership. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT) that proffers workplace spirituality as an arbitrator in the relationship between employee work engagement and ethical leadership. A set of propositions that represent an empirically driven research agenda are presented.
  • ... Bu kişiler kendi amaçlarını tanımlayabilir ve amaçlara ulaşmak için sorumluluk alabilir, sorumluklarını yerine getirebilirler. Böylece birey yaşamı üzerinde kontrol sağlayabilir ve hayatını kendi düzenlemeyi başarabilir (Deci ve Ryan, 1985, 2000Deci, Vansteenkiste, 2004). Özerkliğin aileden ayrılma ve bağımsızlaşma anlamına gelmediği ve evrensel bir yapıda olduğu yapılan kültürler arası çalışmalarla tespit edilmiştir (Schwartz, 1994;Vansteenkiste, Zhou, Lens, ve Soenens. ...
    ... Yeterlik; bireyin yaptığı aktivitelerde yeteneklerini kullanabilmesi ve geliştirebilmesidir (Deci ve Ryan, 1985;Ryan ve Deci, 2000). Yeterlik bireyin yaşadığı çevrede etkin bir biçimde eylemde bulunabilmesi ve çevresiyle başa çıkmada kendini yeterli hissetmesidir (Deci ve Ryan, 1985, 2000Deci, Vansteenkiste, 2004). Bu bireyler içsel bir motivasyon ile kendilerini aşmaya çalışır, çevrelerini keşfetmek ve etkilemek isterler. ...
    ... Sosyal ilişki ihtiyacının giderilmesi içselleştirme sürecini kolaylaştırır. Bireyler kendi değer yargıları ve yaşantıları ile benzerlik gösteren kişiler ile yakınlık kurarak sosyal açıdan ilişkili olma duygularını içselleştirirler (Deci ve Ryan, 1985, 2000Deci, Vansteenkiste, 2004;Deci, Ryan, 2010a;Deci, Ryan, 2010b). Diğer bir deyişle bu ihtiyaç sosyal yapı içinde diğer insanlarla sağlıklı ilişkiler kurmanın önemini vurgular. ...
    Article
    The need to establish social connections and gain the love and respect of other people is considered as a fundamental requirement. This issue has been examined in the Self Determination Theory (SDT). According to SDT relatedness is a basic need for individuals. A scale was developed in English on the tenets of self-determination theory to evaluate the need of relatedness levels of individuals. This scale was named as “Need for Relatedness Scale”. In order to work on this subject in Turkish studies, valid and reliable Turkish instruments are needed. The aim of this study was to examine Self Determination Theory and adapt Need for Relatedness Scale (NRS-10) to Turkish. The scale determines the relatedness levels of adults in school and similar work environments. NRS-10 is a two-dimensional scale consisting of ten items. The Turkish equivalence study was conducted with a group of 90 senior students from English department of the foreign language school. Turkish form of the NRS-10 was named as the “Sosyal İlişki Gereksinimi Ölçeği” (SİGÖ-10). The study group consisted of totally 390 seniors. In addition to the Turkish version of NRS-10 a questionnaire and Turkish version of the Communal Mastery Scale were also used. Hypotheses testing and confirmatory factor analyses methods were used. Cronbach’s alpha and item-total correlation coefficients were also calculated. As a result of the findings, it was determined that the SİGÖ-10 can be used to collect data in Turkish studies. Similar studies have been proposed.
  • ... There are three basic psychological needs deemed essential for positive psychological functioning and thriving: competence, relatedness, and autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000. These three basic psychological needs are innate, universal, and applicable to all individuals regardless of culture (Chen et al., 2013;Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004). The need for competence focuses on the idea that people desire to feel competent and capable when dealing with social contexts and their environment (Harter, 1978;White, 1959). ...
    ... There are three basic psychological needs essential to optimal functioning that are universal to all individuals: competence, relatedness, and autonomy (Chen et al., 2013;Deci & Ryan, 1985;Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004;. According to self-determination theory, a broad framework of motivation, individuals have an innate desire for basic psychological need satisfaction, which requires nourishment from the social environment (Deci & Ryan, 1985;. ...
