Article

How the Consumer Estimates Quality by Subconscious Sensory Impressions

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Abstract

A test set of four pairs of identical women's silk hose, packed in identical boxes, but with each of three pairs of them given a very faint scent of about the same intensity (but of different qual ty) as the natural slightly rancid scent of the pair which were not re-odorized, were shown to housewives by Colgate students. These housewives, encountered in a house-to-house survey, were requested to judge which of the hose were of the best quality. Each of the three scented pairs was chosen more often than the natural pair. There was a definite and consistent order of preferences of the three scented pairs as judged by number of choices of each. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... The retail store which evokes a pleasant smell is better evaluated by consumers (Morrin and Ratneshwar, 2000). Laird (1935) and Cox (1969) discussed that pleasant fragrances always have a positive influence on product assessment. Smell helps consumers to judge a product or service. ...
... The connection bounded by fragrance and cognition goes right back to the 1930s when (Laird, 1935) discussed how scented stockings helped in judging women's perception of quality. A fragrance that is in tune with a specific product improves the entire product assessment process (Bone and Jantrania, 1992;Laird, 1935). ...
... The connection bounded by fragrance and cognition goes right back to the 1930s when (Laird, 1935) discussed how scented stockings helped in judging women's perception of quality. A fragrance that is in tune with a specific product improves the entire product assessment process (Bone and Jantrania, 1992;Laird, 1935). Laird (1935) conducted research using four stockings with different fragrances and the result compounded to the fact holding stocking with 'narcissus scent' accomplished better and yielded more efficacious results. ...
Article
Full-text available
Olfactory marketing is a phenomenon that is in the current trend of usage by marketing experts to ensure that consumers are more involved in the purchase decision-making process under its influence. Past studies have revealed that customer today look for more than the product itself during their purchasing process and thus gives a lot of importance to the atmosphere where the product or service is being consumed. Hence it became invariably important for the marketer to create an ambiance for the consumers where they could feel at ease at the same time relaxes and has a soothing shopping experience. Through this systematic literature review, the researcher extensively studies 34 articles more pertinent to olfactory marketing, which were published across various scientific journals. This review would aim to discuss the upcoming themes, the methodologies used, the analytical approaches and the variables identified along with the theoretical foundations.
... Beyond conveying information concerning those physical attributes of a stimulus that cannot be ascertained visually, it is important to note that even what we consider to be visual judgements, or rather judgements of visuallydetermined material properties, are often influenced by whatever other sensory inputs are present at around the same time, no matter whether we realize it or not (e.g., Adams et al., 2016;Hagtvedt and Brasel, 2016); and mostly the evidence suggests that we do not (e.g., Laird, 1932;Li et al., 2007). So, for example, it is well known amongst laundry detergent manufacturers (such as Unilever) that delivering 'brilliant whites' is about so much more than simply what the customer sees. ...
... Adding the right scent has also been shown to influence people's ratings of fabric softness and material quality (e.g., Churchill et al., 2009;Demattè et al., 2006;Laird, 1932). In recent years, the presence of congruent versus incongruent scents has also been found to affect people's perception of a variety of material properties as well as their aesthetic response to those materials (e.g., Bone and Jantrania, 1992;Bosmans, 2006;Demattè et al., 2007b;Krishna et al., 2010;Zellner et al., 2008; though see also Schifferstein and Michaut, 2002). ...
... A growing body of empirical research now shows that the impressions offered by the non-visual senses sometimes also contribute to, or modify, the 'visual' impression of various material qualities (e.g., Hagtvedt and Brasel, 2016;Jansson-Boyd and Marlow, 2007;Laird, 1932;Murakoshi et al., 2013). Oftentimes, though, people do not seem to realize just how much information may be carried by the non-visual (and hence often unattended, or less attended) senses. ...
Article
We often estimate, or perceive, the quality of materials, surfaces, and objects, what the Japanese refer to as ‘shitsukan’, by means of several of our senses. The majority of the literature on shitsukan perception has, though, tended to focus on the unimodal visual evaluation of stimulus properties. In part, this presumably reflects the widespread hegemony of the visual in the modern era and, in part, is a result of the growing interest, not to mention the impressive advances, in digital rendering amongst the computer graphics community. Nevertheless, regardless of such an oculocentric bias in so much of the empirical literature, it is important to note that several other senses often do contribute to the impression of the material quality of surfaces, materials, and objects as experienced in the real world, rather than just in virtual reality. Understanding the multisensory contributions to the perception of material quality, especially when combined with computational and neural data, is likely to have implications for a number of fields of basic research as well as being applicable to emerging domains such as, for example, multisensory augmented retail, not to mention multisensory packaging design.
... The retail store which evokes a pleasant smell is better evaluated by consumers (Morrin and Ratneshwar, 2000). Laird (1935) and Cox (1969) discussed that pleasant fragrances always have a positive influence on product assessment. Smell helps consumers to judge a product or service. ...
... The connection bounded by fragrance and cognition goes right back to the 1930s when (Laird, 1935) discussed how scented stockings helped in judging women's perception of quality. A fragrance that is in tune with a specific product improves the entire product assessment process (Bone and Jantrania, 1992;Laird, 1935). ...
... The connection bounded by fragrance and cognition goes right back to the 1930s when (Laird, 1935) discussed how scented stockings helped in judging women's perception of quality. A fragrance that is in tune with a specific product improves the entire product assessment process (Bone and Jantrania, 1992;Laird, 1935). Laird (1935) conducted research using four stockings with different fragrances and the result compounded to the fact holding stocking with 'narcissus scent' accomplished better and yielded more efficacious results. ...
Article
Full-text available
Olfactory marketing is a phenomenon that is in the current trend of usage by marketing experts to ensure that consumers are more involved in the purchase decision-making process under its influence. Past studies have revealed that customer today look for more than the product itself during their purchasing process and thus gives a lot of importance to the atmosphere where the product or service is being consumed. Hence it became invariably important for the marketer to create an ambiance for the consumers where they could feel at ease at the same time relaxes and has a soothing shopping experience. Through this systematic literature review, the researcher extensively studies 34 articles more pertinent to olfactory marketing, which were published across various scientific journals. This review would aim to discuss the upcoming themes, the methodologies used, the analytical approaches and the variables identified along with the theoretical foundations.
... People's perception of the attributes of a product in a given sensory modality is frequently affected by the sensations that are simultaneously being perceived by another modality. For example, in a classic study, Laird (1932) found that women evaluated the quality of silk stockings more positively when they were scented with a narcissus scent compared to their natural (slightly rancid) scent. Demattè, Sanabria, Sugarman, and Spence (2006) followed up on Laird's (1932) study. ...
