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Stereotypes as individual and collective representations

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Stereotypes as individual and collective representations

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Summarizes the state of thinking about stereotypes that existed in 1996. From a social cognitive perspective, the authors address the ways that stereotypes are mentally represented (as schemas, prototypes, and exemplars). The authors consider the stereotypes held by both individuals and groups and argue that there are similar functions for each. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Second, there is a reemerging debate about how stereotypes and emotional prejudices should be conceptualized and measured (Stangor and Schaller, 1996;Findor et al., 2020;Kotzur et al., 2020). Should researchers focus on individuals' personally held perceptions of social groups, and the individually experienced emotions toward them? ...
... Similarly, the first operationalization of emotional prejudices in the SCM and BIAS Map focused on how, from the perspective of society, various social groups made the respondents' group, or "people in America, " feel 1 (Fiske et al., 2002;Cuddy et al., 2007). This focus on shared, group-level stereotypes and grouplevel emotional prejudice has its roots in a long tradition of conceptualizing stereotypes as collective phenomena (Katz and Braly, 1933;Blumer, 1958;Stangor and Schaller, 1996). Asking about what other people believe and feel about social groups is also argued to limit the degree of social desirability bias in people's responses (Fiske et al., 2002;Cuddy et al., 2007). ...
... In contrast to the original formulation, and as described in the case of asylum seekers and refugees above, other researchers drawing on the SCM explicitly address stereotypes as personal beliefs (Kotzur et al., 2017(Kotzur et al., , 2019b and examine individual emotions associated with social groups (e.g., Becker and Asbrock, 2012;Kotzur et al., 2019b). This individual approach also has a long history in social psychology (Stangor and Schaller, 1996). Until recently (Findor et al., 2020;Kotzur et al., 2020) however, these two approaches to the measurement of the constructs in the SCM had not been systematically compared. ...
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In this paper, I investigate intergroup relations between natives and asylum seekers during the European refugee crisis, and contribute to the reemerging methodological debate on the measurement of stereotypes and prejudices as individual and collective constructs. Drawing on data from the Norwegian Citizen Panel (NCP; N = 1,062), I examined how Norwegians stereotyped asylum seekers at the height of the refugee crisis and the emotional prejudices asylum seekers as a group elicited. By experimentally manipulating the survey question format, I examined whether and how stereotypes and emotional prejudices toward asylum-seekers differed depending on their measurement as individual or collective constructs. A subset of respondents ( n = 228) had reception centers for asylum-seekers established in their local community during the crisis. These participants reported their behaviors toward the asylum seekers in their neighborhood. In this subsample, I investigated how individual facilitating and harming intergroup behavior was related to individual and collective conceptualizations of stereotypes and prejudices. The results showed that both low warmth and low competence stereotypes, as well as negative emotions toward asylum seekers, were rated as stronger when measured as collective as compared to individual-level constructs. In the individual condition, respondents reported feeling more admiration and sympathy than respondents in the collective condition attributed to others. Individual stereotypes and prejudices correlated systematically with individual facilitating and harming intergroup behaviors. The perception that others hold more negative stereotypes of asylum seekers, and the perceived anger and fear of others, did correlated with individual harming behaviors. Perceptions of others’ anxiety correlated negatively with facilitating behaviors. Implications and future directions for the conceptualization and measurement of stereotypes and emotional prejudices are discussed.
... In this framework, stereotypes represent the contextual view of intergroup reality, which group members are expected to accept (Oakes, Haslam, & Turner, 1994). The appearance of the social identity and self-categorization theories, as well as preoccupation with sharing beliefs in general and shared stereotypes in particular (e.g., Gardner, 1993;Stangor & Schaller, 1996), directed the attention in the last years to the social nature of the stereotypes. ...
... In recent analyses shared stereotypes are viewed as functional structures in the group repertoire. They are related to the context of intergroup relations and provide a meaningful explanation and justification for these relations (Stangor & Schaller, 1996;Yzerbyt, Rocher, & Schadron, 1997). ...
... Elaborations about shared stereotypes point out their stability across time and from generation to generation, their influence on collective behavior, their reflection of group norms, their function in validating group member reality and group pressure to maintain them, their automatic activation and their transmission via group communication channels (Devine, 1989;Gardner, 1993;Haslam, 1997;Stangor & Schaller, 1996). Prejudice, as an attitude, can also be shared by group members (Duckitt, 1992). ...
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Representations of Arabs in Israeli Jewish society.
... Second, there is a reemerging debate about how stereotypes and emotional prejudices should be conceptualized and measured (Stangor and Schaller, 1996;. Should researchers focus on individuals' personally held perceptions of social groups, and the individually experienced emotions toward them? ...
... Similarly, the first operationalization of emotional prejudices in the SCM and BIAS Map focused on how, from the perspective of society, various social groups made the respondents' group, or "people in America, " feel 1 . This focus on shared, group-level stereotypes and grouplevel emotional prejudice has its roots in a long tradition of conceptualizing stereotypes as collective phenomena (Katz and Braly, 1933;Blumer, 1958;Stangor and Schaller, 1996). Asking about what other people believe and feel about social groups is also argued to limit the degree of social desirability bias in people's responses . ...
... In contrast to the original formulation, and as described in the case of asylum seekers and refugees above, other researchers drawing on the SCM explicitly address stereotypes as personal beliefs (Kotzur et al., 2017(Kotzur et al., , 2019b and examine individual emotions associated with social groups (e.g., Becker and Asbrock, 2012; Kotzur et al., 2019b). This individual approach also has a long history in social psychology (Stangor and Schaller, 1996). Until recently however, these two approaches to the measurement of the constructs in the SCM had not been systematically compared. ...
Book
Full-text available
With increasing interconnectedness of the world, intensifying migration flows and the rise of the right-wing populism in many countries, the topic of intercultural relations has become more and more relevant. Cultural and linguistic diversity brings both opportunities and challenges by, on the one hand, enriching human communication and enhancing societies’ creative potential, and on the other hand, bringing rapid change, threatening the status quo and demanding adaptation to the new circumstances from all members of multilingual and multicultural societies.At the heart of these intercultural relations are stereotypes. Stereotyping is a cognitive mechanism that underlies all aspects of intercultural processes: the way we perceive members of other groups shapes our attitudes and behavior towards them. This position stereotypes at the beginning of a sequence of psychological processes: cognition (stereotypes); affect (attitudes); and actions (discrimination). The fundamental role that stereotypes play in attitude formation and discrimination makes them an important target for scientific inquiry.Stereotypes are complex in nature. They are affected by psychological, sociocultural, sociolinguistic and geopolitical processes, which makes the study of stereotypes relevant to researchers from various disciplinary backgrounds. A vast body of literature accumulated so far illuminates the processes of stereotype formation and activation, their content and functions, their antecedents and consequences. However, the studies of stereotypes are scattered across various research areas: social, (cross-)cultural and cognitive psychology, ethnic studies, sociology, intercultural communication and management, social neuroscience, and others. Researchers working within these areas often use different terminology and diverging theoretical and methodological approaches. The lack of integration and interdisciplinary debate hinders the development of this field of research.The current book aims to bring together researchers from different disciplinary, theoretical and methodological backgrounds to create a space for exchange and integration of ideas. We welcomed contributions on the role of stereotypes in intercultural relations, including on cultural-ecological variations in stereotyping, how ethnic stereotypes are formed and maintained, how they change and what role they play in intergroup relations, intercultural communication, and acculturation processes. We believe this collection will contribute to the convergence of these research streams and will set directions for the further development of these fields separately.
... Moreover, this not merely a case of individuals holding such stereotypes of other groups, as these stereotypes can be shared within the entire society. A stereotype may also be seen as a prototype, or a mental image of how a member of a specific group should look and act (Stangor and Schaller 1996). ...
... The human mind categorizes to avoid being overwhelmed by uncertainty and to make decisions quickly. Stereotypes are formed to help in the decisionmaking process; therefore, there is a tendency to accentuate the differences between groups and to reduce the differences within groups so as to relieve the information-processing burden (Stangor and Schaller 1996). When encountering novel situations, including strangers, one does not attempt to gather information on that particular individual or situation. ...
