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Self-determination theory and basic need satisfaction: Understanding human development in positive psychology

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Abstract

Positive Psychology has focused attention on positive human experiences and healthy outcomes, which is an important step toward a fuller understanding of human functioning in the social world. We argue, however, that the positive psychology movement has not gone far enough in specifying a meta-theoretical basis for a true positive psychology and that a full understanding of optimal experience and healthy development can not be achieved without relating those processes and outcomes to non-optimal experiences and diminished functioning. In this article we discuss self-determination theory, specifying an organismic-dialectical meta-theory and suggesting that the concept of basic psychological needs provides a useful basis for predicting whether the social environment will support optimal functioning or will, alternatively, promote maladaptation and ill-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Teachers who are supportive of autono my rather than controlling have students who are higher in need satisfaction and who are more autonomously motivated (Cheon, Reeve & Moon, 2012). In SDT, three universal and inherent psychological needs are identified that are required for optimal development and psychological health (Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004). These needs are the need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, (Deci & Ryan, 2008a). ...
... With a mean of 4.6 on a 7-point scale for autonomy support and a stable mean of 5.5 for need satisfaction, the students in this study seem to be in an environment that enhances autonomous motivation in PE. The satisfaction of the three needs is important for human growth and functioning Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004). ...
Chapter
Denne tredje NAFOL-boken er en unik bok på det norske markedet. Den inneholder en samling av forskningsartikler om lærerutdanningsforskning som krysser nasjonale grenser, fagdisipliner og ikke minst utdanningsnivå, fra barnehage til forskeropplæring. Artiklene, som kommer fra USA, Tyskland, Island og Seychellene, gir innblikk i den inter nasjonale lærerutdanningsforskningen, mens de norske artiklene gir et bredt bilde av den positive aktiviteten vi nå ser i norsk forskning på området. Det er stort mangfold både i forskningstematikk og forskningsmetoder. Det er også positivt at unge norske forskere når et bredere publikum ved å skrive på engelsk, uten at det skal gå på bekostning av verdien av å ha god forskningslitteratur skrevet på norsk. NAFOL står sentralt i denne utviklingen med sine vel 200 tidligere og nåværende stipendiater.NAFOL-bøkene, og ikke minst denne boken, gir et bilde av dagens lærerutdanningsforskning.Dette kommer frem i åpningsartikkelen, som presenterer et evaluerings prosjekt NAFOL satte i gang, og ikke minst i den avsluttende artikkelen, som har en grundig gjennom gang av et knippe NAFOL-prosjekter. Denne boken er en kilde for nye og erfarne forskere som ønsker å holde seg oppdatert på norsk og internasjonal lærerutdanningsforskning.
... SDT (Deci & Ryan, 2008) is a framework for understanding the choices people make without external influence and interference. This framework, similarly to the perspective of positive psychology, presents ways in which individuals' can achieve personal growth and flourishing (Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004). Specifically, SDT (Deci & Ryan, 2008) is a theory of human emotion that concerns an individual's innate psychological needs which include competence, autonomy, and psychological relatedness. ...
... From a self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan, 2008) perspective, these findings indicate that dysmenorrhea has had a profound, often negative impact on the adolescents' three innate psychological needs. The SDT framework, similarly to the perspective of positive psychology, presents ways in which individuals' can achieve personal growth and flourishing (Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004). Specifically, SDT (Deci & Ryan, 2008) is a theory of human emotion that concerns an individual's innate psychological needs which include competence, autonomy, and psychological relatedness. ...
Thesis
Dysmenorrhea, more commonly known as period-related pelvic pain, is a highly prevalent complaint among adolescent girls. Previous research has shown that up to 92% of adolescent girls (<18 years) report some form of menstrual pain, which is often poorly managed. Although evidence suggests that dysmenorrhea can have a profound negative impact on many aspects of adolescents’ lives, research on this topic is still in its infancy. This work summarises the findings from one systematic review, two empirical qualitative studies conducted with adolescents and mothers, and one quantitative questionnaire study developed to address the gap in the current literature. In-depth, individual interviews were conducted with 20 adolescents (aged 12-18 years) experiencing dysmenorrhea, and 20 mothers of daughters with dysmenorrhea. This explorative research demonstrated that dysmenorrhea can have a profound negative impact on all aspects of the adolescents’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The adolescents interviewed reported that dysmenorrhea had a negative impact on their psychological, social, physical and school functioning, and well-being. Mothers also reported that dysmenorrhea had a negative impact on many aspects of family functioning, including increased tensions within households and financial implications (e.g., mothers taking time off of work to care for their daughters). Exploratory qualitative methods allowed the adolescents and their mothers to provide detailed accounts of their experiences in their own voices. As a result, several novel findings came from these studies including that, for some adolescents, there was a perceived positive impact of dysmenorrhea. In addition, both sets of interviews showed that there were a variety of misconceptions about the causes and treatments of dysmenorrhea. The findings from the review of the existing literature and two qualitative studies informed the development of a working model whereby psychosocial factors influenced quality of life (QoL) outcomes among adolescent girls experiencing dysmenorrhea. The final, quantitative study of 333 adolescent girls aged 13-18 years showed that perception of other bodily symptoms (β=-.314, p=.000), levels of anxiety (β= -.194, p=.004) and depression (β= -.165, p=.005), usual severity of menstrual pain (β= -.152, p=.013), and pain coping (β= -.103, p=.035) significantly predicted QoL outcomes among adolescents experiencing dysmenorrhea. Family functioning and pain severity of the most recent menstruation did not significantly predict QoL outcomes. As predicted, psychological factors predicted QoL outcomes over and above the severity of pain. These findings can be used to inform the development of psychological interventions to improve QoL outcomes among adolescent girls experiencing dysmenorrhea. The final chapter of this thesis explores the implications of these findings for adolescent girls, their families, health care professionals, and future research.
