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Effects of Three Types of Thought Content Instructions on Skiing Performance

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Abstract

Assessed the effects of instructions (i.e., to think particular types of thoughts) on the cross-country skiing performances of 18 elite skiers. Instructions consisted of task-relevant statements, mood words, and positive self-statements. Performances on a standard test track under thought control conditions were compared with similar efforts under normal (control) thinking. 13 Ss also recorded heart rates at the completion of each trial. It was found that 16 Ss improved performance by more than 3% in all conditions, whereas 2 Ss improved in only 1 condition. Heart rates were marginally higher in each experimental condition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... The importance of mastering the stream of thoughts during trainings and competitions is fundamental for success. Researches have been studying the use of appropriate thought control procedures to enhance athletic performance (Rushall et al., 1988). According to Kolovelonis et al. (2011), the use of appropriate cue words can help athletes organizing their thoughts and motivate themselves during long trainings and competitions (Zinsser et al., 2006). ...
... Singer et al. (1991) state that the key for successful performance is the ability to direct attention to task-relevant cues and not be distracted by irrelevant information. The "control of the content of thoughts is very important for improving the results" (Rushall et al., 1988). Indeed, as supported by Kahrović et al. (2014). ...
... Gammage et al. (2001) divide positive and motivational self-talk into three categories: single cue words (e.g., 'Focus', 'Breathe'), phrases (e.g., 'You can do it', 'Let's go', 'Come on'), and full sentences (e.g., 'Keep it up, you're almost done 'Remember why you are doing this'). In order to overcome unwanted thoughts Rushall et al. (1988) advocate different types of cue words such as task-relevant statements, mood words, and positive self-statements. The effectiveness and consequences of using emotive cue words during thoughts' suppression has both theoretical and practical significance (Dugdale & Eklund, 2002). ...
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The victory of the Team GB cyclist caught the attention of multiple researches wondering how the team won. In the interview, the performance director of British cycling Dave Brailsford reveals the method to reach the performance’s excellence: “‘If a mechanic sticks a tyre on, and someone comes along and says it could be done better, it's not an insult - it's because we are always striving for improvement, for those 1% gains, in absolutely every single thing we do [...]; taking their own pillows when moving training sites to ensure consistently good sleep; employing cutting-edge ‘skin suits’ and endlessly refining their riding position to make tiny improvements to their aerodynamic efficiency. Even surgical hand washing techniques have reportedly been implemented in an attempt to minimise episodes of minor illness that disrupt athletes’ training” (Slater, 2012). During a BBC interview after the incredible success obtained at the 2012 Olympics, Dave Brailsford defined the concept of marginal gains as: “The whole principle came from the idea that if you broke down everything you could think of that goes into riding a bike, then improved it by 1%, you will get a significant increase when you put them all together” (Slater, 2012).
... O αυτοδιάλογος με τη θετική του μορφή έχει αποδειχθεί ότι μπορεί να συμβάλλει στην αύξηση της απόδοσης των δοκιμαζόμενων σε σχέση και με την ομάδα ελέγχου (Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville & Rushall, 1988). Στην έρευνά τους οι Rushall et al. (1988), χρησιμοποιώντας τα μέλη των Ολυμπιακών ομάδων του σκι, εξέτασαν το χρόνο που απαιτούνταν για την συμπλήρωση μίας συγκεκριμένης διαδρομής. ...
... O αυτοδιάλογος με τη θετική του μορφή έχει αποδειχθεί ότι μπορεί να συμβάλλει στην αύξηση της απόδοσης των δοκιμαζόμενων σε σχέση και με την ομάδα ελέγχου (Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville & Rushall, 1988). Στην έρευνά τους οι Rushall et al. (1988), χρησιμοποιώντας τα μέλη των Ολυμπιακών ομάδων του σκι, εξέτασαν το χρόνο που απαιτούνταν για την συμπλήρωση μίας συγκεκριμένης διαδρομής. Οι δοκιμαζόμενοι χρησιμοποιούσαν εναλλακτικά διαφορετικές μορφές σκέψεις. ...
... O Shewchuk (1985), βρήκε ότι η απόδοση των κολυμβητών κατά τη διάρκεια της προπόνησής τους αυξανόταν ιδιαίτερα όταν καθοδηγούνταν να σκέφτονται λέξεις που δημιουργούσαν έντονη συγκινησιακή διέγερση. Οι Rushall et al. (1988), βρήκαν ότι η χρήση λέξεων όπως "οδήγα, οδήγα, πάμε, σχίζε" κ.α. βελτίωσε την απόδοση σε αθλητές του σκι. ...
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The purpose of this study is to present the “self-talk” technique and it’s various applications in sports. Reference is made to the comparison of the positive self-talk and the others cognitive strategies. The techniques that sport psychologists often use to control self-talk are also mentioned here. Finally, there is a brief reference to the studies related to the use of this technique for the rehabilitation from injuries and its combination with other psychological interventions for maximizing performance.
... (b) An athlete uses the word "boom" when performing a standing vertical jump (mood words; cf. Dugdale & Eklund, 2002;Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, & Rushall, 1988). (c) Table tennis performers are instructed to pretend to draw a right-angled triangle with the bat. ...
... The Mann-Whitney U test revealed that the only significant differences between the two groups were for the mood words scenario: an athlete using the word "boom" when performing a standing vertical jump (cf. Dugdale & Eklund, 2002;Rushall et al., 1988). Responses differed between the trainee and experienced practitioners regarding both the theoretical underpinning (Z ϭ Ϫ2.51, p Ͻ .05) and the underlying mechanism (Z ϭ Ϫ2.73, p Ͻ .05) ...
... This working model was subsequently exemplified in the mood word and task-relevant cognitions technique, represented in the survey by the standing vertical jump scenario (cf. Dugdale & Eklund, 2002;Rushall et al., 1988). Specifically, this technique had the highest uptake from the trainee practitioners (92.86%) and, importantly, the highest scores for Note. ...
Article
Practitioners place the importance of engaging in evidence-based practice at the forefront of issues regarding the provision of applied sport psychology. Accordingly, the present study sought to contextualize the process of theory-research-practice. Specifically, 4 attentional-based techniques established within the sport psychology literature were depicted as applied scenarios and presented as a survey task. Experienced United Kingdom-based practitioners (n = 14) and individuals currently undergoing training (n = 14) were recruited to ascertain their theoretical and mechanistic knowledge and whether the techniques were being used in the applied environment. Results suggested that application of the techniques, in addition to theoretical and mechanistic knowledge, may decrease from trainee to experienced practitioner. The study highlights the need for an increase in research designed to be effective in the applied setting and that addresses the needs of sport psychology practitioners if our discipline is to advance and remain evidence based.
... • *Canadian elite rowers (N = 5) improved an average of 3.5% on an ergometer task (Rushall, 1984b). • *Canadian national team cross-country skiers improved an average of 1.96% over a training track lap (Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, & Rushall, 1988). • Norwegian junior national team cross-country skiers improved an average of 2.5% using both skating and classical techniques over a training track lap (Kristiansen, 1992). ...
... All athletes recorded the strongest grip under the emotive mood word condition. Mood words enhance performance marginally better than either task-relevant content or positive selfstatements (Holingen & Vikander, 1987;Kristiansen, 1992;Rushall, 1984b;Rushall et al., 1988;Rushall & Shewchuck, 1989). ...
... These four psychological determinants of performance produced enhancements and alterations in a large number of the studies and participants considered. Performance improvements occurred without any notable extra perceived exertion (Chorkawy, 1982;Ford, 1982;McKinnon, 1985), increase in direct measurements of physiological parameters (Kristiansen, 1992;Morgan, Horstman, Cymerman, & Stokes, 1983;Rushall et al., 1988;Wilmore, 1970), or other increased thought dynamics, such as the degree of concentration or "trying harder" (Chorkawy, 1982;Ford, 1982;McKinnon, 1985). ...