... They help establish group boundaries, role assignments within groups, and relationships between groups. For example, gender stereotypes tend to depict women in roles that call for nurturing or supportive behavior, while men, on the other hand, are more likely to be seen in roles that call for independent and managerial actions (Stangor and Schaller 1996). ...
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Examining Genocide considers these questions by interrogating the interaction of three sets of conditions. These are: a societal crisis that creates a need for mass mobilization to “heal” the fractured public and address its material concerns; the stereotype associated with an “eligible target” for scapegoating; and the leadership preferences and skills of the chief executive of an authoritarian or poorly institutionalized state in question. Exploring case studies that cover various levels and instances of genocide, this book offers new insights to this highly researched field for scholars and students alike.
... Social psychology has studied how stereotypes, as a cognitive process, are entwined with the production of human affects of prejudice and in-group favoritism, as well as behaviors like discrimination (Stangor, 2014;Jackson, 2011). Linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistic studies argue that language-as the predominant way of naming categories and transmitting knowledge-is the only (or at least the primary) mechanism by which social stereotypes are shared as part of cultural knowledge (Fishman, 1956;Stangor and Schaller, 2012;Maass and Arcuri, 1996) Table 1: Annotation example; the hypothesis is automatically generated from the premise. Both annotators found the hypothesis grammatically correct and plausible. ...
... With the collected human judgments, we first investigate which models and categories lead to stereotyped inferences, and the degree to which the invoked stereotypes are negative. It is well established that stereotypes are both an individual phenomenon-something that resides in the heads of individual people-as well as a cultural phenomenon-that "[sterotypes] exist also in 'the fabric of society' itself" (Stangor and Schaller, 2012), and as such who the annotators are matters (Hovy and Spruit, 2016;Jørgensen et al., 2015;Hazen et al., 2020). In view of this, part of our analysis specifically considers how individual annotators' perceptions of stereotypes may vary. ...
... The triangulated racialization index (TRI) is based on the notion that racial group stereotypes are schematically constructed in relation to one another (Stangor & Schaller, 2000); thus, when a person cognitively accesses (i.e., recalls) one groupspecific stereotype they simultaneously tacitly access comparative referent group stereotypes (Kim, 1999;Tawa et al., 2013;Tawa & Tauriac, 2017;Xu & Lee, 2013;Zou & Cheryan, 2017). A clear example of this is when a person invokes the "model minority" stereotype of Asian Americans (i.e., the perception that Asian people are intelligent and hardworking), tacitly, what is also being referenced is the notion that other minority groups (e.g., Black Americans) are not the model minority (i.e., the perception that Black people are unintelligent and lazy). ...
... At a conceptual level, the TRI expands our understanding of stereotypes as racial schemas that have been primarily conceptualized by centering the racial referent group (Stangor & Schaller, 2000); visually, this traditional view would place the racial referent group in the middle as the body of the spider, and adjoining stereotypes or characteristics as legs and feet of the spider. The TRI, instead, also encourages us to think about racial schemas in which the stereotype is centered and the racial referent groups comprise the legs. ...
Article
A new stereotype metric is proposed, computed as the geometric area of a triangle determined by stereotype endorsement in reference to three racialized groups (i.e., Asian, Black, and White) mapped onto a three-dimensional (i.e., body, mind, and self-interest) field. Conceptually, this measure determines the extent to which these racial groups are triangulated in relation to one another; operationally, this is represented by greater distances between vertices in the three-dimensional field. Among a sample of Asian (n = 64), Black (n = 73), and White (n = 165) adults, regression analyses partially supported predictions that the triangulation-based metric would be a stronger predictor of prejudice than single-group referenced stereotypes. Mediation analyses supported the theoretical perspective that triangulation relates to prejudice because people who simultaneously endorse stereotypes of Black and Asian people at extreme ends of bipolar continuums have relatively fixed views about the nature of race (i.e., racial essentialism).
... For an article to possess enduring aspects, the story must have been told and retold many times over an extended period of time. The stereotype, a generalization/simplification of traits of a social group that quickly come to mind (Stangor, 2015), is also rooted in culture, is commonly shared within the in-group, and formulates as a result of repetition over time through language-based communication (Mackie et al., 1996;Stangor and Schaller, 1996). The spreading and sharing of cultural knowledge -which is the stereotype -could not have taken place without an accumulation in perception and understanding, perhaps aided by the influence of the news media as social psychologists in the 'cultural school' tradition have asserted (Kashima et al., 2008;Leyens et al., 1994). ...
... In examining the content structure of the articles, the intersection of the defining characteristics of myths and stereotypes were considered. Both myth and stereotypes reflect prevailing ideas, beliefs, and knowledge stored in culture and society (Lule, 2002;Mackie et al., 1996;Stangor and Schaller, 1996) as well as being characterized by timelessness as described above, the feeling that we have written or read the same stories over and over again (Berkowitz, 2005;Dardenne, 1997, 2009). Viewing these primary characteristics, timelessness /historicity of the story's content structure, as derived from repeated media mentions or a point of knowledge from antiquity, emerged as consistent patterns/features. ...
Article
Drawing mainly on cultural theories, this article probed the ‘myth’ in the news (international) using a combined quantitative and qualitative approach for investigation with a goal of revealing common characteristics of articles that revolve around a mythical image of a foreign culture, or a national cultural stereotype. Three major newspapers from three different regions of the world, the United States, United Kingdom, and Japan, were content analyzed and found that articles that pivot on well-known foreign cultural stereotypes invoke one of three types of theme/content: a well-known point of ancient history, a media myth built over decades, or a ‘lived’ experience of the audience. In essence, articles that utilize foreign myth are characterized by the technique of ‘historicizing’ the subject matter. They portray the culture as being embedded in history, tradition, and inertia indicating to readers that the foreign country – and collectively the world outside – has remained the same and stagnant culturally in the process stereotyping foreign societies as the Other. This article discusses the intersection of myth and national cultural stereotypes, using the concept, ‘the culture peg’ as a bridging notion that allows for a measure of quantitative method of investigation.
... Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of people that are both individual and collective; they are the "pictures in the head" that individuals have about others, but they are also conceptions about groups of people that are widely shared among a culture (Stangor and Shaller 1996). The most readily available and visible categories are used most frequently, like race (Devine 1989;Devine and Elliot 1995), age, and gender (Brewer and Lui 1989). ...
Article
Identity-based stereotyping often operates on perceptions about the intersection of multiple identities. Intersectional stereotyping predicts that certain combinations of attributes lend themselves more readily to perceived suspicion than others. In this paper, I test the way that suspicion-evoking stereotypes affect police-citizen interactions. Through the use of traffic stop data from Illinois spanning ten years and amounting to more than 20 million observations, I am able to produce accurate estimates for the relative degree of targeting that individual drivers face based on their racial, gender, age, and class-based perceived identities. Overall, I find both theoretical and methodological support for the necessity of intersectional analyses of identity-based profiling.
... The role of language in stereotyping is largely acknowledged. To Stangor and Schaller (1996), it occupies a central position in language transpersonal storage system and, thus, plays a powerful role, especially for people with an emotional disorder and altered critical judgment capacity. Sodré (1985), for instance, draws attention to the issue of self-discrimination which results of internalizing negative self-images not infrequently originated in unconscious self-denigrating processes. ...
