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Abstract

Describes the development and pilot use with 45 families of a procedure for assessing social support. The social network map takes into account both the structure and function of the client's personal social network using a circle mapping technique and a grid. Several aspects of support are evaluated: existing informal resources, potential resources, barriers to networking, and factors in formal service planning. The clinical utility of the map is discussed, along with guidelines for using social support information in case planning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Regarding the assessment of social support, various generic and specialized measurement instruments have been developed in the international literature for adults and children and have been classified into measures of social integration, perceived social support, received social support and enacted social support (46,47). These measures include the Family Relationship Index (FRI) (48), Inventory of Social Support Behaviors (ISSB) (49), Social Provisions Scale (SPS) (50), Social Support Network Inventory (SSNI) (51), among others (52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58)(59)(60)(61)(62)(63). ...
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Purpose Currently, information on the psychometric properties of the Medical outcomes study-social support survey (MOS-SSS) for patients with chronic disease in primary health care, suggests problems in the dimensionality, specifically predominant unidimensionality in a multidimensional measure. The aim of this study was to determine the internal structure (dimensionality, measurement invariance and reliability) and association with other variables. Methods A total of 470 patients with chronic disease from a Family Medicine Unit at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS, with a mean age of 51.51 years were included. Participants responded to the Questionnaire of Sociodemographic Variables (Q-SV), SF-36 Health-Related Quality of Life Scale–version 1.1, and MOS-SSS. Results Non-parametric (Mokken scaling analysis) and parametric (confirmatory factor analysis) analyses indicated unidimensionality, and three-factor model was not representative. A new 8-item version (MOS-S) was developed, where measurement invariance, equivalence with the long version, reliability, and relationship with the SF-36 were satisfactory. Conclusion The MOS-SSS scale is unidimensional, and the shortened version yields valid and reliable scores for measuring social support in patients with chronic disease at the primary health care.
... This article explores AGYW's views on the impact of social influencers of their PrEP use and AGYW's perception of those influencers' PrEP knowledge and support during the study. We used an exercise with social network maps (Kennedy et al., 2016;Tracy & Whittaker, 1990) to identify the relative influence of various members of AGYW's social networks and explored the direction of that influence on PrEP use. ...
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Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence is challenging. We explored African adolescent girls and young women's (AGYW) perceptions of the social influencers of their PrEP use and the social influencers' PrEP knowledge and support (six focus group discussions; 33 South African and Kenyan AGYW) in the Prevention Options for Women Evaluation Research demonstration project. Participants completed a social mapping exercise indicating strength and direction of influence of members in their social networks. Mothers and counselors were identified as positive influencers and most influential by >50% of participants, sex partners were labeled negative influencers or both positive and negative, and best friends were mostly positive influencers. HIV- and PrEP-related stigma were the major reasons influencers were identified as negative. Participants wanted their social networks to be better educated about PrEP by someone other than the AGYW themselves (e.g., clinic staff) and to support their PrEP use. To improve PrEP adherence, community- and peer-based PrEP sensitization and delivery interventions should be evaluated.
... Psychological distress is related with mental illness that is a 'double-edged sword' which promotes the distress in the individuals; and labeling or stigmatization can trigger the distress level. Social support is a two-way process of helping each other in which one person [5][6][7] give and next one take help. Two dimensions of support that are perceived and received; based on these a person can easily approach formal (professionals) and informal (parents, family, and neighbors) sources. ...
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OBJECTIVE: to examine psychological distress, social support, and life satisfaction of fathers and mothers of intellectually disabled children in our local setting. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2017 to 2019 at Department of Psychology, University of Peshawar, after approval of Advanced Studies Research Board of university. One hundred and fifty parents (75 mothers and 75 fathers) of intellectually disabled children were selected through purposive sampling technique from Peshawar, Wah Cantonment & Islamabad, Pakistan. Instruments including Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Satisfaction with Life Scale were administered. RESULTS: Majority (n=64/150; 42.7%) of parents were aging from 20 -35 years. Seventy eight (52%) parents were from province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 72 (48%) were from Punjab. Findings indicated that fathers’ mean scores were lower on depression anxiety stress scale (M=44.78; SD=14.55) as compared to mothers (M=97.32; SD=34.14). Fathers mean scores were higher on perceived social support (M=43.15; SD=9.30) than mothers (M=25.18, SD=14.36). On life satisfaction fathers means scores (M=17.36, SD=4.42) were also higher than mothers mean scores (M=9.74, SD=6.06) CONCLUSION: The study results indicated that in our cultural context fathers of the disabled children reported better perceived social support and life satisfaction while mothers experienced higher psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress). The role of parents in the children’s lives is concerning area because ignoring such parents’ mental health issues can triggers a lot of problems in this society.