... For example, in a classic study, Laird (1932) found that women evaluated the quality of silk stockings more positively when they were scented with a narcissus scent compared to their natural (slightly rancid) scent. Demattè, Sanabria, Sugarman, and Spence (2006) followed up on Laird's (1932) study. The participants in their experiment were asked to rate the perceived softness of fabric samples impregnated with different fragrances. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Both consumer researchers and product designers recognize the importance of good design for the success of products and brands. Consumer researchers are focused on understanding consumer responses to product design. Designers try to adjust products to consumers’ needs and to enhance product experience by involving consumers in the design process. The complexity of consumer responses to products has prompted both consumer and design researchers to formulate conceptual models of consumer responses to product design. This chapter will give an overview of four different perspectives that are used to describe consumer responses to product design, including the designers’ perspective centred on product aesthetics, the consumer perspective revolving around product experience, the semiotics perspective on symbolic product meaning, and the managerial perspective stressing consumer satisfaction as most important.
... Studies in psychology and behavioural economics have shown that people's perception of how well a system or process works can be influenced by different cognitive biases. As early as 1932 studies revealed that participants' reported perception of the quality of identical products (in particular nylon stockings) can be influenced by smell (Laird, 1932), or by the order in which the products are examined (de Camp Wilson & Nisbett, 1978). In both these studies participants were unanimously, or almost unanimously unaware of such bias, and instead they referred to a variety of other factors to justify their product selection. ...
... As mentioned in Section 2.1, prior research in psychology revealed participants' unconscious bias when they were asked to rate the quality of physical products (e.g. nylon stockings): identical products were rated as having different quality, based on their smell Laird (1932) or on the position in which they were displayed de Camp Wilson & Nisbett (1978). The bias was unconscious in the sense that participants in these previous studies reported (almost always) a variety of alternative factors to justify their rating of quality. ...
Article
In this article, we report on one lab study and seven follow-up studies on a crowdsourcing platform designed to investigate the potential of animation cues to influence users’ perception of two smart systems: a handwriting recognition and a part-of-speech tagging system. Results from the first three studies indicate that animation cues can influence a participant’s perception of both systems’ performance. The subsequent three studies, designed to try and identify an explanation for this effect, suggest that this effect is related to the participants’ mental model of the smart system. The last two studies were designed to characterize the effect more in detail, and they revealed that different amounts of animation do not seem to create substantial differences and that the effect persists even when the system’s performance decreases, but only when the difference in performance level between the systems being compared is small.
... Building on extant literature, we theorize a pleasant ambient scent's differing short-and long-term effects in an olfactoryrich servicescape on the basis of the exposure's duration (Bradford and Desrochers 2009). Scents are usually processed nonconsciously (Li et al. 2007), either due to their subliminal nature (i.e., their low intensity, see Laird 1932) or because they match personal experiences and expectations, and are therefore integrated into an olfactory background (e.g., Biswas and Szocs 2019;Forster and Spence 2018;Krishna, Lwin, and Morrin 2010). Our theoretical framework therefore focuses on nonconsciously (rather than consciously) processed scents. ...
... Besides their ability to displace malodors, numerous studies demonstrate that pleasant scents have an additional positive effect on consumer perceptions when processed nonconsciously (e.g., Holland, Hendriks, and Aarts 2005;Laird 1932;Li et al. 2007). Affective priming, which affective primacy theory covers (Zajonc 1980(Zajonc , 1984, offers a potential explanation for this effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ambient scents are being increasingly used in different service environments. While there is emerging research on the effects of scents, almost nothing is known about the long-term effects of consumers’ repeated exposure to ambient scents in a service environment as prior studies on ambient scents have been lab or field studies examining short-term effects of scent exposure only. Addressing this limitation, we examine the short- and long-term effects of ambient scents. Specifically, we present a conceptual framework for the short- and long-term effects of nonconsciously processed ambient scent in olfactory-rich servicescapes. We empirically test this framework with the help of two large-scale field experiments, conducted in collaboration with a major German railway company, in which consumers were exposed to a pleasant, nonconsciously processed scent. The first experiment demonstrates ambient scent’s positive short-term effects on consumers’ service perceptions. The second experiment—a longitudinal study conducted over a four-month period—examines scent’s long-term effects on consumers’ reactions and demonstrates that the effects persist even when the scent has been removed from the servicescape.
... Building on extant literature, we theorize a pleasant ambient scent's differing short-and long-term effects in an olfactoryrich servicescape on the basis of the exposure's duration (Bradford and Desrochers 2009). Scents are usually processed nonconsciously (Li et al. 2007), either due to their subliminal nature (i.e., their low intensity, see Laird 1932) or because they match personal experiences and expectations, and are therefore integrated into an olfactory background (e.g., Biswas and Szocs 2019;Forster and Spence 2018;Krishna, Lwin, and Morrin 2010). Our theoretical framework therefore focuses on nonconsciously (rather than consciously) processed scents. ...
... Besides their ability to displace malodors, numerous studies demonstrate that pleasant scents have an additional positive effect on consumer perceptions when processed nonconsciously (e.g., Holland, Hendriks, and Aarts 2005;Laird 1932;Li et al. 2007). Affective priming, which affective primacy theory covers (Zajonc 1980(Zajonc , 1984, offers a potential explanation for this effect. ...
Chapter
The use of ambient scents has become an increasingly important trend in business practice to create a distinctive product or service experience (Rimkute et al. 2016; Henshaw et al. 2016). Sensory marketing has started exploring scent effects in a variety of settings and predominantly underlined its positive effects on customers’ mood, memory, attitudes, and other variables (e.g., Krishna et al. 2010; Herrmann et al. 2013; Spangenberg et al. 2005). However, previous studies mainly draw on experiments in highly controlled environments such as lab or university settings, potentially leading to inflated effects of ambient scent in the absence of natural confounds. Likewise, relatively little is known about the long-term olfactory effects of customers’ repeated exposure to ambient scents in a service environment. In addition, previous research did not focus on the effects of ambient scent after a discontinuation of a scent campaign. Our study series closes these three gaps in service research.
... People's perception of the attributes of a product in a given sensory modality is frequently affected by the sensations that are simultaneously being perceived by another modality. For example, in a classic study, Laird (1932) found that women evaluated the quality of silk stockings more positively when they were scented with a narcissus scent compared to their natural (slightly rancid) scent. Demattè, Sanabria, Sugarman, and Spence (2006) followed up on Laird's (1932) study. ...
... For example, in a classic study, Laird (1932) found that women evaluated the quality of silk stockings more positively when they were scented with a narcissus scent compared to their natural (slightly rancid) scent. Demattè, Sanabria, Sugarman, and Spence (2006) followed up on Laird's (1932) study. The participants in their experiment were asked to rate the perceived softness of fabric samples impregnated with different fragrances. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Both consumer researchers and product designers recognize the importance of good design for the success of products and brands. Consumer researchers are focused on understanding consumer responses to product design. Designers try to adjust products to consumers' needs and enhance product experience by involving consumers in the design process. The complexity of consumer responses to products has prompted both consumer and design researchers to formulate conceptual models of consumer responses to product design. This chapter will give an overview of four different perspectives that are used to describe consumer responses to product design, including the designers' perspective centered on product esthetics, the consumer perspective revolving around product experience, the semiotics perspective on symbolic product meaning, and the managerial perspective stressing consumer satisfaction as most important.