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RESUMO Este estudo trata da revisão sistemática empreendida sobre os prováveis estereótipos lingüísticos de menos-valia utilizados recursivamente por pessoas na fase inicial da depressão-conforme o título-, revelando possivelmente esta tendência. Para tanto, fez-se necessária uma breve revisão do que seriam os estereótipos, sua caracterização e importância, sua interface com a linguagem, verbal e não-verbal, a fi m de se avaliar seus impactos na estrutura psicológica de alguém. Também foram abordados sucintamente alguns indícios do que seria um estado depressivo e seus impactos no cotidiano do indivíduo. Alerta-se para prováveis desdobramentos das possíveis infl uências no sujeito (produtor e alvo do discurso) exposto a tais estereótipos lingüísticos de menos-valia-em especial naqueles sujeitos afetados por um quadro depressivo-, além de se delinear uma espécie de teste a que essas pessoas seriam submetidas, com a intenção de serem precocemente diagnosticadas, para que medidas mais efi cientes sejam tomadas, em tempo hábil, visando a prevenir ou minimizar os danos que possam vir a ocorrer. Investigou-se, na bibliografi a disponível, a existência de estereótipos lingüísticos, de menos-valia ou não, em produções discursivas e sua interface com a depressão. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: depressão, discurso, estereótipo, estereótipo lingüístico, menos-valia. ABSTRACT This study consists of a systematic review of likely lesser-value linguistic stereotypes observed in patients in the early stages of depression, who possibly displayed such tendency. In order to achieve that, it was necessary to shortly revisit the notion of stereotype, its characteristics and relevance, as well as how it can be articulated with verbal/non-verbal language so that its impact on the psychological structure of a patient could be assessed. We provide a brief discussion on what some of the signs of a depressive condition are and the extent to which they affect the patient's everyday life. The study suggests that there might be likely repercussions on the subject (both as producer and target of discourse) exposed to lesser-value linguistic stereotypes, especially on those subjects showing signs of depression. We also outline a means to test subjects which can allow as early a diagnosis as possible. Thus, quicker and more effi cient action can be taken to prevent or minimize likely damage. We reviewed the literature of the fi eld to determine whether linguistic stereotypes (lesser-value or other) occurred and how they could be related to depression.
... This means that people have access to and make use of digital technologies but have less interest, do it for a narrower range of purposes and with more difficulty. The second digital divide affects older people among others excluded collectives (Brandtzaeg et al., 2011;Lagacé et al., 2015), which reinforces the idea that older people are not interested in digital technologies (Durick et al., 2013), dis-empowering them as a group in digital media and perpetuating the exclusionary stigmatization of older people (Stangor and Schaller, 2000). ...
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Ageism is the most invisible form of discrimination. While there is some awareness of gender, racial, and socioeconomic discrimination on digital platforms, ageism has received less attention. This article analyzes some tools that are frequently embedded on digital platforms from an old-age perspective, in order to increase awareness of the different ways in which ageism works. We will firstly look at how innovation teams, following homophilic patterns, disregard older people. Secondly, we will show how ageism tends to be amplified by the methods often used on digital platforms. And thirdly, we will show how corporate values contradict the usability issues that mainly affect people with a low level of (digital) skills, which is more common among older people. Counterbalancing the abusive power control of the corporations behind digital platforms and compensating for the underrepresentation of groups in less favorable situations could help to tackle such discrimination.
... Yet, these distinctions are important for future research. For example, knowledge of collectively shared stereotypes is less predictive of one's own behavior toward men and women than personal stereotypes (Stangor & Schaller, 1996). Furthermore, prescriptive stereotypes (e.g., perceptions of how men and women should behave sexually) might be particularly relevant in the context of SDS as they have been associated with negative evaluations and backlash for people who behave in stereotype-inconsistent ways (Burgess & Borgida, 1999). ...
Article
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(Hetero)sexual double standards (SDS) entail that different sexual behaviors are appropriate for men and women. This meta-analysis ( k = 99; N = 123,343) tested predictions of evolutionary and biosocial theories regarding the existence of SDS in social cognitions. Databases were searched for studies examining attitudes or stereotypes regarding the sexual behaviors of men versus women. Studies assessing differences in evaluations, or expectations, of men’s and women’s sexual behavior yielded evidence for traditional SDS ( d = 0.25). For men, frequent sexual activity was more expected, and evaluated more positively, than for women. Studies using Likert-type-scale questionnaires did not yield evidence of SDS (combined M = −0.09). Effects were moderated by level of gender equality in the country in which the study was conducted, SDS-operationalization (attitudes vs. stereotypes), questionnaire type, and sexual behavior type. Results are consistent with a hybrid model incorporating both evolutionary and sociocultural factors contributing to SDS.
... When society is considered as a repository of knowledge, these widely held stereotypes are socio-cultural and group-level phenomena that can be (re-)produced and conveyed in the mass media (Stangor and Schaller, 2000). Research examining media content about older people can thus offer socio-cultural insights into the construction and maintenance of stereotypes of older people. ...
Article
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Social media facilitates the sharing of ideas, thoughts and information about older people and later life through online networks and communities in contemporary society. Social media content about older people has become important for understanding media representations of older people, but it has not been sufficiently studied. Recent studies suggest that older people are predominantly represented as a disempowered, vulnerable and homogeneous group on social media sites, such as Facebook and Twitter. Because local authorities in many countries have begun using Facebook to reach out to and interact with citizens, they are seen as a significant producer of media content about older people and later life. The purpose of this study is to examine the ways in which Swedish local authorities have visually portrayed older people in their use of Facebook compared with other age groups. This research performed a visual content analysis of 1,000 Facebook posts posted by 33 Swedish local authorities, employing ten analytical aspects to describe and interpret the signs, activities and contexts associated with older people and other age groups (infants, children, adolescents and adults). The study found that the representations of older people on the Facebook pages of local authorities appeared to be not very diverse; specifically, older people (including those in residential care homes) were mainly portrayed as remaining socially engaged and moderately physically capable. This media representation destabilised the prevalent negative stereotypes of older people as being out of touch and dependent; however, it collided with the reality of older individuals with care needs. Additionally, this study argues that older people are represented as inferior to the young in terms of physical and technological competence, based on the connotations of the signs. Given that local authorities have progressively incorporated social media into their daily work, it is expected that this study will contribute to a greater understanding of the ways in which local authorities produce (non-)stereotypical representations of older people on social media.
... The paucity of these features leads the individual to imagine the unknown features, thus running into a potential violation of expectancy [4]. When information is missing, people still form their impression by applying cognitive schemes [8,9]. They can rely on "typical types" by completing what they do not know about the potential partner with typical features for that social category (e.g., stereotypical features), or "ideal types" by completing missing information with an idealized version of the unknown features [10,11]. ...
Article
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Online dating apps facilitate the initiation of romantic relationships by helping users connect with new partners and meet them in subsequent face-to-face appointments. However, switching from online to face-to-face dating can induce expectancy violation and diminish attraction. Drawing on expectancy violation theory, we hypothesized that seeing just a few photos of the potential partner on their dating app profile can lead to these negative effects. Users who cannot rely on many photos for forming their impression are expected to idealize the person and show, in the moving from online to offline dating, lower levels of attraction, lower pleasantness of the person's characteristics, and worse expectancies about their personality. To test this hypothesis, 57 single young adults were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: half of them viewed a dating app profile with 18 photos of the potential partner; the other half viewed the same profile but with just 4 photos. Participants then filled out a questionnaire assessing their impressions (i.e., attraction, pleasantness, and expected personality). Later, participants watched a video interview of the person and completed a new questionnaire assessing their updated impressions. Results supported our hypothesis. While participants who had seen more photos maintained their impression as positive and stable, participants who had seen fewer photos showed, after the video, lower physical attraction, lower pleasantness of the person's characteristics (e.g., gestures), and worse expected personality traits. These results have important implications for the study of romantic attraction and online behaviors.
... It is through this information, provided by popular culture, that society's opinions are shaped and ultimately influence societal perceptions. Nearly twenty-two years ago, Stangor and Schaller (1996) elucidated that most stereotypes were transmitted through mass media in which stereotypes are "bought, sold, traded, checked out, and otherwise shared by millions, even billions of people across boundaries of distances and time untraveled by personal communication" (p.12). Subsequently within the last decade, increases in access to technology and social media outlets has exploded, changing the way most of us attain and share information. ...
