Article

Measuring the Working Alliance in Counselor Supervision

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Abstract

We developed the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (SWAI) to measure the relationship in counselor supervision. SWAI was based conceptually on the work of R. R. Greenson (1967), H. B. Pepinsky and M. J. Patton (1971), and others. Three supervisor factors (Client Focus, Rapport, and Identification) and two trainee factors (Rapport and Client Focus) were extracted by factor analysis. The scores on the SWAI were found to possess adequate scale reliability, and evidence of convergent and divergent validity for the SWAI was established by examining its relation to selected scales from the Supervisory Styles Inventory (M. L. Friedlander and L. G. Ward; see record 1985-05618-001). Trainee scores on the Rapport and Client Focus scales of the SWAI were significant predictors of scores on the Self-Efficacy Inventory (Friedlander and J. Snyder; see record 1984-04972-001). Implications for counselor training are discussed in the context of additional research on the psychometric properties of the SWAI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Of these relationships, research has consistently revealed a positive correlation between supervisory styles and the supervisory working alliance (Efstation et al., 1990;Heppner & Handley, 1981;Ladany & Lehrman-Waterman, 1999;Ladany, Walker, & Melincoff, 2001). Although such direct positive correlation is theoretically appealing and statistically compelling, there is limited research that further investigates the intricacy of this association, if at all (e.g., whether the direction or strength of this relationship may alter in different contexts). ...
... Bordin (1983) first coined the concept of the supervisory working alliance as a parallel concept to the therapeutic working alliance and introduced the three aspects of the therapeutic working alliance to the alliance in supervision-mutual agreements on the goals, tasks, and bond-which laid the foundation for the adapted Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Bahrick, 1989) for both supervisors and supervisees. Efstation et al. (1990) instead used three supervisor factors (client focus, rapport, and identification) and two supervisee factors (rapport and client focus) to conceptualize the supervisory working alliance in their Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (SWAI). In view of the collinearity issue for the goal and task dimensions in the WAI (Hatcher et al., 2020), I adopted the SWAI in the present study. ...
... Extensive research has documented a close relationship between supervisory styles and the supervisory working alliance (Efstation et al., 1990;Heppner & Handley, 1981;Ladany, Walker, & Melincoff, 2001;Shaffer & Friedlander, 2017). Broadly, as supervisees perceived a greater mixture of supervisory styles in their supervisors (i.e., higher ratings on all three styles; Ladany, Marotta, & Muse-Burke, 2001), supervisees were more likely to report a stronger supervisory working alliance (Li et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Supervisee development is integral to counselor training. Despite the general acknowledgement that supervisors adopt different styles when supervising counselor trainees at varying levels, there is a paucity of studies that (a) measure supervisee levels using reliable and valid psychometric instruments, other than a broad categorization of supervisees based on their training progression (e.g., master’s level vs. doctoral level; practicum vs. internship; counselor trainee vs. postgraduate); and (b) empirically document how the matching of supervisory styles and supervisee levels relates to supervision processes and/or outcomes. The supervisory working alliance is key to the supervision process and outcome. To test the hypothesized moderation effects of supervisee levels on the relationship between supervisory styles and the supervisory working alliance, the author performed a series (n = 16) of moderation analyses with a sample (N = 113) of master’s- and doctoral-level counseling trainees and practitioners. Results suggested that supervisee levels and their three indicators (self and other awareness, motivation, and autonomy) were statistically significant moderators under different contexts. These findings (a) revealed extra intricacies of the relationships among the study variables; (b) shed light on future research directions concerning supervisee development; and (c) encouraged supervisors to adopt a composite of styles to varying degrees to better foster supervisee growth.
... These supervisory relationships may include not only a clinical focus but also supervision regarding therapeutic skills learned in classes taught by both doctoral and faculty facilitators. These relationships are integral in a students' professional identity development as CITs recognize professional qualities that influence their own growth as future counselor (Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990;Fernando & Hulse-Killacky, 2005;Gnilka, Chang, & Dew, 2012). ...
... It is important to consider when and how professional identity, defined as counseling philosophy, beliefs about the profession, and professional engagement (Puglia, 2008) develops. Previous research has revealed factors that may influence how CITs define their professional identity are program track (Gibson, Dooley, Kelchner, Moss & Vacchio, 2012;Hansen, 2003;McLaughlin & Boettcher, 2009;Nassar-McMillan, et al., 2012), clinical experience (Furr & Carroll, 2003;Howard, Inman & Altman, 2006), and supervisory relationship (Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990;Fernando & Hulse-Killacky, 2005;Gnilka, Chang, & Dew, 2012). By increasing the knowledge of the relationships among these variables, counselor educators will be able to assist CITs to develop a strong foundation of their professional identity. ...
... Multiple supervisory relationships occur at the same time for CITs. These relationships are of interest in this study as they can influence the professional identity of the CIT, who will identify traits they value or discount in their supervisors (Efstation et al., 1990;Fernando & Hulse-Killacky, 2005;Gnilka et al., 2012). The findings of one study suggested that consistent evaluation of the working alliance between the supervisor and supervisee is necessary to encourage growth and ownership of the experience for the supervisee (Fernando & Hulse-Killacky, 2005). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between program track, clinical experience, and supervisory relationship of counselors-in-training and their professional identity defined as counseling philosophy, beliefs about the profession, and professional engagement (Puglia, 2008). The respondents were 100 masters' level counseling students in CACREP accredited programs. A three-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis was computed. The measures of professional identity yielded low internal reliability which indicates the findings of the analyses should be considered with caution. The final model indicated that program track, clinical experience, and supervisory relationship in counselors-in-training were unrelated to professional identity. This finding suggests that continued and additional research into measures that examine the professional identity of counselors-in-training is necessary. This study and related future research will be influential in understanding the relationship between counselors-in-training's programs and their professional identity.
... The Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory-Trainee version (SWAI-T; Efstation et al., 1990) is a 19-item measures based on Bordin's (1983) theory of the supervisory working alliance and consists of two subscales: Rapport (12 items; e.g., "I feel comfortable working with my supervisor") assesses the supervision relationship and perceived supervisor support; Client Focus (seven items; e.g., "My supervisor encourages me to take time to understand what the client is saying and doing") assesses the client- suggesting good convergent validity. The Rapport subscale displayed low correlations with the Task-Oriented scales of the SSI, also suggesting good convergent validity. ...
... The Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory-Trainee version (SWAI-T; Efstation et al., 1990) is a 19-item measures based on Bordin's (1983) theory of the supervisory working alliance and consists of two subscales: Rapport (12 items; e.g., "I feel comfortable working with my supervisor") assesses the supervision relationship and perceived supervisor support; Client Focus (seven items; e.g., "My supervisor encourages me to take time to understand what the client is saying and doing") assesses the clientfocused tasks/ goals of supervision including help with understanding clients and determining effective counseling interventions. In a validation sample of 178 doctoral interns in counseling and clinical psychology training programs (57.8% female, mean age = 29.95, ...
... Using SPSS (IBM, 2019), Pearson correlations and a series of regression models were conducted to determine the relationship between trauma-informed principles (TIP) and other relevant supervision outcomes including the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory-Trainee (SWAIT-T; Efstation et al., 1990), the Supervisee Needs Index (Muse-Burke & Tyson, 2010), and the Supervisory Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ; Ladany et al., 1996). ...
Thesis
Current supervision literature suggests that supervisees with insecure attachment styles may perceive a poorer relationship with their supervisor and feel less satisfied with supervision. Studies across disciplines indicate a relationship between traumatic and/or adverse experiences and insecure attachment; however, this association has not been studied within the context of supervision. This dissertation explores a structural equation model assessing the associations between student’s adverse experiences, insecure attachment, and quality of the supervision relationship. It was hypothesized that greater prevalence of adverse experiences would negatively relate to supervision relationship quality, and this relationship would be mediated by insecure attachment. The results of study 1 indicate that student experiences of adversity are related to perceptions of lower supervision relationship quality, but this relationship was not mediated by participant’s attachment to their supervisor. This suggests a need for supervisors to account for their supervisee’s past experiences with adversity as they relate to the supervision process. Additionally, trauma-informed principles and practices have been offered as a potential foundation for relationship-focused supervision, but many publications calling for the application of trauma-informed principles are largely theoretical. To begin to establish an evidence base for the application of trauma-informed principles in counseling training programs, the second study of this dissertation explored the relationship between student perceptions of their supervisor’s adherence to trauma-informed principles and the supervision working alliance, satisfaction with supervision, and how effectively the supervisor meets the supervisee’s needs. The results of hierarchical regression models from study 2 indicate that student’s perceptions of their supervisor’s adherence to trauma-informed principles predicted supervision relationship outcomes above and beyond demographic variables. Trauma-informed principles may serve as a foundation for supervisor training which promotes positive supervision outcomes from the perspective of the student. Results, limitations, and implications for research and practice are provided for each manuscript.
... Research in supervision focuses primarily on the contribution of supervisors to trainees' experience and development in individual supervision. In particular, many studies conducted to date have examined the relation between the supervisory working alliance (SWA) and training outcomes, such as supervision satisfaction (SAT) (e.g., Cheon et al., 2009;Crockett & Hays, 2015;Ladany et al., 1996Ladany et al., , 1999Park et al., 2019;Sterner, 2009) and counseling self-efficacy (CSE) (e.g., Crockett & Hays, 2015;Efstation et al., 1990;Ladany et al., 1999;Morrison & Lent, 2018;Park et al., 2019). Although these studies generally reveal the beneficial effects of good supervisory relationships, the specific associations are not uniform across different outcome variables. ...