    Thesis
    Full-text available
    This research study evaluates the role of authentic leadership and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs on employee passion for work described as harmonious or obsessive passion.It links authentic leadership, passion, and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs in a quantitative, correlational, cross-sectional design.
  • ... It is assumed that every human strives to feel competent, for example, to acquire the skills necessary to perform a task efficiently. The need for autonomy refers to the feeling of psychological freedom and the need to make self-determined choice in the initiation, regulation and performance of behavior on the basis of one's own values and interests without external pressure or enforcement (Deci & Ryan, 2012; , 1995;Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004). ...
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    This study explores the impact of social media (Facebook and Twitter) on the name recognition of political candidates, using the 2020 Democratic primaries in the U.S. as a case study. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) identify the way(s) Americans use social media to engage in politics; (2) determine how users see political posts on social media; (3) test users’ digital literacy by asking if they knew why they saw these posts; and (4) explore whether these social media posts have any impact on a user’s opinion of a political candidate. A national survey was conducted using mixed-mode IVR/online methodology to ask American social media users questions about the four Democratic candidates who were polling highest at the time of the survey (March 2019). The findings indicate a relationship between social media posts about a political candidate and that candidate’s level of name recognition. The results of this study provide useful contributions to the emerging field of digital literacy research. Particularly, this study offers insight into Americans’ confidence levels in identifying political posts from political advertisements and their knowledge about how and why they see political posts in their social media feeds.
  • ... 적인 사고가 결합되어 나타나는 결과라고 볼 수 있다 (Lee, 2004 (Barron, West, & Reeves, 2007 (Choi, Choi, & Park, 2016 (Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004;Ryan & Deci, 2000a . 또한 진로 결 정을 하더라도 진로탐색행동을 하지 않는다면 진로목표를 달 성하기 어렵게 되므로 간호대학생의 진로탐색행동에 대한 고 려가 필요하다 (Kim & Lee, 2008 ...
    Article
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify a causal relationship among major satisfaction, career decision autonomy, and career search behavior of nursing college students in clinical practice experience. Methods: Data were collected using a self-reported questionnaires from 197 nursing students in S city from December 1 to 23, 2016. These were then analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA, t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression using SPSS/PC+ program. Results: The results suggest that major satisfaction was correlated with career decision autonomy; likewise, major satisfaction was correlated with career search behavior. The factors influencing career search behavior were grades and major satisfaction. Conclusion: It is necessary to develop a learning method considering interest and aptitude to increase the satisfaction of the major and to apply the various programs to understand the self and the work environment so as to determine how desirable the course will be.
  • ... Autonomy is the want to have self-control of one's own life and to be someone; however, Deci and Vansteenkiste [27] noted that this does not mean becoming independent of others. In the process of rehabilitation, PWPD faces such barriers as acting independently, their mobility being regulated by external aspects which causes the feeling of being unable to control their own body, self, and life [28]. ...
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    Background: This study was part of a 15-week sitting light volleyball (SLVB) intervention programme which examined the effectiveness of the intervention on physical and psychological attributes of adults with physical disabilities (PWPD) in Hong Kong. SLVB was a new sport, combing Paralympic volleyball and light volleyball. Gaining an in-depth understanding of the perceptions and experiences of PWPD in the SLVB intervention is critical to further develop SLVB as a PA intervention and sport. Using a social–ecological model (SEM), (a) the participants’ experiences regarding the intervention were assessed and (b) the suitability and feasibility of the SLVB intervention to PWPD were qualitatively examined. Methods: Twenty participants (mean age = 53.52 years standard deviation (SD = 9.02), 60% female participants; 25% had at least a college degree) attended our semi-structured interviews. Results: Using content analysis, their experiences at the individual or intrapersonal level (physical and psychological health, enjoyment, novelty, competence autonomy); interpersonal levels (socialization, teamwork, social support); organizational and community levels (perceived sport venue environment, venue accessibility, safety, dissemination of information, and community facilities); and policy level (resources allocation by the government) were obtained. The participants also commented on the suitability and feasibility of the SLVB intervention for PWPD, contents and coaching, modified rules, duration of session and scheduling, and number of participants and coaches. Conclusion: This qualitative study identified several themes for engaging PWPD in SLVB, and demonstrated that adopting a multilevel approach to intervention in SLVB has positive outcomes to participants. In general, SLVB is suitable and feasible to PWPD. The study contributes to an in-depth understanding of the experiences among PWPD in the SLVB intervention, which is very critical to the further development of SLVB in terms of a PA intervention and sport.