... Other researchers found (Krishna, Lwin & Morrin, 2010) that scent enhances recall of verbal information presented with the product. Furthermore, it has been documented that pleasant scents can enhance the customer experience and also favourably influence store evaluations (Laird, 1932;Spangenberg et al., 1996Bosmans, 2006, encouraging a visit to the store or affect the decision to return to it (Bone & Ellen, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to high competitiveness, product innovation requirements and customer demand, the importance of the field of sensory marketing has increased. The term refers to the characteristics of products, things or even services that might impact our further sensory input and trigger human senses. This study presents the results of an experiment designed to test the effect of 16 colour and scent combinations (representing visual and olfactory modalities) on perceived preference and intensity. The research aims to investigate whether the same scent can be rated differently in variously coloured packaging and therefore affect consumers’ perception and evaluations. A total of 301 students have taken a part in this experiment. The colours used in this experiment were green, yellow, orange and purple. The scents were selected to correspond to the widely commercially used odour/colour combinations in the FMCG sector in the Czech Republic. The results suggest that colour played a significant role in consumers’ preference ratings when evaluating the same scent and therefore colour has the ability to affect the perception of odour. However, colour did not have any effect on perceived intensity ratings. Linear regression analysis suggests that semantic associations as used in FMCG sector for colour-odour congruency does not fit the data and hence, the model for prediction of preference ratings is probably far more complicated.
... For instance, certain colours (hues) can make objects feel heavier (e.g., Alexander & Shansky, 1976), though perhaps the underlying factor is really how bright/dark the colour appears (see Hagtvedt, 2014; see also Walker, Francis, & Walker, 2010). Meanwhile, certain fragrances have been shown to influence the felt texture of various different surfaces/materials (see Churchill, Meyners, Griffiths, & Bailey, 2009;Demattè, Sanabria, Sugarman, & Spence, 2006;Laird, 1932). Crossmodal correspondence between colour and temperature might be relevant too (e.g., Ho, Van Doorn, Kawabe, Watanabe, & Spence, 2014), given that, for example, people tend to believe that red stimuli are hotter than blue stimuli and that blue stimuli are generally rated as cooler than red. ...
Chapter
Consumers normally come into contact with the tactile attributes of packaging whenever they pick a food and beverage, or home and personal care, product off the shelf. What the consumer feels about the tactile attributes of the packaging (and their haptic interaction with it) can influence both their product expectations and thereafter their product experience. It should come as little surprise, therefore, to find that a growing number of companies/packaging designers are increasingly trying to distinguish their product packaging by giving it a ‘signature’ feel (i.e., one that distinguishes it haptically from the competition). There is also growing interest in functional tactile/haptic packaging that delivers a benefit in terms of enhancing the consumer’s multisensory product experience. That said, it is important to bear in mind that the tactile/haptic aspects of product packaging are typically not experienced in isolation; they are themselves influenced by the other sensory aspects of the packaging, such as its colour, fragrance, and potentially by any sounds that are heard when the consumer interacts with it. Therefore, anyone who is thinking about multisensory design really needs to consider these various crossmodal interactions in order to optimize the tactile/haptic design of their product packaging.
... Early research by Laird (1932) suggested that odour pleasantness influences the perceived quality and evaluation of silk hose (see also Demattè, Sanabria, Sugarman, & Spence, 2006). Bone and Jantrania (1992) provided further evidence suggesting that odour/product fit or congruency (household cleanser + lemon smell and sunscreen + coconut smell) relative to incongruency (household cleanser + coconut smell and sunscreen + lemon smell) can lead to enhanced, more positive, product evaluations. ...
Chapter
Traditionally, the design of brand elements and marketing communications has focused on visual and/or audiovisual attributes in order to convey a specific brand positioning or concept to the consumer. However, the majority of consumers’ everyday experiences go beyond simply just audiovisual inputs. With this in mind, in this chapter, we take an inclusive multisensory approach to the concept of premiumness, one that also incorporates tactile elements and briefly considers the chemical senses. In particular, we present an overview of the concept and review key research findings highlighting specific associations between different sensory attributes and premiumness, luxury, or their specific component dimensions, in the context of product packaging. Generally speaking, there is not yet a great deal of research detailing how to express premiumness via specifically multisensory packaging cues beyond its visual aspects. However, what evidence there is does appear to suggest that the concept can be conveyed through multiple sensory channels, thus positioning this theme as providing a clear opportunity for brand innovation and differentiation.
... Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications (2022) 7:28 facilitate the in-use experience and provide emotional benefits in numerous public spheres (Minsky et al., 2018). With respect to scent added to products, one early study reported that the addition of a pleasant floral scent to silk stockings enhancedconsumer preference for the scented over unscented stockings (Laird, 1932). More recently, it was shown that body lotion scented with a fragrance that the user found pleasant and personally evocative led to the lotion being rated more positively on all the functional (e.g., "provides long-lasting moisturization") and emotional (e.g., "makes me feel good when I use it) attributes of the lotion that were assessed (Sugiyama et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Humans have deliberately scented their environment for purpose or pleasure for millennia. In the contemporary marketplace most consumers prefer and purchase scented versions of common household products. However, the drivers of this consumer preference have not been elucidated. To explain the attraction to scent in household products we propose a novel three-factor framework, comprising functional benefits (malodor mitigation, base odor coverage, freshening), in -use experience benefits (cleanliness, efficacy, pleasure), and emotional benefits (increasing in confidence, mood and nostalgia). To support this framework, we present new data from a market research survey on US consumer purchasing habits and attitudes towards home cleaning, laundry, and air freshening products. Further substantiating our framework, a focused review of olfactory psychological science illustrating the central role of scent in cognition, wellbeing, motivated behavior, and social behavior, as well as sensory marketing research highlights the benefits and implications of scent in consumer household products. Based on our three-factor framework we go on to discuss the potential for scent to influence health and raise issues to consider (such as potential negative responding to fragranced products). We conclude by showcasing new opportunities for future research in olfactory science and on scented household products that can advance the positive impacts of scent.
... Krishna et al. (2010aKrishna et al. ( , 2010b found that the odor added to a product increases the unaided memory information associated with the product. Moreover, Laird (1932) showed that adding floral odor to products with no initial scent (nylons) increases the preference for this product. The same effect was observed in a relatively recent study by Ludden and Schifferstein (2009), which showed a more positive evaluation for a perfumed product comparing to the identical unperfumed one. ...