... In contrast, therapists who view their abilities critically may adhere to treatment protocols rigidly and have more negative interactions with clients (Henry et al., 1993). With respect to the sources of CSE, some studies demonstrated the positive effect of the SWA (e.g., Efstation et al., 1990;Morrison & Lent, 2018), but other studies did not (e.g., Crockett & Hays, 2015;Ladany et al., 1999). Nevertheless, trainees who have a strong supervisory alliance may feel that their supervisors have confidence about their counseling ability, which enhances trainees' view of their own ability and self-efficacy (Morrison & Lent, 2018). ...
... The SWA Inventory (SWAI; Efstation et al., 1990) is a 19-item measure of supervisees' perception of the strength of the supervisorsupervisee working alliance. Participants rate from 1 = almost never to 7 = almost always on a range of experiences. ...
Article
Research in clinical supervision has primarily focused on the contribution of supervisors to training outcome. However, peers may also play a significant role in trainees' development, particularly during group supervision. Fifty-three trainees from 10 supervision groups completed measures of peer relationship, supervisory working alliance (SWA), supervision satisfaction (SAT), and counseling self-efficacy (CSE) at three time points during a 20-week counseling practicum at a department clinic in Hong Kong. Multilevel modeling was conducted to test the hypothesis that both peer relationship and SWA contribute to SAT and CSE. The path model results showed that higher within- and between-trainee SWA was associated with higher SAT, and higher between-trainee SWA was associated with higher CSE. Better within- and between-trainee peer relationship was associated with higher CSE, but not with SAT. Thus, when peer relationship and SWA were entered as predictors into the same analysis and allowed to control for each other's effects, they each have unique contributions to the outcome of group supervision. Implications for training and supervision research are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... But the high collinearity among the subscales sometimes posed a threat to the distinctness of the three factors (Baker, 1990;Horvath & Greenberg, 1989). Efstation et al. (1990) perceived the supervisory relationship as a set of alliance-building and alliance-maintaining activities and viewed the supervisory working alliance as composed of supervisor-specific (i.e., client focus, rapport, and identification) and supervisee-specific (i.e., rapport and client focus) tasks and behaviors. Their supervisee form (Efstation et al., 1990) was used in the present study. ...
... Efstation et al. (1990) perceived the supervisory relationship as a set of alliance-building and alliance-maintaining activities and viewed the supervisory working alliance as composed of supervisor-specific (i.e., client focus, rapport, and identification) and supervisee-specific (i.e., rapport and client focus) tasks and behaviors. Their supervisee form (Efstation et al., 1990) was used in the present study. ...
... According to Efstation et al. (1990), the Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .90 for rapport and .77 for client focus (N = 178). ...
Article
Full-text available
To answer the research question whether there is a mediation effect of the supervisory working alliance between supervisory styles and supervisee satisfaction, we developed a mediation model and tested this hypothesized mediation effect with a sample of 111 participants that was comprised of master’s and doctoral counselor trainees and counseling practitioners recruited from several counseling professional networks. Results indicated a statistically significant indirect effect of supervisory styles on supervisee satisfaction through the supervisory working alliance. Specifically, when supervisees rated higher on a mixture of three supervisory styles, they were more likely to report a stronger working alliance with their supervisors; this alliance, in turn, contributed to their higher levels of satisfaction with supervision. These findings also speak to the importance of maintaining a flexible, balanced approach in supervision, and shed light on how both supervisors and supervisees can contribute to the supervisory working alliance so as to enhance supervisee satisfaction.
... If such consequences were to appear, one plausible indicator of disruption would be the supervisory working alliance (SWA). Although definitions of SWA vary somewhat in the literature, it is commonly defined in two related ways: 1) a collaborative relationship between supervisor and therapist, comprised of shared goals, agreement on tasks, and a bond of "liking, caring, and trusting (Bordin, 1983)" and, 2) a relationship involving actions by the supervisor and therapist to purposefully influence therapist knowledge and skill development (Efstation et al., 1990). Any disruption to SWA would be important, given that SWA has been shown to impact both treatment delivery and client outcomes. ...
... Each supervision dyad completed a supervisor and therapist version of the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory, a widely used measure of SWA with evidence of reliability and validity (SWAI; Efstation et al., 1990). The supervisor version of the SWAI (SWAI-S) is comprised of three subscales. ...
... Approximately half (49.32%) of supervisor-therapist dyads shared the same theoretical orientation and, of those with the same orientation, the majority had a cognitive behavioral orientation. The Identification subscale is unique to the supervisor version of the SWAI so ratings on this scale could not be compared (Efstation et al., 1990). ...
Article
Clinical supervision can effectively support the use of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) in community settings. However, implementation of multiple EBTs can lead to different training experiences for therapists and supervisors, such that therapists might learn EBTs their supervisors do not, and vice versa. We explored whether such training asymmetry impacted supervisory working alliance (SWA). In a community sample, more than half of supervisory dyads disagreed about SWA quality. When supervisors had training in fewer EBTs than their supervisees, supervisors rated working alliance lower. We conclude that incorporating supervisors in implementation from the outset could minimize negative side effects of training asymmetry.
... The supervisory working alliance predicts supervisee satisfaction (e.g., Ladany et al. 1999a, b;. Supervisee satisfaction has been associated with the quality of supervisory alliance among both U.S. (Efstation et al. 1990;Ladany et al. 1999a) and Korean supervisees . research, which used both U.S. and Korean samples, confirmed this relationship by demonstrating that supervisory styles predict the quality of the supervisory alliance, which in turn predicts satisfaction, regardless of whether the participants were receiving counseling supervision in the U.S. or Korea. ...
... Other studies have shown that supervisor styles in both the U.S. and Korea predict the quality of the supervisory working alliance (Efstation et al. 1990;Ladany and Lehrman-Waterman 1999). In the U.S., for example, Ladany et al. (2001) found that supervisory alliance was associated with attractive, interpersonally sensitive, and task-oriented supervisor styles; Rousmaniere and Ellis (2013), as well, found that it was associated with a collaborative supervisor style. ...
... Scores on the SSI demonstrated evidence of 2-week test-retest reliability (r = 0.78-0.94; Friedlander and Ward 1984) and has been found to be related to supervisory alliance (Efstation et al. 1990). The SSI subscales discriminated well between supervisors of different theoretical orientations (Friedlander and Ward 1984). ...
Article
This study tested a model of counseling supervisory process and outcome across two cultural contexts: one in the United States (U.S.) and one in South Korea. We hypothesized that (1) the supervisory alliance and supervisee nondisclosure would mediate the relationship between supervisor style and supervisee satisfaction and (2) the path coefficients of the model in the U.S. samples and South Korean samples would differ. Participants included 299 U.S. supervisees (mean age 30.25 years) and 334 South Korean supervisees (mean age 34.42 years), all of whom were engaged in counseling supervision. Self-reported measures were used to collect the data by using both online survey and paper–pencil survey. Results of structural equation modeling demonstrated that both the proposed model and path coefficients were statistically significant. In addition, we identified a stronger relationship between the supervisory working alliance and both supervisee nondisclosures and supervisee satisfaction in the U.S. sample in comparison to the South Korean sample. The attractive, interpersonally sensitive, and collaborative supervisory styles were differentially related to both supervisory alliance and supervisee satisfaction across U.S. and Korean samples. Implications for counseling supervision, training, and research are described.
... Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory -Supervisor (SWAI-S). Participants' perceptions of being able to establish a working alliance in counselor supervision were assessed with the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory -Supervisor Scale (SWAI-S; Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990). The SWAI-S is a 23-item, 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (almost never) to 7 (almost always). ...
... Rapport stresses the supervisor's effort in the supervisory rapport-building process, and Identification draws attention to the supervisor's view of the supervisee's identification in the supervision process. Efstation et al. (1990) reported alpha coefficients for SWAI-S subscales as .71 for Client Focus, .73 for Rapport, and .77 ...
... In the current study, we found alpha coefficients for SWAI-S subscales as .98 for Client Focus, .99 for Rapport, and .99 for Identification. Convergent and divergent validity of the scales were established through intercorrelations with the Supervisory Styles Inventory (Efstation et al., 1990). For the purposes of the current study, participants were asked to indicate the extent to which SWAI-S items were characteristic of their work with trainees during their supervision. ...
... Working Alliance Inventory (Efstation et al., 1990;Patton, 1992). The first of these focuses on a specific supervision session (the most recent), while the second focuses more generally on the nature of supervision. ...
... As each item is scored on a Likert scale from 1 to 7, the overall scores for Rapport and Client-focus also range from 1 to 7. Higher scores indicate a more effective working alliance and a greater degree of client-focus. Normative scores derived from the original study of the SWAI are 5.44 for Rapport and 5.85 for Client-focus (Efstation et al., 1990). ...
Technical Report
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This report provides findings from a mixed-methods study of supervision for professionals in multidisciplinary child protection teams in seven European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Moldova, Romania, and Serbia). The aims of the study were to explore the different understandings, experiences, and challenges of supervision as experienced by child protection professionals involved in multidisciplinary casework with children and families. The specific objectives were to: • Provide a snapshot of supervision for child protection professionals working in multidisciplinary team settings across the region. • Explore the attitudes, behaviours, and perceptions of child protection professionals regarding supervision. • Identify key factors that hinder and promote supervision practices in multidisciplinary team contexts. • Provide a comparative analysis in the region. • Identify good practices. Provide recommendations for strengthening supervision across the region and in specific countries. The research was led by the lead author, delivered in partnership with a team of local researchers, and coordinated via the Child Protection Hub project. It was funded by the Austrian Development Agency, Oak Foundation and Terre des hommes.