Article
Some psychological factors associated with performance enhancement in serious athletes are discussed. Those factors are delimited to what occurs during a competitive performance. Four mental skills: (a) segmenting, (b) task-relevant thought content, (c) positive self-talk, and (d) mood words are reviewed. Typical thinking developed through sport participation, a very common control condition, is not conducive to optimal or maximal performance. The implementations of these mental skills produce athletic performance enhancements, even in elite athletes. Any extra effort or physiological cost does not accompany improvements. It is proposed that the teaching of these and similar skills must become part of an athlete's experience if performance standards are to be improved further. Psychology is the study of behavior, it being both covert and overt. It is relatively easy to investigate overt behaviors accurately and reliably and to employ independent verification of phenomena, but when it comes to covert behaviors, such as thoughts and emotional interpretations, the ability to verify phenomena independently is usually thwarted. While it remains possible to manipulate external events and observe behavioral outcomes, functional relationships between environmental psychological factors and performances can be described. It is not scientifically appropriate to attribute outcomes to intermediary events such as thoughts and perceptions when they have not been directly observed. A position on that restriction has been described elsewhere (Rushall, 1992). While talk is of thoughts and covert activities, it is the external stimulating events that influence them which are really the causal factors in the research works discussed. Serious Competitive Settings A serious competitive setting is where the consequences of performance are most important and strongest for an athlete. Factors that affect an athlete's perception of this setting have been described in the Sport Pressure Checklist (Rushall & Sherman, 1987). Variations in these factors produce performance inconsistencies (Teed, 1987) as well as suggest patterns that predispose excellent performances (Rushall, 1987). In challenging and serious performance situations, it has been found that performance-oriented "strategies" (plans) of specific detail have notable effects on performance consistency and reliability (Coles, Herzberger, Sperber, & Goetz, 1975; Vestewig, 1978). The need for specific preparations is now commonly recognized in several fields (e.g., business, performing arts) and its founding research so convincing that it is now rarely investigated. However, it is still being neglected in the majority of sporting situations by coaches and sport psychologists. Further, when strategies are formulated primarily by athletes they generally produce the following benefits: (a) reduction in uncertainty and interpretive distractions and the stress of negative situations, (b) enhanced performance consistency, (c) improved coping capacity for problems, and (d) minimized performance deteriorations (Averill, 1973; Hollandsworth, Glazeski, & Dressel, 1978). Research reports of the value of performance strategies in sports have been published (e.g.
... Ziegler (1987) examined the eff ect of a four-step self-talk instruction strategy on tennis forehand and backhand strokes and reported signifi cant performance improvement for both strokes. Finally, Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, and Rushall (1988) examined the impact of three diff erent types of self-talk: instruction, mood, and positive self-talk, on skiing performance. eir results showed that all types of self-talk cues resulted in improved performance. ...
... In one of the early studies in sport psychology, Rushall et al. (1988), based on earlier pain research (e.g., Jaremko, 1987), claimed that the use of specifi c cues by athletes could block thoughts related to or stemming from performance fatigue. Subsequently, they developed an intervention based on three assumptions regarding the way self-talk may facilitate performance. ...
... No significant differences were reported for the four ST groups. Contrarily, several early descriptive studies provided evidence for the effectiveness of ST on improving performance for endurance tasks and sport-specific tasks from basketball, tennis, and skiing (Hamilton & Fremour, 1985;Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, & Rushall, 1988;Weinberg, Smith, Jackson, & Gould, 1984;Ziegler, 1987). ...
... In terms of enhancing performance, instructional ST has proven beneficial in various situations, including this study (Harvey, Van Raalte, & Brewer, in press;Rushall, et al., 1988;Theodorakis, et al., 2000). Evidence in our study came from (a) the participants' performance improvement during the 12-week ST intervention, as shown from the assessment sessions, and (b) the experimental group participants' significantly improved performance in dribbling and passing two weeks past the experimental manipulation, as determined by the retention test scores. ...
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This study examined the effectiveness of instructional self-talk on acquiring and performing three basketball skills (dribbling, passing, and shooting). Sixty-two young, novice basketball players were organized into one experimental and one control group. During regular practices, the experimental group accompanied the execution of three specific drills with self-talk. The control group performed the same drills traditionally. Six assessment sessions were completed. Repeated measures MANOVAs showed that experimental group participants performed better than their control group counterparts when dribbling and passing. Experimental group participants and their coaches reported using self-talk more when passing and dribbling and less when shooting. In addition, experimental group participants achieved significantly better dribbling and passing scores (p < .05) among assessment sessions. These results support instructional self-talk as an effective tool for skill acquisition and performance enhancement of skills low in complexity. Interpretations consider skill complexity and the rate of self-talk use. Limitations and future research ideas are also discussed.■ A revolution for the role that cognition plays in influencing thoughts and behaviors has been apparent in mainstream psychology, which, in later years, has also flourished in the sport context (Whelan, Mahoney, & Meyers, 1991). Cogni-tive strategies include active mental processes that have been designed to influence or modify existing thought patterns. One of the most widely used cognitive strategies, as reported by athletes, is self-talk (ST; Gould, Finch, & Jackson, 1993; Madigan, Frey, & Matlock, 1992). Athletes often talk to themselves while they train or compete. Sometimes this dialogue is audible, yet usually athletes talk to themselves covertly, a practice known as self-talk. According to Zinsser, Bunker,
... In general, numerous experimental studies have focused on the positive influence of self-talk on sport performance. Relative early attempts revealed self-talk effectiveness on many sport areas including endurance performance (Weinberg, Smith, Jackson, & Gould, 1984), basketball (Hamilton & Fremour, 1985), tennis (Ziegler, 1987), skiing (Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, & Rushall, 1988) and track and field events (Mallet & Hanrahan, 1997). Hatzigeorgiadis et al. (2011) suggested that the most important aspect for a self-talk intervention is training. ...
... Our results are in line with previous research about task-specific instructional self-talk on athletic performance (e.g., Mallet & Hanrahan, 1997;Perkos et al., 2002;Rushall et al., 1988;Ziegler, 1987). When passing and serving, young athletes used the statements "fingers-target" and "straight-net-target" respectively. ...
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The present study examined the effects of a 12-week self-talk intervention on young (Mage =10.11, SD = .88) female athletes' performance in two fundamental volleyball skills. Participants were randomly assigned into one experimental (instructional self-talk) and one control group. The results revealed that instructional self-talk group improved its performance significantly in comparison to the control group. In general, the findings of the present study suggest that instructional self-talk can be an effective technique for novice volleyball players to acquire simple volleyball skills.
... Some studies reported improvements in athletic performance in swimming, 100-meter dash, golf and tennis tasks through instructional self-talk [6,12,6,17]. Some researchers contend that both types of self talk may improve performance [18]. Most studies have investigated the effect of self talk on adults but not adolescents [2]. ...
... The present findings showed that self talk, irrespective of its type, results in better basketball shooting, Passing and dribbling performance in both adults and adolescents. Previous research has typically supported the positive effects of self talk on motor learning and performance in regard to various variables including novice athletes [15], skilled athletes [12], learned skills [6], new skills [7], and different sports including sprints [14], skiing [18], tennis [12], basketball ball handling, shooting and dribbling [2,21]. Therefore, the present findings correspond to previous results. ...
