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The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating Hostile and Benevolent Sexism

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The authors present a theory of sexism formulated as ambivalence toward women and validate a corresponding measure, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). The ASI taps 2 positively correlated components of sexism that nevertheless represent opposite evaluative orientations toward women: sexist antipathy or Hostile Sexism (HS) and a subjectively positive (for sexist men) orientation toward women, Benevolent Sexism (BS). HS and BS are hypothesized to encompass 3 sources of male ambivalence: Paternalism, Gender Differentiation, and Heterosexuality. Six ASI studies on 2,250 respondents established convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Overall ASI scores predict ambivalent attitudes toward women, the HS scale correlates with negative attitudes toward and stereotypes about women, and the BS scale (for nonstudent men only) correlates with positive attitudes and stereotypes about women. A copy of the ASI is provided, with scoring instructions, as a tool for further explorations of sexist ambivalence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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... Despite being initially interpreted through its similarity with the classic concept of prejudice, Glick and Fiske (1996) argued that sexism was in fact a multidimensional construct including two complimentary types of attitudes: hostility and benevolence. Moreover, they 9 added that both dimensions of sexism were common for all cultures, because they originated in social and biological factors characteristic of human groups, namely the interdependence between genders (Glick & Fiske, 1997, 2001a. ...
... Moreover, they 9 added that both dimensions of sexism were common for all cultures, because they originated in social and biological factors characteristic of human groups, namely the interdependence between genders (Glick & Fiske, 1997, 2001a. While hostile sexism can be conceptualized as "a reflection of hostility towards women" (Glick & Fiske, 1996, p. 491) and a manifestation of "antipathy based upon a faulty and inflexible generalization" (Allport, 1954, p. 9), benevolent sexism encompasses attitudes that may be subjectively positive in tone, yet still reflecting a stereotypical portrayal of women or alluding to traditional beliefs about gender roles (Glick & Fiske, 1996). Examples of benevolent sexism include the expectation that women should have motherly nurturing instincts, be more compassionate or intuitive than men or fulfill men's sexual needs (Becker & Wright, 2011). ...
... These variables were each measured using five items based on the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory by Glick and Fiske (1996), adapted to Polish conditions by Mikołajczak and Pietrzak (2014). Example statements measuring hostile sexism were: "Women are too easily offended", "Women exaggerate problems they have at work" and benevolent sexism: ...
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Please note that this version is the preprint of an article accepted for publication in Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, which will soon be available online.
... Benevolent sexism characterizes women worthy of male protection, support, and adoration (Glick & Fiske, 1996). This concept includes the notion that women are nurturing based on their role as child-bearers, subordinate to and weaker than men, and incapable of protecting themselves (Phillips & Rogers, 2021). ...
... This result might be related to male-dominated patriarchal organizations reinforcing benevolent sexist beliefs and attitudes toward women. While most people are familiar with overtly blatant, aggressive, and explicit forms of sexism in the workplace, benevolent sexism involves males using chivalry, politeness, and affection towards women, which challenges gender equality in a more discreet way (Glick & Fiske, 1996). An example, a male supervising officer sexually attracted to a new female officer assigns her to a position with limited contact with prisoners because the work is best suited for females (e.g., filing paperwork, answering phones, obtaining signatures from staff). ...
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... The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) was used to assess participants' sexism. It comprised a total of 22 items, accessed on a 6-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). ...
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