... However, the impact of smells on customers' behaviour has been definitely certified. First, researchers proved the positive impact of a smell on the evaluation of a product (Laird, 1935;Cox, 1969). According to Spangenberg, Crowley, and Henderson (1996b), a pleasant smell influences positively the evaluation of the customer on a point of sale (and some of its products), the intent of walk-through, of buying, as well as on the time spent inside (real and perceived). ...
Article
Full-text available
Sensory marketing is a useful marketing application which gives companies a real opportunity to maximize product profitability. Consumers’ eating habits keep changing everyday away from their regular meal, less time and more working hours have left people with the option to just pop in a restaurant or fast-food. The use of five senses in the marketing field helps to arouse customer’s emotions and nowadays it is fundamental for the company to differentiate itself from its competitors. The study will seek to analyze the impact of sensory marketing of consumers with a particular reference to KFC. This study outline has a deep impact on understanding the impact of senses on marketing with particular reference to the Kentucky Fried Chicken in Mauritius. The present research shows that the different senses have an impact on consumer buying behaviour especially for KFC consumers. Consumers find the senses such as music to be relaxing and smell as stimulating. However, it should be mentioned that this research is limited to the sample size and also to the context of the study.
... The rapid development of studies investigating the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying the integration of information from different sensory modalities (i.e., what is known as the study of multisensory processing; see Spence, 2002Spence, , 2008aSpence, , 2008b is starting to reveal some of the rules governing the multisensory perception of objects. This research is helping to demonstrate just how much what one feels when one interacts with a product or surface is determined not only by what is going on at the skin surface, but also by what a consumer happens to be smelling (e.g., Churchill et al., 2009;Demattè et al., 2006;Laird, 1932), hearing (Gomez-Ramirez et al., 2009;Zampini, Guest, & Spence, 2003;; see Spence, 2008b;, for reviews), and seeing (see Gallace & Spence, 2008b, for a review). We believe that the cognitive neuroscience approach holds the promise of delivering on design principles for stimulating a consumer's senses (all of them) more effectively, using knowledge and understandings that stretches across product categories (Spence, 2002). ...
... In practice, this means that our experience of, and feelings about, tactile stimuli are influenced by, and also influence, the processing of information in the other sensory modalities (Gallace and Spence, 2014). So, for example, researchers have demonstrated that changing what a person smells while touching a material (such as a fabric or hair swatch) can change their perception of how soft the fabric is rated as being (Churchill et al., 2009;Demattè et al., 2006;Laird, 1932). Even the perception of our own skin can be changed as a result of the presence of fragrance (Eisfeld et al., 2005). ...
Chapter
Touch is the largest of the senses, and yet one of the least well understood. To date, the majority of research has focused on the perception of tactile stimuli presented to the fingertips and hands. However, one's sensitivity to tactile stimulation varies quite dramatically across the body surface. Research shows that one's ability to perceive (and remember) tactile stimuli presented to the fingertips and/or other regions of the body surface is severely limited by attentional constraints. Touch should really be considered in a multisensory context, given the extensive cross-modal interactions between the senses that have been reported in recent years.
... So, for example, it turns out that how white your clothes look when they come out of the wash is, in part, determined by the fragrance that you happen to smell as you inspect them visually (e. g., Vickers & Spence 2007). Similarly, how soft a piece of fabric »feels«, or even how dry one's skin seems to be, is affected by what a person smells or hears (Churchill, Meyners, Griffiths & Bailey 2009;Demattè, Sanabria, Sugarman & Spence 2006;Guest, Catmur, Lloyd & Spence 2002;Jousmäki & Hari 1998;Laird 1932). ...
... The scent of a recognizable cleaning product has been shown to lead individuals to be tidier when eating (Liljenquist, Zhong, & Galinsky, 2010). Some evidence suggests that the presence of certain scents causes people to perceive products differently such as items of clothing being rated as softer (Demattè, Sanabria, Sugarman, & Spence, 2006;Laird, 1932; see also Churchill, Meyners, Griffiths, & Bailey, 2009). To capitalize on scent marketing, marketers should identify a signature scent that is both pleasant and congruent with the store and brand identity (Bosmans, 2006;Parsons, 2009), such as the white tea fragrance popularized by the Westin Hotel chain (Hultén, Broweus, & van Dijk, 2009;Pacelle, 1992;Trivedi, 2006). ...
Chapter
In a multisensory perspective, there can be little doubting that the multisensory atmospherics in stores and other commercial spaces affect the behavior of consumers in systematic ways (see Spence 2018a; Spence et al. 2014, for reviews). This message has created a revolution in sensory marketing, such that across virtually every product category, retailers (and manufacturers) are now increasingly seeking to influence the “sensory experience” of their consumers. One of the key questions then becomes how should a company design its multisensory atmospherics in store to ensure that the return on investment is worthwhile? And what is the relevant metric, anyway? Increased sales, or column inches in the press? But lurking in the background is also an ethical question around whether the effective design of multisensory atmospherics may be pushing more of us into consuming more than we otherwise might (see Spence 2015, 2018b, for reviews). In this talk, I will review the consumer scientific evidence related to visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and even gustatory aspects of the store environment and their influence on the consumer’s behavior. I will highlight a number of areas where further research is needed in order to better understand how the multisensory retail environment shapes customer experience and shopping behavior. I will also discuss the latest findings in terms of the currently accepted cognitive neuroscience models of multisensory perception. Should there be time, I would also like to briefly address the question of whether there are meaningful individual/cultural differences in the desire for/avoidance of overly stimulating environments among consumers. Finally, I will take a look at how new technologies are changing the multisensory landscape for consumers.
... In practice, this means that our experience of, and feelings about, tactile stimuli are influenced by, and also influence, the processing of information in the other sensory modalities (Gallace and Spence, 2014). So, for example, researchers have demonstrated that changing what a person smells while touching a material (such as a fabric or hair swatch) can change their perception of how soft the fabric is rated as being (Churchill et al., 2009;Demattè et al., 2006;Laird, 1932). Even the perception of our own skin can be changed as a result of the presence of fragrance (Eisfeld et al., 2005). ...
Article
The skin contains a wide variety of receptors that give rise to our experience of touch. Tactile experience depends on attention, and is typically the result of multisensory integration. Many of our tactile experiences are the result of the integration of inputs from different classes of receptors - known as touch blends. The sense of touch is an important albeit understudied sense. While the bandwidth of the sense of touch is relatively low, stimulating the skin can nevertheless convey emotional benefits.
... So, for example, it turns out that how white your clothes look when they come out of the wash is, in part, determined by the fragrance that you happen to smell as you inspect them visually (e. g., Vickers & Spence 2007). Similarly, how soft a piece of fabric »feels«, or even how dry one's skin seems to be, is affected by what a person smells or hears (Churchill, Meyners, Griffiths & Bailey 2009;Demattè, Sanabria, Sugarman & Spence 2006;Guest, Catmur, Lloyd & Spence 2002;Jousmäki & Hari 1998;Laird 1932). ...