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The present study aims at investigating the effect of instructional and motivational self talk on basketball shooting, dribbling and passing tasks in adults and adolescents. A number of 114 novice adult and adolescent participants were randomly assigned into three groups: instructional self talk, motivational self talk and control group. The assigning was carried out on each age group independently. The instructional self talk group used the phrase "wrist, center" for shooting task, "finger, target" for Passing task and "low, rhythm" for dribbling task. The motivational self talk group used the phrase "I can" for all the three tasks. The results of factorial ANOVA showed no significant difference between the effect of motivational and instructional self talk on adolescents comparing with adults in shooting task. There was no difference in Passing performance between adult and adolescent instructional self talk groups. However, there was a significant difference in passing performance between adult and adolescent motivational self talk groups. In dribbling task, instructional self talk culminated in better performance in adults comparing with adolescents. Nevertheless, motivational self talk yielded better dribbling performance in adolescents comparing with adults (P≤0.05). The results supported the task-dependent relationship between age and self talk efficacy. Therefore, based on the type of the task, different types of self talk may differently affect task performance.
... Negative emotions were least harmful (i.e., debilitating) for hard-work training. In addition, Canadian cross country ski team members performed 3.6% faster when they used emotion generating cue words such as "Go, drive, rip" (Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, & Rushall, 1988). ...
... Self-talk can also be used for promoting correct technique. In support of the above dynamics, Rushall et al. (1988) studied cross country ski team members and found that they performed 3.2% faster when they used positive self-statements. Henschen et al. (1992) showed how a four-month program of psychological skills training helped nine Paralympic wheelchair basketball players become less self-critical. ...
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In the last 10-20 years sport psychologists have started to emphasize the value of mental strengths such as self-confidence for disability sport athletes (Martin, 2012). The pinnacle of disability sport competition, the Paralympics, is becoming increasingly competitive, suggesting a strong need for athletes to possess effective mental skills. Like the Olympics there is intense pressure to win at the Paralympics. In the current review article I discuss the body of knowledge in sport psychology that focuses on potential direct and indirect determinants of performance in elite disability sport. The review is organized around a personnel developmental model used by Martin (1999, 2005, 2012). This model is a humanistic model and revolves around foundation qualities, psychological methods and skills, and facilitative and debilitative factors. The premise of the model is also similar to McCann's sentiment that “at the Olympics [Paralympics], everything is a performance issue” (2008, p. 267).
... ) 경기장을 회상하는 인지심 상의 효과와 전술 심상 탐색 (Rushall, 1988), 심상과 경쟁불안의 상 관관계 (Joo, 2012), 심상 유형에 따른 뇌 활성과 신경 기전 (Koo & Lee, 2010), 심상과 같은 심리기술을 활용한 경기력 향상 연구 (Jang & Lim, 2013;Koo et al., 2006;Lim, 2012) (Lim, 2012). 한편, Mahoney et al.(1987) (Yang et al., 2014) 긍정심리 (Kim & Park, 2019), 마음챙김 (Choi, 2020) (Jung & Kim, 2002;Lim, 2012;Paivio, 1985;Suinn, 1996) (Paivio, 1985;Suinn, 1996) ...
Article
This study aimed to explore elite taekwondo competitors’ imagery strategies . The study participants were 10 elite taekwondo athletes, who worked for S business team. Data were collected through open-ended questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The data were collected based on Gould et al. (1992)’s proposed qualitative research method. The inductive content analysis of the imagery was conducted following the imagery type of Paivio (1985) and Suinn (1996). The law data and case of imagery were separated by three specialists. The results were as follows. First, elite taekwondo competitors generally used the types of imagery proposed by Paivio (1985) and Suinn (1996). In particular, imagery of anxiety regulation appeared with the highest frequency among factors and ordered imagery of motivation, imagery of skills, imagery of mental skills, and imagery of competition. Second, elite taekwondo competitors mainly used imagery of skills before two weeks for competition. They mainly used imagery of anxiety regulation the day before a competition. They used imagery of anxiety regulation and imagery of motivation on the day of a competition. They used imagery of motivation after the competition. In sum, elite taekwondo competitors used individual strategies in terms of imagery in order to ensure effective training and peak performance in competition. The strategy of imagery was applied differently based on the juncture of the competition.
... Historically, much of the self-talk research has centered on strategic self-talk, or cue word interventions (Latinjak et al., 2019). For instance, positive cue words have enhanced performances in cross-country skiing (Rushall et al., 1988), dart throwing (Dagrou et al., 1992;Van Raalte et al., 1995), and field hockey penalty shots (Wrisberg & Anshel, 1997). Instructional cue words improved forehand ground strokes in novice tennis players (Ziegler, 1987), lowered elite sprinters' times (Mallet & Hanrahan, 1997), and improved the volleying skills of collegiate tennis players (Landin & Herbert, 1999). ...
... (Harvey, 2000;Landin, 1990;Rushall, 1984). Others stated that both types of self-talk improve the performance (Rushall, 1988). ...
Article
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The aim of this research is to study the effects of instructional and motivational self-talk on the overt and covert levels of motor performance of dart throwing. Fifty seven male non-athlete right-handed university students with age range of 24/68 year old voluntarily participated in this research and they were randomly put into three groups of instructional, motivational and control group. The performance of dart throwing (five groups of three efforts) of groups in three levels of overt, covert and control were measured. In overt level of self-talk, the participants used the phrase of I CAN with loud voice for motivational self-talk, and they used the phrase of Center-Aim for instructional self-talk before performing their duties. In covert level of self-talk these phrases were used with internal voices, but in control level no phrases of self-talk were used. The results of statistical analysis showed that the overt instructional self-talk has a significant effect on the performance of dart throwing, but the overt motivational self-talk did not have an effect on the performance. But the covert instructional and motivational self-talk did not have an effect on the performance. Also the results showed that the overt motivational self-talk improves the performance of dart throwing in comparison to covert motivational self-talk. In overt instructional self-talk group the performance was better than the covert instructional self-talk group as well. It seems that it is better that the coaches encourage the players in using self-talk in overt situations than the covert ones.
... Ziegler (1987) concluded that instructional self-talk had a positive effect on forehand shots in tennis players at the initial stages. Rushall et al. (1988) reported that instructional and motivational self-talk improved performance in skiing exercises. Mallet and Hanrahan (1997) and Landin and Hebert (1999) concluded that instructional self-talk had positive effects on the performance of top-level runners and tennis athletes. ...
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The research aims to examine the static and dynamic balance capacities of 5-9-year-old children who receive gymnastics training. The research group consists of 101 children, 21 boys and 80 girls, between the ages of 5-9 who are trained in gymnastics. Static balance (Flamingo balance test) and dynamic balance (Y balance test) tests, which are among the basic motor movement performance tests, were applied to examine the balance ability, one of the basic motor capacities of children aged 5-9. Arithmetic average and standard deviation, frequency and percentage distribution from general distribution statistics were obtained as data and Independent T test and One Way Anova tests were used to determine the significance levels between variables. With this research, it was concluded that the static and dynamic balance capacities of children who received gymnastics training at the age of 5-9 differ according to the age variable.
... This discrepancy can be attributed to the fact that any athlete in the teams regardless of past experience has the potential of winning with a slight difference in skill level. However, Highlen and Bennet (1983) reported that experienced wrestlers use considerably more self-talk as compared to inexperienced athletes, and Rushall et al. (1988) confirmed that positive self-talk was effective in improving performance in sports tasks such as basketball, tennis, and skiing. Ming and Martin (1996) reported that beginner figure skaters using self-talk showed improved performance, and Mallett and Hanraha (1997) confirmed that self-talk had a consistent effect on better times in 100 m sprinting. ...