... Interestingly, intrinsic motivation was not a predictor for EDP class membership, while it is considered an influential predictor for outcomes Psychotherapy Research 9 in the literature (Vall & Wade, 2015). Self-determination theory suggests it is promoted by focusing on universal needs, such as autonomy, competence and connection (Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004). These universal needs are closely related to the concept of well-being. ...
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Objective: There are considerable differences in how eating disorder (ED) patients respond to treatment. This study aimed to identify change trajectories of mental health during treatment. Method: Longitudinal data of 442 patients was used with five time points during a year of outpatient treatment. ED psychopathology and well-being were used as primary measures. A series of latent growth mixture models were applied to model trajectories of change. Results: Three latent classes were found for ED psychopathology and well-being. For ED psychopathology, a high baseline severity and slow recovery class (55.9% of the patients), a high baseline severity followed by a substantial recovery class (19.9%) and a moderate baseline severity and no significant recovery class (24.2%) were found. For well-being, a low baseline followed by a slow growth class (44.6%), a low baseline and substantial growth class (9.5%) and a moderate and stable well-being class (45.9%) was found. General psychopathology, early symptom change, hope for recovery, intrinsic motivation and the ED type were predictive of class membership in either ED psychopathology or well-being. Conclusions: This study shows variability in ED psychopathology and well-being change trajectories, modelled in meaningful latent recovery classes. These results may have clinical implications, such as adjusting patients’ treatment based on change trajectories.
... Therefore, when the MT and SE of vocational students are high, it will positively correlate with their academic performance and social interaction in school and enhance their CA. Based on the above two theoretical and empirical studies, this study concluded that FF, MT, and SE are important factors affecting the CA of vocational students, and therefore the following hypotheses were developed (see Figure 1): H 1 : FF will negatively affect CA H 2 : MT will positively affect CA H 3 : SE will positively affect CA SDT suggests that human beings have three innate needs: Competence, Relatedness, and Autonomy, and that if these needs are met, it will bring about the best development and progress for the individual (Deci and Vansteenkiste, 2004;Deci and Ryan, 2012;Ryan and Deci, 2017). Conversely, when these needs are not met, the individual will act to change in response to the unmet needs (McDavid et al., 2014;Mouratidis et al., 2015;Howard et al., 2021). ...
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It is an important issue for vocational school students to have good adaptability for their future life. This study combines career construction theory and self-determination theory to construct a model to explore the relationship between the “motivation,” “self-efficacy,” “fear of failure,” “career adaptability,” and “meaning in life” of vocational school students. This study used a secondary data research method and retrieved a total of 2,377 data from vocational school students in Taiwan from the perspective of data exploration using PISA 2018 data, which was validated by the partial least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM). The following results were obtained: (1) Vocational students were afraid that failure would have a negative impact on their career adaptability. (2) Motivation and Self-efficacy had a positive effect on career adaptability. (3) Motivation positively affected fear of failure. (4) Self-efficacy negatively affected fear of failure. (5) Meaning in life could positively moderate the effect of self-efficacy on fear of failure. (6) However, there was no statistical difference in the moderating effect of meaning in life on the relationship between motivation and fear of failure. First, fear of failure negatively affected career adaptability, while motivation and self-efficacy positively affected career adaptability; compared to the three effects, the negative effect of fear of failure may not be as great as expected. Second, motivation is like a double-edged sword as it improves adaptability, but it also comes with an increased fear of failure. On the contrary, self-efficacy can simultaneously improve the career adaptability of vocational students and reduce their fear of failure. Therefore, the development of self-efficacy should be given priority over motivation in the career adaptability enhancement strategy of vocational students. Finally, the meaning of life can positively moderate the negative influence of self-efficacy on the fear of failure. In other words, for vocational students with a low sense of self-efficacy, perhaps life education can be used instead as a strategy to reduce their fear of failure.
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Human Capital is the most valuable resource of a company. In nowadays there are no exact ways about how can we measure it. Recognizing or measuring knowledge and skills of employees also has strategic importance. Lepak-Snell (1999) Becker (1962) and Schulcz et. al. (2013) speak in their paper about the level of motivation. A perfectly motivated employee is more valuable. But how can we measure the value of motivation? What psychologists think about perfect motivation? Based on Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory we could assume that speak about perfect motivation is equal to intrinsic motivation. We have measured the levels of motivation (intrinsically and extrinsically) on a sample (N=471). In the paper, we search the answer for the question: is the intrinsically motivated person is more valuable for a university or for a firm, or an extrinsically motivated person can also add the amount of value.
