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Stress Management through Written Emotional Disclosure Improves Academic Performance among College Students with Physical Symptoms

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Abstract

This study tested whether writing about stressful events improves grade point averages (GPAs) and whether decreases in writing-induced negative mood from the first to last day of writing predicts GPA improvements. College students (n=74) reporting elevated physical symptoms were randomized to write for 4 days about either stressful experiences (disclosure group) or time management (control group). Students rated their mood before and after writing each day, and transcripts provided GPAs for the baseline and subsequent semesters. Compared with the control condition, disclosure led to significantly better GPAs the next semester. Among disclosure students, but not control students, improved mood from the first to last writing days predicted improved GPA. Writing about general life stress leads to improved academic functioning, particularly among those who become less distressed over writing days. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Individuals could, for example, be advised to practice meditation to reduce perceived stress levels. 22 The individuals' responses could be recorded on a collective scale to promote and support their emotional expressiveness. 2,22 This questionnaire could also be particularly useful to sports psychologists in providing appropriate support to coaches, in their efforts to learn to regulate their emotions when under intense stress. ...
... 22 The individuals' responses could be recorded on a collective scale to promote and support their emotional expressiveness. 2,22 This questionnaire could also be particularly useful to sports psychologists in providing appropriate support to coaches, in their efforts to learn to regulate their emotions when under intense stress. 22 Similar results have been indicated by previous research. ...
... 2,22 This questionnaire could also be particularly useful to sports psychologists in providing appropriate support to coaches, in their efforts to learn to regulate their emotions when under intense stress. 22 Similar results have been indicated by previous research. 2,21,25 The validated questionnaire could be used in all phases of the pandemic. ...
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OBJECTIVE Τo investigate the structural validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) with adults in Greece. METHOD A total of 605 adults were included in the study, of whom 398 were men, 206 (34%) were women and one did not specify gender. Three analyses of their responses on the ERQ scale were carried out, an exploratory factor analysis, a confirmatory factor analysis, and finally a reliability analysis. RESULTS The findings from all analyses revealed the structural validity of the ERQ in the Greek domain. Cronbach's alpha values were also satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS The Greek version of the ERQ exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties, indicating its reliability for measuring and assessing emotion regulation situations in the Greek population.
... In fact, studies have shown that writing to express difficult experiences has the potential to be cathartic for college students (Barclay & Skarlicki, 2009;Lumley & Provenzano, 2003), and has the potential to mitigate trauma resulting from recent or previous traumatic events (Meshberg-Cohen, Svikis, & McMahon, 2014;Pennebaker & Beall, 1986;Sanousi, 2004). Upon closer investigation of expressive writing methods, cathartic writing has been shown to have short-term negative effects on well-being before resulting in long-term benefits (Barclay & Skarlicki, 2009;Meshberg-Cohen, Svikis & McMahon, 2014). ...
... Taking into account the aforementioned studies, Lumley and Provenzano (2003) conducted a randomized controlled trial with college students (N = 74) who were 70% female, 36.5% African American, and an average age of 19. The study sought to test if writing about life stressors outside of normal academic stressors impacted students' ...
... At the end of the semester, Lumley and Provenzano (2003) found a significant group by semester interaction; the emotional disclosure-group students maintained their GPA from the writing semester to the following semester (2.69 to 2.72) whereas the controls showed a substantial drop in GPA from the writing to the subsequent semester (2.86 to 2.34), resulting in a net group difference of 0.55 of a point. ...
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ABSTRACT This qualitative phenomenological study sought to gain insight into the unique experiences of Black women students who were writing memoir toward the goal of self-definition in a Black feminist learning environment at a Historically Black College/University (HBCU). Two teaching methods included personal plot (an extension of expressive writing that offers writing prompts for emotional closure), and biblio-fusion (a combination of expressive writing and bibliotherapy) (Lockhart, 2017a; 2017b). Interviews were conducted with six Black women participants and triangulated against their personal essays and online journal responses. Personal plot, a form of narrative analysis was used to construct paragraphs on what each personal essay was about, and a data driven analysis of narrative was conducted on the online journals and interview transcripts. Findings revealed that participants faced obstacles of racism, and sexism and internalized these oppressions through conforming to stereotypes of Blackness, colorism, sexualization of Black women, and assimilation. To counter these obstacles, participants utilized survival and success strategies. Notable among these strategies was mutual vulnerability with their classmates and their teacher as the catalyst for transcending fears and stereotypes of Blackness. Also notable was healing transformation and intergenerational healing where participants wrote and spoke of re-gifting their new awareness to the next generation. These results bear implications for expressive writing and other expressive therapies, and prompt further inquiry into teaching and research methods that emphasize Black women's ways of learning and healing.
... Podemos decir que existe prácticamente unanimidad al afi rmar que el estrés forma parte de la vida cotidiana de los estudiantes y que tiene un efecto potencialmente negativo sobre el aprendizaje y el rendimiento académico . En concreto, Lumley y Provenzano 2003(en Cabanach, R., Fernández-Cervantes, R., González, L., y Freire, C., 2010 afi rman que el estrés puede afectar al correcto funcionamiento académico del estudiante universitario, interfi riendo en comportamientos de adaptación tales como la asistencia a las clases, la dedicación al estudio o difi cultando procesos cognitivos como son la concentración y la atención. ...
... Un gran número de trabajos han revelado una relación negativa entre estrés y rendimiento académico, es decir, que los alumnos que presentan índices elevados de estrés académico son los que obtienen peores califi caciones (Lumley y Provenzano, 2003;Sohail, 2013;Zajacova, Lynch yEspenshade, 2005). Sin embargo, la actual evidencia científi ca presenta cierta controversia. ...
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La actual evidencia científica presenta diversos posicionamientos en la definición de los niveles de estrés en función del género y su influencia en el rendimiento académico. Los objetivos del estudio son: a) examinar las diferencias de género en el nivel de estrés académico, de estresores académicos y de estrategias de afrontamiento en estudiantes universitarios; b) evaluar la relación entre los niveles de estrés y el rendimiento académico. Participaron 162 estudiantes universitarios del Grado en Educación Primaria con una edad media de 23.7 (DE=5.68). El instrumento de medida utilizado fue el Inventario SISCO del estrés académico. También se recogió la nota media de expediente académico de los estudios de grado. Los principales resultados fueron: 1) El 96.1% de las mujeres y el 88.2% de los hombres presentan niveles de estrés académico; 2) “Las evaluaciones de los profesores” y “el tipo de trabajo que piden los profesores” son los estímulos estresores que muestran una diferencia estadísticamente significativa, percibiendo mayor estrés las mujeres, (p=0.008, p=0.005; respectivamente); 3) Las mujeres utilizan más “la ventilación y confidencias” como estrategia de afrontamiento, respecto al género masculino (p=0.001); 4) No se halló relación entre estrés y rendimiento académico.
... First, researchers have yet to conduct more stringent tests of AR treatment efficacy by assessing it in relation to other pertinent treatments administered in competitive achievement settings (i.e., a treatment-treatment experimental design). Stress-reduction (SR) treatments, for example, focus on affective processes and are a conceptually-based and empirically-supported alternative to AR that can promote academic performance for university students (Cameron and Nicholls 1998;Lumley and Provenzano 2003;Pennebaker et al. 1990;Pennebaker and Francis 1996; see also Regehr et al. 2013). Lumley and Provenzano (2003) showed that students who received an SR treatment attained GPAs that were nearly one letter grade higher than students in a control group several months post-treatment (Ms = 2.72 vs. 2.34). ...
... Stress-reduction (SR) treatments, for example, focus on affective processes and are a conceptually-based and empirically-supported alternative to AR that can promote academic performance for university students (Cameron and Nicholls 1998;Lumley and Provenzano 2003;Pennebaker et al. 1990;Pennebaker and Francis 1996; see also Regehr et al. 2013). Lumley and Provenzano (2003) showed that students who received an SR treatment attained GPAs that were nearly one letter grade higher than students in a control group several months post-treatment (Ms = 2.72 vs. 2.34). Given that AR treatments typically produce comparable performance gains (one to two letter grades; e.g., Perry et al. 2010), research that compares the efficacy of AR as a cognitive treatment to SR as an affective treatment would advance the motivation treatment literature. ...
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Attribution-based motivation treatments can boost performance in competitive achievement settings (Perry & Hamm, 2017), yet their efficacy relative to mediating processes and affect-based treatments remains largely unexamined. In a two-semester, pre-post, randomized treatment study (n = 806), attributional retraining (AR) and stress-reduction (SR) treatments were administered in an online learning environment to first-year college students who differed in cognitive elaboration (low, high). Low elaborators who received AR outperformed their SR peers by nearly a letter grade on a class test assessed five months post-treatment. Path analysis revealed this AR-performance linkage was mediated by causal attributions, perceived control, and positive and negative achievement emotions in a hypothesized causal sequence. Results advance the literature by showing AR (vs. SR) improved performance indirectly via cognitive and affective process variables specified by Weiner’s (1985a, 2012) attribution theory of motivation and emotion.
... To this end, it is important to know some definitions of stress and their affections in academic work, on the subject Lazarus and Folkmam (1986) define stress as a set of relationships that are established between assessing a situation and the ability to deal with it. This relationship generates tensions and cognitive, emotional and behavioral manifestations that affect the perception of personal well-being in the same way Lunley and Provenzano (2003), refer that stress can also affect the student's academic development, exercising interference against his will and that alters his behavior in the face of his academic responsibilities such as studying, concentrating and attention. ...
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Due to the confinement caused by the pandemic declared in 2020, educational institutions at various levels implemented strategies to continue activities through virtual means that over time have caused emotional effects and stress in academic communities and that can cause school dropout. At the Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, the need to know these affectations applied to students who are enrolled in the Bachelor of Tourism educational program is identified, through a non-probabilistic study due to the situation of the pandemic, crosssectional, of a quantitative nature, with a convenience sample of 280 students applying the partial squares method, whose results show that the confinement caused in the case of exhaustion is considered weak; fear of getting sick from Covid-19 such as moderate school dropout; concluding that these factors can directly or indirectly influence school dropout.