Article
The understanding of how stuttering is portrayed in the news- paper media has largely been ignored but plays a role in pub- lic perception of stuttering. A text pattern analysis, cross- sectional study was conducted based upon analyses of pub- licly available data. The text corpus were generated from the U.S. newspaper media during 1980–2018 (downloaded from the database U.S. Major Dailies by ProQuest). The text cor- puses were analyzed using the Iramuteq software using the cluster analysis and Chi square tests. The newspaper data set had 970 texts (i.e., articles in the main corpus). The cluster analysis of the main corpus resulted in six clusters, which were named as: (1) music (2) sports (3) politics and economy (4) speech (5) cinema, and (6) general. The sub-corpus which was built based on aspects related to speech (i.e., cluster 4 in main corpus analysis) had 539 texts, which had at least one segment in sub-corpus. The cluster analysis of sub corpus resulted in four clusters, which were named as: (1) education and social support (2) personal aspects (3) aspects related to speech and (4) research and development. Time series analysis of clusters indicated a change in the pattern of information presented in newspaper media during 1980–2018. The study shows that stuttering has been presented in the media while discussing various elements including sports, arts and politics and economy, and speech. The aspects related to speech found media focuses on various elements including personal aspects, providing education and support, and providing new insights into research and development
... Cognitively, stereotypes are general beliefs about other groups based on simplified information (Stangor & Schaller, 1996;Tan et al., 2010). For example, Malays are often portrayed as lazy (Faisal and colleagues, 2010), Chinese as greedy (Shamsul, 2011: Chua et al., 2013 and Indian as drunkards (Ramli et. ...
... Garcia-Marques and Mackie (1999) relate stereotypes to an image about certain groups with typical characteristics that socially represent them. Stangor and Schaller (1996), Hinton (2000), Lizuka et al. (2002) relate the stereotyping process results not only from direct interpersonal relations but also from the social values shared by people within a culture. Particularly, 'stereotypes are both individual and cultural phenomena' through which social reality is perceived and described (Stangor and Schaller, 1996, p. 4). ...
Purpose – This paper explores the stereotype of the accountant in Florentine medieval popular culture based on literary works and from a historical perspective. It aims to highlight how stereotypes change with time and represent the cultural and historical evolution of a society. This research challenges Miley and Read (2012) who stated that the foundation of the stereotype was in Commedia dell’arte, an Italian form of improvisational theatre commenced in the 15th century. Design/methodology/approach – We applied a qualitative research method to examine the accountant from a medieval popular culture perspective. The analysis consists of two phases: (1) categorisation of the accountant stereotype based on accounting history literature and (2) thematic analysis of The Divine Comedy (1307–1313) and The Decameron (1348–1351). We explored a synchronic perspective of historical investigation through a ‘cross-author’ comparison, identifying Dante Alighieri as the first key author of medieval popular culture. During his imaginary journey through The Divine Comedy, Dante describes the social, political, and economic context of the Florentine people of the 14th century. Then, with its various folkloristic elements, The Decameron of Giovanni Boccaccio becomes the ‘manifesto’ of the popular culture in the Florentine medieval times. Findings – This study shows the change of the accountant stereotype from the medieval age to the Renaissance. The Divine Comedy mainly connotes a negative accountant stereotype. The 14th century’s Florentine gentlemen (‘i galantuomini’) are apparently positive characters, with an ordered and clean aspect, but they are accused of being usurers. Dante Alighieri pictures the accountant as a ‘servant of capitalism’, ‘dishonest person, excessively fixated with money’, ‘villain and evil’, and ‘excessively rational’. Giovanni Boccaccio mainly portrays a positive accountant stereotype. The accountant is increasingly more reliable, and this ‘commercial man’ takes a more prestigious role in the society. In The Decameron the accountant is depicted as a ‘hero’, ‘gentleman’, ‘family-oriented person with a high level of work commitment’, and ‘colourful persona, warm, and emotional’. Overall, we provided new evidence on the existence of the accountant stereotype in the Florentine medieval popular. Originality/value –This study engages with accounting history literature accountants’ stereotypes in an unexplored context and time-period, providing a base for comparative international research on accounting stereotypes and popular culture. Additionally, it addresses the need for further research on the accountant stereotype based on literary works, and from a historical perspective. Therefore, this research also expands the New Accounting History (NAH) literature, focusing on the investigation of the accountant stereotype connotations in the 14th century.
... If audiences constantly hear that immigrants are illegal, that they are criminals, that they are unhealthy, or that they are lazy, these words can potentially have the effect of reinforcing stereotypes passed down through generations. After all, as Stangor and Schaller (1996) Additionally, one of the findings of this research was that Mexican newspapers also used the term illegal sporadically. This finding suggests the extent to which this term, which is recognized by many in the United States as being derogatory, has been adopted ! ...
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The purpose of this study is to analyze how, in news articles published in online versions of print newspapers from both the United States and Mexico, media represent Mexican immigrants based on the wording they use in articles about immigration issues. The study was done by analyzing, counting and comparing the words used by newspapers. Using critical discourse analysis as methodology, this study aims to contribute to a growing body of literature on the language used by the media and its influence on media consumers.
... The individualistic approach defines the relationship of an individual to another individual from a different group based on the developed notions about the characteristic features of the social groups that are important in his/ her environment. Stereotypes do not only influence information that is remembered and used later on, but have an impact on the social behaviour of the person as well (see Stangor, Schaller 1996). ...
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Ethnicity and Identity in Media Discourse focusses on the problems of ethnicity and identity and they way they have been presented in the Bulgarian and the British media through the prism of tolerance and/ or intolerance. The subject at hand is such that it requires some preliminary knowledge in linguistics, text linguistics, discourse analysis and critical discourse analysis, that is why it is aimed primarily at students in English Studies or Applied Linguistics in their third or fourth year of study, presuming that they have already had lectures in syntax, lexicology, and text linguistics, so that they are familiar with the terminology used. The textbook, however, can be used by anyone interested in the topic as it provides guidelines into the conducting of CDA projects on one’s own.
... Country stereotypes refer to oversimplified beliefs about traits, intentions and behaviours that are characteristic of people living in a country, which are formed through direct or indirect experience (Chattalas and Takada, 2008;Maheswaran, 1994;Samiee, 1994). They not only reflect cognitions of single individuals, but are shared representations of the stereotyped entity within a society (Stangor and Schaller, 1996), 2 P. Gidaković et al. expanded to all members of the stereotyped entity when the respective categorization is applied (Bodenhausen, Kang and Peery, 2012). Brand user stereotypes capture the shared beliefs about individuals or social groups perceived to be users of a brand (Antonetti and Maklan, 2016). ...
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Although the importance of various brand‐related stereotypes held by consumers has been acknowledged in the marketing literature, their interplay has not yet been considered. We derive four alternative theoretical models of the relationships between brand, brand origin and brand user stereotypes and their effects on consumers’ value perceptions. The four models are subsequently tested on two nationally representative samples in Germany and Serbia, respectively. The best‐performing model in both studies predicts that brand origin and brand user stereotypes act as complementary drivers of the brand stereotype. In turn, value perceptions mediate the positive impact of the brand stereotype on purchase intent. This investigation is the first to: (a) juxtapose and empirically assess alternative theoretical perspectives on the interplay of brand‐related stereotypes; (b) reveal the combined influence of multiple stereotypes on consumers’ value perceptions and through them, on intentions to buy the brand; (c) determine the relative influence of distinct stereotype content dimensions (i.e. warmth vs. competence) on consumers’ perceptions of value; and (d) highlight the extent to which the interplay among different stereotypes in influencing consumer outcomes is stable across different market settings. Implications of the findings are considered and future research directions identified.
... The stereotyping process results not only from direct interpersonal relations, but also from the social values shared by people within a culture (e.g. Stangor and Schaller, 1996;Hinton, 2000;Lizuka et al., 2002). In other words, "stereotypes are both individual and cultural phenomena", through which social reality is perceived and described (Stangor and Schaller, 1996, p. 4). ...