... The question of what, if anything, a participant attributes the scent's presence to is simply left unmentioned. However, several possible alternatives immediately suggest themselvespeople might attribute the odour to the environment (Rotton et al., 1978;see Spence, 2020c), to the person that they happen to be evaluating at that moment (Demattè et al., 2007), or perhaps to the clothes that they happen to be wearing (Demattè et al., 2006;Laird, 1932). 21 Alternatively, however, the research also shows that olfactory cues may influence the perceived shininess of a person's hair (Churchill et al., 2009), or even the product that they happen to be inspecting (Aikman, 1951;Ebster & Kirk-Smith, 2005)? ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, there has been an explosion of research into the crossmodal influence of olfactory cues on multisensory person perception. Numerous peer-reviewed studies have documented that a variety of olfactory stimuli, from ambient malodours through to fine fragrances, and even a range of chemosensory body odours can influence everything from a perceiver’s judgments of another person’s attractiveness, age, affect, health/disease status, and even elements of their personality. The crossmodal and multisensory contributions to such effects are reviewed and the limitations/peculiarities of the research that have been published to date are highlighted. At the same time, however, it is important to note that the presence of scent (and/or the absence of malodour) can also influence people’s (i.e., a perceiver’s) self-confidence which may, in turn, affect how attractive they appear to others. Several potential cognitive mechanisms have been put forward to try and explain such crossmodal/multisensory influences, and some of the neural substrates underpinning these effects have now been characterized. At the end of this narrative review, a number of the potential (and actual) applications for, and implications of, such crossmodal/multisensory phenomena involving olfaction are outlined briefly.
... The perception of quality, for example, can have both a positive influence, meaning to say that it makes consumers approach and desire the product, and a negative influence, or in other words, it puts consumers off [32,46,67]. This has been one of the original characteristics studied in olfactory marketing, as evidenced by the existence of a study from 1932 that demonstrated that 50% of consumers perceived socks with a scent as being of higher quality, compared to 8% who were indifferent to this stimulus [68]. ...
Article
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Olfactory marketing has been increasing its presence in commercial environments in recent years thanks to its influence on perceptions, evaluations, and behaviour. However, the number of scientific studies on the issue is limited, and this is even more true for nonprofit environments. The aim of this experiment is to provide empirical answers about the influence of smell on the evaluation and behavior of the consumer of nonprofit services, specifically the museum consumer. For this purpose, an experiment was carried out at the González Santana Museum over four weeks in March and April 2017, during which three rooms in the museum were filled with scents considered to be congruent. The results obtained from the MANCOVA analysis demonstrate scent having a significant influence on perceptions and evaluations, as well as on the intentions to revisit the institution, and significant repercussions for management and researching can be derived from this.
... Konuyla ilgili ilk araştırmacılardan Laird (1932) ipek çoraplar kokulu şekilde sunulduğunda, ürünün tüketiciler tarafından daha iyi değerlendirildiğini göstermiştir. Buna göre çorabın doğal kokusunun kötü olması, kokunun olumlu etkisini artırmaktadır. ...
Book
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This book is about current research subjects (25 research topics) in the field of marketing.
... Por tanto, los resultados obtenidos han demostrado que existen diferencias significativas entre los tipos de aromas y su activación cerebral en función del género Spangenber et al., (1996)demostró que la fragancia de rosa centifolia y la vainilla produjeron que los hombres y mujeres respectivamente estuvieran más tiempo en la tienda, compraran y gastaban el doble, lo que demuestra que el ambiente aromatizado genera mayor probabilidad de compra (Bosmans,2006;Mitchell, 1995). Laird (1932) realizo un estudio de diferentes aromas en el que arrojo varios olores en prendas de mujer con el objetivo de determinar las preferencias de los artículos ofrecidos y demostró que el aroma floral era elegido seis veces más que otro tipo de productos sin aroma. Bradford y Desrochers (2009) demostraron que las mujeres reaccionan significativamente mejor en el punto de venta y compran más cuando el ambiente está perfumado con lavanda, mientras que los hombres reaccionan mejor cuanto el olor a menta está presente, resultados que se relacionan con los obtenidos en la presente investigación, puesto que la lavanda y la menta son olores de las mimas familias olfativas que el maderoso. ...
Article
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The objective of this work is to carry out an analysis of the 5 olfactory families (citrus, sweet, fruit, woody, herbal) used in perfumery. Through an experimental-correlational design and a non-probability sampling with volunteer subjects carried out at the Macaji Fair, held in the city of Riobamba during the month of April 2018, an Electroencephalogram was applied to 30 men and 30 women who determined levels of attention, mental calm, by measuring certain brain waves. The results showed that the woody aroma in the alpha and beta waves differentiates between both genders (T=2.51; p<. 001). In the masculine gender there was a relationship between citrus aromas, beta wave with blink response, sweet aroma, beta wave with meditation and blink state and herbal aroma, beta wave with blink type activation (p<.001). On the other hand, in the female gender, a significant relationship was detected between the sweet aroma, alpha wave and the level of meditation (p<.001). Although no predictive causal relationship has been found between the variables, it can be concluded that there is a differential electroencephalographic pattern between aromas, waves and activation levels depending on gender.
... A. Krishna (2010), based on A. Bos- mans (2006), D. A. Laird (1932), E. Span- genberg et al. (1996), D. J. Mitchell et al. (1995), stresses that consumer behaviour researchers have also looked at how it impacts product/store evaluation and time spent in the store. ...
Article
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The paper analyses the sensory marketing of the sense of smell, its dimensions and usage in marketing decisions. By invoking the scent marketing decisions, one aims at attracting the consumer attention, to keep him/ her at a point of sale as long as possible, to affect the behaviour and encourage an impulsive process of buying decision making. e theoretical study was performed by analysing the insights of Lithuanian and foreign authors on the purpose of elaborating the coherence between the ambient scent at the point of sale and the consumer impulse buying behaviour. It was revealed during the study that the ambient scent at a point of sale can be assessed as a stimulus which invokes the consumer's impulsive buying behaviour. e logic of the prepared conceptual model is related to S-O-R paradigm: the environmental stimulus (ambient scent at a point of sale) affects the human organism (consumer internal response) and causes a reaction (consumer impulsive buying behaviour). Keywords: sensory marketing, ambient scent, consumer behaviour, S-O-R paradigm, impulsive buying behaviour.
... The cause of this is most likely the technical complexity that both modalities, even on their own, bring when attempting to fit them in a scientific setting. Despite these added difficulties, the first study showing that olfactory cues modulate tactile perception was conducted as early as 1932 (Laird 1932). The authors showed that scented compared to natural unscented pairs of women's silk hoses were chosen more often and had their textural quality rated higher. ...