... Một nghiên cứu đánh giá tổng hợp cũng cho thấy nỗi sợ đối với dịch bệnh COVID-19 có tác động tiêu cực đến sức khỏe tinh thần của sinh viên đại học [15]. Stress kéo dài có thể dẫn đến căng thẳng mãn tính, ảnh hưởng tiêu cực đến chất lượng học tập [16], quan trọng hơn là sức khỏe thể chất và tinh thần [17] của sinh viên. Do đó, sinh viên có biểu hiện stress nặng và rất nặng cần được quan tâm nhiều hơn trong việc xây dựng các chương trình đánh giá và hỗ trợ sức khỏe tinh thần ở môi trường giáo dục đại học. ...
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This study was conducted to investigate the level and expression of stress in learning activities, and its relationship with the stress level among students at Dong Nai University by a cross-sectional survey. The research tools used include the stress sub-scale in the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21), and the Education Stress Scale for Adolescents (ESSA). Survey results on 254 students showed that 64.2% of the students showed signs of stress ranging from mild (23.2%), moderate (18.9%), severe ( 16.5%), to very severe (5.5%). Students showed mild level of stress according to the DASS-21 scale, and moderate level of academic stress according to the ESSA scale. There was a strong correlation between students' academic stress and stress (r = .539, p < .01), in which, the sub-components "Pressure from study" and "Self-Expectation" had a positive effect on the stress level of students. These findings are the basis for providing solutions to help the school improve the appropriate study and exam programs for students, and at the same time, help students determine their learning expectations and goals in accordance with their ability to improve their academic performance and mental health in the future.
... Subsequently, numerous studies have reinforced Pennebaker and Beall's (1986) original conclusions about the therapeutic impact of expressive writing in a wide range of contexts. For example, studies have found that expressive writing reduced depression in college students (Gortner, Rude, and Pennebaker, 2006), contributed to improved grade point averages among college students (Lumley and Provenzano, 2003), improved symptoms in patients with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (Sloan and Marx 2004), and had a variety of medical and physiological benefits (Booth, Petrie, and Pennebaker 1997, Pennebaker, Kiecolt-Glaser, & Glaser, R. 1988, Petrie et al. 1995. ...
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Writing, as a technology for language, is an essential skill for learning at all levels of education. But research also reveals that the experience of writing-in-the-moment can have a significant impact on the writer’s sense of self and well-being. Especially in view of the dramatic upheavals in schools caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, educators should examine the uses of writing as a means to foster well-being in students. Ungraded informal writing can support student learning at the same time that it can contribute to their well-being.
... Excess of academic stress adversely affects academic performance, class attendance and psychological wellbeing of students [12]. If it is not identified early and managed, it can cause depression, anxiety, behavioral problems, irritability, social withdrawal and physical illnesses [13,14,15,16]. ...
... Expressive writing has also been used successfully among college students. Specifically, asking students to write about their college concerns for several days led to an increase of their GPA the following semester (Lumley, & Provenzano, 2003;Pennebaker & Francis, 1996). These expressive-writing interventions are typically administered for long durations, with participants sometimes writing for multiple sessions Myers et al. ...
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Test anxiety is a major concern in education because it causes uncomfortable feelings in test-anxious students and may reduce the validity of exam scores as a measure of learning. As such, brief and cost-effective interventions are necessary to minimize the negative impact of test anxiety on students’ academic performance. In the present experiment, we examine two such interventions: expressive writing (Experiment 1) and an instructional intervention (Experiment 2), with the latter developed from a similar intervention for stereotype threat. Across four authentic exams in a psychology class, students alternated between completing the intervention and a control task immediately before completing the exams. Neither intervention was effective at reducing test anxiety or improving exam performance. The present results suggest that these interventions may not be successful in addressing the impacts of test anxiety in all classroom settings.
... This evidence contrasts with the minimal attention reserved particularly for student stress (Michie, Glachan, & Bray, 2001) among Nigerian scientists, despite the fact that research has shown its high prevalence among university students (Zajacova, Lynch, &Espenshade, 2005;Dyson & Renk, 2006). In this sense, high levels of stress appear to negatively affect the quality of student learning (Lumley & Provenzano, 2003) and, even more importantly, students' physical (Loureiro, McIntyre, Mota-Cardoso, & Ferreira, 2008) and psychological wellbeing (Garlow, Rosenberg, Moore, Haas, Koestner, Hendin et al., 2008). There is need to examine the influence of college stress on psychological wellbeing of students. ...
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The wellbeing of students is critical to social functioning and academic success, but often influenced negatively by stress. This study assessed the relationship of college stress on psychological wellbeing among undergraduates of Federal University, Lafia. A total sample of 149 students comprising 81(54.4%) males and 68(45.6%) females ranging in age from 18 to 33 (M = 23.16, SD = 3.98) years, drawn from the university's population participated in the study. Four hypotheses were tested using correlation (Amos SPSS 21) for analysis. Results indicated significant joint negative relationship of college stress and its two dimensions (academic hassle, negative life event) on psychological wellbeing. Personal hassle was negatively correlated but not significantly associated to students' wellbeing. The researcher concluded that college stress negatively influence university students' wellbeing. The implication of these findings to students' wellbeing is highlighted. Universities on their part should continue to monitor the wellbeing of their students in order to develop relevant strategies to improve health.
... Our results warrant continued investigation of related research questions in larger, more diverse samples to comprehensively understand under what conditions caffeine may be beneficially used by college students (e.g., by dose, by outcome, etc.), and how modifying expectations surrounding its stimulatory actions may augment its effects. Nevertheless, promoting alternative behavioral strategies for enhanced academic performance that are likely to have a stronger benefit-to-risk ratio, such as sleep hygiene (Wolfson et al., 2015), exercise (Keating et al., 2013), and stress reduction (Lumley & Provenzano, 2003), may best serve college students in meaningfully enhancing their cognitive and academic functioning. ...
Article
Caffeine is regularly used by college students to enhance mood and academic performance. Although high doses confer risk for negative consequences, moderate doses of caffeine may lead to acute improvements in mood and cognitive functioning. Notably, the pharmacological effects of caffeine may be enhanced by expectancy effects. College students may also engage in nonmedical prescription stimulant use for similar purposes, as students expect strong cognitive enhancement from prescription stimulants and consider them to be more efficacious than caffeine. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the pharmacological effects of caffeine on mood/drug effects and cognitive performance are enhanced when expecting a conceivably stronger stimulant (i.e., Adderall) compared to when expecting caffeine. Sixty-five undergraduate students were randomized to condition across two variables: drug ingested (placebo or 200 mg caffeine) and drug expected (caffeine or Adderall). Participants completed self-report measures of mood and drug effects pre- and post-drug, as well as cognitive assessments post-drug. There were significant main effects of drug ingested and drug expected on several post-drug measures. Subjects receiving caffeine reported feeling more high, stimulated, anxious, and motivated than subjects receiving placebo. Further, subjects expecting Adderall reported stronger amphetamine effects and feeling more high, and performed better on a working memory test, than those expecting caffeine. Effects tended to be strongest in participants receiving caffeine and expecting Adderall. Modifying expectancies, in conjunction with the pharmacological properties of caffeine at moderate doses, may be one mechanism by which college students may experience differential effects of caffeine. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Stress is one of the most commonly discussed topics of adult life and it can hinder academic performance [46][47][48]. It can even compromise how university students approach the tasks that are part of the learning process [48]. ...
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Learning approaches are factors that contribute to sustainability education. Academic stress negatively affects students’ performances in the context of sustainability teaching. This study analyzed how deep and surface approaches could be related to coping with academic stress and gender. An online survey was completed by 1012 university students. The relationship between gender, sources of stress and learning approaches was examined through a multivariate canonical correspondence analysis. Results showed differences in stress-coping strategies depending on the learning approach used. In both female and male students, academic stress was handled with a deep learning approach. The findings provide implications for professors and highlight the importance of variables such as deep learning and gender in the teaching and learning sustainability process.
... At individual/group level, coaches could benefit from learning and possibly engaging in some mindfulness meditation activities with the scope of regulating their levels of perceived stress (Austin, 1997;Longshore and Sachs, 2015). Coaches could also engage in written emotional disclosure interventions to promote and support their own emotional expressivity (Lumley and Provenzano, 2003). Sport psychology practitioners could support coaches in these efforts by directly developing and implementing these techniques as well as other interventions to help coaches to learn how to regulate their own emotions during stressful situations (Kivity and Huppert, 2016;Dryman and Heimberg, 2018). ...
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The recent global outspread of the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced the lives of people across multiple countries including athletes, coaches, and supporting staff. Along with everybody else, coaches found themselves constrained to an at-home self-isolation, which limited their ability to normally engage with their profession and to interact with their athletes. This situation may also have impacted their own psychological well-being. With this study, we explored coaches’ perceptions of stress in relation to their emotion regulation strategies depending upon their gender and competitive level (elite vs. non-elite). A sample of 2272 Italian coaches were surveyed during the period of lockdown. Mean values for perceived stress and emotion regulation strategies were compared to normative data of the two instruments as reported in the original studies. Furthermore, two Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) were completed to observe the potential differences in the coaches’ emotion regulation strategies and perception of stress. Finally, a blockwise regression analysis was run to assess how coaches’ emotion regulation strategies impacted upon their perception of stress. Both women and men reported higher levels of perceived stress than those reported in the normative data. Similarly, average scores for emotion regulation strategies were significantly different from those reported for normative data, in particular, coaches reported slightly higher use of emotion regulation strategies than participants in the original study. Significant gender-based differences emerged in terms of emotional regulations, with men adopting more suppression than women. No differences by competitive level were found. In terms of perceived stress, male coaches and elite coaches showed to be more in control of the situation (positive stress) than female coaches and non-elite coaches, respectively, while women experienced more negative stress than men. The blockwise regression evidenced how reappraisal resulted to be predictive in helping coaches to reduce their perception of stress, while suppression predicted higher stress perceptions.
... Due to the theoretical argumentations described above and the often-observed detrimental effects of stress-like reduced motivation to learn (including reduced interest to do well, reduced effort, and reduced persistence), health problems, exhaustion, mood disturbance, emotional upset, cognitive deficits, or impaired academic performance (e.g., Brougham, Zail, Mendoza, & Miller, 2009;DeLongis et al., 1988;Hobfoll, 1989;LePine et al., 2004;Lumley & Provenzano, 2003;Struthers, Perry, & Menec, 2000)-it is important to further explore how learners actually perceive and experience learning test situations and if these actually count as acute stressors. Per definition, tests as desirable difficulties are supposed to be hindered, difficult, and complex, but still possible to overcome. ...