... The interviews were based on a Swedish translation and adaptation of the Support Interview Guide (SIG), which uses a semi-structured interview format to provide an understanding of the participants' social networks. The SIG was chosen as it was developed from research on social support and personal network theory (House et al., 1988;Tracey & Whittaker, 1990) and designed for persons with intellectual disabilities . Since several interviewers were involved in the study, the SIG was chosen to ensure that the same procedures were used and questions asked. ...
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It is reported that parents with intellectual disability are generally more likely to have depleted social networks and a lack of meaningful friendships. The aim of this study is to explore parents’ descriptions of the relationships in their networks and their reflections on support and what makes the relationships in their networks a valuable resource in their parenting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 mothers and 6 fathers. The data were analysed using content analysis and theoretical perspectives of social relations and social capital. Findings Three different network types were identified, including formal, informal, and formal/informal relations. Different types of support were identified as well as bonding, bridging and linking social capital, and strong and weak ties. A diversity of support and strong ties together with trustful relations seem to be the most important factors in building social capital for parents. Applications The study increases recognition of how parents reflect on their networks and what supports their social capital. The findings highlight the importance of professional awareness of the existence of social capital and how this is reflected among parents and can be used to improve social work practice.
... For example, they assess perceived social support only in a more general approach and do not provide information by which specific network member this social support is given (e.g., Zimet et al., 1988) or only from specific persons, such as a partner or a nominated friend (Hanssen et al., 2019;Stansfeld & Marmot, 1992). However, even instruments with an assessment of the social support network more relevant for clinical practice (e.g., Tracy & Whittaker, 1990), either do not focus on the social support network related to treatment goals or do not ask explicitly about the patient's wishes regarding one's network. Hence, most instruments do not provide concrete clues for increased involvement of network members based on patients' needs and expectations, as a combination of information with respect to the social support network is required. ...
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Actively involving the network during treatment, as recommended in Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC) guidelines, can be facilitated with the Network in Action-Questionnaire (NiA-Q), which identifies the current and potential sources of social support. The aims of this study were to (1) examine the factor structure of the NiA-Q and (2) to explore the self- and proxy-report on the social network. Before the start of treatment in a mental health institution, 193 adults with an ASC diagnosis and 84 proxies completed the NiA-Q. Factor analysis showed two factors: positive social support and interpersonal distress. Self- and proxy-report on the NiA-Q did not differ for most variables, except for social network wishes. The NiA-Q provides a basis for network involvement and strengthening.
... In the Social Network Map (SNM) questionnaire designed by Tracy and Wittaker (1990), attention was paid to social networking in family, friends, and neighbors in one of its dimensions, which is similar to the Lubben scale. However, the SNM questionnaire is used only in the clinical setting and applies to all age groups, whereas the LSNS-18 scale is applicable at the community level (Dalgard & Håheim, 1998;Tracy & Whittaker, 1990). De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale dealt with two dimensions of social and emotional loneliness, in which there are some items similar to the present scale, e.g., questions such as "is there always someone I can talk to about my day-to-day problems" have been stated in the present scale as "Are there some people in your friends/neighbors/family with whom you feel comfortable discussing your private issues?" ...
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The Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-18) is a widely used scale to assess social interactions and isolation among the older adults. The purpose of this study was to validate the Persian version of this scale. It was a methodological study aimed at validating the LSNS-18, and it is designed and implemented as follows. First, forward–backward translation was performed; then, content and face validity were assessed using qualitative methods. After initial reliability assessment, construct validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) among 230 older adults, and finally, secondary reliability was evaluated. Samples were selected from ** health centers using cluster sampling. The inclusion criteria were being older than 60, and the exclusion criteria were suffering from severe physical illness. The scale’s reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha (0.82) and ICC = 0.85, at the optimum level. This scale’s construct validity showed a better fit with the three-factor model than the single-factor model. The Persian version of the LSNS-18 had acceptable validity and reliability in Persian-speaking community and can assess the ** older adults social isolation.