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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore whether the self-direction mediates the structural relationships between parental autonomy support and the career adaptation of pre-service childcare teachers.Methods: The participants in this study were 272 2nd, 3rd, 4th grade the departments related to child studies and childcare in the region of Gangwon and Gyeongbuk, Pusan, Seoul, Daegu. The study assessed the topics of career adaptability, self-direction and parental autonomy support among pre-service childcare teachers using a questionnaire. The SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 programs were used for the data analysis. The maximun likelihood estimation (MLE) method was used to examine the model fit. Goodness of fit was evaluated using absolute fit indices SRMR, RMSEA and well as relative fit indices CFI and TLI.Results: Results revealed th following four major findings. First, parental autonomy support was found to affects the career adaptability of pre-service childcare teachers. Second, self-direction was found to affect the career adaptability of pre-service childcare teachers. Third, parental autonomy support was found to affect the self-direction of pre-service childcare teachers. Finally, parental autonomy support was found to indirectly affects career adaptability of pre-service childcare teachers through self-direction.Conclusion: This study makes a meaningful contribution by determining relationship between the factor of patental autonomy support, self-direction, and career adaptability among pre-service childcare teachers. Given that self-direction was found to mediate the relationship between parental autonomy support and career adaptability of pre-service childcare teachers, it is suggested that parental autonomy support is a important environmental factor involved in developing self-direction.
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This study proposes Magic Brush, an AI-based application for dementia prevention targeting middle-aged individuals who may be at risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. In order to prevent dementia effectively at home, it is important to strengthen their intrinsic motivation. Promoting motivation is a critical issue in designing computerized cognitive therapy (CCT) for sustainability. Guided by self-determination theory, three main factors of intrinsic motivation were utilized as the main themes for the development: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Especially, we focused on demotivating factors of low competence which are commonly shared among the elderly and developed a magic brush function equipped with neural style transfer technology to help disconnect the link between low competence and demotivation. The user study (n=35) targeting individuals aged over 50 was conducted with both quantitative and qualitative methods. In general, users reported positive experiences with Magic Brush. The results of Structural Equation Modeling analysis showed that intrinsic motivation is an important contributor to the intention to use together with perceived usefulness. Intrinsic motivation can be promoted by AI therapist likability and perception of one's own performance. Discussion and implications are provided in relation to using AI technology to promote motivation.
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هدفت الدراسة التعرف الى مدى امتلاكهم للحيوية الذاتية الابداعية في اداء الامتحانات وانجاح العملية التعليمية، ومعرفة الفروق ذات الدلالة الاحصائية في الحيوية الذاتية الابداعية لهم تبعاً لمتغير الجنس (ذكور-أناث). وقد قامت الـباحثة ببناء مقياس الـحيـويـة الـــذاتيـة الابداعية معتمدتاً على نظرية ريان فريدريك (Ryan, & Frederick, 1997)، كونها تتلائم مع أهداف البحث وعينته، وقد كانت فقرات مقياس الحيوية الذاتية الابداعية بصورتها النهائية (40) فقرة موزعة على أربعة مجالات ، الطاقة البدنية ، الدافعية العقلية ، الابداع الانفعالي " الفاعلية الاجتماعية الإبداعية، وتم استخراج الصدق والثبات، واستخراج القوة التمييزية بطريقتي أسلوب المجموعتين المتطرفة، وعلاقة الفقرة بالدرجة الكلية، وللتحقق من أهداف البحث تم اختيار ٤٠٠) طالباً وطالبة من طلبة السادس الإعدادي بطريقة عشوائية من المراكز الامتحانيه التابعة لمديريات تربية الرصافة محافظة بغداد ، تم تطبيق المقياس ، واظهرت النتائج ان طلبة الصف السادس الاعدادي لديهم حيوية ذاتية ابداعية ، ولا توجد فروق بين الذكور والاناث وكذلك لا توجد فروق بين الفرع العلمي والادبي وفي ضوء النتائج وضعت الباحثة جملة من التوصيات والمقترحات.
Chapter
This chapter unpacks Marx’s positive concept of freedom on the basis of his theory of human development. It argues that Marx has a positive concept of freedom rather than a neo-Roman or “republican” one, which is vital for understanding how to overcome both personal and impersonal domination. On this view, one is free in an activity if and only if one is able to consciously self-direct it. Exercising human powers of conscious self-direction is both in itself a valuable mode of human development and positively impacts the development of many other powers. Finally, the chapter shows how this concept of freedom is important for understanding the requirements of universal human emancipation and how it can be defended against common criticisms, including Isaiah Berlin’s objection that it lends support to authoritarianism.KeywordsFreedomLibertyDominationRepublicanismEmancipation
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