Article
Although difficult learning processes like tests are beneficial for later learning outcomes, learning situations including tests or quizzes can also be perceived as acute stressors leading to more pressure, anxiety, and stress. Thus, we suppose that participants evaluate learning situations with tests, contrary to reading tasks, as more negative and experience more stress. This should be especially pronounced for learners with higher, as opposed to lower, dispositional stress or anxiety. Hence, we further predicted main effects of dispositional variables as well as interactions with the learning situation. We conducted one online study using hypothetical learning scenarios and one laboratory study using actual learning and respectively assessed dispositional stress and anxiety. Study 1 found that hypothetical learning scenarios including tests with public results and tests with private results were evaluated more negatively than re-reading control scenarios. There was also some evidence for the predicted interaction effect. In Study 2 a test in an actual learning situation was evaluated as more negative and additionally led to more acute stress and anxiety than reading. Dispositional variables were positively correlated to more negative evaluations and more stress experiences in both studies. However, there were no interactions in Study 2. Consequently, lecturers must keep in mind that learning tests can serve as acute stressors for learners, thereby resulting in negative side-effects.
... Although, it is worth noting that physical benefits have been noted in a number of studies across a range of conditions (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, chronic pelvic pain) in the absence of significant psychological improvement (e.g., Norman et al., 2004;Van Middendorp et al., 2009). Beyond medical conditions, expressive writing is highlighted as potentially beneficial for a wide range of populations including caregivers (Riddle et al., 2016), college students (Lumley and Provenzano, 2003), and individuals who are unemployed (Soper and Von Bergen, 2001) or suffering bereavement Lichtenthal and Cruess, 2010). ...
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The widespread effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have negatively impacted upon many athletes’ mental health and increased reports of depression as well as symptoms of anxiety. Disruptions to training and competition schedules can induce athletes’ emotional distress, while concomitant government-imposed restrictions (e.g., social isolation, quarantines) reduce the availability of athletes’ social and emotional support. Written Emotional Disclosure has been used extensively in a variety of settings with diverse populations as a means to promote emotional processing. The expressive writing protocol has been used to a limited extent in the context of sport, and predominantly in support of athletes’ emotional processing during injury rehabilitation. We propose that Written Emotional Disclosure offers an evidence-based treatment that can promote athletes’ mental health and support their return to competition. Research exploring the efficacy of the expressive writing protocol highlights a number of theoretical models underpinning the positive effects of Written Emotional Disclosure; we outline how each of these potential mechanisms can address the multidimensional complexity of the challenging circumstances arising from the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., loss of earnings, returning to training and competition). Considerations and strategies for using Written Emotional Disclosure to support athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic are presented.
... Some amount of academic stress is beneficial as it brings about healthy competition with peer group, promotes learning and helps to excel in academics (Malathi and Damodaran 1999;Afolayan et al. 2013). Lumley and Provenzano (2003) however reported that, excess of academic stress adversely affects academic performance, class attendance and psychological well-being of students. If it is not identified early and managed, it can cause depression, anxiety, behavioural problems, irritability, social withdrawal and physical illnesses (Adiele et al. 2018;Deb et al. 2015;Verma et al. 2002;Chen et al. 2013). ...
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Academic stress is the most common mental state that medical students experience during their training period. To assess academic stress, to find out its determinants, to assess other sources of stress and to explore the various coping styles against academic stress adopted by students. Methods: It was a cross sectional study done among medical students from first to fourth year. Standard self-administered questionnaires were used to assess academic stress and coping behaviour. Mean age of the 400 participants was 20.3 ± 1.5 years. 166(41.5%) of them were males. The academic stress was found to be of mild, moderate and severe level among 68(17%), 309(77.3%) and 23(5.7%) participants respectively. Overall coping with stress was found to be poor, average and good among 15(3.8%), 380(95%) and 5(1.2%) participants respectively. Passive emotional (p = 0.054) and passive problem (p = 0.001) coping behaviours were significantly better among males. Active problem coping behaviour (p = 0.007) was significantly better among females. Active emotional coping behaviour did not vary significantly between genders (p = 0.54). Majority of the students preferred sharing their personal problems with parents 211(52.7%) followed by friends 202(50.5%). Binary logistic regression analysis found worrying about future (p = 0.023) and poor self-esteem (p = 0.026) to be independently associated with academic stress. Academic stress although a common finding among students, the coping style to deal with it, was good only in a few. The coping behaviours were not satisfactory particularly among male participants. This along with other determinants of academic stress identified in this study need to be addressed during counselling sessions.
... While much literature points to the benefits of both creative activities and writing, there is limited research on the effectiveness of combining the two as was done in our study. The simple act of writing about stressful events can reduce stress and may improve mood states (Lumley & Provenzano, 2003). Habitual responses to stressful stimuli and negative emotions can be identified and potentially altered through writing (Lepore et al., 2002). ...
Article
The objective of this study was to determine if either creative movement or art were effective in decreasing stress among college students and improving their mood. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to either a movement (n = 30) or an art (n = 30) intervention. Before the intervention, participants in both conditions wrote about a current stressor, rated their perceived intensity of the stressor, and completed a mood questionnaire (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; Watson et al., 1988). Following the intervention participants again completed the mood questionnaire, wrote about a current stressor, and rated their perceived intensity of the stressor. Two-way ANOVAs (group x time) found significant reductions in stress (p < .001) and negative affect (p < .001), in addition to increases in positive affect (p = .007) for both groups from pre- to post-intervention. Our results suggest that briefly partaking in creative movement or art can psychologically help college students in the short-term.
... En effet, l'utilisation de ces stratégies fonctionnelles est positivement associée au bien-être psychologique et négativement au stress académique perç u. Le stress académique est par ailleurs corrélé à de moins bons résultats, un moindre accomplissement scolaire, une moindre capacité d'apprentissage et davantage de burn-out (Crego, Carrillo-Diaz, Armfield, & Romero, 2016 ;Freire, Del Mar Ferradas, Valle, & Núñez, 2016 ;Al-Sowygh, 2013 ;Lumley & Provenzano, 2003 ;Schaufeli et al., 2002 ;Struthers, Perry, & Menec, 2000). Le coping influence également la faç on de se préparer à un examen (Moneta, Spada, & Rost, 2007), et les stratégies centrées sur le problème (e.g. ...
Article
Résumé La littérature met en évidence l’importance des stratégies de coping et du sentiment d’efficacité dans les performances académiques et la détresse des étudiants. La perspective temporelle (PT) pourrait influencer le fonctionnement adaptatif des individus ainsi que les croyances en leurs capacités. Afin d’étudier les liens entre PT, sentiment d’efficacité et coping, 362 étudiants en première année ont répondu à des auto-questionnaires évaluant ces trois variables. Les résultats montrent que le passé négatif et le présent fataliste sont associés négativement au sentiment d’efficacité et positivement à un coping non-adaptatif. Inversement, le passé positif et le futur sont associés positivement au sentiment d’efficacité et à des stratégies de coping adaptatives. Les résultats mettent en évidence un effet de médiation du sentiment d’efficacité dans la relation entre PT et coping. Ces résultats soulignent le rôle du profil temporel des étudiants dans leur fonctionnement adaptatif. Les perspectives de recherche et de prévention sont discutées.
... Students differ in the amount of effort they put into writing and dreaming about their future, specifically with regard to the number of words that they use and the quality of their strategies to overcome obstacles and achieve their goals. Prior research has shown that writing about and making sense of one's life experiences, and pulling together otherwise fragmented stories and thoughts, has psychological and behavioral benefits (e.g., Lumley & Provenzano, 2003;Pennebaker, 1990). Prior research also showed that thinking about personal goals in concrete rather than abstract terms makes it more likely to achieve them (Höchli et al., 2018). ...
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Academic underachievement is a problem for both our education system and general society. Setting personal goals has the potential to impact academic performance, as many students realize through reflection that studying is a path towards realizing important life goals. Consequently, the potential impact of a brief (4-6 hours), written, and staged personal goal-setting intervention on undergraduate academic performance (earned European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits) was investigated. Using a time-lagged quasi-experimental design, our model was tested with two first-year university goal-setting cohorts and two control cohorts (total n = 2,928). The goal-setting cohorts (n = 698 and 711) showed a 22% increase in academic performance versus the control cohorts (n = 810 and 707). This increase depended on (1) the extent of participation in the 3-stage goal-setting intervention, (2) number of words written in the exercise, and (3) the specificity of students’ goal-achievement plans (GAP). Contrary to goal-setting theory, which necessitates goal-task specificity, the results revealed that it did not matter whether the students wrote about academic or non-academic goals, or a combination of both. Rather, it appeared to be the overall process of writing about their personal goals, the specificity of their strategies for goal attainment, and the extent of their participation in the intervention that led to an increase in their academic performance. This study suggests an important modification to goal-setting theory, namely a potential contagion effect of setting life goals, an academic goal primed in the subconscious, and subsequent academic performance.
... Cuando el estrés se produce a partir de las demandas y exigencias propias del contexto académico, sin que intervengan de forma significativa aspectos externos a la vida académica, se denomina estrés académico (Arribas, 2013) El estudio del estrés académico adquiere una especial relevancia cuando se observan los efectos que provoca en los estudiantes. Se sabe que es un factor de riesgo para el agotamiento y el burnout (Rudman y Gustavsson, 2012;Boudreau et al., 2004), para la depresión (Cole et al., 2015;Xu et al., 2014), que tiene efecto negativo sobre la mala salud mental (Feldman y cols, 2008), y que puede interferir en el aprendizaje (Hamaideh et al., 2017;Robotham y Julian 2006;Lumley y Provenzano, 2003;Martín, 2007;Misra y McKean, 2000) y en el ajuste a la universidad (Choi y Lee, 2012) Por otra parte, conviene estar atentos al estrés académico en los estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, ya que diversos estudios apuntan que estos manifiestan niveles de estrés más elevados que los de los estudiantes de cursos superiores (Martín, 2007;Lo, 2002;Misra y McKean, 2000), debido a que los estudiantes noveles se encuentran en un momento de transición y adaptación al sistema universitario que puede aumentar su vulnerabilidad (Dyrbye et al., 2006;Sand et al., 2005; Corominas e Isis, 1998) y a que todavía no han adquirido las competencias para el afrontamiento eficaz de los estresores académicos (Misra y McKean, 2000;Polo et al., 1996) Los estudios existentes suelen valorar los estresores académicos y clínicos en conjunto, o centrarse en otro tipo de estresores, como los sociales, personales, familiares y económicos (Pulido-Martos et al., 2012). En contraste, y según nuestro conocimiento, existen escasos estudios que valoren el estrés académico en ausencia de otras fuentes de estrés, al inicio de los estudios universitarios, y su relación con la vía de acceso a la universidad. ...