Article
Self-talk is helpful in motivating shooting athletes and promoting effortful behavior. This study aimed to examine how the degree and intensity of self-talk of shooting athletes during matches affects their actual internal motivation and careers. In particular, the primary objective was to determine the effects of the level and intensity of self-talk on the effort value, fun and interest, tension and anxiety, and competence of intrinsic motivation for different levels of achievement and athletic performance. One hundred seventy participants who were shooting athletes registered with the Korea Shooting Federation (national team, n = 55; high performance team, n = 62; general team, n = 53). The self-talk questionnaire was developed to measure the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS). The intrinsic motivation scale developed and applicable to sports situations was used to measure the motivation of the shooting athletes. Significant differences were observed using MANOVA as well as the basic statistics of intrinsic motivation by self-talk. The intrinsic motivation self-talk was correlated to effort value, fun and interest, and competence. There was a significant relationship between shooting athletes' self-talk and intrinsic motivation. This study indicated that athletes using self-talk experienced more fun and interest, and they perceived higher effort value and competence. Further, the multiple regression analysis revealed that self-talk affected the intrinsic motivational factors of effort value and fun and interest.
... The intrusive thoughts included in organic self-talk cause distraction, which may threaten performance outcomes. Furthermore, we found that frequent self-talkers had faster pulse rates, consistent with Rushall et al. (1988) study of cross-country ski performance. The authors reported that pulse rates were higher in self-talk conditions than in the control condition that did not include self-talk. ...
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Performance is an essential part of music education; however, many music professionals and students suffer from music performance anxiety (MPA). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a 10-min expressive writing intervention (EWI) can effectively reduce performance anxiety and improve overall performance outcomes in college-level piano students. Two groups of music students (16 piano major students and 19 group/secondary piano students) participated in the study. Piano major students performed a solo work from memory, while group/secondary piano students took a sight-reading exam of an eight-measure piano musical selection. All students performed twice, at baseline and post-EWI, with 2 or 3 days between performances. During the EWI phase, students were randomly divided into two groups: an expressive writing group and a control group. Students in the expressive writing group wrote down feelings and thoughts about their upcoming performances, while students in the control group wrote about a topic unrelated to performing. Each student’s pulse was recorded immediately before performing, and each performance was videotaped. Three independent judges evaluated the recordings using a modified version of the Observational Scale for Piano Practicing (OSPP) by Gruson (1988). The results revealed that, by simply writing out their thoughts and feelings right before performing, students who had high MPA improved their performance quality significantly and reduced their MPA significantly. Our findings suggest that EWI may be a viable tool to alleviate music performance anxiety.
... Rushall and colleagues demonstrated the importance of using key words related to mood states, task-relevant sentences, and positive statements to increase sport players' performances (Rushall 1989;Rushall, Hall, & Rushall, 1988). Hardy, Jones, and Gould (1996) showed that selftalk is crucial to sport performance because it controls anxiety, increases motivation, and triggers appropriate action. ...
... En ambos trabajos los sujetos de la condición experimental (instruidos para emplear el autohabla positiva) obtuvieron mejores resultados que los esquiadores de las condiciones control. Por su parte,Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville y Rushall (1988), investigaron también con esquiadores de fondo (n=18), los efectos que podría producir la asignación de tres tipos de pensamiento (auto-habla positiva, auto-refuerzos y afirmaciones relevantes para la tarea), en un test en pista natural de entrenamiento. Tras tres pruebas (una en cada tipo de pensamiento), 16 de los 18 sujetos obtuvieron mejores tiempos en cada vuelta (-3. ...
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Los autores no solo presentan datos que respaldan la influencia del Pensamiento en el Rendimiento en la práctica deportiva de la alta competición, sino que además realizan un amplia propuesta de estrategias basadas en el uso y manejo de la Atención/concentración, la Imaginería y el Auto-habla. El análisis conlleva pautas y criterios diferenciados para deportes como las pruebas de fondo, deportes individuales o deportes de adversario/oposición.
... Spor ve egzersiz psikolojisi alanında yapmış olduğumuz literatür taraması sonucu görülmektedir ki; kendinle konuşma araştırmaları genelde performans odaklıdır [10,11]. Aynı zamanda yapılan araştırmalar göstermektedir ki kendinle konuşma performans geliştirme açısından etkili olan bir bilişsel yöntemdir [12,13,14,15,16,17]. ...
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The aim of this study was to test reliability and validity of self talk questionary for physical education class environment. Participants were 311 students (M±SD Age = 15.77 ±1.075) who are 139 boys (M±SD Age = 16.11±1.349) and 172 girls (M± SD Age = 15.50±0.689) aged between 14 to 19 years. Confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach Alpha coefficients was used to confirm its(Self Talk Questionary) validity and reliability in physical education class environment. Findings regarding the construct validity of the scale demonstrated that two-factor model showed acceptable to good fit to the data (χ2/sd= 112.830/41=2.752 RMSEA= 0,075, NFI= 95 NNFI= 0, 96, CFI= 0,97, GFI= 0,94 ve AGFI= 0, 91). The Cronbach"s alpha coefficients were 0. 81 for cognitive function and 0.92 for motivational function Results showed that the STQ can be used to determine secondary school students" situational motivational levels in physical education class environment
... El uso de la técnica del auto-habla, lleva a un estilo de procesamiento de la información meta-cognitivo. La efectividad de esta técnica como facilitadora del rendimiento ha sido probada en diferentes áreas y tareas: durante la adquisición de habilidades (Landin, 1994, , Ziegler, 1987 , en el desarrollo del autoconcepto positivo, (Mischel, 1973) en predisposición perceptual ante la tarea (Fuson, 1979), en tareas que requieren fuerza (Rushall, 1984) y en rendimientos de lo más variados (Rushall & col., 1988, Siri & Martin,1996, Mallet & Hanrahan, 1997, Landin, 1999. Muchos autores sostienen que la práctica imaginada o visualización es una técnica mediante la cual se puede llegar a conseguir algunos de los objetivos deportivos y psicológicos planteados en las técnicas deportivas. ...
Research
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... El uso de la técnica del auto-habla, lleva a un estilo de procesamiento de la información meta-cognitivo. La efectividad de esta técnica como facilitadora del rendimiento ha sido probada en diferentes áreas y tareas: durante la adquisición de habilidades (Landin, 1994, , Ziegler, 1987 , en el desarrollo del autoconcepto positivo, (Mischel, 1973) en predisposición perceptual ante la tarea (Fuson, 1979), en tareas que requieren fuerza (Rushall, 1984) y en rendimientos de lo más variados (Rushall & col., 1988, Siri & Martin,1996, Mallet & Hanrahan, 1997, Landin, 1999. Muchos autores sostienen que la práctica imaginada o visualización es una técnica mediante la cual se puede llegar a conseguir algunos de los objetivos deportivos y psicológicos planteados en las técnicas deportivas. ...
... Ziegler (1987) examined the impact of what she called stimulus cueing on tennis strokes, using self-talk cues such as ''ball,'' ''hit,'' or ''ready'' timed according to the execution of the task to direct athletes' attention to the appropriate stimuli. Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, and Rushall (1988) examined the effect of thought content instructions on skiing performance, using cues such as ''full movement range'' to provide guidance, and ''feel great'' to boost confidence. Research that followed examined the impact of positive self-statements (e.g., Van Raalte et al., 1995) and self-instructions (e.g., Mallett & Hanrahan, 1997) on task performance. ...
Article
Based on the premise that what people think influences their actions, self-talk strategies have been developed to direct and facilitate human performance. In this article, we present a meta-analytic review of the effects of self-talk interventions on task performance in sport and possible factors that may moderate the effectiveness of self-talk. A total of 32 studies yielding 62 effect sizes were included in the final meta-analytic pool. The analysis revealed a positive moderate effect size (ES ¼ .48). The moderator analyses showed that self-talk interventions were more effective for tasks involving relatively fine, compared with relatively gross, motor demands, and for novel, compared with well-learned, tasks. Instructional self-talk was more effective for fine tasks than was motivational self-talk; moreover, instructional self-talk was more effective for fine tasks rather than gross tasks. Finally, interventions including self-talk training were more effective than those not including self-talk training. The results of this study establish the effectiveness of self-talk in sport, encourage the use of self-talk as a strategy to facilitate learning and enhance performance, and provide new research directions.
