Article

Career Rehabilitation: Integration of Vocational Rehabilitation and Career Development in the Twenty-First Century

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Abstract

The concept of career rehabilitation, a paradigm that proposes integrating perspectives from vocational rehabilitation and career development, is introduced. Counselors are encouraged to assess how vocational handicaps secondary to a disabling problem can affect a client over his or her "worklife" and to adopt a life-span approach to career decision making of people with disabilities. Four common vocational handicaps are discussed: diminished access to work opportunities, need for workplace accommodations, employer bias in hiring and advancement, and diminished "worklife" expectancy. Counselors testifying in legal forums are encouraged to pursue scholarship on the career development of people with disabilities, (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Transition planning provides a road map in which the goals for adulthood are identified, the process on how those goals are going to be achieved is elaborated, and clear benchmarks for measuring progress are outlined (Powers et al., 2009). The process of career rehabilitation involves engaging in creative problem solving about how to overcome limitations associated with a disabling problem (Shahnasarian, 2001). Selfefficacy and the use of performance appraisal as assessment methods of the client's belief in his or her ability to reach a personal goal have been used in the field of rehabilitation counseling (Brown, 2002). ...
... For this matter, discussion of vulnerable population's issues, such as foster care youths with disabilities could be addressed in a career-counseling course, psychosocial, and/or medical aspects of disabilities courses. Shahnasarian (2001) recognized the importance for counselors to consider the psychosocial aspects of a disability, in addition to the functional deficits caused by a disabling problem. He also stated that vocational handicaps secondary to a disabling condition can cause a reduction in physical or cognitive capabilities and psychological functioning that can compromise the career development of an individual. ...
... Our findings suggest that lack of knowledge and awareness of pain and disability among employers markedly increases the inequity experienced by people working with chronic pain in terms of work experiences, opportunities, career progression and work-life balance. Such issues have been discussed elsewhere [56][57][58]. ...
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Self-management tools for people with chronic or persistent pain tend to focus on symptom reporting, treatment programmes or exercise and do not address barriers to work, facilitators of work ability, or workplace pain self-management strategies. We developed the Pain at Work (PAW) toolkit, an evidence-based digital toolkit to provide advice on how employees can self-manage their pain at work. In a collaborative-participatory design, 4-step Agile methodology (N = 452) was used to co-create the toolkit with healthcare professionals, employers and people with chronic or persistent pain. Step 1: stakeholder consultation event (n = 27) established content and format; Step 2: online survey with employees who have persistent pain (n = 274) showed employees fear disclosing their condition, and commonly report discrimination and lack of line manager support. Step 3: online employer survey (n = 107) showed employers rarely provide self-management materials or education around managing pain at work, occupational health recommendations for reasonable adjustments are not always actioned, and pain-related stigma is common. Step 4: Toolkit development integrated findings and recommendations from Steps 1–3, and iterative expert peer review was conducted (n = 40). The PAW toolkit provides (a) evidence-based guidelines and signposting around work-capacity advice and support; (b) self-management strategies around working with chronic or persistent pain, (c) promotion of healthy lifestyles, and quality of life at work; (d) advice on adjustments to working environments and workplace solutions to facilitate work participation.
... Emphasis on personal choice and subjective preferences can be found in certain theoretical vocational psychology models that have been empirically validated with persons presenting with a disability (Shahnasarian, 2001), such as social cognitive theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), Krumboltz's theory (Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1996), and Super's developmental model, the latter especially with reference to the concept of career maturity (Super, Savickas, & Super, 1996). In particular, findings from social cognitive theory research have yielded evidence for the influence of self-efficacy on the career interests and work inclusion outcomes in students with academic learning challenges or psychiatric disorders (Ochs & Roessler, 2001;Regenold, Sherman, & Fenzel, 1999;Willis, 2002). ...
... While living with a disability, many women also attempt to work productively, build intimate relationships, nurture a family, and live as independently as possible (Nosek, Howland, Rintala, Young, & Chanpong, 1997). Environmental barriers (e.g., nonaccommodating workplaces), interpersonal impediments (e.g., ableist attitudes), and internal obstacles (e.g., low self-esteem) all may interact to make these activities stressful, which, in turn, may exacerbate the disability and make it more difficult to realize career goals (Gill, 1997;Shahnasarian, 2001). Given the need for personal assistance services by many people with disabilities, the attitudes and behaviors of family, friends, and significant others can be highly influential in encouraging or discouraging vocational aspirations and planning (Gill, 1997;Rousso, 1993). ...