... This study targeted practicing rehabilitation counselors, so those answering (b) or (c) were excluded. Supervisors were excluded from the sample since they received an alternate form of the CVAS worded from their perspective and perceptions tend to differ between supervisors and counselors (Efstation et al., 1990). The supervisors' responses are the subject of a companion study with different research questions. ...
... The study was limited by assessing supervision practices solely from counselors' perspectives and the accuracy of their responses may be influenced by counselors' knowledge of the supervision process. We recognize that supervision involves a counselor-supervisor relationship and there is evidence the counterparts' perspectives may differ (Efstation et al., 1990), so study from the supervisor perspective is needed. Additionally, the scale does not constitute a comprehensive list of supervision practices, but only includes items that are distinct to clinical or administrative supervision. ...
Article
Full-text available
Counselor supervision in vocational rehabilitation settings includes a diverse range of practices that are commonly differentiated into clinical and administrative roles. Yet currently, there is no comprehensive measure of these dual roles for research or field applications. The current study describes the development and initial validation of an instrument measuring the frequency of clinical versus administrative supervision practices using a sample of practicing rehabilitation counselors (n = 324). The resulting Clinical Versus Administrative Supervision scale (CVAS) shows evidence of differentiation between subscale factors, high reliability, and convergent validity with measures of the supervisory working alliance and satisfaction with supervision.
... Many measures exist to examine various aspects of the supervision process. For example, the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (Efstation et al., 1990) is a measure of the supervisory working relationship based upon supervisor and supervisee factors. The 36-item Experiences in Supervision Scale (Gunn & Pistole, 2012) uses self-report by supervisees to measure their attachment to their supervisors through items describing their internal experiences. ...
... difficulty with corrective feedback, negative feelings after feedback), as well as its face validity as related to supervisees' behaviors that are accepted as growth-enhancing and professionally desirable. In addition to increasing sample sizes to include a greater demographic and developmental array, future research could examine the CFASS in relationship to other measures of supervisee perceptions of how they would utilize and engage in supervision following corrective supervisory feedback, such as the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (Efstation et al., 1990) and the Supervisee Nondisclosure Scale (Siembor, 2012). Both constructs have strong conceptual ties to the CFASS: a supervisee's sense of alliance with their supervisor would seem to influence their behavioral responses after corrective feedback, as well as their in-session willingness to share relevant content that may invite such criticism. ...
Article
This article describes the initial validation of the Corrective Feedback Acceptance and Synthesis in Supervision Scale (CFASS), with results supporting a brief five-item single factor instrument. The CFASS is intended to be a measure of supervisees’ perceptions upon receipt of corrective feedback that may lead to subsequent supervisory behavior. A Factor Analysis was performed to examine and validate the structure of this supervisory instrument. The relationship between the CFASS and other instruments previously correlated to supervisees’ difficulty with corrective feedback supports the CGASS’s discriminate validity. The authors discuss findings within the context of the extant theoretical and research literature regarding feedback in clinical supervision and identify implications for future research and practice.
... To evaluate the convergent validity of the GSAT (Wheeler & Barkham, 2014), respondents were also asked to complete the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (SWAI; Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990). This commonly used self-report measure assesses supervisee and supervisor perceptions of the quality and strength of the supervisory relationship. ...
... All items pertaining to evidenced based practice, ethics, safety, culture, and professional practice were represented in the second domain, and labelled 'fundamental accountability, safety and awareness processes'. The fact that the GSAT-SR had four latent factors and GSAT-SE had only two latent factors is unsurprising, as previous studies have shown marked differences in the factor structures of tools used to evaluate competency by supervisors and supervisees (e.g., Efstation et al., 1990). Furthermore, a supervisee's rating of their supervisor is known to be strongly influenced by level of training, understanding of best practice and the supervisory alliance (Martino et al., 2009;. ...
Article
Objectives: Clinical supervision is essential for ensuring effective service delivery. International imperatives to demonstrate professional competence has increased attention on the role of supervision in enhancing client outcomes. Although supervisor competency tools are recognised as important components in effective supervision, there remains a shortage of tools that are evidenced-based, applicable across workforces and freely accessible. Design: An expert multidisciplinary group developed the Generic Supervision Assessment Tool (GSAT) to assess supervisor competencies across a range of professions. Initially the GSAT consisted of 32 items responded to by either a supervisor (GSAT-SR) or supervisee (GSAT-SE). The current study, using surveys, employed a cross-sectional design to test the reliability and construct validity of the GSAT. Methods: The study consisted of two phases and included 12 professional groups across Australasia. In 2018, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was undertaken with survey data from 479 supervisors and 447 supervisees. In 2019 survey data from 182 supervisors and 186 supervisees were used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results were used to refine and validate the GSAT. Results: The final GSAT-SR has four factors with 26 competency items. The final GSAT-SE has two factors with 21 competency items. The EFA and CFA confirmed that the GSAT-SR and the GSAT-SE are psychometrically valid tools that supervisors and supervisees can utilise to assess competencies. Conclusion: As a non-discipline specific supervision tool, the GSAT is a validated, freely available tool for benchmarking the competencies of clinical supervisors across professions, potentially optimising supervisory evaluation processes and strengthening supervision effectiveness. Practitioner points: Supervisor competency tools are recognised as important components of safe and effective supervision provision yet there is a dearth of valid, reliable and effective measures. The Generic Supervision Assessment Tool (GSAT-SR and GSAT-SE) are unique psychometrically valid, and reliable measures of supervisor competence. The GSAT-SR and the GSAT-SE can enhance translation of evidence-based supervision competency skills into regular practice. Validated with a broad cross section of professionals in diverse practice settings the GSAT provides a comprehensive conceptualization of supervisor competence.
... An essential supervision process variable is the SWA, a concept used to describe the perceived quality of a supervisor-supervisee working relationship (Watkins, 2014). Due to supervisors' ethical and professional responsibilities to supervisees and their clients, SWA is viewed as containing both a focus on supervisor-supervisee rapport and a clinical emphasis on supervisees' clients (Efstation et al., 1990). Empirical research has supported a positive relationship between SWA and various supervisee outcomes including satisfaction with supervision, willingness to self-disclose, implementation of supervisor's input, reduced burnout, well-being, job satisfaction, and self-reported multicultural competence (Bernard & Goodyear, 2019). ...
... Supervisory Working Alliance-Supervisee Form (SWA; Efstation et al., 1990). SWA consists of 19 items and assesses a supervisee's perceptions of the SWA with a supervisor. ...
... Pour effectuer leur choix, ils recommandent aux chercheurs de considé rer le but visé , les qualité s psychomé triques et la longueur de l'instrument. Au vu de ces é lé ments, nous avons opté pour la Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory, SWAI [9], fondé sur le modè le de l'alliance thé rapeutique de Bordin [5]. Dans ce modè le bifactoriel, l'alliance de travail en supervision est dé finie comme la relation collaborative entre le superviseur et le supervisé qui favorise la formation du supervisé en mettant à profit les compé tences et les connaissances du superviseur [12]. ...
... Cette dé finition regroupe bien la relation de confiance mais aussi le focus patient. Selon Tangen & Borders (2016) qui ont analysé toutes les é chelles mesurant la relation de supervision, l'un des principaux avantages du SWAI est l'accent explicite mis par Efstation et al. (1990) sur l'alliance de travail de supervision, diffé rente de l'alliance thé rapeutique [16]. Ces deux sous-é chelles ont donc leur inté rêt, notamment dans le cadre d'une é valuation systé matique des sé ances de supervision. ...
Article
Résumé La supervision dans le champ des thérapies comportementales et cognitives a longtemps été négligée en France. Pourtant, le peu de recherches sur ce sujet mettent en évidence l’effet positif de la supervision chez le psychothérapeute (amélioration de ses compétences, diminution de la fatigue de compassion), et chez le patient (amélioration de son bien-être). Elle semblerait augmenter l’efficacité de la thérapie. L’alliance de travail en supervision pourrait être un ingrédient majeur de ces effets positifs. Aussi, avons-nous adapté et validé en version française un outil à 6 items, le questionnaire d’alliance de travail en supervision (QATS), pour augmenter les recherches sur ce sujet et permettre une évaluation rapide et systématique de l’alliance en supervision. Après avoir procédé à une rétro-traduction, nous avons effectué une analyse factorielle exploratoire et une analyse factorielle confirmatoire. Ces analyses valident la conception bifactorielle du modèle avec la « relation » et le « focus patient ». Ce modèle explique près de 73 % de la variance totale. Les indices d’ajustement SMRM, TLI et CLI sont très bons. L’analyse de la consistance interne de chaque sous-échelle est excellente. Une des principales limites de cette validation en langue française est la population composée uniquement de thérapeutes d’orientation comportementale et cognitive. En revanche, elle ouvre des perspectives de recherche dans ce champ peu étudié qu’est la supervision, malgré les risques psychosociaux évidents présents chez les psychothérapeutes.
... Participants also completed the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory: Trainee Form (SWAI; Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990), a 19-item Likert response measure designed to assess two factors, rapport and client focus (i.e., the supervisee's understanding of the client). Items that emphasize supervisor-supervisee rapport include "I feel comfortable working with my supervisor" and "My supervisor makes the effort to understand me." ...