Article
Due to the complex stimulation methods required, olfaction and touch are two relatively understudied senses in the field of perceptual (neuro-)science. In order to establish a consistent presentation method for the bimodal stimulation of these senses we combined an olfactometer with the newly developed Unimodal Tactile Stimulation Device (UniTaSD). This setup allowed us to study the influence of olfaction on tactile perception and opened up an unexplored field of research by examining the crossmodal influence of tactile stimuli on olfaction. Using a pseudorandomized design, we analyzed how positive or negative tactile and olfactory stimuli influenced the opposing modality’s perceived intensity and pleasantness. By asking participants to rate tactile stimuli we were able to reproduce previously reported differences indicating that bimodal presentation with an olfactory stimulus increases or reduces perceived tactile pleasantness in an odor-dependent manner, while highlighting that this effect appears unique to women. Furthermore, we found first evidence for the influence of tactile stimuli on perceived odor pleasantness, an effect which is also driven primarily by women in our study. Based on these findings we believe that future neurophysiological studies, using controlled stimulus presentation can help unravel how and why olfactory and tactile perception interact in the human brain.
... The exploration of smell and product evaluations has a storied past, dating back to the early 1930s. In a study exploring the effect of smell on products, Laird (1932) infused women's silk stockings with various smells and then took the stockings door to door to determine preferences for the items among housewives. Interestingly, the stockings infused with a floral smell were preferred over six times more than the unscented stockings, despite few mentions of the smell in respondent's decision making process. ...
Article
We draw upon literature examining cross‐modal sensory interactions and congruence to explore the impact of smell on touch. In line with our predictions, two experiments show that smell can impact touch in meaningful ways. Specifically, we show that multisensory semantic congruence between smell and touch properties of a stimulus enhances haptic perception and product evaluation. We explore this relationship in the context of two properties of touch, namely texture and temperature, and demonstrate that both smell and touch can have semantic associations, which can affect haptic perception and product evaluation depending on whether they match or not. In study 1, we focus on the semantic association of smell and touch (texture) with gender and in study 2 with temperature. Our results extend prior work on smell and touch within consumer behavior, and further contribute to emerging literature on multisensory interactions.
... So, for example, it turns out that how white your clothes look when they come out of the wash is, in part, determined by the fragrance that you happen to smell as you inspect them visually (e. g., Vickers & Spence 2007). Similarly, how soft a piece of fabric »feels«, or even how dry one's skin seems to be, is affected by what a person smells or hears (Churchill, Meyners, Griffiths & Bailey 2009;Demattè, Sanabria, Sugarman & Spence 2006;Guest, Catmur, Lloyd & Spence 2002;Jousmäki & Hari 1998;Laird 1932). ...
Chapter
The cultural field of advertising is a much-debated topic with perspectives focusing on a range of concepts from harassment and the anxiety of influence to notions of desire and affirmation. The aim of this publication is not only to take into account the diversity of topics related to advertising, but more importantly, to develop a dialogue between these divergent viewpoints. With contributions by Barbara Aulinger, Bernadette Collenberg-Plotnikov, Beate Flath, Werner Jauk, Bernhard Kettemann, Eva Klein, Jörg Matthes, Manfred Prisching, Johanna Rolshoven, Nicolas Ruth, Holger Schramm, Charles Spence, Margit Stadlober and Friedrich Weltzien.
Chapter
Der vorliegende Beitrag erweitert die klassische Sicht des Dialogmarketings um eine zusätzliche Perspektive: die grundsätzliche Bedeutung einer direkten Produktberührung am Point of Sale für das Konsumentenverhalten. Basierend auf feldexperimentellen Untersuchungen wird neben geschlechtsspezifischen Unterschieden hinsichtlich des konsumentenseitigen Bedürfnisses nach direktem Produktkontakt die Wirkung der Präsentation und Wahrnehmung haptischer vs. visueller Produktinformationen analysiert. Durch das Ermöglichen eines direkten haptischen Produktkontakts am Point of Sale können Unternehmen sowohl das Qualitätsempfinden für ihre Produkte, die Einstellung der Konsumenten sowie letztendlich deren Bereitschaft, ein Preispremium zu bezahlen, steigern. Basierend auf den Ergebnissen der Studie werden abschließend konkrete Handlungsempfehlungen für das Dialogmarketing aufgezeigt.
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Resumo: O marketing sensorial compreende o uso de estímulos sensoriais na experiência ao cliente para criar uma identidade e imagem que atenda ao propósito da marca. Este ensaio discute o uso de estratégias de marketing sensorial na comunicação de marca e apresenta uma proposta de modelo conceitual de aplicação do marketing sensorial no processo de construção da identidade de marca. Para tanto, um levantamento da produção científica sobre o tema foi realizado em âmbito nacional e internacional até o ano 2014, nas bases de dados Ebsco, Spell, Scielo, Domínio Público, Scopus e ISI Web of Knowledge, contendo a palavra Marketing Sensorial no título, resumo ou palavra-chave do estudo. Os resultados mostram que há ainda poucos estudos acadêmicos sobre o tema, principalmente no âmbito do processo de comunicação da marca, e que pedominam estudos na área da psicologia/comportamento do consumidor e que os estudos analisam a influencia de aspectos sensoriais na atitude e comportamento do consumidor, e envolvem a aplicação de estratégias de marketing sensorial em produtos, marcas e ambientes de varejo. O estudo contribuiu para ampliar o conhecimento sobre o tema, para identificar direcionamentos para futuros estudos acadêmicos e para a proposição de um modelo conceitual sobre a aplicação do marketing sensorial no processo de construção da identidade de marca. Abstract: The sensorial marketing comprises the use of sensory stimuli in the customer experience to create an identity and image in line with the purpose of the brand. This essay discusses the use of sensorial marketing strategies in brand communication and proposes a conceptual model for the application of sensory marketing in the process of building the brand identity. Thus, a survey of scientific literature on the subject was executed at the national and ** Contato principal para correspondência.
Presentation
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The use of ambient scents has become an increasingly important trend in business practice to cre-ate a product or service experience that is distinctive (Rimkute et al. 2016; Henshaw et al. 2016). While marketing has started exploring scent effects in a variety of settings, relatively little is known about the long-term olfactory effects of customers’ repeated exposure to ambient scents in a service environment. In this research, we present the results of two large-scale field experiments in which we exposed customers of a major railway company to a pleasurable ambient scent and measured their affective and cognitive reactions. Results from our cross-sectional field study demonstrate ambient scent’s short-term effects on customer perceptions and their robustness to customers’ service use frequency. Results from a second longitudinal, repeated-measures field experiment, which spreads over a four-month period, provide support for ambient scent’s long-term effects. The use of ambient scent has an enduring, positive impact on customers’ affective situational service evaluations, whereas its impact on satisfaction with the service provider and brand attitude (both rather cognitive constructs) diminishes over time. Our results propose that ambient scent as a sensory marketing tool is more efficient in influencing situational evaluations as compared to attitudes that are formed over a long period in the customer lifecycle. Finally, aftereffects in form of positive service evaluations persist for a while, even when the scent diffu-sion stops.