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This qualitative study examined the career development experiences of 17 highly achieving women with physical and sensory disabilities. Interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using modified grounded theory strategies (A. L. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1998). The emergent theoretical model was conceptualized as a system of influences organized around a core Dynamic Self, which included identity constructs (disability, gender, racial/ethnic/cultural), personality characteristics, and belief in self. Myriad contextual inputs included Developmental Opportunities (education, peer influences), Family Influences (background and current), Disability Impact (ableism, stress and coping, health issues), Social Support (disabled and nondisabled communities, role models and mentors), Career Attitudes and Behaviors (work attitudes, success strategies, leadership/pioneering), and Sociopolitical Context (social movements, advocacy). Implications for theory, research, practice, and policy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... They are often slower in launching a career than their nondisabled counterparts (Benshoff, Kroeger, & Scalia, 1990) and face greater hurdles in testing their skills and abilities (Lustig, Strauser, & Donnell, 2003). Consequently, they tend to be slower in crystallizing their career interests (Shahnasarian, 2001) and demonstrate lower aspiration levels, which have a negative impact on their vocational choices (Babbitt & Burbach, 1990;Jones, 1997;Saunders, Leahy, & Frank, 2000). ...
Article
The current study examined the contribution of different types of parental support to career self-efficacy among 11th and 12th grade students (N = 160): 66 students with hearing loss (23 hard of hearing and 43 deaf) and 94 hearing students. Participants completed the Career-Related Parent Support Scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-Efficacy for the Management of Work–Family Conflict questionnaire. Different aspects of parental support predicted different types of career self-efficacies across the 3 groups. Differences among groups were also found when levels of parental support were compared. The deaf group perceived lower levels of parental career-related modeling and verbal encouragement in comparison with the hard-of–hearing students and higher levels of parental emotional support compared with the hearing participants. No significant differences were found among the research groups in career decision-making self-efficacy and self-efficacy in managing work–family conflict. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... Although generated from a special education lens and causation has not been established, these predictive factors are potentially additive to VR transition research in shaping policies and practices. This is particularly because, as discussed previously, the majority of students with disabilities have historically been excluded from opportunities to engage in career development and CTE despite evidence of the benefits (Carter et al., 2010;Shahnasarian, 2001;Wagner et al., 2003). ...
Article
BACKGROUND: To address prevailing gaps in employment rates between working-age people with disabilities and those without, vocational rehabilitation professionals can use targeted career development initiatives for their consumers as they progress through school and into the professional world. With education at the core, vocational rehabilitation counselors are poised to collaborate with teachers, employers, and policymakers to promote work experience and self-advocacy among their transition-age consumers, which has been shown to increase employment rates. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to present a synthesis focusing on the intersection of the career development and secondary transition literature to provide guidance for the evaluation and development of policy, to contribute to a needed area of knowledge generation in vocational rehabilitation, and to underscore the application of research-based practices in transition services. METHODS: The literature search, identification, and synthesis were guided by the overarching question, how can rehabilitation professionals use what is known about career development to assist with secondary transition preparation and planning through the services and resources they provide? RESULTS: The search resulted in the identification of 20 articles specific to the intersection of career development, secondary transition preparation and planning, and improving postsecondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: Suggestions for practices and further research are presented in the context of U.S. national rehabilitation law, specifically the recent (2014) Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act.
... less likely to hold part time jobs in their teenage years, they face greater hurdles in testing their skills and abilities (Lustig et al., 2003). Consequently, they tend to be slower in crystallizing their career interests in young adulthood (Shahnasarian, 2001), and they demonstrate lower aspiration levels that have a negative impact on their vocational choices (Babbitt & Burbach, 1990;Jones, 1997;Saunders et al., 2000). ...
Article
Conceptualizing career development in a cultural and contextual framework, this study examined within-gender differences in role salience and work— family conflict (WFC) among 101 Jewish and 99 Arab female teachers (aged 23-64 years) from central Israel. The contribution of social support to women’s conflict was also examined. Results highlighted various differences: in contrast to expectations, Jewish teachers demonstrated higher spouse and parent values than Arab teachers, who demonstrated higher work values and work commitment. As expected, Jewish women reported higher levels of WFC compared to their Arab colleagues. Support systems in Jewish culture were related to lower WFC but not in Arab culture. Theoretical and practical implications emphasize the need for culture-sensitive models of work—family relations and for career counseling interventions.