... Items that emphasize client focus include "My supervisor encourages me to take time to understand what the client is saying and doing" and "When correcting my errors with a client, my supervisor offers alternative ways of intervening with that client." SWAI scores have demonstrated good internal consistency in prior studies (␣ ϭ .77-0.90; Efstation et al., 1990). Each week a mean SWAI score was calculated for each participant, averaging their 19 responses; SWAI scores could therefore range from 1 to 7, with higher scores indicating better supervisory working alliance. ...
... An alpha coefficient of .77 has been reported for the Empathic Concern subscale (Péloquin & Lafontaine, 2010), while the Cronbach's alpha value of the IRI in the current study was .80. Efstation, Patton, and Kardash (1990) developed this inventory to measure supervisees' perceptions about the effectiveness of the working relationship with their supervisors, and we used the SWAI-T to measure the construct of the supervisory working alliance. With a total of 19 items, the self-report assessment includes a 7-point Likert-type scale with responses ranging from almost never to almost always. ...
... and .90, respectively (Efstation et al., 1990). For the current study, we calculated Cronbach alpha values of .90 for the Client Focus subscale and .93 for the Rapport subscale. ...
Article
Scholars have described compassion fatigue as the result of chronic exposure to clients' suffering and traumatic stories. Counselors can struggle when they experience compassion fatigue because of various reasons. As such, an exploration of factors predictive of compassion fatigue may help counselors and supervisors buffer adverse effects. Utilizing a hierarchical linear regression analysis, we examined the association between wellness, resilience, supervisory working alliance, empathy, and compassion fatigue among 86 counselors-in-training (CITs). The research findings revealed that resilience and wellness were significant predictors of compassion fatigue among CITs, whereas empathy and supervisory working alliance were not. Based on our findings, counselor educators might consider enhancing their current training programs by including discussion topics about wellness and resilience, while supervisors consider practicing wellness and resilience strategies in supervision and developing interventions designed to prevent compassion fatigue.
... As part of the survey, respondents were asked to provide data on the provision and nature of their supervision (and / or what they would prefer), for example the frequency and length of supervision sessions, and to complete three standardised instruments -the Helpful Aspects of Supervision Questionnaire (Wheeler and Barkham, 2014), the Leeds Alliance in Supervision Scale (Wainwright, 2010) and the Supervisory Working Alliance (Efstation et al., 1990;Patton, 1992). Respondents were also asked several open-ended questions in relation to their best experiences of supervision, their views on how supervision makes a difference for them and for families they work with, and in relation to barriers and facilitators of effective supervision. ...
Technical Report
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This report provides the Albanian findings from a mixed-methods study of supervision for professionals working in multidisciplinary child protection teams across a range of Central, Eastern and South-eastern European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Moldova, Romania, and Serbia). Utilising existing services and professional connections within the Child Protection Hub network, this project aims to explore different understandings, standards, and challenges of supervision faced by social workers and other child protection professionals involved in multidisciplinary casework with children and families. The aims of the project were to: • Provide a snapshot of supervision for child protection professionals working in multidisciplinary team settings across the region. • Explore the attitudes, behaviours, and perceptions of child protection professionals regarding supervision. • Identify key factors that hinder and promote supervision practices in multidisciplinary team contexts. • Provide a comparative analysis in the region. • Identify good practices in supervision. • Provide recommendations for strengthening supervision across the region and in specific countries. This research was conducted by the Children’s Social Care Research and Development Centre (CASCADE), part of Cardiff University, and within the framework of the Child Protection Hub project, funded by the Austrian Development Agency, Oak Foundation and Terre des hommes.
... Alanyazında süpervizyonun niteliğinin temel belirleyicilerinden birinin süpervizyon çalışma uyumu olduğu belirtilmektedir (örn. Bambling ve King, 2014;Bordin, 1983;Efstation, Patton ve Kardash, 1990;Ladany ve Lehrman-Waterman, 1999;Son ve Ellis 2013;Watkins, 2014). ...
Article
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Süpervizyon Çalışma Uyumu Envanteri Kısa Formu (SÇUE-KF), süpervizör ve süpervizyon alan kişi arasındaki süpervizyon çalışma uyumunun niteliğini süpervizyon alan kişinin perspektifinden ölçmektedir. Bu araştırmada, SÇUE-KF Türkçe’ye uyarlanmış ve psikometrik özellikleri test edilmiştir. Öncelikle, orijinal çalışmanın yazarlarından envanter uyarlama izni alınmıştır. Envanterin Türkçe’ye uyarlanmasında ileri-geri çeviri ile pilot uygulama işlemleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmaya toplam 284 süpervizyon alan kişi katılmıştır. Araştırmada veri toplama araçları olarak Demografik Bilgi Formu, SÇUE-KF, Süpervizörlük Tarzları Envanteri ve Süpervizyonda Değerlendirme Süreci Envanteri kullanılmıştır. SÇUE-KF’nun psikometrik özelliklerini test etmek için yapı geçerliği, ölçüt-bağıntılı geçerlik ve güvenirlik analizleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bulgular, SÇUE-KF’nun tek faktörlü orijinal yapısının hedef örneklemde doğrulandığını göstermiştir. SÇUE-KF’nun ölçüt-bağıntılı geçerliğe ve yüksek güvenirliğe sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, araştırmanın sonuçları, SÇUE-KF’nun Türkiye’de süpervizyon çalışma uyumunun niteliğinin ölçümünde kullanılabilecek güçlü, geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğunu göstermiştir.
... Impact of Event Scale (IES; Horowitz et al., 1979), Impact of Events Scale-Revision (IES-R; Weiss & Marmar, 1997), Professional Quality of Life (Pro QoL; Stamm, 2010), Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS; Bride et al., 2004), Trauma Attachment Belief Scale (TABS; Pearlman, 2003), Traumatic Stress Institute Belief Scale (TSI-BS; Pearlman, 1996), Traumatic Stress Institute Belief Scale Revision L (TSIBS-L;Pearlman, 1996), Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (SWAI;Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990). ...
Article
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Background: The negative impact of trauma work has been well documented in mental health professionals. There are three main phenomena used to describe these effects: Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS), Vicarious Trauma (VT) and Compassion Fatigue (CF). To date, the majority of research has focused on the contribution of individual level factors. However, it is imperative to also understand the role of organizational factors. Objectives: This review examines the role of organizational factors in ameliorating or preventing STS, VT, and CF in mental health professionals. We further aimed to identify specific elements of these factors which are perceived to be beneficial and/or detrimental in mitigating against the effects of STS, VT, and CF. Method: Studies were identified by searching the electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science and SCOPUS with final searches taking place on 10 March 2021. Results: Twenty-three quantitative studies, eight qualitative studies, and five mixed methods studies were included in the final review. A narrative synthesis was conducted to analyse the findings. The results of the review highlight the importance of regular supervision within supportive supervisory relationships, strong peer support networks, and balanced and diverse caseloads. The value of having an organizational culture which acknowledges and validates the existence of STS was also imperative. Conclusions: Organizations have an ethical responsibility to support the mental health professionals they employ and provide a supportive environment which protects them against STS. This review provides preliminary evidence for the types of support that should be offered and highlights the gaps in the literature and where future research should be directed. Further research is needed to evaluate which strategies - and under what conditions - best ameliorate and prevent STS.
... Bu bileşenlerin terapist-danışan arasında bulunması, ilişkinin başarısını doğrudan etkiler (Bordin, 1979(Bordin, , 1983). Sonrasında bu model önce psikolojik danışman eğitimi sürecine, daha sonra ise lisansüstü eğitimde danışman-danışan ilişkilerine uyarlanmıştır (Efstation, Patton ve Kardash, 1990;Schlosser ve Gelso, 2001 (Gelso vd., 2013;Offstein vd., 2004). ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between the advisor-advisee relationship in graduate education and students' research anxiety. Descriptive, causal comparative and relational research models were used in the research. The population of the research consists of 3730 students studying at İnönü University in the 2020-2021 academic year. The sample of the study consists of 960 students determined by stratified sampling method. The Advisor-Advisee Relationship Scale and the Research-Related Anxiety Scale were used as data collection tools. The data were collected by sending the data collection tool to the students via e-mail. In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression analysis were used. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that male students had more positive opinions than female students in the rapport dimension of advisor-advisee relationships, and students with female advisors had higher research anxiety than students with male advisors. It has been concluded that the students of the Social Sciences Institute have more negative opinions than the students of other institutes in the apprenticeship dimension of the advisor-advisee relationships. In addition, it was determined that doctoral students got higher scores in apprenticechip subscale and lower scores in research anxiety compared to master's students. In this study, it was concluded that the students who chose their own advisor had a more positive advisor-advisee relationship and felt less research anxiety than the students whose advisor was chosen against their will. Similarly, it was understood that students who met with their advisors more frequently experienced a more positive advisor-advisee relationship and less research anxiety than students who saw less. Finally, a negative and significant relationship was found between advisor-advisee relationship and research anxiety. It was concluded that graduate students with more positive advisor-advisee relationships experienced less research anxiety. In line with the results obtained in the research, suggestions have been developed for practitioners and researchers.
... Based on these considerations, we highlight two measures that are most advantageous. The Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (SWAI; Efstation et al., 1990) is one of the most widely utilized measures on the SWA (Park et al., 2019;Schweitzer & Witham, 2018). The SWAI consists of a supervisor version (23 items) and a supervisee version (17 items), both rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. ...