... Based on these premises, Hardy (2006) argued that especially in naturalistic sport settings providing athletes the opportunity to develop and use self-determined self-talk plans will maximize the motivational effects regarding the use of the strategy. Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, and Rushall (1988) tested the effectiveness of self-determined cues in elite skiers and reported important performance increases. However, their study did not involve a direct comparison between assigned and self-determined cues. ...
Article
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The purpose of the present studywas to test the effectiveness of a 10-week self-talk intervention on competitive performance in young swimmers. Participantswere 41 swimmers (M age 14.59, SD=1.58 years), whose performance was recorded on 2 competitive occasions with a 10-week interval. In-between the 2 competitions, participants in the intervention group followed a selftalk training program. The results showed that the intervention group had greater performance improvements than the control group, thus, supporting the effectiveness of the program in enhancing sport performance in a competitive environment. The findings provide directions for the development of effective self-talk interventions.
... confidence and positive and negative affects in male amateur kickboxers. Researchers have generally supported the beneficial effects of self-talk on motor learning and task performance in various settings (e.g., novice athletes, highly skilled athletes, new skills)(Hatzigeorgiadis et al., 2004;Perkos et al., 2002), and sports (e.g., basketball, soccer, swimming, ski, tennis)(Johnson et al., 2004;Landin and Hebert, 1999;Rushall et al., 1988;Theodorakis et al., 2001). However, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first study examining the effects of mental training strategies on self-confidence and affective states in male amateur kickboxers. ...
Article
The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of mental training strategies on self-confidence and positive and negative affects in male kickboxers. Forty five male amateur kickboxers (age, 22 ± 2.3 years; height, 1.74 ± 0.08 m; body mass, 65 ± 10.2 kg) participated in the present study. Participants were randomly assigned to three conditions: motivational self-talk (M-ST, n = 15), mental training package (M-ST plus imagery, n = 15), and control condition (physical training, n = 15). Mental training package, M-ST and physical training groups performed three times per week (~90-min per session) in alternative days for 12 weeks (36 sessions in total). Kickboxers completed the State Sport Confidence Inventory (SSCI) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) before and after each condition. The results have shown that mental training package had higher self-confidence and positive affect (PA) than M-ST and control conditions after the training period. It seems that, whereas both motivational self-talk and mental training package are effective in enhancing self-confidence and managing emotions, some advantage may be derived from combined mental strategies.
... Self-talk is a strategic method that refers to what an individual utters internally or externally [1]. Research has generally reported the positive effects of self-talk on learning and motor performance in different contexts such as skilled athletes in Landin and Herbert (1999), learned skills in Harvey et al. (2002), and new skills in Hatzigeorgiadis et al. (2008), and in different sports such as skiing in Rushall et al. (1998), tennis in Landin and Herbert (1999), and basketball in Perkos and Chroni (2007) and Theodorakis et al. (2001) [2,3,4,5,6,7]. Hardy et al. (2009) proposed a framework for self-talk in order to provide a clearer picture of the relationship between self-talk and performance. ...
Article
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The purpose of the present research was to study the effect of motivational self-talk on performance in a force generation task with an emphasis on self-talk belief. 23 participants (23.5 ± 1.9 years old) voluntarily participated in the research. The performance of the participants was measured by a dynamometer under a control and an experimental condition. In the experimental condition (self-talk), the participants uttered "I can do it" before exerting force on the device, while in the control condition no sentence was uttered before the task. Immediately after the test the participants filled out a self-talk belief questionnaire as well as a manipulation check survey. The results showed that self-talk leads to improved performance in the force generation task, but there was no significant relationship between self-talk belief and performance. In general, it seems that self-talk belief is not an important antecedent for the effect of self-talk on performance.
... Some studies have reported improved performance in such sports as swimming, 100-meter sprint, golf and tennis through instructional self-talk (Harvey, 2000;Landin, 1990;Mallett, 1997: Rushall, 1984. Some researchers have reported that either type of self-talk improves performance (Rushall, 1988). ...
Article
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The present study aimed to investigate darts players' perception of the effect and superiority of both instructional and motivational self-talks in dart throwing skills and dynamic balance tasks. To this end, a number of 40 participants were studied in both instructional and motivational self-talk conditions. The subjects rehearsed the phrase I Can in motivational self-talk condition across both dart throwing and dynamic balance tasks whereas they used the phrases Center-Goal and Bend Your Knees for dart throwing and dynamic balance tasks as the instructional self-talk phrases, respectively, before they performed the tasks. The results showed that the subjects preferred instructional self-talk over motivational self-talk in dart throwing task. However, they were found to prefer motivational self-talk in dynamic balance task. The results showed no difference between the potential contributing mechanisms in dynamic balance task; however, concentration, self-confidence and composure were more effective than other mechanisms in dart throwing task.
... It had been indicated that positive self-talk is an effective strategy in increasing resistive function (Hardy, 1996). Although many studies have found that positive self-talk can lead to improved performance of resistive tasks or tasks in exercises including basketball, tennis and ski (Hardy, 1996;Ziegler, 1987;-Rushall, 1988;Chroni, 2007;Christian, 2008) still there is contradiction about effectiveness of two kinds of positive self-talk: motivational and instructional self-talk. It seems that motivational self-talk increases performance through inspiring more effort and creating positive behavior and facilitating self-confidence, however instructional self-talk improves performance by inspiring favorable actions trough focus and performance strategy (Hardy, 1996;Chroni, 2007). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of instructional and motivational self-talk in performance and retention of discrete and continuous motor tasks. Participants were 120 males, who divided to six experiential groups. Dart throwing and dynamic balance was selected as discrete and continuous motor tasks, respectively. The scores were recorded after every trial as performance test. 48 hours later was done retention test. Results of MANOVA showed that there is significant difference between instructional, motivational and combinational groups. Therefore, instructional selftalk had a significant and higher effect on discrete motor task; and motivational self-talk had significant and higher effect on continuous motor task. Also, there is no significant difference between groups in retention test. Results of this study were discussed in short term effect of self-talk on performance.
... , and studies employing single-subject multiple-baseline designs (e.g., Landin & Hebert, 1999;Thellwell & Maynard, 2003). Furthermore, the use of ST has been found to have positive effects on performance on tasks involving golf (Johnson-O'Connor & Kirschenbaum, 1982), endurance (Weinberg, Smith, Jackson, & Gould, 1984), basketball (Hamilton & Fremour, 1985), skiing (Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, & Rushall, 1988), and dart throwing (Dagrou, Gauvin, & Halliwell, 1992;Van Raalte et al., 1995). ...
... In explaining the null finding for positive self-talk, the investigators suggested that positive self-talk was less likely to be said out loud, and as such, was not measured with optimal accuracy. Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, and Rushall (1988) employed an ecologically valid single-subject experimental design when examining the effect of self-talk (and specifically, positive self-talk, mood words, and task relevant statements) as compared with a normal thinking control condition, on the endurance performance of elite cross country skiers. Practically meaningful but small (3% improvement) effects were reported in conjunction with positive self-talk. ...
Article
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This study examined the effectiveness of a logbook and paperclip technique on awareness of the use and content of negative self-talk as well as the motivation to change negative self-talk. Participants (n = 73) completed a questionnaire measuring these variables, and were assigned to either a control, paperclip or logbook group. Participants performed three typical training sessions over a three-week period. The logbook group completed a self-talk logbook after each session whereas the paperclip group carried out a paperclip exercise during each session. Upon completion of the training sessions, the questionnaire was readministered. ANCOVAs revealed no signiicant differences between the groups for motivation to change and awareness of the content of negative self-talk. However, the logbook group had signiicantly greater awareness of their use of negative self-talk compared with the control group. A qualitative analysis of the logbook groups use of negative self-talk provided insights into the situations that prompted negative self-talk, the content of the self-talk, and also the consequences of using negative self-talk. Collectively, the indings offer some support for the use of the logbook technique in the applied setting.