... less likely to hold part time jobs in their teenage years, they face greater hurdles in testing their skills and abilities (Lustig et al., 2003). Consequently, they tend to be slower in crystallizing their career interests in young adulthood (Shahnasarian, 2001), and they demonstrate lower aspiration levels that have a negative impact on their vocational choices (Babbitt & Burbach, 1990;Jones, 1997;Saunders et al., 2000). ...
Article
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This study examined the effect of hearing status on role salience and anticipated work–family relations among 101 unmarried young adults aged 20–33 years: 35 with hearing loss (19 hard of hearing and 16 deaf) and 66 hearing. Participants completed the Life Role Salience scale, anticipated conflictual relations scale, anticipated facilitory relations scale, and a background questionnaire. The deaf participants demonstrated a significantly higher level of commitment to work but anticipated the significantly lowest level of conflict. Hearing status was a significant variable in predicting anticipated conflictual relations among all participants. Mode of communication was a significant predictor of conflictual relations among the hearing loss group. Implications for theory and practice were discussed.
... To se je potrdilo v študiji razlik med študenti z invalidnostjo in brez invalidnosti, kjer se je invalidnost pokazala kot pomemben dejavnik za neodločnost v karieri (Glover-Graf in Janikowski, 2001). Shahnasarian (2001) navaja, da imajo lahko samozaznavanje in izzivi realnosti, s katerimi se srečujejo invalidi, velik vpliv na razvoj kariere in da številne invalide vodijo k nedoseganju ciljev in nezadostni izpolnitvi. Tudi sami na podlagi lastnih izkušenj pri delu z invalidi in drugimi brezposelnimi osebami ugotavljamo, da so pri delu uspešnejši tisti, ki so zadovoljni z izbiro poklica, kar se sklada s številnimi študijami s področja načrtovanja kariere. ...
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A survey was conducted on a representative sample of 243 users of vocational rehabilitation in Slovenia in order to explore the importance of disability for career planning and development among people with disabilities. We analysed the association of disability with demographic characteristics, career choices and employment barriers. The prevailing career choices belong to elementary occupations, even though the majority of participants had completed secondary school. Career choices were mostly based on the participants’ own interest but at the same time constrained by disability. The majority of participants changed their career choices during unemployment, the most common reason being their disability and the employer’s attitude towards disability. Disability was identified as the main barrier for career choices, employment and career development. The findings highlight the importance of considering disability in the process of career planning and development, and the importance of appropriate career planning as a critical factor for successful employment.
... This attitude may have influenced their personal self related to the social environment. Shahnasarian (2001) argues that the implications might lead to experiences of underachievement and inadequate fulfillment. This lack of self-actualization may lead to low self-esteem, poor self-image, and negative self-concept. ...
Chapter
In 1963, Erving Goffman was one of the first scholars in the world to identify the concept of identity as it relates to disability. In his Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity, Goffman theorized that persons with disability often have “spoiled” identity formation related to the construction of disability stigma and the negative social impact of overt physical, sensory, and cognitive differences. He focuses on the relationship between an individual who has potentially stigmatizing conditions and the agents of social control, such as people in the community, who define stigma in their context. Friedson (1965) expanded Goffman’s stigma theory, specifically in terms of the field of rehabilitation. Research on disability and identity has since considered a wider range of possibilities. Rosalyn Benjamin Darling published her 2013 book, Disability and Identity: Negotiating Self in a Changing Society. In conducting research for this book, Darling found that there is a taxonomy of identities that may exist among persons with disabilities, including: (a) Resignation (passive focus on the challenges that are brought about by disability); (b) Normative typicality (a desire to hide disability and “pass” in the non-disabled world); (c) Personal activism (acceptance or pride for disability and orientation toward struggling for personal rights); (d) Affirmative activism (acceptance and pride for disability and orientation toward societal change and reform related to disability); and (e) Affirmative typicality (an acceptance of disability but the desire to live and work in mainstream environments).
Article
Models of career development have been discussed as a matter of growth over the life span and in relation to social learning. An integrated approach using specified career development theories to assist young adults with disabilities will allow professionals to better understand the school-to-work transition and implement meaningful interventions.
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Racial and disability identities are separate issues, yet they both contribute to the multiple social identities that influence career counseling outcomes for persons of color with disabilities. Few studies have examined the effects of racial and disability identity on the career outcomes of members of this group. This article discusses racial and disability identity as assets for career counseling of people of color with disabilities, whose career counseling outcomes are also mediated by the prevailing racial and disabilities disparities in career participation. Possibilities for further research on identities as resources for career counseling are also discussed.