Article
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Examination of the efficacy of clinical supervision has accrued limited evidence, partially due to lack of a clarity or consensus on what constitutes supervision outcomes. This not only leads to inconsistency across studies evaluating supervision outcomes, but also falls short of providing guidance for clinical supervisors to systematically evaluate the efficacy of their work. We present a practitioner-oriented, evidence-informed, and pan-theoretical framework that connects a broad range of outcomes to the supervision process, including proximal, intermediate, and distal outcomes. We discuss how several practitioner-friendly instruments related to these outcomes can be incorporated into supervision practice and contribute to a more holistic assessment of supervision outcomes. We also discussed supervisory strategies such as strategically attending to and balancing multiple levels of outcomes and incorporating a theoretical lens to our framework.
... More recent research indicated that CITs' self-efficacy increased progressively between clinical experience courses, specifically when comparing the start of practicum with the end of internship (Mullen et al., 2015). Efstation et al. (1990) found that perceptions of supervisory style accounted for 14% of the variance in counselor self-efficacy and Hanson (2006) reported that supervisory alliance accounted for 31% of the variance in counselor self-efficacy. While counselor self-efficacy literature aligns with the focus of SCT, it also highlights the need to explore further the significance of supervision for professional counselor learning. ...
Article
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This correlational study explored the relationship between feedback and counselor self-efficacy during online counselor education residency. Participants (N=145) were students from eight Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredited online counseling programs who completed instruments on perceptions of positive and corrective feedback, attitudes towards corrective feedback, and counselor self-efficacy. Results showed a significant positive correlation between perceptions of corrective feedback and self-efficacy. Two factors related to perceptions of corrective feedback also showed significant correlations with self-efficacy. Implications concerning providing corrective feedback in supervision for counselor in training are discussed.
... The Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990) evaluates the quality of the relationship between supervisors and mental health clinicians. Participants responded to the 12 items using a 7-point scale ranging from 'almost never' to 'almost always.' ...
Article
Objective This study evaluated whether supervisory mentorship contributed to peer support specialists’ job satisfaction and burnout via pathways of role clarity and psychological empowerment after accounting for effects of demographic and workplace characteristics. The study also evaluated whether the recovery-orientation of the workplace contributed to peers’ job satisfaction and burnout. Method Peer support specialists from the United States (N = 117) completed an online questionnaire containing established self-report measures and questions about demographic and workplace characteristics. Results Multiple regression analysis indicated the included variables accounted for 61.9% of variance (p < .001) in job satisfaction and that mentoring from supervisors and a recovery-oriented workplace significantly (ps < .05) predicted job satisfaction. In a second multiple regression analysis, included variables accounted for 28.7% of variance (p < .01) in emotional exhaustion (the emotional component of burnout), where role clarity significantly (p < .05) predicted less emotional exhaustion. Mediation analyses of the cross-sectional data did not support the hypothesis that aspects of the supervisory relationship contributed to job satisfaction and burnout through role clarity and psychological empowerment. Discussion Mentoring from supervisors and the recovery-orientation of the workplace contribute to peers’ job satisfaction after accounting for factors, including role clarity and supervisory working alliance. Improving supervisors’ mentoring skills and adopting a recovery-orientation in mental health settings may bolster peers’ job satisfaction. Increasing peers’ role clarity may reduce burnout. Longitudinal research is needed to clarify associations between factors that may facilitate role clarity and mitigate burnout among peers.
... This reality has been echoed in many works in the field (e.g. [10,11]). This connection has been discussed in the literature of both the supervision of mental health and SUD clinicians. ...
Chapter
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There is considerable pressure from varied sources to provide effective supervision to professionals who deliver therapeutic services to persons being treated for substance use disorders. The literature of supervision continues to evolve as the utility of supervision models and their applicability with substance abuse therapeutics are explored. Among the many models of supervision, Bernard’s Discrimination Model of supervision is experiencing on-going development in the context of a variety of clinical services. The current chapter will describe how Bernard’s model can be used effectively to enhance the supervision of substance abuse professionals as well as how further development of the model would enhance the approach. The Discrimination Model will be combined with existing literature of Motivational Interviewing approaches to describe key elements of effective clinical supervision with professionals delivering services in a complex and challenging industry.
... Various existing instruments focus on evaluating aspects of supervision. The Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (SWAI; Efstation et al. 1990) is a 19-item self-report instrument that measures the quality of the supervisory relationship within two subscales (client focus and rapport) using a 7-point Likert scale. The Supervisory Styles Inventory (SSI; Friedlander and Ward 1984) is a 33-item instrument that assesses the style of the supervisor and the supervisee within three subscales (task orientation, interpersonal sensitivity, and attractiveness) using a 7point Likert scale. ...
Article
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Supervision is an important component of counselor development; however, limited research exists on evaluating supervision. There is also a lack of comprehensive, psychometrically strong assessments to measure supervision competencies. In this study we focused on the development of the Supervision Competencies Scale (SCS), an assessment designed to measure a supervisor’s competence. There were 416 counseling supervisors, including 194 faculty members, 111 practitioners, 33 students, 22 administrators, 14 site supervisors, 32 that reported other, and 10 that did not indicate a position. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis and found a four-factor structure (Factor 1: Supervision Skills; Factor 2: Supervision Laws and Ethics; Factor 3: Supervision Modalities; Factor 4: Supervision Knowledge) with 53 items. The SCS had strong internal consistency (Total = .97, subscales ranged from .8—.958). Educators, trainers, supervisors, and researchers may use the SCS in various capacities to promote the development of supervision competencies.
... Bordin advocated that the WA "be defined and elaborated in terms that make it universally applicable...particularly for pointing to new research directions" (1979, p. 252). The WA has been extended to advisor-advisee (e.g., Huber, Sauer, Mrdjenovich, & Gugiu, 2010;Inman et al., 2011;Rice et al., 2009;Schlosser & Gelso, 2001Schlosser & Kahn, 2007), coach-client (e.g., Appelbaum & Steed, 2005;Baron & Morin, 2009; Baron, Morin, & Morin, 2011;Berry, Ashby, Gnilka, & Matheny, 2011;McKenna & Davis, 2009a, 2009b, supervisor-counselor (e.g., Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990;Hamolsky, 1996;Ladany & Friedlander, 1995;Patton & Kivlighan, Jr., 1997;Smith, Younes, & Lichtenberg, 2002;Sterner, 2009), career counselor-client (e.g., Meara & Patton, 1994;Multon, Ellis-Kalton, Heppner, & Gysbers, 2003), and trainer-trainee (e.g., Patton & Kivlighan, Jr., 1997;Smith et al., 2002;Sterner, 2009) dyads. ...
Thesis
To understand nested helping relationships in higher education, I examined the role of the educational working alliance (EWA) in predicting the key student outcomes of learning (earned grades, expected grades, and end-of-first year GPAs), learning ownership, and retention. The EWA describes the collaborative efforts of instructors and students to (a) form strong emotional bonds, and (b) reach agreements regarding educational goals and tasks. I hypothesized that, after controlling for instructors' and students' sex, college entrance exam scores, and prior course credit, three relationships would emerge. First, bonds and goals/tasks would be positively related. Second, the student-level bonds, goals/tasks, and interaction (bonds with goals/tasks) would be positively related to learning, learning ownership, and retention. Third, students' course-aggregated bonds, goals/tasks, and interaction ( bonds with goals/tasks), when functioning interactively (cross-level effects) with student-level bonds, goals/tasks, and interaction (bonds with goals/tasks), would be positively related to learning, learning ownership, and retention. Using five-years of archival end-of-course evaluation (EOCE) data ( g = 131 [groups]; N = 65 [instructors]; N = 1,845 [students]) for a foundational undergraduate university seminar course, EOCE items represented the bonds and goals/tasks dimensions, learning ownership and expected grades while institutional records provided earned grades, end-of-first-year GPAs, and second year retention statuses. I used correlational analyses to investigated the relationship between bonds and goals/tasks, hierarchical multiple regression to investigated student-level relationships between the main (bonds, goals/tasks) and interactive (bonds with goals/tasks) effects with learning, learning ownership, and retention, and multilevel modeling to investigate cross-level (students within courses) relationships between the main (bonds, goals/tasks) and interactive (bonds with goals/tasks) effects with learning, learning ownership, and retention. Correlational analyses supported Hypothesis 1 in that bonds and goals/tasks were positively related (r = .71, p < .01). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses found partial support for Hypothesis 2a in that bonds positively predicted one of the five outcomes (learning ownership [b = .202, p < .01]), partial support for Hypothesis 2b in that goals/tasks positively predicted four of the five outcomes (earned grades [b = .130, p < .01], expected grades [b = .164, p < .01], spring GPAs [b = .059, p < .05]), and learning ownership [b = .413, p < .01]), and partial support for Hypothesis 2c in that bonds and goals/tasks interacted to positively predict two of the five outcomes (spring GPAs [b = .310, p < .10] and learning ownership [b = .983, p < .01]). Multilevel modeling did not find support that group-level bonds, goals/tasks, and their interaction (bonds with goals/tasks) interacted with student-level bonds, goals/tasks, and their interaction (bonds with goals/tasks) to predict statistically significant increases in learning, learning ownership, or retention (Hypotheses 3a, 3b, and 3c not supported). Results indicated that instructors may help unleash their students' learning and performing potential by collaborating with students to form and maintain strong interpersonal emotional bonds and the needed educational goals and tasks agreements to facilitate students' efforts to reach their various educational outcomes.