Conference Paper
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Objetivos: Analizar los estresores académicos más frecuentes en los estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso en grados de la Universidad Católica de Valencia, así como las diferencias en el nivel de estrés en función del sexo, edad y vía de acceso a la universidad (Ciclos Formativos y Bachillerato), del tipo de Bachillerato (Ciencias y Tecnología, Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades). Cómo pregunta de investigación se propone: ¿Cuáles son los estresores más frecuentes en los estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso? Método: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, llevado a cabo sobre 1465 estudiantes de nuevo ingreso en 28 titulaciones de la Universidad Católica de Valencia, que respondieron al Cuestionario de Estrés Académico en la Universidad (CEAU). Resultados: Las situaciones académicas que mayor estrés producen a los estudiantes son “Falta de tiempo para cumplir con las actividades académicas”, “Sobrecarga académica”, “Exposición de trabajos en clase” y “Realización de exámenes”. Las mujeres presentan mayor estrés académico que los hombres. Los estudiantes provenientes de Formación Profesional presentan mayor estrés en las situaciones relativas a las obligaciones académicas que los de Bachiller, y estos a su vez presentan mayor estrés que los primeros en las situaciones relativas a la expresión y comunicación de ideas. Los alumnos provenientes de Bachillerato de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades presentan mayor estrés que los de Ciencias y Tecnología, en las situaciones relativas a las obligaciones académicas y a las de expediente y perspectivas de futuro. Con respecto a la edad, se observa una correlación directa con el estrés causado por las obligaciones académicas e inversa con el causado por la expresión y comunicación de ideas. Discusión y conclusiones: La “Falta de tiempo para cumplir con las actividades académicas”, “Sobrecarga académica”, “Exposición de trabajos en clase” y “Realización de exámenes” constituyen los estresores más frecuentes en los estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso. Se analizan los resultados y se sugieren implicaciones para la práctica.
... Review of academics and exam schedules, more leisure time activities, better interaction with the faculty and proper guidance, advisory services and peer counselling at the campus could do a lot to reduce the stress. Lumley, Mark A., Provenzano, Kimberly M.(2003), studied Stress management through written emotional disclosure improves academic performance among college students with physical symptoms: This study tested whether writing about stressful events improves grade point averages (GPAs) and whether decreases in writing-induced negative mood from the first to last day of writing predicts GPA improvements. College students (n=74) reporting elevated physical symptoms were randomized to write for 4 days about either stressful experiences (disclosure group) or time management (control group). ...
Chapter
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This paper is an attempt to analyse examinations stress on adolescents health. Stress mainly related to examinations getting severe day by day for adolescents health. Stress is the specific and nonspecific response of the body to any kind of physiological pressure or unwanted forces due to environmental or peripheral effects. Examination stress is the result of an examination pressure in form of physiological and psychological changes on health of adolescents. There are mainly two changes which cause stress, on adolescents health, physical changes and mental changes. Some common physical responses during exam preparations are muscle tension, indigestion, sleep difficulties, pounding heartbeat, frequent urge to pass urine, fast or slow breathing, chest discomfort, change in appetite, constipation or diarrhea, backache. Some psychological responses to stress are feeling under pressure frustration, aggression, tense, unable to relax, mentally drained out, fussy, gloomy or suspicious, being constantly frightened or irritable, inability to concentrate or complete the task. The objectives of this paper are to explore the concept of examinations stress, to review the studies related to examination stress and to estimate the effect of examinations stress on adolescents health. It was examined through the origin and evolution of related studies. This paper concludes as a result that the estimated effects of examination stress may be lower performance in academic examinations, students come under depression, substance abuse, eating disorders, psycho-physiological problems, etc. Present study findings suggest academics and exam schedules, more leisure time activities, better interaction with the faculty and proper guidance, advisory services and peer counselling at the campus could do a lot to reduce the stress.
... This was surprising given that previous studies (Fracalanza et al., 2014) employing the same control condition showed only a small change in worry following neutral writing. Prior work on written disclosure wherein neutral writing has been employed as the control condition has shown that participants rate neutral writing (i.e., writing about time management and future plans) as a credible technique for reducing stress (Lumley & Provenzano, 2003;Radcliffe, Lumley, Kendall, Stevenson, & Beltran, 2007). Thus, participants in the present study may have expected to benefit in some way from the neutral writing. ...
Article
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This experiment tested a novel written exposure intervention for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) that consisted of guided rescripting of participants’ worst fear. After describing their worst fear, adults with GAD (N = 79) were randomly assigned to one of three writing interventions, each consisting of three sessions on consecutive days: (1) standard written exposure (WE), (2) written exposure with rescripting (RWE), and (3) neutral control writing (NC). Measures of symptoms and worry-associated processes were administered at pre- and post-intervention, and at 1-week and 1-month follow-ups. Worry declined significantly in all three conditions. Participants in WE reported significant reductions in fear of anxiety, whereas those in RWE reported significant reductions in fear of anger. Participants in RWE and NC reported a significant decrease in fear of positive emotion. Following RWE, participants perceived their feared scenario as less costly and perceived themselves as better able to cope with it, whereas participants in the WE and NC did not show these changes. Cognitive avoidance, intolerance of uncertainty, and negative problem orientation did not change. Findings suggest overall, RWE was not superior to WE, and that more research is needed to assess their therapeutic potential. Strengths and limitations are discussed for the benefit of future research on exposure for GAD.
... Studies indicate that WED also effects academic performance in students. Grade point averages of university students who wrote about stressful experiences for 4 days improved at the end of the semester (Lumley and Provenzano 2003). A similar study was conducted with students preparing for exams such as GRE, MCAT and LSAT (Frattaroli et al. 2011). ...
... Studies indicate that WED also effects academic performance in students. Grade point averages of university students who wrote about stressful experiences for 4 days improved at the end of the semester (Lumley and Provenzano 2003). A similar study was conducted with students preparing for exams such as GRE, MCAT and LSAT (Frattaroli et al. 2011). ...
... Therefore, the results of this study may not be culturally generalizable. Even so, writing in itself is beneficial for ethnically diverse groups and with a broad spectrum of people, including those who are less socially, academically, or physically advantaged [34]. In general, the results can therefore be valuable in different lingual and cultural regions when engaging Web-based interventions are being designed for young people with mental health problems. ...
Article
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Background Depression in adolescence is common. Less than half of the adolescents with depression receive mental health care; furthermore, treatment tends to be suspended, and its success rates are low. There is a need for these adolescents to have a safe place to share their thoughts. Studies have shown that writing may be a useful treatment method for people with mental health problems. Objective This study aims to describe the use of an electronic diary (e-diary) among adolescents with depressive symptoms. Methods This paper describes a substudy of a randomized controlled trial. We used a mixed-methods approach to understand the way in which e-diaries were used by participants in the intervention under the randomized controlled trial. Data were collected during 2008-2010 at 2 university hospitals in Finland. Study participants (N=89) were 15-17-year-old adolescents who had been referred to an adolescent outpatient psychiatric clinic due to depressive symptoms. Participants were instructed to use the e-diary at least once a week to describe their thoughts, feelings, and moods. The content of the e-diary data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and inductive content analysis. Results Overall, 53% (47/89) of the adolescents used the e-diary. Most of them (39/47, 83%) logged into the program during the first week, and about one-third (19/47, 40%) logged into the e-diary weekly as suggested. The number of words used in the e-diary per each log ranged between 8 and 1442 words. The 3 topics most often written about in the e-diary were related to mental health problems (mental disorder), social interaction (relationship), and one’s own development (identity). Conclusions An e-diary may be a usable tool to reflect experiences and thoughts, especially among adolescents who have signs of depression. The results of this study can be used to develop user-centered electronic health applications that allow users to express their own thoughts and experiences in ways other than systematic mood monitoring.
... de cualquier nivel educativo en el que se encuentren desempeñando su rol, de docente o discente(97).Por otro lado, Lumley y Provenzano, afirman que el estrés puede afectar al funcionamiento académico de los estudiantes universitarios, interfiriendo en comportamientos adaptativos como la dedicación al estudio y la asistencia las clases o dificultando procesos cognitivos esenciales como son la atención y la concentración(98).En la última década, destaca la atención creciente dedicada al tema del estudio del estrés y del burnout en el profesorado(99). La atención a este respecto, se constata en el hecho de que, se han publicado una gran variedad de estudios sobre esta temática(99)(100)(101)(102)(103). ...
Thesis
ntroducción. Las prácticas clínicas constituyen una parte esencial de la formación de pregrado en los estudios de enfermería, suponen el primer contacto real con escenarios clínico-asistenciales. En este sentido, las numerosas situaciones a las que deben hacer frente, pueden tener repercusiones en su salud física y psicológica. Objetivos. Conocer la respuesta fisiológica y psicológica ante las prácticas clínicas en los estudiantes de grado de enfermería, analizar los posibles cambios en estas respuestas entre antes y después de haber realizado dichas prácticas, y su posible relación con el género. Metodología. Se evaluaron 108 estudiantes de grado de enfermería (39 grupo control y 69 grupo experimental) y se evaluaron variables fisiológicas y variables psicológicas. Estas variables se recogieron en el grupo experimental en un segundo momento tras la realización de las prácticas clínicas. Se utilizó el SPSS 19. Resultados. Encontramos alteraciones en algunas de las variables fisiológicas analizadas, (cortisol, tensión arterial y frecuencia cardíaca) estando más alteradas en el grupo expuesto a las prácticas clínicas que también tuvo un nivel de percepción de los factores estresores mayor. Respecto a la ansiedad estado-rasgo, los alumnos presentan niveles normales. En relación con las estrategias de afrontamiento, se observa que ambos grupos utilizan estrategias similares. Conclusiones. La realización de las prácticas clínicas parece ser una situación que puede alterar algunos aspectos fisiológicos y psicológicos, pero principalmente la percepción de factores estresores. Las estrategias de afrontamiento encontradas son de tipo activo como un factor protector, minimizando los efectos estresantes de la exposición a las prácticas clínicas.