Article
BACKGROUND: Young adults with disabilities in their early career years face limited access to high wage/high skill jobs, barriers in the workplace, and inadequate opportunities for career retention and advancement. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this literature review was to examine the process of career development for young adults with disabilities entering the workforce and document strategies for vocational rehabilitation counselors to facilitate career advancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the online databases Academic Search Premier, ERIC, and PsychInfo. Key words for the search included the terms: disabilities, emerging adulthood, young adults, career advancement, vocational development, and early career. Articles included in this review met the following criteria: (a) published in peer reviewed journals in or after the year 2000, (b) findings addressed either processes, barriers, or strategies for emerging adults with disabilities entering the workforce. RESULTS: Major barriers to career advancement include: a) lack of work experience and restricted aspirations, b) sporadic patterns of early employment, c) limited access to postsecondary education and training, and d) discrimination and prejudice in the workforce. Strategies to enhance early career development included: a) developing individual attributes and skills, b) broadening the range of careers explored, c) creating initial work experience opportunities, d) obtaining postsecondary education/training, e) providing supports to facilitate advancement on the job, and f) advocating for changes in the workplace. CONCLUSIONS: Using an ecological framework to impact individual skills, create training opportunities, and enhance work place environments, rehabilitation counselors can help young adults with disabilities gain equal access to career options and ultimately achieve economic independence and stability.
Article
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to understand the influences on the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with disabilities into jobs. With a mean of 10 years experience in job placement, 155 public rehabilitation placement professionals completed the Rehabilitation Placement Survey. The survey results identified (a) ten outcomes of consumer placement, (b) three groups of persons influencing rehabilitation professionals when placing consumers into jobs, and (c) eight impediments to job placement. These findings suggest the utility of the TPB behavior in identifying factors for enhancing job placement outcomes.
One of the hallmarks of welfare reform was the entrenchment of the work-first and devolutionary strategies in the current era of social services provision. This analysis focuses on the outcomes of one local response to welfare reform. It highlights the employment related outcomes of 237 hard-to-serve welfare recipients. Descriptive statistics and an ANOVA revealed that while employment rates were low (23%), these outcomes were consistent with or better than employment outcomes for other hard-to-serve populations. Based on the results of the study, Comprehensive Support Services (CSS) could be effective in providing services to families that will lead to employment.
Article
This study analyzed the longitudinal development of occupational aspiration prestige scores over a 12-year period (Grade 8 to 8 years postsecondary) to better understand this aspect of career choice from adolescence into adulthood for people with high-incidence disabilities. A curvilinear trajectory was detected where aspirations increased during high school, but decreased after school completion. The only covariate positively associated with the intercept factor was academic achievement. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with a positive change in the slope of aspirations across the 3 time points before school completion. In adulthood, disability status was the only significant factor associated with aspiration change. Findings are considered with regard to the potential influence of special education services and disability on career development and choice.
Article
This article is a summary of the literature published in 2001 related to career counseling and career development. The review is designed to provide information to both career practitioners and researchers, with the focus on integration of practice and research. This summary of literature is organized around 5 primary areas: (a) career development, (b) career and vocational theories, (c) career interventions, (d) career assessment, and (e) professional issues. Within the framework of this review, attention is also given to contextual factors including gender, race or ethnicity, sexual orientation, and nationality.
Chapter
Various studies have shown ties between different types of self-efficacy and resilient behaviors. The belief in one’s ability to manage anticipated work–family conflict is a recent studied type of self-efficacy. This self-efficacy has been found to be a central key of young people’s career development. However, it has been examined mainly among normal developed participants. The current chapter discusses the concept of anticipated work–family conflict management self-­efficacy, presents results from a study conducted on deaf young adults and offers suggestions for intervention directed for the enhancement of this type of self-efficacy among deaf people.
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This article examines the impact of physical disabilities on early career opportunities, particularly in vocational choice, the school-to-work transition, and becoming established in early career paths. Using motivation theory, the paper presents a framework for understanding how people with disabilities identify career goals, form expectancies about being able to achieve career goals, and perceive barriers to achieving those goals during early career development. The article then identifies the individual differences and situational factors that may moderate the relationships between physical disabilities and early career opportunities. Finally, the article concludes with directions for future research and implications for how employers, governmental agencies, and individuals with disabilities can implement more effective early career development strategies.