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the portrayal of early accountants in the unfamiliar site of Portugal by examining Portuguese-language realist literature from the second half of the nineteenth century. Design/methodology/approach Two popular literary works – Uma Família Inglesa (An English Family), written by Júlio Dinis and published in 1867, and Singularidades de uma Rapariga Loura (The Idiosyncrasies of a Young Blonde Woman), written by Eça de Queirós and published in 1873 – were examined through a qualitative content analysis. Findings The dimensions of the accounting stereotype discerned for the two early accounting practitioners featured in these works are portrayed as: modest; on-the-job trained practitioner; uncreative, conservative and unenergetic; honest financial manager; servant of the capitalist (i.e. merchant), and warm and sentimental. The accountant stereotype depicted from 1860s to 1870s period is similar to the conventional accountant stereotype, identified as the “traditional accountant” stereotype. Variations from this stereotype, however, are identified in the local, time-specific settings of Lisbon and Oporto. Originality/value The study’s portrayal of early accounting practitioners occurs during a period of transformation marked by liberalism. It augments an understanding of the image of early accounting practitioners, reflecting their social positioning at a time of significant social, economic, political and cultural changes, thereby contributing to an appreciation of the historical legacy of the accountant stereotype in continental Europe. Importantly, a taxonomy is proposed for content analysis that can be used and developed by future researchers.
... Few psychological constructs are derided more enthusiastically, by psychologists and laypeople alike, than stereotypes. "Unfortunate" (Banaji & Greenwald, 2013), "faulty" (Allport, 1954), and "hateful" (Stangor & Schaller, 1996) are just a few of the common descriptors that social psychologists have offered. Eliminating their use would therefore seem to be a plausible approach for increasing the accuracy of mind perception. ...
Chapter
People care about the minds of others, attempting to understand others' thoughts, attitudes, beliefs, intentions, and emotions using a highly sophisticated process of social cognition. Others' minds are among the most complicated systems that any person will ever think about, meaning that inferences about them are also made imperfectly. Research on the processes that enable mental state inference has largely developed in isolation from research examining the accuracy of these inferences, leaving the former literature somewhat impractical and the latter somewhat atheoretical. We weave these literatures together by describing how basic mechanisms that govern the activation and application of mental state inferences help to explain systematic patterns of accuracy, error, and confidence in mind perception. Altering any of these basic processes, such as through perspective taking or increasing attention to behavioral cues, is likely to increase accuracy only in very specific circumstances. We suggest the most widely effective method for increasing accuracy is to avoid these inference processes altogether by getting another's perspective directly (what we refer to as perspective getting). Those in the midst of understanding the mind of another, however, seem largely unable to detect when they are using an effective versus ineffective strategy while engaging in mind reading, meaning that the most effective approaches for increasing interpersonal understanding are likely to be highly undervalued. Understanding how mind perception is activated and applied can explain accuracy and error, identifying effective strategies that mind readers may nevertheless fail to appreciate in their everyday lives. Through a looking glass, darkly: Using mechanisms of mind perception to identify accuracy, overconfidence, and underappreciated means for improvement.
... Prejudicial attitudes emerge during the preschool period, albeit inconsistently, change throughout childhood, vary by target groups, and are more malleable in childhood than in adulthood. By adulthood, negative intergroup attitudes are deeply entrenched and difficult to change (Stangor & Schaller, 2000). Thus, childhood is a time for interventions designed to promote change. ...
Article
Incidents of prejudice and discrimination in K–12 schools have increased over the past decade around the world, including the United States. In 2018, more than two-thirds of the 2,776 U.S. educators surveyed reported witnessing a hate or bias incident in their school. Children and adolescents who experience prejudice, social exclusion, and discrimination are subject to compromised well-being and low academic achievement. Few educators feel prepared to incorporate this topic into the education curriculum. Given the long-term harm related to experiencing social exclusion and discrimination, school districts need to create positive school environments and directly address prejudice and bias. Several factors are currently undermining progress in this area. First, national debates in the United States and other countries have politicized the topic of creating fair and just school environments. Second, the COVID-19 pandemic has interrupted children's and adolescents’ education by halting academic progress which has particularly negatively affected students from marginalized and ethnic/racial minority backgrounds. Third, teachers have experienced significant stress during COVID-19 with an increase in anxiety around virtual instruction and communication with parents. Three strategies recommended to address these converging problems include creating inclusive and nondiscriminatory policies for schools, promoting opportunities for intergroup contact and mutual respect, and implementing evidence-based, developmentally appropriate education programs. It is anticipated that these strategies will help to reduce prejudice, increase ethnic and racial identity (ERI), and promote equity, fairness, and justice in school environments.
... In addition to demographics, the present study investigates the frequency with which news photographs illustrate stereotypes concerning military veterans and negative consequences of service. Stereotypes are conceptually defined as a generalized belief associated with a social group (Bodenhausen, Todd, & Becker, 2007), and the mass media represent a major contributor to the spread of stereotypes in modern society (Stangor & Schaller, 1996). Both news organizations and the American cinema have been criticized for storylines in which veterans return home as "ticking time bombs" primed to perpetuate violence against themselves and others (e.g., Merry, 2015). ...
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Commenters have expressed concern over media content related to military veterans, saying journalists fail to provide the public with an accurate understanding of what it means to be a veteran. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the representation of veterans in news media content. The present study analyzed 740 photographs shared by regional news outlets on the popular social media platform Twitter. Coders documented the representation of veteran groups (gender, race, and service period) and stereotypes concerning veterans (homelessness, charity, and trauma) in the images. Results showed that the photographs rarely communicated stereotypes about veterans. Photographs overrepresented female veterans, although male veterans remained the significant majority. Minority veterans were underrepresented. Photographs most often contained images associated with World War II.
... In all this, communication is of considerable importance (Voronov and Weber, 2020;Bitektine et al., 2020;Meyer and Vaara, 2020) as it is the nodal point of the social construction of social reality (Berger and Luckmann, 1967), able to represent the reputation of professional organisations (Maass and Arcuri, 1996;Stangor and Schaller, 1996;Rocher et al., 2021). Public sector audit institutions use reports, media announcements and the Internet to communicate with their stakeholders and, in turn, gain visibility from both their stakeholders and the wider public (Gonz alez et al., 2008). ...
Article
Purpose This paper explores how public audit institutions establish themselves as distinct actors on the public stage through communication practices. By focussing on the journey of the European Court of Auditors (ECA), this paper addresses the following research question: how does a transnational audit institution construct its actorhood through visual communication practices? Design/methodology/approach Using the theoretical framework of actorhood theory and inspired by the visual accounting methodology, this study explores the ECA actorhood journey through the visual analysis of front pages of its official journal (ECA Journal) from its inception in 2009 up to 2019. The visual analysis is conducted through content analysis and a two-step cluster analysis. Findings By showing how combinations of different visual artefacts have evolved over time, this study highlights the ways transnational public audit institutions, such as the ECA, construct their actorhood and position themselves on the public stage. It further reveals the underlying legitimacy mechanisms through which organisations such as the ECA position themselves in the public eye. Originality/value This study sheds light on the depiction of individuals and their contexts in interaction with each other and how this interaction reveals the development of the actorhood journey of the ECA over time.
... Despite these potential confounds, surveys have also found that Latin American immigrants were viewed more negatively than others in the U.S., and were more likely to be assigned to low level dead end jobs than those from other nations (Pew, 2017). Still other studies revealed that raters develop shared stereotypes of immigrants in a host country, and these shared stereotypes have a major influence on reactions to them (Stangor & Schaller, 2000). For example, many citizens in the U. S. are aware of the negative stereotypes of Mexican immigrants (e.g., they are unintelligent, violent, untrustworthy, and criminals) (Timberlake & Williams, 2012), and these shared stereotypes have a detrimental impact on job expectancies and job ratings about them (Krings & Olivares, 2007). ...
... If this is true, research much explore how different contexts shape unconscious or implicit bias. Similar to others, the implicit biases of police officers may be influenced by early childhood socialization experiences (Hirschfeld, 1995;Patchen, Davidson, Hofmann, & Brown, 1977;Stangor & Schaller, 1996) and exposure to mass media (Bell, 1992;Stinton, 1980). Importantly, the implicit biases of police officers must be placed in the context of their occupation. ...