... Given the emphasis on the working alliance in therapy (Horvath, 2001), it follows logically that many supervision scholars also consider the alliance between supervisor and supervisee as central. Some have advocated measuring the strength of the supervisory alliance (Efstation et al., 1990;Ladany et al., 1999). Moreover, much supervisory research has identified characteristics of effective or ineffective supervision in terms of individual behaviors or characteristics (e.g., Falender & Shafranske, 2012;McNamara et al., 2017;Watkins, 2014). ...
Article
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The IPscope (IP signifying Interpersonal Patterns), developed at the Calgary Family Therapy Center by Karl Tomm and colleagues, provides a way of understanding behavior in context. Building on our work using the IPscope to conceptualize the functioning of families, we have also used the IPscope to bring a relational ethos to CFT supervision. After describing the development of the IPscope and its use at the CFTC, we describe specific applications of the IPscope to several key foci of clinical supervision: cross-cultural issues; the supervisory working alliance, with specific reference to supervisee nondisclosure and informal supervision; supporting supervisees to develop case conceptualization skills with the IPscopic reflectogram; dealing with impasses in therapy or supervision, usually labeled intrapsychically as countertransference, and a practical approach to isomorphism. Finally, we address limitations and critique of the IPscope.
... International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling Note 1. The author information in Table 1 is organized alphabetically Note 2. N = number of participants; T = treatment (online supervision) participants; C = Comparison (in-person supervision) participants, SWAI-T = The Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory: Trainee Form (Chen and Bernstein 2000;Efstation et al. 1990;Patton and Kivlighan 1997); SQ = The Supervision Questionnaire (Ladany et al. 2004;Larsen et al. 1979); WDGS = The Web-Based Distance Group Satisfaction Survey (Roberts et al. 2002); WAI-T = Working Alliance Inventory -Trainee Version(WAI-T) (Bahrick 1990;Bordin 1979;Baker 1990); SSQ = Supervisory Satisfaction Questionnaire (Larsen et al. 1979, as cited in Ladany et al. 2004); ...
Article
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In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of distance clinical supervision in comparison with traditional face-to-face supervision in conformity with the guidelines offered by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). We analyzed empirical studies (i.e., three journal articles and one dissertation) on clinical supervision published between 2000 and 2018. Analyses determined the overall effect sizes of supervision by format (i.e., distance vs. face-to-face) and compared the effect sizes of distance vs. face-to-face supervision, specifically, by supervisee satisfaction, supervisory alliance, and supervisee competency. Results indicated that the overall effect sizes of supervision, as well as the effect sizes for the three variables, did not significantly differ by format. Implications of non-significant difference in the effect sizes by different formats of clinical supervision (distance vs. face-to-face) are discussed.
... In terms of assessment of the supervision process, the majority of existing literature have focused on the supervisory working alliance (e.g., Bell, Hagedorn, & Robinson, 2016;Gnilka, Chang, & Dew, 2012;McCarthy, 2013), typically measured by the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (SWAI; Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990) that assesses rapport and client focus in supervision. Some of the other factors that have been operationalized include interpersonal affinity to supervisor (e.g., Dodenhoff, 1981), supervision style-or the distinctive manner of approaching and responding to trainees (e.g., Van Dam, 2014), supervision satisfaction (i.e., the supervisee's understanding of their interactions in supervision, their interpretation of their supervisor's perceived performance and personal characteristics, and the level of ease in expressing their thoughts during supervision; measured by Trainee Personal Reaction Scale; Holloway & Wampold, 1984), and multicultural supervision, or the focus on cultural differences and multicultural competence (e.g., Perez, 2018). ...
Article
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Clinical supervision is deemed an essential element in the development of therapist competence and provision of psychotherapy to clients. However, the association between supervision and psychotherapy process and outcome has been mixed, unclear, and presumed to vary widely given the idiosyncratic features of the supervision and therapy process. Thus, to provide an up-to-date (articles published until May, 2019) quantitative summary, we conducted a meta-analytic review to examine the associations between supervision variables and psychotherapy process and outcome variables including: therapeutic relationship, client satisfaction, and treatment outcomes. Using a random effects model, the pooled Pearson’s correlation between supervision and psychotherapy process and outcome variables was .21 across 12 studies (32 effects) that were included. Thus, supervision accounted for 4% of the variance in client outcomes. Approximately 54% of the total variance between studies was due to heterogeneity and not to chance. An additional meta-analysis without the 4 studies that assessed client outcomes using supervisor/therapist ratings yielded a slightly higher correlation (r .24), accounting for 6% of the variance in client outcomes. Effect sizes regarding the therapeutic relationship and client satisfaction varied widely while effect sizes for treatment outcomes were less varied with consistently small positive effects. Supervisory working alliance was most frequently examined in assessing supervision and accounted for wider variance in effect sizes. There seemed to be less variance among specific supervision factors (e.g., style, satisfaction, structure) with consistent small to medium positive effects. Implications for future research are discussed.
... The SSI-T consists of three subscales: Attractive (seven items), Interpersonally Sensitive (eight items), and Task-Oriented (10 items). The SSI-T had significant correlations with supervisory working alliance and supervisor's self-disclosure (Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990;Friedlander & Ward, 1984;Ladany et al., 1996). Because supervisory style is commonly examined in supervision research and is a distinct concept from supervisee disclosure, we used the three subscales of SSI-T to test the SDSS's discriminant validity. ...
Article
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The authors developed and initially validated the Supervisee Disclosure in Supervision Scale (SDSS). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with 2 independent samples revealed that the SDSS is a 17‐item instrument with 2 subscales showing promising psychometric properties. The authors discuss the findings with implications for supervision training, practices, and research.
... Instrumentation SWAI-T. The SWA was assessed using the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory-Trainee Version (SWAI-T) (Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990), which measures the supervisees' perspective of the supervisor-supervisee relationship based on two domains: (a) Rapport and (b) Client Focus. Created from the Supervisory Styles Inventory (Friedlander & Ward, 1984), the SWAI-T rates 19 items (e.g., "My supervisor makes the effort to understand me") on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (almost never) to 7 (almost always), with higher scores indicating a stronger SWA. ...
Article
The supervisory working alliance (SWA) is an element of the supervisory relationship (SR) and has also been found to be related to the therapeutic alliance (TA) (DePue, Lambie, Liu, & Gonzalez, 2016). As the TA has a well-established relationship with client outcomes (Leibert, Smith, & Agaskar, 2011), the SWA should also be related to client outcomes as it works through the TA (Bambling, King, Raue, Schweitzer, and Lambert (2006). No researchers have examined how the SWA and TA between therapists, supervisors, and clients may work together to predict client outcomes using dyadic data analysis, strong client outcome measures, and client perspectives of the TA. The authors examined the contribution of the TA between novice therapists (n = 155) and their clients (n = 193) on client outcomes, as well as the contribution of the supervisees’ SWA scores on their client outcomes. Data was matched between therapist/supervisees and clients, and two Structural Equation Models (SEM) were developed to investigate the hypothesized contribution of the TA and SWA on client outcome. Results identified that the strength of the SWA and TA have direct effects on client outcomes, and the effect of the SWA on client outcomes is not mediated by the TA when clients’ ratings of TA are used. The SWA is both directly and indirectly related to client outcome, when considering client and therapist ratings of the TA. Keywords: client outcome, clinical supervision, therapist training, therapeutic process Significance statement: Therapists should continue to foster the TA and consider it as a fundamental component of effective therapy that impacts client outcome. Clinical supervisors can foster the SWA to help strengthen novice trainees’ confidence in their perceptions of the TA. As the strength of the SWA is directly related to client outcome, clinical supervisors should monitor the SWA and aim to repair any ruptures in the relationship if they occur, as this can directly impact both the supervisee and clients. In addition, we encourage supervisees to advocate for their needs within the supervision process.
... • SWAI (The Supervisee From the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory) [47]. Assesses the supervisee's perceived working alliance with their supervisor. ...
Article
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Crisis line services, operated by volunteers, have been proven to be effective in decreasing psychological pain and preventing suicidality. Although working at the crisis line may be rewarding, for some the confrontation with highly complex topics (i.e., suicidality, abuse, and loneliness) in combination with inappropriate calls (i.e., sexually abusive calls), may lead to distress or vicarious trauma. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the studies that have examined mental wellbeing of crisis line volunteers and the factors associated with it. Thirteen published empirical studies on the topic were found. These showed that crisis line volunteers are at increased risk of declined mental wellbeing. However, a wide range of operationalizations were used and most studies did not use validated instruments. On the other hand, studies showed that many volunteers experience satisfaction and gratification from their work. This review gives insight into some of the work-related, organization-related, and volunteer-related factors that may be associated with the decrease of mental wellbeing. More high quality, comprehensive, and quantitative research using validated instruments is urgently needed to assess the impact of the work on mental wellbeing and the relative impact of influencing factors.
... Second, the current sample was grouped solely based on supervisees' responses to the SSI. Future studies can also include supervisors' SSI ratings, which may lead to different ways of grouping the sample, given the potentially different perceptions about supervision by supervisors and supervisees (e.g., Chang & Laio, 2011;Dow et al., 2009;Efstation et al., 1990). In addition, when using the three subscales to group the sample, we selected the cutoff scores of 7, 6, and 5 to ensure that the number of supervisory dyads in each subgroup were as close as possible. ...