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This thesis explores the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with a psychiatric illness, with the aim of gaining some understanding about how they negotiate issues around diagnosis, recovery and resilience-development and employment. A qualitative methodology was used to encourage the women to relate their vocational and life experiences. Fifteen women, whose ages ranged from 17 to their late 60s, with a range of psychiatric diagnoses, were interviewed across ten months. One woman identified as having Māori ancestry and several identified as lesbian. Each interview, which was semi-structured, was transcribed and then verified by the women, and all data were analysed using thematic content analysis and symbolic interactionist and discourse/narrative analyses. Salient issues provided a focus for later interviews and generated theory. The thesis is organised according to major themes that were generated from the data: ‘Getting unwell and getting help,’ ‘Getting well’ and ‘Getting back to work.’ Within these broad themes, key ideas emerged around the women’s views on the difference between ‘madness’ and ‘mental illness’, the biological basis for mental distress, the impact of labelling, the importance of having a ‘literacy’ around psychiatric illness that helps foster agency, the importance of workplace accommodations and mentors in vocational settings, and the process of renegotiating vocational identity when one has a psychiatric illness. Data analysis revealed how participants make ‘sense’ of their psychiatric ill health and recovery/resilience-development experiences, create a vocational self-concept and view themselves as social beings in the current socio-political and cultural context of being New Zealanders. The women’s narratives exhibited negligible explicit gender role identification and the present research uncovered very little explicit data relevant to lesbian and bisexual women’s lives, apart from data on sexual identity disclosure. Rather the women spoke as members of a group that accepted Western diagnoses and used various strategies to reclaim what had been lost and grow new social and vocational roles. The thesis, therefore, provides a platform for understanding the experiences of women living with psychiatric illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. It provides new information on service-users’ views of medical models of psychiatric illness and the efficacy of their alliances with mental health professionals. It also provides evidence of the needs women have for gaining and maintaining employment after diagnosis with psychiatric illness.
Article
This longitudinal study tested the utility of a psychosocial model of functional adjustment following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition to including the well-recognized relationships between neuro-cognitive and physical factors, the model suggests that subjective psychosocial variables (i.e., self-esteem and perceived social support) predict vocational adjustment through mediator variables, such as the severity of the individual's subjective appraisal of his or her situation. Ninety participants with TBI and their relatives participated in the study. Considerable support was found for the proposed relationships in that the prediction of vocational adjustment was improved beyond initial vocational adjustment by both psychosocial factors. Further, these factors appeared to influence vocational adjustment as a result of their impact on subjective appraisal. However, there also appeared to be a neurological basis for persistent vocational adjustment difficulties. As proposed, lower levels of emotional distress were associated with better vocational adjustment. The current findings have significant implications for the rehabilitation and vocational treatment of people with TBI. In particular, the model can foster the development of a preventative focus in TBI vocational rehabilitation. Specifically, it is possible to provide a potentially cost-effective way of identifying those individuals who are most likely to experience difficulties in the future and assisting them to maintain and develop the psychosocial resources and subjective appraisals that will improve their emotional and vocational well being.
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Although counseling psychology has discussed vocational issues, health concerns, diversity, and social justice, discussion of these topics has typically been narrowly focused. This article uses the example of persons with HIV (PWHIV) to demonstrate how these areas can be intertwined. The counseling psychology literature is also examined to determine the degree to which direction has been provided regarding clients facing health concerns, disabilities, confusion regarding career issues, or possible discrimination. Because HIV is now considered to be a chronic illness for many people, there is an increased likelihood that PWHIV will be faced with employment issues, as well as significant barriers to beginning work, returning to work, or keeping a job. After highlighting characteristics of PWHIV, we review the degree to which the vocational literature addresses the needs and issues of PWHIV. We also examine the role of social justice in relation to PWHIV who are considering work.