... A pesar de su notable incidencia sobre el bienestar y la salud, sorprende la escasa atención prestada en el ámbito académico a la investigación del estrés de los estudiantes (Michie, Glachan y Bray, 2001), especialmente cuando se conoce sus efectos sobre el funcionamiento académico, dificultando procesos cognitivos de gran relevancia como la atención y la concentración o favoreciendo el abandono de conductas adaptativas como la dedicación al estudio y la asistencia a clases (Caballero, Abello y Palacios, 2007;Lumley y Provenzano, 2003). Por tanto, el estrés posee un potencial efecto negativo sobre el proceso de aprendizaje del estudiante (Martín, 2007;Struthers, Perry y Menec, 2000) y, más importante si cabe, sobre su bienestar psicológico (Guarino, Gavidia, Antor y Caballero, 2000) y su estado de salud (Sarid, Anson, Yaari y Margalith, 2004). ...
Article
En la actualidad son todavía escasos los trabajos que analizan el estrés académico universitario desde la perspectiva del género. En esta investigación se aborda el estudio de posibles diferencias significativas entre sexos en el afrontamiento de situaciones académicas estresantes. Se plantea un diseño ex post facto prospectivo simple de corte transversal. La muestra estaba compuesta por 2102 estudiantes universitarios de diversos ámbitos de conocimiento (Educación, Ciencias de la Salud, Ciencias Jurídico-Sociales y Ciencias Técnicas), 647 hombres y 1455 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y los 51 años (M = 21,11; DT = 3,31). Las estrategias de afrontamiento fueron evaluadas a través de la Escala de Afrontamiento del Estrés (A-CEA). Los resultados de este trabajo ponen de manifiesto que los hombres recurren en mayor medida a las estrategias de reevaluación positiva y planificación como medidas de afrontamiento de situaciones académicas problemáticas, mientras que las mujeres optan fundamentalmente por la búsqueda de apoyo. Se analizan posibles causas explicativas de estas diferencias así como algunas medidas de intervención tendentes a la reducción del estrés en estudiantes universitarios.
... Aún no son muy numerosos los trabajos referentes al estrés percibido en el ámbito académico (Martín, 2007), a pesar de tener una gran incidencia en la salud y bienestar de los estudiantes (Guarino, Gavidia, Antor y Caballero, 2000;Michie, Glachan y Bray, 2001; Sarid, Anson, Yaari y Margalith, 2004) y de su alta prevalencia (Aranceli, Perea y Ormeño, 2006; Barraza y Silerio, 2007). Algunos de estos estudios sugieren que el estrés supone un potencial efecto negativo sobre el proceso de aprendizaje (Martín, 2007;Struthers, Perry y Menec, 2000) y que puede dificultar distintos procesos cognitivos como la atención o la concentración (Lumley y Provenzano, 2003). Por otro lado, el resultado de una valoración cognitiva de exceso de demandas en el ámbito académico puede llevar a realizar conductas de reacción poco adaptativas, como la falta de asistencia a clase o abandono, poca atención a los estudios o desinterés hacia los contenidos y materias (Caballero, Abelló y Palacios, 2007). ...
Article
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In recent years, the Spanish University system was integrated into the European Higher Education Area, what led to a change of paradigm in the teaching/learning process whose effects on university student population are still unknown. Perceived stress, burnout and engagement in this group were analysed in this study. With a sample made up of 409 people from 3 degrees, results showed students experienced exhaustion, inefficiency and perceived stress related with their studies while also feeling pride, usefulness and involvement with them. Distinctive patterns according to sex (t-Student) and degree (ANOVA-Tukey) were also noted in these variables by the results. On the other hand, exhaustion, mismatch, vigour and sex were identified as explanatory factors for perceived stress in university students by regression analysis (stepwise). Among them, exhaustion was the factor showing the highest explanatory level (23.5%). Likewise, different predictive models were obtained for men and women. Conclusions of this study can be relevant in order to elaborate educational programmes for increasing university students’ psychological well-being.
... With a focus on child emotional dysregulation, school psychologists may help adolescents learn how to regulate negative emotional states. For example, adolescents could be taught the technique of emotional disclosure verbally or in a written form, which has been found to benefit people who are willing to recognize and acknowledge their stressful experiences (Lumley & Provenzano, 2003). Moreover, in view of the function of social support in buffering the negative influence of stressors on health outcomes (Cohen & Wills, 1985), the adolescents vulnerable to emotional dysregulation could also be guided to garner social support from diversified social sources such as friends so as to ameliorate the negative impact of harsh parenting. ...
... In randomizing experiments, the intervention produced positive effects on diverse aspects of physical and mental health, including reductions in health center visits, self-reported illness, and depressive symptoms and improvements in immune system and role functioning (Pennebaker, 1997a(Pennebaker, , 1997bSmyth, 1998;Smyth & Pennebaker, 2001;Lepore & Smyth, 2002). Lumley and Provenzano (2003) examined expressive writings effect on academic performance of college students over four days. The results showed that students in the experimental group had the improved grade point averages in subsequent semesters and improved mood. ...
Article
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Ninety-three (n=93) students in grades 9-12 who failed the Virginia Standards of Learning mathematics test were placed into experimental and control groups. Pre and posttest measures for general and mathematics anxiety, and physical symptoms of stress were administered. The Expressive Writing intervention was used with both groups where the experimental group (n=54) wrote on a value latent topic and the control group (n=39) wrote on a neutral topic for 15 minutes a day for three days. Findings showed that the experimental group reported significantly reduced levels of general and mathematics anxiety after the writing intervention and the control group had a reduction in mathematics anxiety after the expressive writing intervention.
... Stress results in an array of negative outcomes for undergraduate students, ranging from poor academic performance and health 13,14 , increased depression levels 15 , increased alcohol use 16 , increased drug/ psychostimulant use 17 , lowered self-esteem and self-worth 4,18 , and suicidal ideation 19 . Students who are able to better cope with their stress have improved academic performance, healthier eating habits, lower depression levels 20 , and improved mood 21 . ...
Article
Objective: 1) examine changes in stress during first semester among freshmen undergraduates; 2) identify predictors of stress (coping strategies, emotional states and quality of sleep). Participants: 197 freshmen students were recruited for a 10-week study during first quarter (Oct-Dec, 2015). Methods: Students completed weekly self-report surveys on stress, coping strategies, emotions, and quality of sleep. A General Linear Mixed-Model was used for analyses. Results: Stress was elevated during examinations periods. Females reported a greater stress level than males. Increased stress level was significantly associated with lower sleep quality and greater negative emotions (fear, anger). Exercise was an effective stress copying strategy while other coping methods (Internet usage, meditation and self-isolation) were associated with higher stress. Social media usage did not influence stress level. Conclusions: Future stress management programs for freshman need to consider gender differences and may focus on sleep, exercise and decreased general Internet usage.
... Unfortunately, regardless of gender differences, if college students do not believe that they are competent or worthy, they may experience health issues including physical pain, stress, and depression [17]. These abovementionedhealth problems related to pain are significantly associated with an overall lower life satisfaction [18]. Gender differences regarding life satisfaction do exist as previous research reports that females with chronic medical conditions have poorer quality of life than males with chronic medical conditions [19]. ...
Chapter
Mental healthcare has seen numerous benefits from interactive technologies and artificial intelligence. Virtual Assistant is a conversational agent, also called chatbots, which are being of great interest to researchers in different areas such as: psychology, marketing, education, among others. Virtual Assistants are trained to converse and interact with a person using speech, typing and visual languages through natural language techniques. Therefore, they have the potential to be a support tool for people. This study is focused to make a literature search in Scopus, Web of Science (WoS), and IEEE Xplore digital databases to answer questions in how virtual assistant can support the academic stress.KeywordsMental healthVirtual assistantAcademic stressHigher schoolConversational agents
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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of relaxation training on anxiety and academic achievement in adolescents. By this mean,40girl students of second grade of middle school in Tehran were selected using random cluster sampling and screening in anxiety by completing Zoong anxiety self-reporting questionnaire (1970) and divided into two tests and control groups by random assignment. Then, the test group (one hour sessions and 3 sessions in per week) were taught relaxation training through 12 educational sessions and it is noteworthy that no education was given to control group. Upon completion of educational sessions both test and control groups were tested again with Zoong anxiety self-reporting questionnaire. To examine the participants' academic achievement, the grade point average (GPA( of the first term for pre- test and GPA of the second term for post- test were taken into account. The results of a MANCOVA showed that relaxation training reduced anxiety and increased academic achievement ( p
Chapter
This chapter focuses on a fundamental feature of Reflective Goal Setting—writing about our goals. It will firstly show how the model has been influenced by other approaches to goal setting, especially the Goal Setting Theory (GST) of Edwin Locke and Gary Latham. The chapter is not intended to be an extensive literature review of the field but will outline the main features of Goal Setting Theory and show how Reflective Goal Setting builds on that. Secondly, current thinking on the importance of writing in detail about our goals will be presented.KeywordsGoal Setting Theory Self-regulation Self-efficacy Writing about goals
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El presente estudio tuvo el objetivo de determinar la relación entre estrés académico y autoeficacia académica en estudiantes de Fisioterapia de 1ero y 8vo semestre de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador. Esta investigación fue de enfoque cuantitativo, de tipo correlacional, de diseño no experimental, de corte transversal. Se utilizó una muestra de 98 estudiantes. En cuanto a los instrumentos utilizados para la recolección de datos, se empleó el Inventario SISCO del Estrés Académico y la Escala de Autoeficacia en Conductas Académicas (EACA). Los resultados de las correlaciones mostraron que no hay una relación significativa entres estrés académico y autoeficacia académica (r= -.180; p> .05). Por otro lado, se encontró que existe relación negativa y significativa entre atención y estímulos estresores (r= -.234; p< .05), síntomas y atención (r= -.403; p< .01), síntomas y autoeficacia académica (r= -.305; p< .01), estrés académico y atención (r= -.280; p< .01). Se encontró correlación significativa entre estrategias de afrontamiento y excelencia (r= .231; p< .05), estrategias de afrontamiento y autoeficacia académica (r= .236; p< .05). A partir de los resultados obtenidos se concluye que no hay una relación significativa entre estrés académico y autoeficacia académica en los estudiantes universitarios estudiados.