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In Floyd et al. v The City of New York (2013), the federal district court judge ruled that the NYPD was engaging in unconstitutional stop-and-frisk practices that targeted predominately Black and Latino New Yorkers. Among the major decisions made in Floyd (2013), the judge identified “Furtive Movement” as being a weak indicator for establishing the reasonable suspicion needed to justify a Terry stop. Moreover, the judge recognized that “Furtive Movement” is a vague and subjective term, which may be affected by unconscious bias and lead to racial and ethnic disparities in stop outcomes. Building on the judge’s concern about unconscious bias, the current study attempts to (1) provide a theoretical framework for understanding how police officers’ worldview may contribute to or interact with unconscious biases and to (2) examine whether NYPD officers are more likely to stop Black and Hispanic New Yorkers than their White counterparts for the reason of “Furtive Movement”. The latter inquiry is explored using NYPD stop-and-frisk data from 2011, 2013, and 2016. The social scientific implications of this research provides support for (1) the judge’s apprehension toward police stops on the basis of furtive gestures and (2) the effectiveness of court-ordered intervention.
... All of that, according to the behavior from intergroup affect and stereotypes perspective, predict distinct behaviors: active facilitation (e.g., help and protect) for HC-HW and LC-HW, passive facilitation (e.g., cooperate with and associate with) for HC-HW and HC-LW, active harm (e.g., fight and attack) for HC-LW and LC-LW, and passive harm (e.g., exclude and demean) for LC-HW and LC-LW. Earliest works on stereotypes also suggested that they provide social norms for prejudice and discrimination and can serve as justification for reactions toward outgroups (e.g., Stangor and Schaller, 1996;Jost and Hamilton, 2005). 3 The second largest group is the Tatars (3.9%), next, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Chuvashs, and Chechens (about 1% of the population for each group). ...
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The stereotype content model (SCM), originating in the United States and generalized across nearly 50 countries, has yet to address ethnic relations in one of the world's most influential nations. Russia and the United States are somewhat alike (large, powerful, immigrant-receiving), but differ in other ways relevant to intergroup images (culture, religions, ideology, and history). Russian ethnic stereotypes are understudied, but significant for theoretical breadth and practical politics. This research tested the SCM on ethnic stereotypes in a Russian sample (N = 1115). Study 1 (N = 438) produced an SCM map of the sixty most numerous domestic ethnic groups (both ethnic minorities and immigrants). Four clusters occupied the SCM warmth-by-competence space. Study 2 (N = 677) compared approaches to ethnic stereotypes in terms of status and competition, cultural distance, perceived region, and four intergroup threats. Using the same Study 1 groups, the Russian SCM map showed correlated warmth and competence, with few ambivalent stereotypes. As the SCM predicts, status predicted competence, and competition negatively predicted warmth. Beyond the SCM, status and property threat both were robust antecedents for both competence and warmth for all groups. Besides competition, cultural distance also negatively predicted warmth for all groups. The role of the other antecedents, as expected, varied from group to group. To examine relative impact, a network analysis demonstrated that status, competition, and property threat centrally influence many other variables in the networks. The SCM, along with antecedents from other models, describes Russian ethnic-group images. This research contributes: (1) a comparison of established approaches to ethnic stereotypes (from acculturation and intergroup relations) showing the stability of the main SCM predictions; (2) network structures of the multivariate dependencies of the considered variables; (3) systematically cataloged images of ethnic groups in Russia for further comparisons, illuminating the Russian historical, societal, and interethnic context.
... Stereotypes are widely held cultural beliefs and expectations, generalized attitudes or evaluations about individuals who share a social address or position, such as ethnicity, race, gender, social class, or nationality (Stangor and Schaller 1996). Stereotypes offer a lens through which one can observe the impact of macro level forces (e.g., culture) on micro level contexts, such as friendships. ...
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An extensive theoretical and empirical literature suggests that friendships are an important, if not essential, micro-context of adolescent development – shaping youth identity, school and civic engagement, and psychological and physical wellbeing. Friendships are also themselves embedded within, and shaped by, the larger macro-context of culture (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), including racial-ethnic stereotypes (García-Coll et al., 1996; Spencer, 1995). Yet, the study of friendship rarely examines the influence of the macro-context or includes racial-ethnic minority youth despite the fact that such youth represent half of the American youth population. In this chapter, we review research on the friendships of racial-ethnic minority youth and focus specifically on how the macro-context of social-identity based stereotypes shapes the micro-context of friendships.
... There is a large body of literature on how cognitive representations are developed and which cognitive mechanisms sustain stereotypes (McGarty, 2002;Stangor & Lange, 1994). We learn to categorise as children (Bigler, 1995) and the content of stereotypes comes from our surroundings -parents, media, peers and culture (Stangor & Schaller, 1996). Several mechanisms explain and reinforce the process of learning stereotypes from social and cultural surroundings, such as social learning, conformity or taking on social roles (Mackie, Hamilton, Susskind, & Rosselli, 1996). ...
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The stereotyped content of outgroups denotes intergroup relations. Based on this notion, Susan Fiske and colleagues (2002, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.82.6.878) created the stereotype content model (SCM), which links two dimensions, warmth and competence, with social structure. The structure of intergroup relations is not stable in time, nor is it shaped instantly. Based on the assumptions of SCM we predict that the history of intergroup relations is in part responsible for stereotypes. In order to test the hypothesis we reanalysed five Polish nationwide, representative surveys (total N = 4834). The studies followed a similar procedure for data collection, and each study asked an open-ended question about the traits of two ethnic groups (Jews and Germans). Answers were listed and coded using competent judges. The averages of the judges’ codes were used as indicators of stereotype content and an analysis of regional differences was conducted. Several significant results were obtained and are interpreted in line with warm – competition and competence – status relations. The results show that several historical situations and events, such as pre-WWII social structure or post-war migrations and territorial changes, can be linked to contemporary stereotypes.
... Students in the lecture and Shrek exercise group were enrolled in a psychology of prejudice course. Following a live lecture on stigma, prejudice, and stereotypes, which was recorded via Panopto (2014) for use in the control groups, students completed an exercise to enhance their understanding of theory and research about stereotypes (e.g., Stangor & Schaller, 1996), stigma (e.g., Jones et al., 1984), and self-esteem (e.g., Crocker & Major, 1989) featuring the film Shrek (Adamson & Jenson, 2001). Students used a worksheet to record their observations and link course-related concepts to the movie scenes (see Appendix A for the student worksheet). ...
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We examine the degree to which women and men use humor to confront sexist jokes. We also test the social benefits and perceived effectiveness of confronting with humor. One-hundred-sixty-four (46% female) participants read about a male coworker who made a sexist joke and reported how they would respond in an open-ended format. Women were more likely than men to say they would respond with humor. Specifically, 16% of women, compared to 4.5% of men, spontaneously provided a humorous confrontation. Participants then read a second scenario that asked them to imagine a male friend making a sexist joke. We manipulated the confronter’s gender and the type of confrontation (humorous versus serious) in the scenario. Confronters who used a humorous (versus serious) response were rated as more likeable but less effective. People often hesitate to confront sexism for fear of social repercussions. Given that humorous confrontation reduces social backlash, it might be worth slightly lower perceived effectiveness to increase overall rates of confronting sexism.