Chapter
Das Produkt stellt das unmittelbare Ergebnis aller im industriellen Unternehmen getroffenen wirtschaftlichen, technischen und organisatorischen Ma?nahmen dar, die der betrieblichen Leistungserstellung dienen. Es repr?sentiert das Unternehmen am Markt und soll beim Verkauf denjenigen Erl?s- und Gewinnstrom herbeif?hren, der als prim?res Ziel der unternehmerischen Bet?tigung angesehen werden kann1. Dieses Ziel wird nur dann erreicht, wenn die angebotenen Produkte geeignet sind, die spezifischen Bed?rfnisse2 des Nachfragenden zu befriedigen. Hierzu geh?ren in erster Linie die physiologisch bedingten Prim?rbed?rfnisse, wie z. B. das Streben nach Nahrungsaufnahme, der Wunsch nach ausreichender Bekleidung und sonstige elementare Schutzbed?rfnisse. In einer auf wachsenden Wohlstand ausgerichteten Wirtschaft nimmt die Bedeutung der prim?ren Bed?rfnisse tendenziell ab zugunsten eines steigenden Einflusses sozialpsychologisch motivierter sekund?rer Bed?rfnisse3. Dazu z?hlen u. a. der Wunsch nach sozialer Anerkennung, das Prestigemotiv und das Nachahmungsstreben.
Chapter
You know that old joke about the optimist and the pessimist sitting side-by-side in a bar and contemplating their drinks?
Article
Despite the limited empirical evidence about the effectiveness of olfactory cues in advertising, firms are increasingly using such cues in their advertisements. The authors examine the effects of olfactory cues that are used as a novelty, as opposed to a product sample, on consumer attitudes. The results show that the addition of a more congruent scratch-and-sniff panel to an advertisement improves neither attitude toward the ad nor attitude toward the brand. Further, the addition of a poorer-fitting scent actually lowers attitudes among individuals who are more motivated to process. Those results appear to be a function of the mood evoked by the scented advertisement and of the scent's perceived pleasantness in the advertising context.
Article
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Sensory evaluation can be influenced by semantic information such as gender descriptions. Gender categories are associated with tactile information (e.g., female = soft/smooth, while male = hard/rough). Feminine scents (e.g., floral) are typically perceived as soft and smooth. Thus, semantic labels of gender (feminine/masculine qualities) may influence congruent sensory evaluation (i.e., female = soft/smooth, male = hard/rough). This study examined how semantically labeled scent-gender associations influence the evaluation of scent and texture. Specifically, we examined whether “feminine” and “masculine” labels applied to neutral scents that have not been associated with gender influence scent and haptic evaluation. Participants sniffed a feminine-labeled or masculine-labeled scent embedded on soft and rough papers. They then evaluated the scent (e.g., gender perception) and texture (e.g., hedonic evaluation). The results demonstrated that participants who sniffed a feminine-labeled (vs. masculine-labeled) scent perceived it as more feminine. However, contrary to our expectations, gender labeling of scent did not influence haptic evaluation. These findings indicate that semantic labeling of scents (i.e., feminine/masculine) may alter the gender perception of a scent but not the tactile evaluation. Practical implications for (online) sensory marketing are discussed.
Article
Just as for any other sensory system, researchers have long wanted to discriminate between the sensory discriminative and hedonic aspects of tactile perception. Supporting such a distinction, researchers have, in recent decades, uncovered the existence of a dedicated system of receptors in the hairy skin (C-Tactile, CT, afferents) that appear to be preferentially tuned to pleasant stroking (i.e. caressing) touch. No matter what kind of touch one is talking about, though, it is important to recognize that human perception is fundamentally multisensory, meaning that what we feel, not to mention what we think about the experience, is modulated by the inputs that are available to the other senses. This review summarizes the latest evidence concerning these multisensory contributions to tactile perception focusing, in particular, on the case of affective touch. Given that CT afferents for pleasant touch are far more common in the hairy (as compared to the glabrous) skin, the question is further raised as to whether the relative contribution of the various senses to tactile perception may differ as a function of the skin site stimulated (i.e. glabrous versus hairy skin) or the kind of judgment (sensory-discriminative versus hedonic) that is being made.
Chapter
Marketers are increasingly using scent for differentiating, enhancing, and promoting products, and services. The spreading commercial use of scent, however, stands in contrast to a limited and fragmented body of knowledge on how people as consumers perceive and respond to olfactory stimulation. To facilitate a better understanding of opportunities and limitations to the commercial use of scent, this chapter reviews the state of research in the psychology, consumer behavior, and marketing literature. Extant studies examine scent as a primary product attribute, a secondary product attribute, an agent for promotional efforts, and as an ambient cue. Organized in six major sections, the chapter starts with a discussion of effective characteristics and the human processing of scent. A comprehensive review of consumer responses to scent follows. Section 56.4 adopts a multimodal perspective to illustrate how scent interacts with other sensory modalities to influence consumers as multisensory beings. Section 56.5 highlights individual and situational factors that can enhance or mute olfactory effects. The chapter concludes with a discussion of ethical aspects and outlines avenues for future research that may prove beneficial to both researchers and practitioners.
Chapter
Marken müssen sich in Zeiten von zunehmendem Konkurrenzkampf durch ein eigenständiges und prägnantes Profil differenzieren, um zu überleben. Neben den schon lange verwendeten visuellen und auditiven Stimuli steigt dabei das Interesse am Einsatz anderer Sinnesreize. Der Beitrag untersucht daher die Wirkung olfaktorischer Reize in der Markenkommunikation. Neben der Erläuterung der Determinanten der Duftwahrnehmung wird ein Überblick zu den aktuellen Erkenntnissen zur Wirkung von Düften gegeben. Es zeigt sich, dass Düfte verschiedenste Zielgrößen der Markenführung sowohl positiv als auch negativ beeinflussen können: Nur ein genau auf die Markenpositionierung abgestimmter Duft bewirkt eine effektivere Kommunikation als eine duftfreie.
Article
The cross-modal integration is a highly adaptive mechanism in which information patterns are combined in order to provide more accurate information about the external properties of the environment. However, subjects are not always capable of processing two sources simultaneously. The aim of this study is to evaluate the processing interference between gustative and auditory representations in working memory. The experiment recruited 47 participants whose age average was 22.45 years (SD = 3.787 years). A within-subjects design (repeated measures) was used, as well as the cross-modal stroop task . The results suggest that the attentional competition between gustative and auditory stimuli under congruent stimuli is lower compared to incongruent stimuli and controls. Additionally, it was found an inverse correlation between reaction time and the number of correct congruent stimuli.