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Background While prior research has demonstrated the ability of individuals to change their stress mindsets, the mechanisms through which these changes occur have not been studied. We offer health education as one such mechanism. Additionally, we posit that personality may moderate the change of stress mindset over time for students who are enrolled in health education courses. Purpose: This study explores the role of personality in the change of stress mindset when there is a specific focus on improving individual health and well-being via health education courses. Methods: Data was collected at two times in the semester, from 423 college students who are participating in college health education courses. Results: Neuroticism, openness, and conscientiousness have cross-level moderating effects on the change of stress mindset over time when students were engaged in health education courses. However, extraversion and agreeableness do not. Discussion: This study highlights the importance of health education, for specific personality types, in changing students’ mindsets as it relates to stress. Translation to Health Education Practice: By offering more evidence of the reach, scope, and benefits health education may provide, this study provides additional rationale for the inclusion and implementation of health education in academics.
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Poorer financial circumstances among undergraduate students predict worse academic outcomes, yet there is a lack of research examining mediators. Accordingly, the present research aimed to identify such mediating variables. In Study 1, cross-sectional data were collected from UK undergraduates (N = 516). Controlling for background variables, path analysis indicated that stress, sense of belonging at university, working memory, and self-control mediated the negative relationship between financial concern and academic performance. In Study 2 an independent sample (N = 2794) was used to successfully validate the respecified model developed in Study 1. Additionally, longitudinal data were collected from UK undergraduates (N = 453) at three time points in an academic year. Controlling for background variables, financial concern predicted subsequent changes in intrinsic academic motivation, as mediated by changes in stress and sense of belonging at university. Together, this provides consistent evidence for stress and belonging as mediators of the impact of finances on academic outcomes. Our findings afford a more complete understanding of how financial concern may affect students’ experience at university, highlight potential negative consequences of funding systems that place a financial burden on students, and could serve to inform interventions aimed at mitigating the negative effects of financial concern.
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This qualitative phenomenological study was designed to gain insight into the unique experiences of six Black women students who were writing creative non-fiction toward the goal of self-definition in a Black feminist learning environment at a Historically Black College/University (HBCU). Interviews were triangulated against participants’ personal writing, revealing obstacles of racism, sexism, internalized oppressions, and an initial difficulty with sharing personal experiences. Participants wrote about overcoming these obstacles through survival and success strategies like practicing mutual vulnerability with their classmates and teacher, and practicing healing transformation through intergenerational healing (re-gifting their new awareness to the next generation). Findings revealed underexplored reciprocities in Black feminist pedagogical delivery and engagement, which may advance culturally specific expressive writing and research methods, and offer culturally specific methods to advance the healing of multigenerational traumas that impact Black women students.
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Expressive writing is an effective way to facilitate the emotional recovery from a stressor, but little is known about how adopting a first-person versus third-person perspective while writing affects the disclosure and experience of emotion. The purpose of this study was to empirically examine whether using first-person versus third-person pronouns when describing a stressor leads to differences in the amounts of emotion words used and change in emotion from before the writing to after. Participants (N = 148) were randomly assigned to write about a stressor using either first-person pronouns or third-person pronouns. The content of these writing samples was analyzed via computer text analyses (i.e., anxiety, sadness, and anger words), and participants completed measures of the subjective experience of emotion both before and after the writing task (i.e., change in fear, sadness, and hostility). Path analysis indicated that adopting a third-person perspective led to lower use of anxiety words but heightened use of sadness words compared to the first-person writing perspective. Moreover, participants in the third-person writing condition experienced greater post-writing sadness than did participants in the first-person writing condition. These results suggest that manipulating pronoun use can have a clinical application to help individuals express and experience their emotions more fully.
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This article introduces the construct of self-concealment, the active concealment from others of personal information that one perceives as negative or distressing. A Self-Concealment Scale (SCS) was developed and was included in a questionnaire battery completed by 306 subjects. The SCS had excellent psychometric properties. Self-concealment was conceptually and empirically distinguished from self-disclosure. Self-concealment significantly correlated with self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and bodily symptoms and accounted for a significant incremental percentage of the variance in physical and psychological symptoms even after controlling for occurrence of trauma, trauma distress, disclosure of the trauma, social support, social network, and self-disclosure. The implications of these findings are discussed and directions for further research are briefly outlined.
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This study investigated whether emotional expression of traumatic experiences influenced the immune response to a hepatitis B vaccination program. Forty medical students who tested negative for hepatitis B antibodies were randomly assigned to write about personal traumatic events or control topics during 4 consecutive daily sessions. The day after completion of the writing, participants were given their first hepatitis B vaccination, with booster injections at 1 and 4 months after the writing. Blood was collected before each vaccination and at a 6-month follow-up. Compared with the control group, participants in the emotional expression group showed significantly higher antibody levels against hepatitis B at the 4 and 6-month follow-up periods. Other immune changes evident immediately after writing were significantly lower numbers of circulating T helper lymphocytes and basophils in the treatment group. The finding that a writing intervention influences immune response provides further support for a link between emotional disclosure and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this article we propose mechanisms that govern the processing of emotional information, particularly those involved in fear reduction. Emotions are viewed as represented by information structures in memory, and anxiety is thought to occur when an information structure that serves as program to escape or avoid danger is activated. Emotional processing is defined as the modification of memory structures that underlie emotions. It is argued that some form of exposure to feared situations is common to many psychotherapies for anxiety, and that confrontation with feared objects or situations is an effective treatment. Physiological activation and habituation within and across exposure sessions are cited as indicators of emotional processing, and variables that influence activation and habituation of fear responses are examined. These variables and the indicators are analyzed to yield an account of what information must be integrated for emotional processing of a fear structure. The elements of such a structure are viewed as cognitive representations of the stimulus characteristic of the fear situation, the individual's responses in it, and aspects of its meaning for the individual. Treatment failures are interpreted with respect to the interference of cognitive defenses, autonomic arousal, mood state, and erroneous ideation with reformation of targeted fear structures. Applications of the concepts advanced here to therapeutic practice and to the broader study of psychopathology are discussed.
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On the basis of previous work, freshmen should evidence improved health after writing about their thoughts and feelings associated with entering college. One hundred thirty subjects were assigned to write either about coming to college or about superficial topics for 20 min on 3 days. One fourth of the subjects in each group wrote during the 1st, 5th, 9th, or 14th week of classes. Physician visits for illness in the months after writing were lower for the experimental than for the control subjects. Self-reports of homesickness and anxiety were higher in the experimental group 2-3 months after writing. By year's end, experimental subjects were either superior or similar to control subjects in grade average and in positive moods. No effects emerged as a function of when people wrote, suggesting that the coping process can be accelerated. Implications for comparing insight treatments with catharsis and for distinguishing between objective and self-report indicators of distress are discussed.
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This study addresses the construct of conflict or ambivalence over emotional expression. Ambivalence is seen as an important mediator in the link between emotional styles and psychological and physical well-being. Using the "personal striving" framework, a questionnaire measure of ambivalent emotional strivings (AEQ) was designed. In Study 1, 292 Ss completed this measure along with questionnaire measures of expressiveness, social desirability, and intense ambivalence. Women scored significantly higher than men on both the AEQ and expressiveness. In Study 2, scores on the AEQ were found to be negatively correlated with self-reported and peer-rated expressiveness. In Study 3, 48 Ss participated in a 21-day study of mood and health. Expressiveness was positively correlated with some measures of well-being and with daily negative affect. Ambivalence was positively correlated with several indices of psychological distress. Although the AEQ correlated with questionnaire measures of physical symptomatology, neither the AEQ nor the expressiveness measures correlated with daily symptom reports. Results support the contention that conflict over emotional expressiveness is a variable worthy of study in its own right, having implications for research on personality and health.
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Most current models in health psychology assume that stress adversely affects physical health. We re-examined this assumption by reviewing extensive data from the literature and from six samples of our own, in which we collected measures of personality, health and fitness, stress, and current emotional functioning. Results indicate that self-report health measures reflect a pervasive mood disposition of negative affectivity (NA); self-report stress scales also contain a substantial NA component. However, although NA is correlated with health compliant scales, it is not strongly or consistently related to actual, long-term health status, and thus will act as a general nuisance factor in health research. Because self-report measures of stress and health both contain a significant NA component, correlations between such measures likely overestimate the true association between stress and health. Results demonstrate the importance of including different types of health measures in health psychology research.
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In this article we propose mechanisms that govern the processing of emotional information, particularly those involved in fear reduction. Emotions are viewed as represented by information structures in memory, and anxiety is thought to occur when an information structure that serves as program to escape or avoid danger is activated. Emotional processing is defined as the modification of memory structures that underlie emotions. It is argued that some form of exposure to feared situations is common to many psychotherapies for anxiety, and that confrontation with feared objects or situations is an effective treatment. Physiological activation and habituation within and across exposure sessions are cited as indicators of emotional processing, and variables that influence activation and habituation of fear responses are examined. These variables and the indicators are analyzed to yield an account of what information must be integrated for emotional processing of a fear structure. The elements of such a structure are viewed as cognitive representations of the stimulus characteristic of the fear situation, the individual’s responses in it, and aspects of its meaning for the individual. Treatment failures are interpreted with respect to the interference of cognitive defenses, autonomic arousal, mood state, and erroneous ideation with reformation of targeted fear structures. Applications of the concepts advanced here to therapeutic practice and to the broader study of psychopathology are discussed.
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Can psychotherapy reduce the incidence of health problems? A general model of psychosomatics assumes that inhibiting or holding back one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors is associated with long-term stress and disease. Actively confronting upsetting experiences--through writing or talk- ing-is hypothesized to reduce the negative effects of inhibition. Fifty healthy undergraduates were assigned to write about either traumatic experiences or superficial topics for 4 consecutive days. Two measures of cellular immune-system function and health center visits suggested that confronting traumatic experiences was physically beneficial. The implications for psychotherapy as a preventive treatment for health problems are discussed. There is little doubt that psychotherapy reduces subjective distress and yields positive behavioral outcomes. In recent years, a small group of researchers has sought to learn whether psychotherapy can also reduce health problems. Two promising reviews have indicated that the use of mental health services is associated with fewer medical visits, fewer days of hospitaliza- tion, and lower overall medical costs. In a summary of 15 stud- ies published between 1965 and 1980, Mumford, Schlesinger, and Glass (1981) found that individuals who underwent psy- chotherapy evidenced a 13% decrease in medical utilization rel- ative to nonpsychotherapy control subjects. Similarly, in a re- view of 13 studies of mental health services that were intro- duced into organizations, Jones and Vischi (1980) found that psychotherapy was associated with a 20% drop in medical utili- zation.