... During the past 40 years, applied behavior analysis (ABA) has been incorporated into aspects of sport psychology (reviewed by Martin, 2007;Martin & Tkachuk, 2000). Examples of ABA applications in sport psychology include the management of antecedents and/or consequences of sport behaviors to improve athletic performance in baseball (Osborne, Rudrud, & Zezoney, 1990), basketball (Kendall, Hrycaiko, Martin, & Kendall, 1990), figure skating (Hume, Martin, Gonzalez, Cracklen, & Genthon, 1985), football (Ward & Carnes, 2002), golf (O"Brien & Simek, 1983), gymnastics (Wolko, Hrycaiko, & Martin, 1993), skiing (Rushall, Hull, Roux, Sasseville, & Rushall, 1988), soccer (Brobst & Ward, 2002), speed skating (Wanlin, Hrycaiko, Martin, & Mahon, 1997), swimming (Koop & Martin, 1983), tennis (Buzas & Ayllon, 1981), and track (Shapiro & Shapiro, 1985). Detailed guidelines have also been provided for practitioners interested in applying behavior analysis principles and techniques to enhance the performance and enjoyment of athletes and others associated with sports (Martin, 2007). ...
Article
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Sport psychology has grown considerably over the last 40 years. Although applied behavior analysts have contributed to that growth, applied behavior analysis in sports is a small fraction of the field of sport psychology. A potential way to encourage sport psychologists to make greater use of applied behavior analysis may be to provide them with some user friendly guidelines to adapt single-subject research designs to their daily work. This article is an attempt to accomplish that task.
... However, the results of statistical analysis revealed no significant relationship between belief in self talk and shooting performance. Previous research has typically supported the positive effects of self talk on motor learning and performance in regard to various variables including novice athletes (Perkos et al., 2002), skilled athletes (Landin & Hebert, 1999), learned skills (Harvey et al., 2000), new skills (Hatzigeorgiadis et al., 2004), and different sports including sprints (Mallett et al., 1997), skiing (Rushall et al., 1988), tennis (Landin & Hebert, 1999), basketball ball handling, shooting and dribbling (Perkos et al., 2002;Chroni et al., 2007;Theodorakis, et al., 2001). Therefore, the present findings correspond to previous results. ...
Article
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The present study aims to investigate the effect of instructional and motivational self talk on basketball shooting performance as well as the relationship between belief in self talk and shooting performance. A number of 57 participants at the age range of 20-26 years old were randomly assigned into an instructional self talk group (N=19), a motivational self talk group (N=19) and a control group (N=19). During the training program, instructional subjects used the phrase "wrist, center" and motivational subjects used the phrase "I can" before shooting tasks. The control subjects participated in the pretest and post test without using self talk. The results of one-way ANOVA showed that both instructional and motivational subjects outperformed the control subjects in shooting performance (P0.05). Besides, motivational subjects outperformed instructional subjects in shooting tasks. The results of Pearson correlation formula revealed no significant relationship between belief in self talk and shooting performance. The present findings correspond to earlier findings in the self talk literature though no correlation was witnessed between belief in self talk and performance.
... Considerable sport psychology research has found that positive self-talk relates to better performance (e.g., Cohn, 1991;Eklund, 1996;Gould, Eklund, & Jackson, 1992;Gould, Finch, & Jackson, 1993;Van Raalte et al., 1995;Johnson, Hrycaiko, Johnson, & Halas, 2004) and negative self-talk relates to poorer performance (e.g., Gould, Eklund, & Jackson, 1992;Highlen & Bennett, 1979;McPherson, 2000;Van Raalte, Brewer, Rivera, & Petitpas, 1994). Further, the utilization of cognitive self-talk interventions designed to either decrease athletes' negative self-talk or to foster their positive self-talk leads to better performance (e.g., Thomas & Fogarty, 1997;Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, & Rushall, 1988;Wrisberg & Anshel, 1997;Van Raalte et al., 1995;Johnson, Hrycaiko, Johnson, & Halas, 2004). See Williams and Leffingwell (2002) for a more thorough review of the self-talk literature. ...
... This is especially helpful for novice athletes, wherein, their time and capacity to process critical information is limited (Magill, 2004). Lots of studies have showed the positive and beneficial effects of instructional self-talk in golf (Harvey et al., 2002; Thomas & Fogarty, 1997; Johnston-O'Connor & Kirschenbaum, 1986), basketball (Perkos et al., 2002; Hamilton & Fremour, 1985), skiing skills (Rushall et al., 1988), and target skills (darts) (Van Raalte et al., 1995; Dagrou et al., 1992). Also, in sports such as swimming (Hatzigeorgiadis 2006; Thiese & Huddleston, 1999; Rushall & Shewchuk, 1988), tennis (Van Raalte et al., 2000; Landin & Herbert, 1999), 100 meters in track and field (Mallet & Hanrahan, 1997), female football (Johnson et al., 2004), handball (Tsiggilis et al., 2003), and competitive climbing (Chroni & Kourtesopoulou, 2002). ...
Article
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of instructional self-talk on performance and learning two basic skills of W.T.F Tae-kwon-do (Ap chagi and Bandae jireugi), in the perceived use of self-talk of novice athletes as well as in the possible correlation between the dimensions (effort, automaticity, cognitive and emotional control, self-confidence and attention) of the “Functions of Self-Talk Questionnaire,-FSTQ” (Theodorakis, Hatzigeorgiadis & Chroni, 2008). The sample consisted of 36 novice boys and girls, 8-12 years old (M=9.53, SD=1.53) and were randomly divided into two groups, the experimental (instructional self-talk group, N = 18) and the control group (N = 18). The intervention program lasted 8 weeks (2 sessions per week). Before starting the practice of skills, the participants spoke aloud specific key-words for the proper use of the technical skill. Participants were evaluated with a pre-test in the beginning of the program, a post-test at the end and one week after the final test they were evaluated in retention test. Moreover the evaluation of skill involved ten trials every skill, which were recorded by a digital camera and evaluated in five main elements of skill, by two observers. The result showed that the instructional self-talk was more effective for performance and learning the skills than the group that received feedback with traditional teaching. The use of instructional self-talk on younger athletes helped them to learn the skills but also to develop the psychological dimensions of the questionnaire (effort, automaticity, cognitive and emotional control, self-confidence and attention). Instructional self-talk can be an additional tool in the hands of the coach / physical education teacher for teaching and improving skill performances in other sports
... confidence and positive and negative affects in male amateur kickboxers. Researchers have generally supported the beneficial effects of self-talk on motor learning and task performance in various settings (e.g., novice athletes, highly skilled athletes, new skills)(Hatzigeorgiadis et al., 2004;Perkos et al., 2002), and sports (e.g., basketball, soccer, swimming, ski, tennis)(Johnson et al., 2004;Landin and Hebert, 1999;Rushall et al., 1988;Theodorakis et al., 2001). However, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first study examining the effects of mental training strategies on self-confidence and affective states in male amateur kickboxers. ...
Article
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The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of mental training strategies on selfconfidence and positive and negative affects in male kickboxers. Forty five male amateur kickboxers (age, 22 ± 2.3 years; height, 1.74 ± 0.08 m; body mass, 65 ± 10.2 kg) participated in the present study. Participants were randomly assigned to three conditions: motivational self-talk (M-ST, n = 15), mental training package (M-ST plus imagery, n = 15), and control condition (physical training, n = 15). Mental training package, M-ST and physical training groups performed three times per week (~90-min per session) in alternative days for 12 weeks (36 sessions in total). Kickboxers completed the State Sport Confidence Inventory (SSCI) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) before and after each condition. The results have shown that mental training package had higher selfconfidence and positive affect (PA) than M-ST and control conditions after the training period. It seems that, whereas both motivational self-talk and mental training package are effective in enhancing self-confidence and managing emotions, some advantage may be derived from combined mental strategies.