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Lebanon’s urban landscape, littered with derelict houses, bullet-scarred walls, sectarian war symbols, posters and effigies of fallen fighters/martyrs, continues to be one of the most enduring reminders of the country’s violent and bloody past. For Lebanese author Jean Said Makdisi, ‘physical landmarks’ evoke memories of personal pain and sorrow, and provide intimate spaces in which the past can be inhabited and relived. Yet equally, for sixteen-year-old high school student Alain, generational distance does not lessen the power or salience of these remnants of war. In his mind they still evoke images, narratives and emotions that bring the past to life. "I was born 1990 when it all ended, but I hear all the stories...I have pictures of the war and I have memories of the buildings and what happened there. Sometimes when we drive through an area, I am reminded of the past, the violence and destruction, it still shouts out to you." (Alain, Dekwaneh, 2006) While Aristotelian tradition affirms the practice of transferring memory to solid material objects and places, it may be more accurate in historian Robert Bevan’s words, to understand the built environment as ‘merely a prompt, a corporeal reminder of the events involved in its construction, use and destruction’ (2006: 15). Visual prompts therefore are invested with mnemonic power and meaning through the interpretative forces of narrative tradition (the story) and spatial practice (the lived experience and use of space), which remain subject to contestation and reinvention over time. These historic traces cannot be limited to what can be seen; for Alain they are also to be found in the silences, empty spaces and voids that dominate Beirut’s downtown and still punctuate the Khutut al-tammas (line of fire), or ‘Green Line’ delineating east and west. Sites of displacement are just as salient as the visible traces of the war and indeed offer creative space for forms of emplacement through which Lebanese can redefine themselves and their relationships to others (Flynn 1997). Both tangible sites and spaces of absence help establish a dynamic memoryscape of multilayered social histories and personal (re) imaginings. In this chapter I will explore how Lebanese youth negotiate and interpret the visual legacy of war. How are physical sites of memory and displacement significant in the construction of identity, boundaries and ideologies of difference? How are remembrances affected by space, interaction and intimacy, and how are they mediated and understood across changing social spheres?
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The book looks into the ways Muslims are presented in the Bulgarian and the British media. The main approach used is Critical Discourse Analysis and the corpus is comprised of media articles in both the Bulgarian and the British media.
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The present study aims (1) to study stereotype contents of a target population, and (2) to test the predictive power of three contesting theoretical models in the communication framework of who→says what→in which channel→to whom→with what effect ( Lasswell, 1948 ). A purposive sample of ( N = 291) Vietnamese high school and college students found that they have positive stereotypes about Americans in general and a mix of positive and negative stereotypes about Black/African-Americans. Of the three theoretical models, the communication model had collectively the strongest predictors, followed by the psychological model, and then the contact model. Theoretical as well as practical implications of the study is discussed.
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We use the case of welfare recipients to validate conjoint experiments as a measure of stereotype content. Stereotypes are politically consequential, but their content can be difficult to measure. The conjoint measure of stereotype content, in which respondents see profiles describing hypothetical persons and rate these persons’ degree of belonging to the target group, offers several advantages over existing measures. However, no existing work evaluates the validity of this new measure. We evaluate this measurement technique using the case of welfare recipients. Stereotypes of welfare recipients are politically important and extensively studied, providing strong a priori expectations for portions of the stereotype, especially race, gender, and “deservingness.” At the same time, scholars disagree about the importance of another attribute with important political implications: immigration status. We find that aggregate stereotypes, measured via a conjoint experiment, match the strong a priori expectations: white Americans see welfare recipients as black, female, and violating the norms of work ethic. Individual-level stereotypes also predict welfare policy support—even when other demographic and ideological factors are accounted for. We also find that immigration status is not a part of the welfare recipient stereotype for most Americans, but support for welfare is lower among those who do stereotype welfare recipients as undocumented immigrants. Finally, we suggest an improvement in the conjoint task instructions. Overall, we confirm that conjoint experiments provide a valid measure of stereotypes.
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The Jordanian-American novelist Laila Halaby is perceived as one of the most well-known contemporary Arab-American writers whose hyphenated identity raises questions regarding which side of the hyphen she belongs to. In this respect, one way to determine whether Halaby identifies herself as an Arab or an American is to examine how she perceives and explores Arab and American cultures and to investigate the different images she constructs about Arabs and Americans. In West of the Jordan (2003), throughout the tales of the four female cousins, this American writer of Arab descent explores the Arab communal values and conventions, as well as the Western beliefs and ways of life. Most importantly, Halaby depicts different images of Arabs and non-Arabs in the context of social, political, and economic conflicts and relationships. In this article, the focus will be mainly on the images of non-Arabs in West of the Jordan . My study, accordingly, draws on Edward Said’s Orientalism and its counterpart Occidentalism , which offer theories of communal and identity construction, as well as practices that lead to stereotyping discourses about the other. This article will consequently start with a definition of the term Orientalism and its counterpart Occidentalism , moving on to deal with the different images of non-Arabs in the second part. Indeed, this latter section investigates how Halaby, who belongs to the Western and Eastern worlds, produces knowledge of the Western society and culture, by offering interesting representations of the two worlds. The third part will shed some light on Halaby’s attitude toward the American world and toward the Arab-American relationships.
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The social ecological model takes a holistic approach to complex social issues. As such, it might offer important clues as to how prejudices could be overcome. Prejudices are negative attitudes typically directed at individuals and out-groups. An analysis of prejudices reveals that they have their origins in individuals and their social peers. The social ecological model encompasses individual characteristics as well as the social and physical environment in which individuals are raised because these social ecological factors need to be considered when seeking a means of overcoming prejudices. Another important aspect is persuasion because individuals tend to ignore information that contradicts their established attitudes while distorting information so that it fits into preexisting attitudes. According to the Social Judgement Theory, individuals are only persuaded by messages that fall within their latitudes of acceptance. The text proposes a comprehensive approach in line with the social ecological model to overcome prejudices.
Purpose In analysing the beancounter image's trajectory, from its birth to its persistence, in European French language comics between 1945 and 2016, this paper explores why artists continue beancounter image usage in popular culture. Design/methodology/approach Beancounter characters have been studied in an application of Iconology (Panofsky, 1955) in order to unravel how individuals make sense of cultural artefacts and how, in turn, the visuals shape cultural belief systems at a given time. Findings This study reveals that comics artists usage of the beancounter image results from their critical reactions to management and capitalism whilst at other times the usage is an indication of authenticity. Motivation for the usage is not constant over time nor is the impact of the beancounter image. Both appear dependant of the level of artistic freedom experienced by the artist. Research limitations/implications Based on a single media (comics) with a unique characters (European French language) this study deepens exploration of the ways in which accounting becomes entwined with the everyday and implies that further research is needed. Originality/value Extends the work of Smith and Jacobs (2011) and Jacobs and Evans (2012) by focusing on a genre of popular culture over a long period, and by adopting a critical viewpoint. Also expands the possible applications of Panofsky's (1955) Iconology in accounting studies.
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The identification of objects based on their form is a task that we carry out on a daily basis without much difficulties and without asking ourselves how the identity comes to the form. Semiotics assumes the task of describing this process from the moment in which the identity of the object, its categorization, is conceived in terms of meaning. However, a difficulty immediately arises of describing by a general method the diversity of forms that man faces. Here it is proposed to carry out the description of three-dimensional shapes from two-dimensional images and with the help of a qualitative analysis in terms of reference points, inscribed on a positional grid. The paper justifies the semiotic relevance of the adopted method and illustrates its application through a study of pre-Hispanic Mayan vessels.
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An important macrosystem surrounding immigrant groups in the United States, which impact the lived experience of how immigrants are perceived and treated, are the stereotypes and social representations held about the groups. Although research has consistently found that stereotypes about Black Americans are profoundly negative and generally shared, it is unclear whether stereotypes about Black immigrants follow a similar pattern, or whether the set of traits forms a distinct category. Black immigrants, a group making up about 10% of the broader Black population in the United States, may be navigating within bioecological systems in which race lessens ethnic differences between immigrant and Black Americans and similar stereotypic characterizations exist about both groups. Alternately, it may be that Black immigrants are negotiating within a broader context of stereotypes and social representations that are distinct from those about Black Americans. This study measured the distribution and content of stereotype traits about Black Americans and Black immigrants to the United States across three participant groups: Black immigrants, Black Americans, and White Americans. The traits generated about Black Americans were broad, primarily negative, and widely shared across and within the three participant groups. Stereotype traits about Black immigrants, in contrast, were comparatively narrow and showed low consensus, but were relatively positive. The implications of the findings about group representations at the macrosystem level are discussed for interpersonal, intergroup, and socioeconomic outcomes.