Article
Counseling supervision is a critically important process that depends on the establishment of a supportive, collaborative, and developmentally enhancing working relationship. However, the actual verbal exchanges within the supervisory dyads are infrequently examined in the literature. In this study, we used Markov chain analysis to explore supervision dynamics of 34 supervisory dyads and how these dynamics varied within three supervisory styles (i.e., attractive, interpersonally sensitive, and task-oriented), respectively. Among the three styles, the interpersonally sensitive supervisory style was the only discriminant variable, based on which supervisory dyads exhibited statistically different state-transitional patterns (i.e., movement patterns across six supervision events). Results of this study provided implications for clinical supervisors, counselor educators, counselors-in-training, and researchers who are interested in studying process features at the micro-level.
... Assim, pressupõe-se que não seja apenas útil em contexto de investigação mas também na monitorização da prática de supervisão e respectiva sustentação do desenvolvimento profissional dos psicólogos clínicos ou psicoterapeutas. À semelhança de outras medidas, por exemplo The Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990) e Working Alliance Inventory -Trainee Form (Bahrick, 1989), a Short Version of the Supervisory Relationship Questionnaire (Cliffe et al., 2016) engloba as componentes centrais que Bordin (1983) considera fundamentais para o desenvolvimento de uma relação de supervisão eficaz, baseada no acordo mútuo de objectivos, tarefas e no desenvolvimento de um bom laço emocional (subescala Base Segura). E possuí igualmente uma medida para o supervisor (Pearce, Beinart, Clohessy, & Cooper, 2013), embora não exista ainda uma versão reduzida. ...
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Skupinska supervizija na daljavo-kvalitativna študija doživljanja supervizantov med drugim valom epidemije Covid-19 Online group supervision-qualitative study of supervisees' experiences during the second wave of the Covid-19 epidemic Povzetek V članku je predstavljen kontekst razumevanja supervizije oz. skupinske super-vizije na daljavo ter rezultati kvalitativne študije subjektivnega doživljanja supervizantov, ki so bili v času epidemije Covid-19 vključeni v tovrstno skupinsko supervizijo. S pomočjo fenomenološke metode smo raziskali, kako supervizanti doživljajo vključenost v supervizijo na daljavo, kako doživljajo medsebojno povezanost in kaj jim pomaga pri ohranjanju le-te. Polstrukturiran intervju smo izvedli s šestimi terapevti relacijske smeri z večletnimi terapevtskimi izkušnjami in vključenostjo v skupinsko supervizijo. Z namenom triangulacije podatkov smo v raziskavo vključili tudi pogled na izkušnjo vodenja skupinske supervizije s strani dveh supervizorjev. Analiza podatkov je pokazala, da supervizanti ob vključenosti v skupinsko supervizijo na daljavo doživljajo pretežno negativna čustva ter oviranost. Na doživljanje medsebojne povezanosti vpliva velikost skupine, supervizorjev stil vodenja ter specifičnost komunikacije, ki poteka s pomočjo tehnologije. Vsi udeleženci pa prepoznavajo koristnost tovrstne supervizije in med seboj doživljajo enako povezanost, kot pred prehodom na delo od doma. K ohranjanju povezanosti pripomorejo že sama srečevanja ter občasni kontakti izven supervizije. Ob koncu študije opozorimo na pomembnost ovrednotenja supervizantovih občutkov z namenom izboljšane supervizijske in terapevtske prakse, opozorimo na omejitve raziskave ter podamo priporočila za nadaljnje raziskovanje. Ključne besede: epidemija, supervizija na daljavo, on-line skupinska supervizija, fenomenološka metoda, doživljanja supervizantov 1 Doc. dr. Tatjana Rožič, univ. soc. delavka, specialistka zakonske in družinske terapije, ŠRCD Ljubljana in SFU Ljubljana, tatjana.rozic@guest.arnes.si Kairos Leto-Year 2021 Letnik-Volume 15 Številka-Number 3-4 Znanstveni prispevki-Scientific papers 109 108 Skupinska supervizija na daljavo-kvalitativna študija doživljanja supervizantov med drugim valom epidemije Covid-19 Tatjana Rožič 2. Literature review Remote supervision has not been the subject of frequent scientific research. Martin et al. (2017) found that there is very little information on what the factors that influence the effectiveness and quality of this type of supervision are, but they extracted eight themes that contribute to effectiveness and quality from the existing literature to date: characteristics of the supervisor , supervisee and supervision, communication strategies, prior face-to-face contact, environmental factors and technology, and the supervisory relationship. Research by Inman et al. (2019) found that, generally speaking, there are no differences between supervisors' and supervisees' perceptions of the working alliance, regardless of the supervision format. However, in the case of remote supervision, it was found to be highly beneficial for participants to have had a prior face-to-face relationship, as confirmed by Brandoff and Lombardi (2012). In a study by Sørlie et al. (2006), both face-to-face and remote supervision proved to be satisfactory for participants, with the only significant difference being the higher number of distractions in distance participation. 3. Online group supervision Cummings (2002) presented the process of remote intervision, so-called cyber-vision. The participants reported a positive experience and the disinhibition effect, which influenced them to be more honest with each other. A study by Reese et al. (2009) showed that videoconferencing is an appropriate form of supervision, but that at least occasional face-to-face contact is necessary to maintain emotional connection. High levels of supervisor satisfaction were also identified in a study by Xavier et al. (2007). Amanvermez et al. (2020) investigated the experiences and opinions of participants in remote group supervision and intervision. They divided the experiences into four categories, namely the role of the supervisor, the supervision process, the supervisor's response, and the number of supervisees and clients; and they divided the participants' opinions into two categories: the benefits and drawbacks of the on-line environment. 4. Psychotherapy in an on-line environment The field of psychotherapy in an on-line environment has already presented theoretical and practical challenges that therapists face when working via the internet, including maintaining therapeutic presence, empathy, rapport building and the use of the body (Weinberg and Rolnick, 2020). Experiences of video Abstract This article presents the context for understanding remote individual and group supervision. It also presents the results of a qualitative study of the subjective experiences of supervisees who were involved in remote group supervision during the Covid-19 epidemic. Using a phenomenological method, we explored how supervisees experience their involvement in distance supervision, how they experience their connectedness to each other and what helps them to maintain it. A semi-structured interview was conducted with six relational therapists with several years of therapeutic experience and involvement in group supervision. In order to triangulate the data, we also included the perspectives of two supervisors on their experience of facilitating group supervision. The data analysis showed that supervisees experience predominantly negative emotions and hindrance when engaging in remote group supervision. The experience of interconnectedness is influenced by the size of the group, the supervisors' management style and the specificity of the communication, which is carried out by means of technology. All participants recognise the usefulness of this type of supervision and experience the same connectedness with each other as they did before the transition to teleworking. The meetings themselves and the occasional contacts outside the supervision help to maintain this connection. At the end of the study, we highlight the importance of evaluating supervisee's feelings in order to improve supervision and therapeutic practice. We also point out the limitations of the research and make recommendations for further research.
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Background The supervisory working alliance has a role in facilitating guidance and counseling supervisors in providing understanding of how the service works. Measuring the level of supervision work alliance is one way that can be done to find out whether a supervisor has a good supervisory work alliance or not. Objective The research aims to describe the quality of the Supervision Work Alliance Scale (SWAS) instrument. Materials and Methods The study employed a cross-sectional method with a quantitative research design. Participants in this study were counseling teachers implementing the internship program with 17 males and 55 females. This type of parameter needs to be identified by the category coefficient of the RASCH scoring function model for polycotomic responses. Results The results show that as many as 34 items proved to be compatible with SWAS instruments. The cronbach alpha of the instrument was 0.91 which means that the all items were in the high category of reliability. The misfit items were only 5,88, so all of the items in SWAS were well understood by the participants. Conclusion The development of SWAS instrument is valid and reliable, so it can be used to measure the variable of the supervisory work alliance
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In this study, we conducted a citation network analysis of the Journal of Counseling Psychology (JCP) to elucidate the scope, evolution, and interconnections of JCP publications as reflected in how authors use (i.e., cite) these publications. We used CitNetExplorer to analyze a network of 4,718 JCP publications and 16,959 citation links. The analysis yielded 19 clusters in JCP's citation network. The most dominant facet of the citation network focused on counseling, counseling process, and counseling outcome. The clusters in this facet shifted from an early focus on perceptions of counselors to continuing examinations of what happens in counseling. Another dominant facet comprised clusters on vocational psychology, shifting from an earlier focus on vocational choice and interest, to career counseling and decision making, to vocational and academic development processes and predictors. These major facets converged toward a continuing cluster focused on methodology and analysis along with race, gender, sexuality, and other diversity scholarship. This suggests that diversity-focused publications in JCP often employ and cite methodological and analytic advances. The results also reveal discontinued areas of scholarship in JCP that are ripe for revisiting and rebuilding in new directions (e.g., anger and social justice activism; clinical judgment and artificial intelligence). The results suggest that a promising next step in the evolution of JCP would be for authors to engage with and cite diversity scholarship as central to "general" domains of JCP scholarship. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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Helen Beinart is a UK clinical psychologist, trainer and supervisor. She has been influential in the field of supervision through her detailed study of the supervisory relationship -closely examining it from the perspective of the supervisor and supervisee and developing psychometrically robust measures through her research group. Her work on the supervisory relationship captured the complexity of this core ingredient of successful supervision. She has been particularly influential in the UK and this profile will outline a career that has been characterized by a commitment to driving up standards, an ethical stance and a relational approach to her many roles.