... Ziegler (1987) examined the impact of what she called stimulus cueing on tennis strokes, using self-talk cues such as ''ball,'' ''hit,'' or ''ready'' timed according to the execution of the task to direct athletes' attention to the appropriate stimuli. Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, and Rushall (1988) examined the effect of thought content instructions on skiing performance, using cues such as ''full movement range'' to provide guidance, and ''feel great'' to boost confidence. Research that followed examined the impact of positive self-statements (e.g., Van Raalte et al., 1995) and self-instructions (e.g., Mallett & Hanrahan, 1997) on task performance. ...
... With the exception of the Weinberg et ai. study, support for the effectiveness of association (Rumall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville &Rushall, 1988; Rus.,.all & Shewchuk, 1989) and dissociation(Morgan, Horstman, Cymerman & Stokes, 1983; Padgett & Hilt 1989) over control strategies for experienced participants has been found. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dart throwing training through different types of self-talk in male novices. To this aim, 48 male novices (age mean=23 years) were selected using simple random sampling method from the training programs of Urmia dart association and were assigned to four groups, each with 12 individuals. Experimental interventions for the groups included: 1) coach choice group: self-talking of "target - center" phrase, 2) free choice group: self-talking of any phrase to improve concentration and focus, 3) selective choice group: self-talking of one phrase from "target-center", "target", "center", "finger - center", "the middle point", and "finger-target" options, and the control group: with no self-talking. The collected data from the pre- and post-tests were analyzed using ANCOVA test and LSD follow-up test. After controlling for the pre-test levels, the results demonstrated that the main effect of the group on the scores of the performance error at the post-test was statistically significant. The follow-up comparisons showed that the performance error in the selective choice group was significantly lower than other groups. Also, the performance error in the free choice group was lower that the control group, but its difference with the coach choice group was not statistically significant. Moreover, no significant difference was observed between the performance errors of the coach choice and control groups. The findings of the study suggested that motor skills training though self-talk, especially when novices are allowed to select verbal cues, do improve the effectiveness of training
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dart throwing training through different types of self-talk in male novices. To this aim, 48 male novices (age mean=23 years) were selected using simple random sampling method from the training programs of Urmia dart association and were assigned to four groups, each with 12 individuals. Experimental interventions for the groups included: 1) coach choice group: self-talking of "target - center" phrase, 2) free choice group: self-talking of any phrase to improve concentration and focus, 3) selective choice group: self-talking of one phrase from "target-center", "target", "center", "finger - center", "the middle point", and "finger-target" options, and the control group: with no self-talking. The collected data from the pre- and post-tests were analyzed using ANCOVA test and LSD follow-up test. After controlling for the pre-test levels, the results demonstrated that the main effect of the group on the scores of the performance error at the post-test was statistically significant. The follow-up comparisons showed that the performance error in the selective choice group was significantly lower than other groups. Also, the performance error in the free choice group was lower that the control group, but its difference with the coach choice group was not statistically significant. Moreover, no significant difference was observed between the performance errors of the coach choice and control groups. The findings of the study suggested that motor skills training though self-talk, especially when novices are allowed to select verbal cues, do improve the effectiveness of training
Article
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Athletes of the highest level in many sports (athletics, football, baseball, tennis, golf, rugby, skiing, gymnastics, swimming, basketball etc.) talk about the importance of visualising technical execution both during the training period and in competition (during warm-ups, during breaks in official games, before throws, jumps, free kicks etc.).Visualisation techniques can improve motor skills, grow muscle strength, increase self-confidence, attention concentration and decrease anxiety. Through the use of imagery, pain management, endurance, performance motivation and physical performance can also be enhanced in athletes. To achieve the best results, visualisation techniques should include the five major senses (touch, hearing, sight, smell and taste) and should consider key aspects such as perspective, emotion, environment, task and timing. Mental rehearsal (or visualisation) is powerful because the subconscious processes the experience as a real one (by firing those neurons that are responsible for skill acquisition), makes the person calmer and more adapted to stressful situations, and can speed up the learning process in athletes and not only. One hour of mental training a day in 6-10 sequences has a special benefit that cannot be obtained by any other means. By applying both guided imagery techniques and practice, athletes design their mental road maps for success.
Article
There are mixed results regarding the performance effects of negative self-talk. An interesting consideration is that negative self-talk may not have to be replaced to improve performance. The purpose of the present study was to determine if negative self-talk can improve performance when interpreted as a challenge. Participants (N = 93) completed a baseline VO2max test and were randomized into self-talk groups (i.e., motivational, negative, neutral, and challenging) after matching based on their predicted VO2max and sex. During a subsequent session, participants completed a thirty-minute self-talk condition followed by twenty-minutes of “do your best” cycling. The results revealed a significant group by time interaction effect, where the challenging self-talk group significantly outperformed the negative self-talk group during the final five minutes of the task. Overall, these results provide initial support for implementing challenging self-talk and suggest that time within an endurance task moderates the self-talk-performance relationship. Lay Summary: Participants in the study used self-talk that was either motivational, neutral, negative, or negative with a challenging statement during a 20 minute cycling task. The results showed that participants who used negative self-talk, such as “My legs are tired” did much worse in the final five minutes of the task than those who added a challenging statement to their negative self-talk, such as “My legs are tired, but I can push through it”. • Implications for Practice • Rather than working to replace negative self-talk, practitioners can have athletes acknowledge it and add a challenge statement to enhance endurance performance. • Time within an endurance task and level of fatigue are important to consider when implementing self-talk interventions. • Self-talk interventions may be most effective when they include a cognitive skill applicable to organic negative ST.
Conference Paper
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هدف از این تحقیق، تعیین اثر یکی از راهبردهای روانشناختی با عنوان خودگویی انگیزشی و آموزشی در دو نوع مهارت ساده و پیچیده بود. جامعه آماری این تحقیق را 80 دختر غیرورزشکار با دامنه سنی 18 تا 22 سال (میانگین 68/1± 20) تشکیل دادند و به صورت تصادفي در 4 گروه جداگانه شامل خودگویی آموزشی و خودگویی انگیزشی برای مهارت حرکتی ساده، خودگویی آموزشی و خودگویی انگیزشی برای مهارت حرکتی پیچیده قرار گرفتند. براي اعمال خودگويي در مهارت پرتاب دارت و پرتاب آزاد بسكتبال، به آزمودني هاي گروه خودگويي آموزشي گفته شد كه قبل از هر پرتاب بگويند"به مركز هدف نگاه كن"،"دستت را ثابت نگهدار" و به آزمودني هاي گروه خودگويي انگيزشي گفته شد كه قبل از هر پرتاب بگويند" تو مي تواني اين كاررا انجام دهي"،"نتيجه خوبي ميتواني به دست آوري". نتایج تحلیل واریانس عاملی در آزمون اکتساب مهارت ساده نشان داد که، خودگویی انگیزشی نسبت به خودگویی آموزشی معنی دارتر است. تفاوتی بین دو نوع خودگویی در عملکرد برای شرایط مهارت پیچیده وجود نداشت. در آزمون یادداری مهارت ساده، خودگویی انگیزشی اثر معنی دارتری داشت. تفاوتی بین دو نوع خودگویی در عملکرد برای شرایط مهارت پیچیده وجود نداشت. در آزمون انتقال، تفاوتی بین دو نوع خودگویی در مهارتهای ساده و پیچیده وجود نداشت. گروه های خودگویی انگیزشی اضطراب کمتری را نسبت به خودگویی آموزشی به همراه داشت. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که علت عملکرد بهتر گروه خودگویی انگیزشی نسبت به گروه خودگویی آموزشی ناشی از پایداری تاثیرات خودگویی انگیزشی بر عملکرد می باشد
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Over the last 20 years research investigating self-talk in the context of sport has expanded rapidly enhancing our understanding of the construct. In the present article, we provide a brief historical review of the sports-oriented self-talk literature. In so doing we identify landmark investigations and review conceptual, research, and measurement themes present within the literature. We review this empirically based literature, distinguishing between three time periods: (1) the early foundations of self-talk research, up to the end of the 1990s; (2) the developmental years of systematic self-talk research during the 2000s; and (3) the modern day maturation of self-talk research, post-2011.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the frequency of instructional and motivational self-talk on motor performance in dart throwing skill. 38 non-athlete male students of Islamic Azad University with Average Age of 23.3 participate in the study voluntarily and were assigned into instructional and motivational self-talk groups with one and three repetitions based on pre-test scores in dart throwing. Results showed that instructional and motivational self-talk with one repetition caused a significant improve on dart throwing performance. However, instructional and motivational self-talk with three repetitions significantly deteriorated dart throwing. In other word, repetitions of self-talk had a negative effect on dart throwing performance that could be probably due to the paralysis of analysis and apparent use of the rules.