  • ... 3. Social relatedness refers to the strong desire to interact with, be connected to, and care for others [9]. It depicts the urge of the individual for coherent integration with the social environment [37,57]. ...
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    Learner motivation to self-improve is a crucial effectiveness factor in all modes and settings of learning. Game-based learning was long used for attracting and maintaining students’ interest especially in small ages, deploying means such as scoring, timing, scores of peers (i.e., hall of fame), etc. These techniques can provide recognition for high-scoring players, while also developing a sense of safe “distance” in the impersonal electronic environment for low-scoring players. In addition, constructive feedback on mistakes a player makes can contribute to avoiding similar mistakes in the future, thus achieving better performance in the game, while constructing valuable new knowledge when a knowledge gap is detected. This paper investigates an integrated approach to designing, implementing, and using an adaptive game for assessing and gradually improving multiplication skills. Student motivation is fostered by incorporating the Open Learner Model approach, which exposes part of the underlying user model to the students in a graphically simplified manner that is easily perceivable and offers a clear picture of student performance. In addition, the Open Learner Model is expanded with visualizations of social comparison information, where students can access the progress of anonymous peers and summative class scores for improving self-reflection and fostering self-regulated learning. This paper also presents the feedback received by the preliminary testing of the game and discusses the effect of assessing multiplication skills of primary school pupils using the adaptive game-based approach on increasing pupil motivation to self-improve.
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    Background. For uncommon events in medicine, such as pediatric CPR, more frequent training is associated with improved performance among healthcare providers and physicians in training. Gamified learning may facilitate motivation to practice CPR, though studies to support this are lacking. Intervention. Residents were interviewed to understand motivating factors for CPR practice outside of a traditional classroom certification setting. Methods. We used a qualitative study design within a larger multinational study. Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were completed with pediatric residents using a constructivist approach. Transcripts were reviewed independently by two authors (IHG, JLS). Results. The inductive framework gradually moved away from gamification and towards that of self-determination. Participating residents reported several types of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational drivers towards practicing CPR, such as practicing CPR to prepare, or as a connection to clinical practice. Some themes were amotivational, such as performance anxiety, and detracted from their drive to practice. Despite a gamification design to this curriculum, these components were rarely mentioned. These themes related to achieving Maslow’s three psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness and competence. Conclusion. The motivation to practice CPR among residents aligns with the self-determination theory. By stimulating intrinsic motivating factors, future curriculum design may better motivate residents to practice CPR.
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    The current study was conducted with the aim of exploring the role of self- emotional support and self-determination to predict marital relationship in marital conflicts of married women. The research method was descriptive and correlational. For this purpose, 150 married women from Qods city were selected through convenient sampling and voluntar participation. They completed a revised form of Marital Conflict Questionnaire, family scale of Social Support Questionnaire, and the scale of Satisfaction of Essential Needs in Relationships. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression test by SPSS.V.20 software. The results showed a significant correlation between family emotional support and self-determination in marital relationship with marital conflicts. Also, the results showed family emotional support, autonomy, competence and communication (the dimensions of self-determination) can predict 34% of variance of marital conflicts in married women. Strengthening spouse support for women and satisfying the needs of self-determination in couples can provide a condition for positive interactions and reduce marital conflict. Keywords: self-determination, emotional support, marital conflicts
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