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Objectives: Describe vocational interests of middle-aged men with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Participants: Seventy-nine Caucasian men with traumatic SCI (mean age = 44 years; mean time since onset = 20 years), 74% with quadriplegia. Measure: Strong Interest Inventory. Results: Replicated the unique pattern of interests found by D. E. Rohe and G. T. Athelstan (1982) among younger men with SCI. Compared with the normative sample, participants were more introverted, less academically oriented, and primarily interested in physically challenging and action-oriented occupations despite their functional limitations. Conclusions: Middle-aged men with traumatic SCI have the same unique vocational interest pattern as their younger peers. This pattern is not an artifact of age or time since onset and may partially explain low rates of employment after SCI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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The development of competence holds great interest for parents and society alike. This article considers implications from research on competence and resilience in children and adolescents for policy and interventions designed to foster better outcomes among children at risk. Foundations of competence in early development are discussed, focusing on the role of attachment relationships and self-regulation. Results from studies of competence in the domains of peer relations, conduct, school, work, and activities are highlighted. Lessons are drawn from studies of naturally occurring resilience among children at risk because of disadvantage or trauma and also from efforts to deliberately alter the course of competence through early childhood education and preventive interventions. Converging evidence suggests that the same powerful adaptive systems protect development in both favorable and unfavorable environments.
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Examined the development and validity of the Older Adult Disability Scale (OADS), a self-report instrument designed to measure attitudes toward older adults (aged 60 yrs and older) with physical disabilities. Data from a community sample (n = 207) were used for alpha coefficients, subscale intercorrelations, demographic correlations, and factor analyses. Data from a reliability sample (n = 27) were used for a 2-week test-retest reliability check; and data from an identified "positive attitude" sample of health care professionals and students (n = 57) were used to test construct validity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed resulting in a 36-item instrument with four subscales of Cranky Dependency, Discomfort with Aging, Positive Attributes of Aging, and Negative Expectations of Disability. Satisfactory internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, and moderately high subscale intercorrelations were found. Validity was supported by the highly significant differences in OADS scores between the "positive attitude" and community samples. In conclusion, the OADS provides a promising measure of attitudes toward older adults with disabilities.
Conference Paper
Rehabilitation psychology is more broadly based than we historically have acknowledged Rehabilitation psychology should be viewed as the application of psychological constructs and principles to the care of individuals with chronic health conditions that ale often, but not necessarily, disabling. In addition, the type of care provided by rehabilitation psychology constitutes a primary care psychology. Primary care psychology has a distinct focus on the care of individuals with chronic conditions. Four issues important to understanding rehabilitation psychology's development and future are reviewed: (a) the factors that have driven the growth of rehabilitation, (b) future trends that will shape the development of rehabilitation, (c) the implications of the emergence of ''organized delivery systems" for rehabilitation, and (d) the visibility of rehabilitation psychology as a model for primary care psychology.
Article
Rehabilitation psychology is more broadly based than we historically have acknowledged. Rehabilitation psychology should be viewed as the application of psychological constructs and principles to the care of individuals with chronic health conditions that are often, but not necessarily, disabling. In addition, the type of care provided by rehabilitation psychology constitutes a primary care psychology. Primary care psychology has a distinct focus on the care of individuals with chronic conditions. Four issues important to understanding rehabilitation psychology's development and future are reviewed: (a) the factors that have driven the growth of rehabilitation, (b) future trends that will shape the development of rehabilitation, (c) the implications of the emergence of "organized delivery systems" for rehabilitation, and (d) the visibility of rehabilitation psychology as a model for primary care psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the development and validity of the Older Adult Disability Scale (OADS), a self-report instrument designed to measure attitudes toward older adults (aged 60 yrs and older) with physical disabilities. Data from a community sample ( n  = 207) were used for alpha coefficients, subscale intercorrelations, demographic correlations, and factor analyses. Data from a reliability sample ( n  = 27) were used for a 2-week test-retest reliability check; and data from an identified "positive attitude" sample of health care professionals and students ( n  = 57) were used to test construct validity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed resulting in a 36-item instrument with four subscales of Cranky Dependency, Discomfort with Aging, Positive Attributes of Aging, and Negative Expectations of Disability. Satisfactory internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, and moderately high subscale intercorrelations were found. Validity was supported by the highly significant differences in OADS scores between the "positive attitude" and community samples. In conclusion, the OADS provides a promising measure of attitudes toward older adults with disabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses the choice of career as a means of realizing a concept of self. It is noted that there are 2 main schools of vocational counseling (information giving vs personal counseling). Vocational counseling as information giving focuses on logical conclusions that can be drawn from an analysis of the individual and occupational study. Vocational counseling as personal counseling focuses on a nondirective, client-centered approach to attitude adjustment regarding the world of work. The author suggests a synthesis of these approaches in which the role of vocational guidance is to help the client develop and accept an integrated and adequate self-concept in the world of work, to test this concept against reality, and to convert it into reality in a satisfying and socially beneficial way. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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