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Examined whether writing about traumatic events would influence long-term measures of health as well as short-term indicators of physiological arousal and reports of negative moods in 46 introductory psychology students. Also examined were aspects of writing about traumatic events (i.e., cognitive, affective, or both) that were most related to physiological and self-report variables. Ss wrote about either personally traumatic life events or trivial topics on 4 consecutive days. In addition to health center records, physiological measures and self-reported moods and physical symptoms were collected throughout the experiment. Findings indicate that, in general, writing about both the emotions and facts surrounding a traumatic event was associated with relatively higher blood pressure and negative moods following the essays, but fewer health center visits in the 6 mo following the experiment. It is concluded that, although findings should be considered preliminary, they bear directly on issues surrounding catharsis, self-disclosure, and a general theory of psychosomatics based on behavioral inhibition. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Healthy Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seropositive undergraduates (N = 57) completed a personality inventory, provided blood samples, and were randomly assigned to write or talk about stressful events, or to write about trivial events, during three weekly 20-min sessions, after which they provided a final blood sample. Individuals assigned to the verbal/stressful condition had significantly lower EBV antibody titers (suggesting better cellular immune control over the latent virus) after the intervention than those in the written/stressful group, who had significantly lower values than those in the written/trivial control group. Subjects assigned to the written/stressful condition expressed more negative emotional words than the verbal/stressful and control groups and more positive emotional words than the verbal/stressful group at each time point. The verbal/stressful group expressed more negative emotional words compared with the control group at baseline. Content analysis indicated that the verbal/stressful group achieved the greatest improvements in cognitive change, self-esteem, and adaptive coping strategies.
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The words people use in disclosing a trauma were hypothesized to predict improvements in mental and physical health in 2 studies. The first study reanalyzed data from 6 previous experiments in which language variables served as predictors of health. Results from 177 participants in previous writing studies showed that increased use of words associated with insightful and causal thinking was linked to improved physical but not mental health. Higher use of positive relative to negative emotion words was also associated with better health. An empirical measure that was derived from these data correlated with subsequent distress ratings. The second study tested these models on interview transcripts of 30 men who had lost their partners to AIDS. Cognitive change and empirical models predicted postbereavement distress at 1 year. Implications of using computer-based text analyses in the study of narratives are discussed.
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Nonpharmacological treatments with little patient cost or risk are useful supplements to pharmacotherapy in the treatment of patients with chronic illness. Research has demonstrated that writing about emotionally traumatic experiences has a surprisingly beneficial effect on symptom reports, well-being, and health care use in healthy individuals. To determine if writing about stressful life experiences affects disease status in patients with asthma or rheumatoid arthritis using standardized quantitative outcome measures. Randomized controlled trial conducted between October 1996 and December 1997. Outpatient community residents drawn from private and institutional practice. Volunteer sample of 112 patients with asthma (n = 61) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 51) received the intervention; 107 completed the study, 58 in the asthma group and 49 in the rheumatoid arthritis group. Patients were assigned to write either about the most stressful event of their lives (n = 71; 39 asthma, 32 rheumatoid arthritis) or about emotionally neutral topics (n = 41; 22 asthma, 19 rheumatoid arthritis) (the control intervention). Asthma patients were evaluated with spirometry and rheumatoid arthritis patients were clinically examined by a rheumatologist. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at 2 weeks and 2 months and 4 months after writing and were done blind to experimental condition. Of evaluable patients 4 months after treatment, asthma patients in the experimental group showed improvements in lung function (the mean percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] improved from 63.9% at baseline to 76.3% at the 4-month follow-up; P<.001), whereas control group patients showed no change. Rheumatoid arthritis patients in the experimental group showed improvements in overall disease activity (a mean reduction in disease severity from 1.65 to 1.19 [28%] on a scale of 0 [asymptomatic] to 4 [very severe] at the 4-month follow-up; P=.001), whereas control group patients did not change. Combining all completing patients, 33 (47.1%) of 70 experimental patients had clinically relevant improvement, whereas 9 (24.3%) of 37 control patients had improvement (P=.001). Patients with mild to moderately severe asthma or rheumatoid arthritis who wrote about stressful life experiences had clinically relevant changes in health status at 4 months compared with those in the control group. These gains were beyond those attributable to the standard medical care that all participants were receiving. It remains unknown whether these health improvements will persist beyond 4 months or whether this exercise will prove effective with other diseases.
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The effect of emotional disclosure through expressive writing on available working memory (WM) capacity was examined in 2 semester-long experiments. In the first study, 35 freshmen assigned to write about their thoughts and feelings about coming to college demonstrated larger working memory gains 7 weeks later compared with 36 writers assigned to a trivial topic. Increased use of cause and insight words was associated with greater WM improvements. In the second study, students (n = 34) who wrote about a negative personal experience enjoyed greater WM improvements and declines in intrusive thinking compared with students who wrote about a positive experience (n = 33) or a trivial topic (n = 34). The results are discussed in terms of a model grounded in cognitive and social psychological theory in which expressive writing reduces intrusive and avoidant thinking about a stressful experience, thus freeing WM resources.
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This study examined the effects of emotional disclosure of stressful events on the pain, physical and affective dysfunction, and joint condition of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients were randomly assigned to talk privately about stressful events (disclosure group, n = 36) or about trivial topics (control group, n = 36) for 4 consecutive days. Disclosure resulted in immediate increases in negative mood. At 2 weeks the 2 groups did not differ on any health measure, but at 3 months disclosure patients had less affective disturbance and better physical functioning in daily activities. There was no main effect of disclosure on pain or joint condition, but among the disclosure patients, those who experienced larger increases in negative mood after talking demonstrated improvements in the condition of their joints. This study concludes that, among RA patients, verbal disclosure and emotional processing of stressful life events induces an immediate negative mood followed by improved psychological functioning.
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Four research paradigms explored links from secrecy to the suppression and intrusive recurrence of secret thoughts. In Study 1, keeping a word secret enhanced cognitive accessibility of the word on a Stroop color-naming task. Study 2 revealed that secret memory topics were recalled earlier than topics about which a lie or the truth was told. Study 3 showed that when participants were keeping secrets, their ratings of suppression and intrusive thinking of the secret became positively correlated. Study 4 participants rated 50 everyday topics for intrusiveness, suppression, and secrecy. Across topics, positive mean within-subject correlations were found among these variables.
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Previous studies have found that writing about upsetting experiences can improve physical health. In an attempt to explain this phenomenon, 72 first-year college students were randomly assigned to write about either their thoughts and feelings about coming to college or about superficial topics for three consecutive days. Measures of language use within the writing samples and cognitive measures of accessibility and schematic organisation were collected in the weeks before and after writing. As in previous studies, writing about college was found to reduce health centre visits for illness and to improve subjects' grade point average. Text analyses indicated that the use of positive emotion words and changes in words suggestive of causal and insightful thinking were linked to health change. Improved grades, although not linked to these language dimensions, were found to correlate with measures of schematic organisation of college-relevant themes. Implications for using written language to understand cognitive and health processes are discussed.
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This article reports on the questionnaire response of 276 women aged 35 and over who had returned to college. This study identifies a series of variables that influenced their satisfaction and strain in the student role.Analysis of survey data showed that both satisfaction and strain in the student role correlated significantly with a number of demographic and support variables. Both satisfaction variables and strain variables included the number of years since the student last attended school, age of student's youngest child, and children's psychological support.Multiple regression analysis found that children's psychological support and high grade point average significantly predicted satisfaction in the student role. Low grade point average and the presence of young children significantly predicted student strain. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these findings.
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The effectiveness of a preventive stress inoculation program for adolescents that consists of a blend of progressive muscle relaxation, cognitive restructuring, and assertiveness training was examined. Trainees were compared with an empirically derived control group on measures of anxiety, stress, and academic performance. Compared with controls, the training program participants showed significantly greater improvements on self-report measures of trait anxiety and stress-related symptoms at posttest. These improvements were maintained at a 4-wk follow-up assessment. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in academic achievement at either posttest or follow-up. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents a critical review of the literature on the prediction of academic success in college, as well as a summary of results of an empirical study. 39 articles are summarized with respect to the populations from which they were sampled, the dependent and independent variables, and their estimate of accuracy in predicting college GPA. It is concluded that the ability of any of the predictors to predict college success is disappointingly low. A study done at a midwestern university evaluated admission decisions. The inaccuracy of prediction was obvious, as 30% of the students that were predicted to succeed had failed while 50% of the students predicted to fail had graduated or were in good standing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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[presents] an exploration of response organization in fear and anxiety / includes a discussion of how information about physiological mobilization and action are represented in memory, their relationship to semantic knowledge, and a speculation as to their significance in the cognitive processing of emotion / it is argued that psychophysiological responses are integral to the expression of clinical anxiety and that their activation plays a significant role in mediating other syndromal behaviors (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Four research paradigms explored links from secrecy to the suppression and intrusive recurrence of secret thoughts. In Study 1, keeping a word secret enhanced cognitive accessibility of the word on a Stroop color-naming task. Study 2 revealed that secret memory topics were recalled earlier than topics about which a lie or the truth was told. Study 3 showed that when participants were keeping secrets, their ratings of suppression and intrusive thinking of the secret became positively correlated. Study 4 participants rated 50 everyday topics for intrusiveness, suppression, and secrecy. Across topics, positive mean within-subject correlations were found among these variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This chapter explores the evidence that traumas—and especially those not disclosed to others—are linked to higher rates of illness. It discusses the authors' research paradigm in which they have repeatedly found that health problem disclosure in the laboratory can have beneficial effects on physical health. This chapter also tackles the question of how disclosure through writing and talking can help people cope with stressful and traumatic experiences. Specifically, how traumas may be linked to physical illness through their negative impact on a person's self-definition, and how disclosure may help to assimilate the traumatic experience into a person's self-definition are examined. Other areas of discussion included procedural differences, educational, linguistic, or cultural effects that can affect disclosure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated concentration deficits in a sample of 130 college students who reported levels of depression ranging from absence of depression to moderate levels of depression symptoms. It was hypothesized that after controlling for demographic variables and verbal and abstract reasoning skills, the degree of depression would relate positively to the degree of deficit on sustained attention. Ss were assessed on measures of depression, concentration, and academic performance including the Beck Depression Inventory, a paced auditory serial addition task, grade point average, and the Shipley Institute of Living Scale. Results indicate that depression was negatively related to academic performance, although the relation between depression and cognitive function was not detected on a brief measure of concentration. These results suggest that isolated sessions may mask the detrimental effects of depression on academic performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the relationships among personality factors that have been found to correlate with academic achievement and the consumption of common alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine substance use in 161 undergraduates. Ss completed 3 questionnaires: the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), the Academic Attributional Style Questionnaire, and a modified Substance Use Questionnaire. Significant positive relationships were obtained between grade point average (GPA) representing academic achievement and the NEO PI-R personality factors of neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness. Significant negative correlations were found between GPA and the use of alcohol and nicotine. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and lack of nicotine use best predicted GPA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Four hundred and fifty college students rated the credibility of the rationales and procedural descriptions of two therapy, three placebo, and one component-control procedure frequently used in analogue outcome research. The rating scale was designed to assess both the credibility and the expectancy for improvement generated by the rationales. The results indicated that the control conditions were, in general, less credible than the therapy conditions. Implications for outcome research are briefly discussed.