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Edge Entanglements traverses the borderlands of the community "mental health" sector by "plugging in" to concepts offered by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari along with work from Mad Studies, postcolonial, and feminist scholars. Barlott and Setchell demonstrate what postqualitative inquiry can do, surfacing the transformative potential of freely-given relationships between psychiatrised people and allies in the community. Thinking with theory, the authors map the composition and generative processes of freely-given, ally relationships. Edge Entanglements surfaces how such relationships can unsettle constraints of the mental health sector and produce creative possibilities for psychiatrised people. Affectionately creating harmonies between theory and empirical "data," the authors sketch ally relationships in ways that move. Allyship is enacted through micropolitical processes of becoming-complicit: ongoing movement towards taking on the struggle of another as your own. Barlott and Setchell's work offers both conceptual and practical insights into postqualitative experimentation, relationship-oriented mental health practice, and citizen activism that unsettles disciplinary boundaries. Ongoing, disruptive movements on the margins of the mental health sector - such as freely-given relationships - offer opportunities to be otherwise. Edge Entanglements is for people whose lives and practices are precariously interconnected with the mental health sector and are interested in doing things differently. This book is likely to be useful for novice and established (applied) new material and/or posthumanist scholars interested in postqualitative, theory-driven research; health practitioners seeking alternative or radical approaches to their work; and people interested in citizen advocacy, activism, and community organising in/out of the mental health sector.
Chapter
This chapter discussed the theoretical, preclinical, and clinical accumulation of evidence with respect to the underlying behavioral mechanisms employed in Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and its novel variants as exemplars of first wave behavior therapy for substance use problems. This ‘family’ of CRA [i.e. Adolescent version of Community Reinforcement Approach (ACRA) & Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT)] targets specific populations with various substance use disorders, including comorbid psychiatric conditions and/or patients that reside in the (juvenile) justice system. Also the surplus value in term of therapeutic efficacy of the combination of CRA and contingency management (CM), another notable exemplar of first wave behavior therapy for those with substance use problems, has been highlighted in this chapter. The ‘family’ of CRA is applied to individuals with a wide range of ethnic populations and different age groups such as adults (CRA) and adolescents (A-CRA), but also targets family members (CRAFT). Since this comprehensive and complementary treatment package does not exclusively reduce substance abuse but also addresses psychiatric and forensic problems, it has certainly transdiagnostic value. That said, it has shown efficacy in both in- and outpatient facilities and outreach teams and the dissemination of the ‘family’ of CRA is moving forward in many places throughout the world.
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Meaningful relationships are centrally important for human functioning. It remains unclear, however, which aspects of meaningful relationships impact wellbeing the most and whether these differ between psychiatric patients and members of the community. Information about relationship attributes and functions were collected in community members (N = 297) and psychiatric patients (N = 177). Relationship attributes and functions were examined for differences between groups (community vs. patients), their impact on wellbeing and symptoms, and the size of network (one vs. many relationships). Community members reported fewer relationships, higher frequency of contact and less desire for change when compared to the psychiatric patients. Nevertheless, both groups reported relatively high levels of fulfilled functions. Quality of the relationship and investment into the relationship was associated with both wellbeing and symptoms for both the community and the patient group. Almost all functions were associated with wellbeing and symptoms for the community group. However, for the patient group, only few functions (sexual partner, go-to person for compassion, go-to person when happy) were associated with wellbeing and no functions were associated with symptoms. Contrary to our hypotheses, the results show that psychiatric patients do not have a deficit in fulfilling relationships. Most people report a well-functioning network of meaningful, high-quality relationships. Patients benefit from meaningful, function-fulfilling relationships just as much as community members. Results are discussed with respect to how targeting relationships can be used clinically.
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The growth of research on social support has led to a comparable proliferation in the ways it is conceptualized and operationalized. The overall purpose of the present paper was to bring some clarity to this concept by critically examining how it has been presented in the literature and by proposing both rationally and empirically derived typologies for organizing social support functions. From a review of prominent discussions of support functions, a rational typology was proposed that included six categories: Material Aid, Behavioral Assistance, Intimate Interaction, Feedback, and Positive Social Interaction. To empirically examine the structure of social support, a factor analysis was conducted on items from a scale of socially supportive behaviors. The four factors that subsequently emerged were labeled Directive Guidance, Non‐directive Support, Positive Social Interaction, and Tangible Assistance. Application of these findings to the assessment of support and future research on support/well‐being relationships were discussed.
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