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There is an urgent need for instruments to evaluate supervisor competence. The current study describes the development of the SE‐SC8, an eight‐item version of a previously published Supervision Evaluation and Supervisory Competence scale that has adequate reliability and validity. The current study analysed data from the sample (N=142) used in the initial validation of the full scale to identify the best set of items for a short scale before testing the scale's psychometric properties in a new study (N=122). The SE‐SC8 demonstrated good reliability and adequate convergent and divergent validity. The SE‐SC8 has two overall items respectively measuring supervisor effectiveness and supervision satisfaction, and six items that represent supervisory competencies including 1) Openness, Caring and Support, 2) Supervisor's Knowledge and Expertise as Therapist, 3) Supervision Planning and Management, 4) Goal‐Directed Supervision, 5) Restorative Competencies, and 6) Insight into and Management of Therapist‐Client Dynamics and Reflective Practitioner Competencies. As with other subjective ratings, SE‐SC8 scores should be supplemented by other assessments for a holistic appraisal of supervisor competence.
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Objective: This study aimed to explore the role of attachment anxiety and avoidance of supervisory dyad and their perception about attachment styles of others on supervisory working alliance. Methodology: Data were collected from a total of 175 participants belonging to different universities of Pakistan which includes 134 supervisees and 41 supervisors of clinical psychology program. Experiences in Close Relationships: Relationship Structures Questionnaire (ECR-RS) and Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (SWAI) were used to measure attachment and working alliance respectively. Results: There was a significant association of working alliance with attachment anxiety and avoidance (p<0.01). Perceived attachment anxiety and avoidance were related to working alliance for supervisee (p<0.01) and not for supervisors. Attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, perceived attachment anxiety and perceived attachment avoidance scores were significantly higher for supervisors than supervisee (p<0.001). Rapport, client focus and SWAI scores were significantly higher for supervisors as compared to supervisee (p<0.001). Conclusion: These results emphasize that reflection and understanding about the attachment styles should be incorporated in a supervisory training. (Rawal Med J 202;45:577- 581).
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Demonstrating validity of a tool for genetic counseling self‐efficacy could help determine if this is a useful tool for training outcomes or other purposes in the field. The purpose of the current study was to describe the relationship between genetic counseling self‐efficacy, measured by scores on the Genetic Counseling Self‐Efficacy Scale (GCSES), personality characteristics, clinical characteristics, and performance on the American Board of Genetic Counselors (ABGC) board certification examination. Genetic counselors, recruited via email through the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Student Research Survey Program, completed an online questionnaire that included the GCSES, work locus of control (WLOC) scale, trait subscale of the State‐Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and questions related to board examination performance. Higher genetic counseling self‐efficacy factor scores for four of six factors were significantly associated with lower WLOC scores indicative of internal locus of control (p's < .05); higher genetic counseling self‐efficacy factor scores for all six factors were significantly associated with lower trait anxiety scores (p's < .05). In addition, increased years of experience and providing direct patient care were found to be significantly related to higher scores for all six‐factor scores on the GCSES (p's ≤ .05). Multiple linear regression models were performed to assess combined effects of predictor and demographic variables and demonstrated that professional factors were most significantly associated with GCSES factor scores. Findings from the current study provide additional validation for the GCSES and add clarity to the relationships between genetic counseling self‐efficacy, personality characteristics, and professional factors. Validation of the GCSES supports the usefulness of this tool as an outcome for genetic counseling training purposes. In addition, the GCSES could be used for self‐reflective practice for genetic counselors. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between genetic counseling self‐efficacy and genetic counselor competency.
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Genetic counseling has been a profession for over 40 years, and training programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Genetic Counseling are required to have students supervised in at least 50 patient‐facing cases prior to graduation. However, there is no standardized information or training for supervisors of genetic counseling students. As a first step toward creating formal and standardized supervision training, we undertook a systematic review of the genetic counseling student supervision literature. A formal systematic review was conducted including establishing a research question with inclusion and exclusion criteria, establishing search terms, searching databases, reading/screening abstracts, examining full texts for inclusion, assessing for quality, and finally extracting data with a standardized form to provide the basis of the review. In all, 151 papers were screened, of which 19 and two erratum were found to meet inclusion criteria and pass quality measures. Main themes from these papers were as follows: Training Model, Competencies, Investigation of Techniques, Difficulties in Supervision, and Barriers. In total, 19 papers provided evidence for the way that supervision is currently being performed and suggestions for what needs further investigation to direct supervision training. Recommendations for genetic counseling student supervision include the following: provide a review of training models to supervisors; provide a copy of the supervision competencies to supervisors; use competencies with lowest self‐efficacy to inform future supervision trainings; and find ways to support genetic counselors in becoming student supervisors.
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Used a multidimensional scaling (MDS) research design (a) to assess the salient dimensions that supervisors rely on in their perceptions of supervisor roles and (b) to test empirically J. M. Bernard's (1979) 2-dimensional model and the unidimensional developmental model of supervision of J. M. Littrell et al (1979). 19 supervisors (mean age 31 yrs) of counselor trainees made the dissimilarity judgments of the 9 supervision role–functions (MDS stimuli) adapted from Bernard's model. Three dimensions with multiple interpretations emerged from the MDS solution. The dimensions could be interpreted based on supervisor roles, supervision environment, supervision function, and characteristics of supervisor roles. Results partially support Bernard's model and provide minimal support for the developmental model of Littrell et al. Both models were found to be rather simplistic because neither model accounts for the 3 dimensions. (41 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents a critical examination of developmental models of supervision discussing conceptual and methodological approaches currently applied in the research from a developmental perspective. It is concluded that although developmental models of supervision provide a framework with which to describe some of the behaviors typically observed by clinical supervisors, they do not provide an adequate developmental explanation from the standpoint of developmental psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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Five supervisors audiotaped Sessions 3, 6, and 9 of their supervision interviews with each of their assigned trainees ( N = 19). A 20-min segment of each of the resulting interviews was coded by trained raters using an adapted version of A. Blumberg's (1970) system for analyzing supervisor–teacher interaction. A quadratic assignment paradigm was used to determine whether the probability that particular behaviors would be emitted by either the supervisor or the trainee, given the behavior emitted previously by the other member of the dyad, was greater or less than the unconditional probability of these particular behaviors being emitted. Results indicate that certain repetitive patterns of verbal behavior occurred in the supervisory interview and that a sequential analysis can effectively describe these interactions. The verbal coding scheme used appeared conceptually relevant to the supervision process. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A counselor trainee with a defensive self-presentational style is one who takes credit for the client's improvement or blames the client for deterioration. Conversely, a trainee with a counterdefensive style attributes improvement to the client or accepts personal responsibility for deterioration. 80 experienced (1–25 yrs) supervisors heard a tape of a simulated supervisory session in which a female trainee summarized her ongoing treatment of a moderately depressed client. Ss heard the trainee (a) describe how, recently, the client's depression had either lifted (improvement condition) or worsened (deterioration condition); and (b) attribute this change either to her own efforts or to the client. Ss then completed several measures, including an abbreviated version of the Counselor Rating Form. The counterdefensive trainee was judged to be somewhat more socially skilled than the defensive trainee, but the defensive trainee was rated as significantly more self-confident. Regardless of the trainee's explanation, however, when the client's depression lifted, the trainee was viewed as significantly more competent, self-confident, expert, and attractive than she was when the client's depression worsened. Ss assigned more responsibility to the client for improvement than for deterioration, but this pattern was reversed for the trainee and supervisor. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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SUPERVISION INITIALLY ASSUMES THAT THE COUNSELOR IN TRAINING IS INTERESTED IN IMPROVING HIS SKILLS AND CAPABLE OF DOING SO. IN THE BEGINNING, THE DIFFICULTIES THE COUNSELOR ENCOUNTERS IN HIS WORK MAY ARISE FROM LACK OF EXPERIENCE. PERSISTENT DIFFICULTIES ARE MORE APT TO ARISE FROM HIS CHARACTERISTIC WAYS OF MEETING SITUATIONS. THESE MAY INTERFERE WITH HIS LEARNING FROM HIS COUNSELING AS WELL AS FROM SUPERVISION. THE GOAL OF SUPERVISION IS TO HELP THE COUNSELOR REMAIN OPEN TO HIS OWN EXPERIENCES. ONLY BY BEING CONSTANTLY AWARE OF THIS GOAL CAN THE SUPERVISOR AVOID ESTABLISHING EITHER A MASTER-APPRENTICE OR A PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP WITH HIS SUPERVISEE. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Proposes that ideas from phenomenological philosophy and sociology can be helpful in raising questions and devising strategies for research on counseling. A phenomenological version of the philosophy of the social sciences is drawn on to construct methods with which an observer may analyze a counselor and client's management of their social interaction in counseling. As a point of departure, stable concerted action between persons is described as a practical accomplishment, and then remarks about the intellectual tradition of phenomenology and some of its leading concepts are included as a foundation for later argument. Separate typifications of a counselor and client's subjective schemes for interpreting each other and expressing themselves in counseling are provided. These separate schemes are given definition as the working relationship, a counselor's perspective, and the helping relationship, a client's perspective. As well, a set of participant actions that are to be understood as independent of either perspective are identified and labeled as formulations or comments on the interaction itself. It can be observed that counseling participants frequently take the occasion to comment on their conversation itself, as if to attempt a remedy for the indefiniteness of what is being said. Examples of client and counselor interaction in counseling are included to illustrate how an observer may use the definitions of the working relationships to help locate the empirical components of each in an interview. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)