Article
This study sought to replicate previous findings that disclosing traumas improves physical health and to compare the effects of revealing previously disclosed versus undisclosed traumas. According to inhibition theory, reporting about undisclosed traumas should produce greater health benefits. Sixty healthy undergraduates wrote about undisclosed traumas, previously disclosed traumas, or trivial events. Contrary to expectations, there were no significant between-groups differences on longer term health utilization and physical symptom measures. However, Ss who disclosed more severe traumas reported fewer physical symptoms in the months following the study, compared with low-severity trauma Ss, and tended to report fewer symptoms than control Ss. Results suggest that health benefits occur when severe traumas are disclosed, regardless of whether previous disclosure has occurred.
Article
A collaborative study among the university health service, the dean's office, and the registrar's office examined the academic performance of 77 students who took medical withdrawals for mental health reasons from Dartmouth College during a 3-year period. In 71.4% of the cases, students withdrew from a term in progress; the remainder arranged to withdraw after they had completed a term but before starting a new term. Depression was a major factor in approximately half of the withdrawals. Grade point average improved significantly after return from the withdrawal, with a large jump in individual term averages occurring between the terms immediately preceding and immediately following return. We found no significant difference between the number of students who experienced disciplinary trouble before withdrawal and those who were disciplined afterward. Students who were depressed at the time of withdrawal did not fare as well academically upon return as those students who had not been depressed. The data suggest that procedures for handling mental health withdrawals and readmission are important ways in which the campus counseling center can support the university's academic mission.
Article
On the basis of a theory of inhibition and psychosomatics, it was predicted that the more individuals disclosed personally traumatic experiences, the better their long-term health following the disclosure. Thirty-three Holocaust survivors talked for 1-2 hours about their personal experiences during World War II while skin conductance level (SCL) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Each videotaped interview was rated by independent judges once every minute on the degree to which the survivor's experience was traumatic. For each subject, the trauma ratings were correlated with minute-by-minute SCL and HR readings. Based on previous research, negative trauma-SCL correlations are indicative of high personal disclosure, whereas positive trauma-SCL correlations suggest low disclosure, whereas positive trauma-SCL correlations suggest low disclosure. Approximately 14 months after the interview, self-reports of the subjects' health were collected. Controlling for pre-interview health problems, degree of disclosure during the interview was found to be positively correlated with long-term health after the interview. The possible health benefits of disclosure are discussed.
Article
Surveyed 19 spouses (mean age 37.5 yrs) of suicide and accidental death victims (representing a 61.3% response rate of all relevant cases that occurred in 1982 in a metropolitan county) concerning their health and coping strategies approximately 1 yr after their spouse's death. Results show that the more Ss discussed their spouse's death with friends and the less that they ruminated about the death, the fewer were the increases in health problems reported. A significant negative correlation was found between confiding and ruminating. Effects were independent of Ss' self-reported number of close friends. It is suggested that the sudden death of a spouse is associated with increased health problems irrespective of the cause of death, but that confiding appears to play a central role in the coping and health process. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study measured the effect of an individualized stress-management program on nursing students who identified anxiety as interfering with academic performance in the nursing program. The quasi-experimental longitudinal study used a pretest, posttest, and follow-up test, control group design. Data were analyzed using t tests and analysis of variance (ANOVAS). In a 6-week counseling program students identified personal stress reactions and adapted coping strategies related to nutrition, exercise, progressive relaxation, cognitive control, time management, and testing skills to personal use. The program was effective in significantly increasing self-esteem and decreasing depression and anxiety. Grades improved sufficiently for student retention.
Article
Health benefits derived from personal trauma disclosure are well established. This study examined whether disclosing emotions generated by imaginative immersion in a novel traumatic event would similarly enhance health and adjustment. College women, preselected for trauma presence, were randomly assigned to write about real traumas, imaginary traumas, or trivial events. Yoked real-trauma and imaginary-trauma participants wrote about real-trauma participants' experiences. Imaginary-trauma participants were significantly less depressed than real-trauma participants at immediate posttest, but they were similarly angry, fearful, and happy. Compared with control group participants, both trauma groups made significantly fewer illness visits at 1-month follow-up; however, real-trauma participants reported more fatigue and avoidance than did the other groups. Imaginary-trauma group effects could reflect catharsis, emotional regulation, or construction of resilient possible selves.
Article
This study examined the effects of emotional disclosure of stressful events on the pain, physical and affective dysfunction, and joint condition of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients were randomly assigned to talk privately about stressful events (disclosure group, n = 36) or about trivial topics (control group, n = 36) for 4 consecutive days. Disclosure resulted in immediate increases in negative mood. At 2 weeks the 2 groups did not differ on any health measure, but at 3 months disclosure patients had less affective disturbance and better physical functioning in daily activities. There was no main effect of disclosure on pain or joint condition, but among the disclosure patients, those who experienced larger increases in negative mood after talking demonstrated improvements in the condition of their joints. This study concludes that, among RA patients, verbal disclosure and emotional processing of stressful life events induces an immediate negative mood followed by improved psychological functioning.
Article
Perceived stress and stressors of nontraditional (returning-adult) and traditional college students were compared. Forty-seven nontraditional students 24-54 years old and 47 traditional students, matched for demographics, completed the Adolescent Perceived Events Scale (Compas, Davis, Forsythe, & Wagner, 1987) for college students. They rated 210 life events according to the desirability, impact, and frequency of the events. Significant differences were found between the nontraditional and traditional students for events in the following categories: academics, peer and social relations, family and network, autonomy and responsibility, and intimacy. Nontraditional students enjoyed going to classes and doing homework more, whereas traditional students worried more about school performance. Peer events, including social activities, had much more impact on traditional students, whereas nontraditional students reported much more responsibility in the home. The results suggest that there are significant differences between the groups in their perceptions of stressors.
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This study assessed the effectiveness of a writing task designed to foster self-regulatory coping with stressful experiences to reduce medical clinic visits and to promote adjustment. Students entering college (N = 122) who were classified as optimists or pessimists by using a dispositional optimism measure participated in a self-regulation task (expressing thoughts and feelings about entering college and then formulating coping plans), a disclosure task (expressing thoughts and feelings only), or a control task (writing about trivial topics) for 3 weekly writing sessions. Among optimists, both the self-regulation task and the disclosure task reduced illness-related clinic visits during the following month; among pessimists, only the self-regulation task reduced clinic visits. In general, the self-regulation task beneficially affected mood state and college adjustment whereas the disclosure task increased grade point averages.
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A research synthesis was conducted to examine the relationship between a written emotional expression task and subsequent health. This writing task was found to lead to significantly improved health outcomes in healthy participants. Health was enhanced in 4 outcome types--reported physical health, psychological well-being, physiological functioning, and general functioning--but health behaviors were not influenced. Writing also increased immediate (pre- to postwriting) distress, which was unrelated to health outcomes. The relation between written emotional expression and health was moderated by a number of variables, including the use of college students as participants, gender, duration of the manipulation, publication status of the study, and specific writing content instructions.
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Inhibiting or holding back one's thoughts, feelings, or behaviors is associated with long-term stress and disease. Actively confronting upsetting experiences can reduce the negative effects of inhibition. The present study describes a unique approach to aid individuals in dealing with psychological and emotional issues that they must often face. Forty-one of the 81 university employees who were participating in a wellness program agreed to participate in the present study. Subjects were randomly assigned to write about either personal traumatic experiences (n = 23) or non-traumatic topics (n = 18) for 20 minutes once a week for four consecutive weeks. Results indicate that individuals who wrote about upsetting personal experiences evidenced significant drops in selected blood measures compared to those who wrote about non-traumatic topics (e.g., for SGOT: 4.0% drop among traumatic topic group versus 13.1% increase among non-traumatic topic group, ANOVA p = .029; for SGPT: 24.5% drop versus 7.7% increase, p = .001). During the month of writing, traumatic topic group subjects evidenced a 28.6% reduction in absentee rates from work relative to the eight months before the experiment compared with a 48.5% increase in absentee rates among non-traumatic topic subjects (p = .04). Subjects low in emotional inhibition evidenced the greatest reductions in absentee rates following personal disclosure compared to those high in emotional inhibition (p = .011). The proposed writing strategy offers a unique tool for health promotion practitioners.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The authors analyzed the effect of several health behaviors and health-related variables on grade point averages of a random sample of 200 students living in on-campus residence halls at a large private university. The set of variables included exercise, eating, and sleep habits; mood states; perceived stress; time management; social support; spiritual or religious habits; number of hours worked per week; gender; and age. Of all the variables considered, sleep habits, particularly wake-up times, accounted for the largest amount of variance in grade point averages. Later wake-up times were associated with lower average grades. Variables associated with the 1st-year students' higher grade point averages were strength training and study of spiritually oriented material. The number of paid or volunteer hours worked per week was associated with lower average grades.
The interactive effects of social support and test anxiety on student academic performance.
  • Orpen
Orpen, C. (1996). The interactive effects of social support and test anxiety on student academic performance. Education, 116, 464 -465.
Depression symptoms among women reentering college: The role of negative life events and family social support.
  • Roehl
Roehl, J. E., & Okun, M. A. (1984). Depression symptoms among women reentering college: The role of negative life events and family social support. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 251-254.