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This study explored the effectiveness of self-talk strategies on task performance under conditions of external distraction in laboratory and field experiments. In the laboratory experiment, 28 sport science students (Mage 21.48±1.58 years) were tested on a computer game requiring attention and fine execution following a baseline assessment and a short self-talk training. In the field experiment, 28 female basketball players (Mage 20.96±4.51 years) were tested on free-throwing, following a baseline assessment and a six-week intervention. In both settings the final assessment took place under conditions of external distraction (noncontinuous, sudden, loud noise). Analyses of covariance showed that participants of the self-talk group performed better than participants of the control group. Findings suggest that self-talk can counter the effects of distraction on performance, and indicate that the attentional effects of self-talk is a viable mechanism to explain the facilitating effects of self-talk on performance.
Thesis
In educational contexts, the deep and intrinsically rewarding engagement characteristic of being in flow is invaluable to the learning process. In addition to contributing to flourishing, psychological growth and development, flow is directly related to the frequency with which a student will actively vie to continue to use and extend their highest skills. A comprehensive framework delineating how to systematically cultivate flow would prove indispensable to those who aspire to optimise their performance or facilitate this strength in others. Still, little research has examined a systematic means of actively nurturing autonomous forms of motivational regulation to engage and the psychological strengths which underlie and promote flow in academic learning contexts. Therefore, the main objective of this small-scale descriptive pilot study was to ascertain the extent to which student-athletes could learn to wilfully cultivate dispositional flow states. It was presupposed that autonomy-supportive cognitive-behavioural training in a collaborative learning environment could in fact facilitate the process. The endeavour was thus approached by establishing a multimodal cognitive-behavioural training program designed to systematically cultivate the nine dimensions of flow. The study adhered to an explanatory sequential mixed methods research design. Thus, the 13 sport science students (four females and nine males) participating in the 12-week seminar completed pretest/posttest dispositional assessments of their locus of motivational regulation, their use of cognitive-behavioural performance enhancement strategies, and flow. In addition, six months subsequent to the intervention, structured interviews were conducted with a subset of the cohort and a thematic analysis of the resultant data set was conducted in an effort to both further interpret and elucidate the results yielded from the quantitative data set. Although the psychometric test findings did not yield unequivocal results, they demonstrated posttest increases in students’ intrinsic motivational regulation as well as their use of self-talk, activation, imagery, and attention control strategies. Finally, while all but two student-athletes reported an increase in their general propensity to experience unidimensional flow, unvarying results were not yielded across the multidimensional measures thereof. However, the thematic analysis provided evidence that the student-athletes believed that if employing performance strategies including a systematic goal setting process, arousal regulation, imagery, and self-talk, one can in fact cultivate flow if one wants to. Therefore, this study contributes to scholarship pertaining to understanding how to deliberately promote flow in similar higher learning contexts.
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This study examined the influences of two mental preparation interventions on 1.6 km run performance in 90 (45 male, 45 female) high school long-distance runners in Nevada, U.S.A. After participants completed a 1.6 km baseline run, they were randomly assigned to receive one of these interventions 3 min prior to a second 1.6 km run (i.e., listening to a personalized script of motivational and running technique statements on headphones, listening to music on head-phones, listening to no sound on headphones). Results of running performance indicated that participants who were assigned to the motivational and running technique statements and music conditions significantly improved their run performance, whereas participants in the nosound control condition did not. Youth ratings of intervention satisfaction were consistent with performance outcome. Study implications and future directions are discussed in light of these results.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of instructional self-talk on acquisition and learning the backstroke of young swimmers and the perceived functions of it. The participants were 46 boys and girls, aged of 10-12 years (M=11.2, SD=.92) and were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group (instructional self-talk, N=24) in which participants before the execution of skill used aloud specific keywords and the control group (traditional teaching, N=22). The intervention program lasted six weeks (3 sessions of 45΄ per week). Participants of all groups were evaluated with a pre-test before the beginning of the program, a post-test at the end of the intervention and one week after the final test they were evaluated in retention test. Moreover the evaluation of skill involved ten trials of skill, which were recorded by a digital camera and evaluated in five main elements of skill, by two observers, whom intra and inter reliability were checked. The results showed that the participants of instructional self-talk, was more effective for performance and learning the skill than the group that received feedback with traditional teaching. The results revealed also that the participants used the instructional self-talk during practice had high score in focus attention, effort and self-confidence, but lesser in emotional and cognitive control and automaticity. There was also positive correlation between the dimensions (effort, automaticity, cognitive and emotional control, attention and self-confidence) of the questionnaire. The use of instructional self-talk on younger athletes seems to have positive effects on performance and learning improvement during practicing sports skills. Self-talk can be used as a tool in the hands of the coach / physical education teacher for learning and improving sport performance skills and for increasing focus attention and self-confidence of their athletes.
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Background. The use of cognitive and somatic coping strategies to deal with anxiety (cognitive and somatic) to increase performance is an integral part of sports. There is considerable evidence in support of the relationship between anxiety and coping strategies and performance of athletes. Athletes, are, also found to use negative coping strategies like drugs, alcohol and smoking. Aims. The purpose of this study was to correlate a relationship between competitive anxiety and coping strategies among athletes of different levels of representation in Malaysian sports (national, state, district, university, and school levels) and gender. Sample. The sample consisted of 902 Malaysian athletes, and comprised of national athletes (N=53), state athletes (N=395), district athletes (N=120), university athletes (N=211), and school athletes (N= 123), males (N =) and females (N =). Method. Each participant completed an instrument that comprised of a 27-item Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, a 16-item Positive Coping Anxiety Strategies (Cognitive and Somatic), and a 3-item Negative Coping Strategies. The data for the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 was collected twice, before and during competition. Results. The results showed that male and national athletes used the highest level of cognitive strategies. It was also found that male and district level athletes used the highest level of negative coping strategies. There was also a negative correlation between cognitive and somatic coping strategies, and cognitive anxiety. National and state level athletes had the highest level of performance and school level athletes' the lowest. Athletes, who used the highest levels of cognitive, somatic or negative coping strategies, achieved the highest performance in sports. Conclusions. The results are of significance in explaining the way athletes use coping strategies to deal with anxiety. Additionally, sport psychologists, sport counselors and coaches should use the findings to design coping strategies for their athletes to deal with anxiety and to enhance their performance.
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