Article
This paper investigates how the odor stimulation changes the haptic sensations of materials. The authors examined associated haptic impression with odor of Japanese cypress and the actual haptic sensations of 4 wood (including cypress material) and 4 plastic materials with/without odor stimulation employing the semantic differential (SD) and rating scale methods to evaluate physical properties and impressions of the sample materials, respectively. The emotion coming from the materials and the odor were also examined using rating scale. The authors calculated the distance between the associated haptic impressions with cypress odor and the actual haptic sensation of the material, and compared the effect of odor stimulation. The results showed that the odor stimulation has the effect to make the actual haptic sensation related to the physical properties close to the associated haptic impression with the odor.
Article
Resumo: O marketing sensorial compreende o uso de estímulos sensoriais na experiência ao cliente para criar uma identidade e imagem que atenda ao propósito da marca. Este ensaio discute o uso de estratégias de marketing sensorial na comunicação de marca e apresenta uma proposta de modelo conceitual de aplicação do marketing sensorial no processo de construção da identidade de marca. Para tanto, um levantamento da produção científica sobre o tema foi realizado em âmbito nacional e internacional até o ano 2014, nas bases de dados Ebsco, Spell, Scielo, Domínio Público, Scopus e ISI Web of Knowledge, contendo a palavra Marketing Sensorial no título, resumo ou palavra-chave do estudo. Os resultados mostram que há ainda poucos estudos acadêmicos sobre o tema, principalmente no âmbito do processo de comunicação da marca, e que predominam estudos na área da psicologia/comportamento do consumidor e que os estudos analisam a influencia de aspectos sensoriais na atitude e comportamento do consumidor, e envolvem a aplicação de estratégias de marketing sensorial em produtos, marcas e ambientes de varejo. O estudo contribuiu para ampliar o conhecimento sobre o tema, para identificar direcionamentos para futuros estudos acadêmicos e para a proposição de um modelo conceitual sobre a aplicação do marketing sensorial no processo de construção da identidade de marca.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the mediating role of emotions in processing scent information in consumer research, using event-related potential (ERP)-based neuroscience methods, while considering individual differences in sense of smell. Design/methodology/approach Prior research on olfaction and emotions in marketing has revealed mixed findings on the relationship between olfaction and emotion. The authors review earlier studies and present a neuroscience experiment demonstrating the benefits of ERP methods in studying the automatic processing of emotions. Findings Results demonstrate how emotional processes occurring within 1s of stimulus exposure differ across individuals with varying olfactory abilities. Findings reveal an automatic suppression mechanism for individuals sensitive to smell. Research limitations/implications Scent-induced emotions demonstrated through the use of ERP-based methods provide insights for understanding automatic emotional processes and reactions to ambient scents by consumers in the marketplace. Practical implications Findings show an automatic suppression of emotions triggered by scent in individuals sensitive to smell. Marketers and retailers should consider such reactions when evaluating the use of olfactory stimuli in promotional and retail strategies. Originality/value The authors review past literature and provide an explanation for the disparate findings in the olfaction–emotion linkage, by studying individual differences in response to scent in the marketplace. This is one of the first papers in marketing to introduce the application of ERP in studying consumer-relevant behavior and provide technical and marketing-specific considerations for both academic and market researchers.
Chapter
Full-text available
Consumer exposure to scent stimuli is difficult to avoid. Affective reaction to scent is immediate and instinctive (Vlahos, 2007; Wilkie, 1995), and it precedes thinking (Vlahos, 2007). Yet, practical applications of olfactory cues in advertising are rare (Kelly, 2012), in part due to the scarcity of research in this field (Ellen and Bone, 1998; Lwin and Morrin, 2012). Another reason may be the complexity of this effect.
Chapter
Marken müssen sich in Zeiten von zunehmendem Konkurrenzkampf durch ein eigenständiges und prägnantes Profil differenzieren, um zu überleben. Neben den schon lange verwendeten visuellen und auditiven Stimuli steigt dabei das Interesse am Einsatz anderer Sinnesreize. Der Beitrag untersucht daher die Wirkung olfaktorischer Reize in der Markenkommunikation. Neben der Erläuterung der Determinanten der Duftwahrnehmung wird ein Überblick zu den aktuellen Erkenntnissen zur Wirkung von Düften gegeben. Es zeigt sich, dass Düfte verschiedenste Zielgrößen der Markenführung sowohl positiv als auch negativ beeinflussen können: Nur ein genau auf die Markenpositionierung abgestimmter Duft bewirkt eine effektivere Kommunikation als eine duftfreie.
Chapter
Firms can be seen as value facilitators, offering various types of services for consumer consumption, as well as value-generating methods, while following a service viewpoint. It has been proposed that a company's relationships with consumers are used to influence value generation processes. Different experiences influence the form and kinds of meaning that consumers interpret in terms of interactive, relativistic, preferential, or perception beliefs, as well as self- and other-oriented values, in these systems. The aim is to make the procedure easier by grouping alternative options into three main explanatory stages of means. Furthermore, the classification's aim was to include an exhaustive classification when none existed in the marketing literature. The three levels are paradoxically both connected to and independent of each other, according to a general observation made here. They can appear concurrently or independently of one another, but they can also be defined separately.
Chapter
Die Analyse von olfaktorischen Reizen aus Kundensicht stellt seit vielen Jahren einen Teilaspekt zur Schaffung informatorischer Grundlagen für Marketingentscheidungen dar. Bisherige Untersuchungen beziehen sich jedoch insbesondere auf klassische Marketingziele, beispielsweise den Absatz. Einem modernen Marketingverständnis im Sinne eines Relationship Marketing folgend erscheint es jedoch mindestens ebenso spannend, die Rolle olfaktorischer Reize als Kommunikationsmittel zum Aufbau und Erhalt von Kundenbeziehungen im Sinne eines Relationship Marketing näher zu betrachten. Hier setzt der vorliegende Beitrag an: Ziel ist es, das Thema olfaktorische Reize zum Aufbau und Erhalt von Kundenbeziehungen interdisziplinär zu diskutieren.
Article
The popular press has recently reported that managers of retail and service outlets are diffusing scents into their stores to create more positive environments and develop a competitive advantage. These efforts are occurring despite there being no scholarly research supporting the use of scent in store environments. The authors present a review of theoretically relevant work from environmental psychology and olfaction research and a study examining the effects of ambient scent in a simulated retail environment. In the reported study, the authors find a difference between evaluations of and behaviors in a scented store environment and those in an unscented store environment. Their findings provide guidelines for managers of retail and service outlets concerning the benefits of scenting store environments.
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