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A tanulmány a csoportközi érintkezés és a biztonságérzet közötti oksági összefüggést teszteli egy közép-magyarországi település példáján. A 2015-től kezdődő menekültválság és az erre épülő kormányzati kampány döntően tematizálta a közhangulatot, és átalakította nemcsak a menekültekhez, de az Európán kívüli területekről származó emberekhez társított asszociációkat is. Számos magyar számára a menekültek „betelepítésének” lehetősége, az eltérő bőrszínű vagy vallású emberek településükön való megjelenése félelemérzet forrásává válhatott. Az írás a kísérleti társadalomtudomány módszertanát segítségül hívva azt vizsgálja, hogy milyen reakciókat vált ki egy minimális beavatkozás: mindösszesen kettő afrikai férfival történő napi kontaktus az ingázás kontextusában. Ugyanazon vasúti viszonylatot használó ingázók két csoportja alkotta a kísérleti és a kontrollcsoportot, amelyeket csak a vonatok negyedórás követési ideje különböztetett meg egymástól. Előbbi vonat utazóközönsége ugyanakkor két tanzániai férfi kíséretében utazott, akik a kutatás asszisztenseiként hét napon át ingáztak Budapestre. Az utasok mindeközben egy, névleg vasútfejlesztéssel kapcsolatos kérdőív kitöltésére lettek felkérve, amely ugyanakkor biztonságérzetre vonatkozó kérdéseket is tartalmazott. A kísérleti (N = 32) és a kontrollcsoportba (N = 31) besorolt válaszadók között statisztikailag szignifikáns különbség volt megfigyelhető a beavatkozást követően. Azon válaszadók, akik olyan vonattal utaztak, amelyen az asszisztensek tartózkodtak, jelentősen alacsonyabb biztonságérzetről számoltak be a vasútállomást, illetve annak környezetét illetően az elvégzett t-próbák és az illesztett regressziós modell eredményei alapján. A kutatás eredményei alátámasztják a kontaktushipotézis módosított változatát – amely szerint a „minőségi” és a futólagos, felszínes kapcsolat ellentétes előjellel kapcsolódik a migrációval kapcsolatos félelmekhez –, és első közvetlen, mikroszintű tesztjét adja az elmúlt évek biztonságiasító diskurzusának.
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To δίπολο ιστορία-Ιστορία του 1821 και η διττή τροπικότητα στο παιδικό βιβλίο γνώσεων Περίληψη Οι συγγραφείς των παιδικών βιβλίων γνώσεων επιχειρούν να μεταδώσουν στους ανήλικους αναγνώστες πληροφορίες για ένα θέμα, ένα γεγονός ή μια επιστήμη μέσα από ιστορίες εύληπτες και ευχάριστες, που διακρίνονται, ωστόσο, για την επιστημονική τους εγκυρότητα και τις επιδέξιες τεχνικές των δημιουργών και των εικονογράφων. Η Ιστορία πραγματεύεται τα γεγονότα του παρελθόντος που έχουν πρωταγωνιστή τον άνθρωπο και σκοπός της διδασκαλίας της στους νέους είναι, μεταξύ άλλων, η μετάδοση αξιών, η αξιολόγηση του τρόπου διαμόρφωσης των ανθρώπινων σχέσεων μέσα στο χρόνο, και η ώθησή τους να σκέπτονται κριτικά. Εύλογα, επομένως, κερδίζει διαρκώς έδαφος ως θεματική στο συγκεκριμένο κειμενικό είδος, που αρθρώνεται σε γλωσσικό και ιδεολογικό επίπεδο και βασίζεται σε αφηγηματικά τεχνάσματα με παιδευτική αξία, αποτελώντας έναν πολυφωνικό, πολιτισμικό «τόπο». Καθώς ο Αγώνας της Εθνικής Παλιγγενεσίας του 1821 αποτελεί σπουδαίο ζήτημα σε ιστορικό, κοινωνικό, γεωπολιτικό, διπλωματικό, οικονομικό, εθνικό και διεθνές επίπεδο, η εξιστόρηση γεγονότων της Ελληνικής Επανάστασης στα παιδιά δύναται να ενισχύσει τον κριτικό τους προβληματισμό, ενώσω τους προσφέρει τη δυνατότητα να μάθουν το παρελθόν τους μέσα από την ερμηνεία των αλλαγών που έλαβαν τότε χώρα σε ηθικό, ιδεολογικό, πολιτισμικό και θρησκευτικό επίπεδο. Εν προκειμένω, θα εξεταστεί ο τρόπος με τον οποίο η συγγραφέας Γιολάντα Χατζή, με τη συμβολή της ιστορικού Χριστίνας Κουλούρη και του εικονογράφου Πέτρου Χριστούλια, επιχείρησε να ενσταλλάξει σε παιδιά προσχολικής και πρωτοσχολικής ηλικίας πολύτιμες γνώσεις και πολιτισμικά στοιχεία αναφοράς, όπως είναι η ατομική και κοινωνική μνήμη, μέσα από το έργο της Ρήγας Φεραίος της σειράς «Μικρές ελληνικές ιστορίες» (εκδόσεις Καστανιώτη, 2020). Λέξεις-κλειδιά: παιδικό βιβλίο γνώσεων, 1821, Ιστορία, εικονογράφηση
Purpose In the context of Portugal, this study examines the stereotypes of accountants held by laypeople and how they are influenced by financial crises and accounting scandals. Design/methodology/approach To better understand the social images of accountants, the authors adopt a structural approach based on the big five model (BFM) of personality. The authors test this approach on a Portuguese community sample ( N = 727) using a questionnaire survey. The results are analyzed considering the socioanalytic theory. Findings The results suggest the existence of a stereotype dominated by features of conscientiousness, which is related to the superior performance of work tasks across job types. This feature comprises the core characteristics of the traditional accountant stereotype, which survives in a context challenged by financial scandals and crises. The findings highlight the social acceptance of accountants as an occupational group but do not suggest the possibility of accountants benefiting from the highest levels of social status when considered in relation to the traditional accountant stereotype. Originality/value By combining the BFM and the socioanalytic theory, this study provides a unique theoretical approach to better understand the social images of accountants. The findings demonstrate the suitability of using the BFM to study the social perceptions of accountants. They also indicate a paradox based on the survival of the traditional stereotype. This stereotype appears to be resistant to scandals and financial crisis, instead of being impaired, giving rise to another prototype with concerns about integrity.
Chapter
The chapter discusses peer relations in adolescents which has a significant impact on their life. It colours and shapes the perception and behaviour of adolescents to a great extent. Peers and friends play an important role in the socialization process of children and affect various developmental aspects. The shifting influence of family to peers as children grow leads to generation gaps and may create negative parent–child communication and other behavioural problems including risk-taking behaviours. The chapter explains the development of peer relations, romantic relations, and the various factors affecting peer relations such as social media. Peer victimization affects the adolescent development and interpersonal relationship in a significant way. Finally, the chapter deliberates on managing peer relations so as to make a positive impact on the adolescent development.
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In this paper, we explore ageist depictions of both young and older people as they emerge from discourses addressing ‘other people's’ digital media usage practices. We carried out eight focus groups (four with teenagers, four with people aged 65 or older) in two southern European cities (Rome and Barcelona). By negotiating the affordances and constraints of (digital) tools and platforms, people develop their own usage norms and strategies, which might – or might not – be intersubjectively shared. Discourses surrounding usage practices and norms tend to refer to what people understand as an appropriate way of using digital platforms: these discourses proved to be powerful triggers for expressing ageist stereotypes; ‘the others’ were depicted, by both teenage and older participants, as adopting inappropriate usage practices (with regard to content, form, skills and adherence to social norms). These reflections proved to have broader implications on how other age cohorts are perceived: participants tended to take discourses on digital media usage as an opportunity for making generalised judgements about ‘the others’, which address their manners, as well as their attitude towards communication and social life. Inter-group discrimination processes and ageist stereotypes play a major role in shaping the strong moralistic and patronising judgements expressed by older and younger participants towards ‘the other’ age cohort.
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