Effectiveness of an influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine among Japanese pregnant women: A prospective observational study assessing antibody efficacy
Department of Public Health, Osaka City University Faculty of Medicine, 1-4-3, Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585, Japan. Electronic address: . Vaccine
(Impact Factor: 3.62).
10/2012; 30(52). DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.10.027
In order to estimate the effectiveness of an influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine among pregnant women, we prospectively observed 135 Japanese pregnant women who received an influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during November 2009. We calculated an index of "antibody efficacy", in which the medical visits for respiratory illnesses were compared between those with and without post-vaccination hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer ≥1:40. The product of antibody efficacy and achievement rate is theoretically equivalent to the vaccine effectiveness. Among all subjects, an inverse but non-significant relationship during the epidemic period was observed between post-vaccination HI titer ≥1:40 and medical visits for respiratory illnesses. After stratification by trimester at recruitment, a significant inverse association during the epidemic period was found among subjects in the first or second trimester (antibody efficacy: 91%, vaccine effectiveness: 79%). The influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine administered in the first or second trimester reduced medical visits for respiratory illnesses among Japanese pregnant women.
Available from: Yuanbao Liu
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ABSTRACT: To monitor and evaluate the safety of the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine in pregnant women and its influence on the fetus and neonate,
we performed a prospective study in which 122 pregnant Chinese women who received the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine and 104 pregnant
women who did not receive any vaccine (serving as controls) were observed. The results indicated that the seroconversion rate
in the vaccinated group was 90.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.6% to 95.5%). The rate of adverse events following immunization
in the pregnant women who received the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine was 3.3%. The spontaneous abortion rates in the vaccinated
group and the unvaccinated group were 0.8% and 1.9%, respectively (exact probability test, P = 0.470), the prolonged-pregnancy rates were 8.2% and 4.8%, respectively (χ2 = 1.041, P = 0.308), the low-birth-weight rates were 1.6% and 0.95%, respectively (exact probability test, P = 1.000), and the spontaneous-labor rates were 70.5% and 75%, respectively (χ2 = 0.573, P = 0.449). All newborns who have an Apgar score of ≥7 are considered healthy; Apgar scores of ≥9 were observed in 38.5% and
57.7% of newborns in the vaccinated group and the unvaccinated group, respectively (χ2 = 8.274, P = 0.004). From these results, we conclude that the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine is safe for pregnant women and has no observed
adverse effects on fetal growth. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01842997.)
Available from: sciencedirect.com
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ABSTRACT: The current approach to protecting pregnant women from influenza infection and serious influenza-related complications is vaccination. It is, therefore, critical to evaluate the vaccine's safety, immunogenicity, and protection efficacy during pregnancy. However, because it is affected by previous influenza vaccination or infection, the efficacy of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is difficult to evaluate in pregnant women. The A/H1N1pdm pandemic in 2009 provided us with the opportunity to evaluate the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine unaffected by previous vaccinations or infections. Vaccination with inactivated influenza virus during pregnancy elicited neutralizing antibody titers that were sufficient and comparable to those of naturally infected individuals. Furthermore, post-pandemic surveys provided a wealth of definitive information on vaccine efficacy and safety. In addition, transplacental transfer of antibodies following vaccination protected newborn infants against influenza infection. With reports showing the effectiveness of influenza vaccine during pregnancy, it is suggested that influenza vaccination benefits both mothers and their young infants.
Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Available from: Sharon Nachman
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ABSTRACT: Influenza infections have high frequency and morbidity in HIV-infected pregnant women, underscoring the importance of vaccine-conferred protection. To identify the factors that determine vaccine immunogenicity in this group, we characterized the relationship of B- and T-cell responses to pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) vaccine with HIV-associated immunologic and virologic characteristics.
pH1N1 and seasonal-H1N1 (sH1N1) antibodies were measured in 119 HIV-infected pregnant women after two double-strength pH1N1 vaccine doses. pH1N1-IgG and IgA B-cell FluoroSpot, pH1N1- and sH1N1-interferon γ (IFNγ) and granzyme B (GrB) T-cell FluoroSpot, and flow cytometric characterization of B- and T-cell subsets were performed in 57 subjects.
pH1N1-antibodies increased after vaccination, but less than previously described in healthy adults. pH1N1-IgG memory B cells (Bmem) increased, IFNγ-effector T-cells (Teff) decreased, and IgA Bmem and GrB Teff did not change. pH1N1-antibodies and Teff were significantly correlated with each other and with sH1N1-HAI and Teff, respectively, before and after vaccination. pH1N1-antibody responses to the vaccine significantly increased with high proportions of CD4+, low CD8+ and low CD8+HLADR+CD38+ activated (Tact) cells. pH1N1-IgG Bmem responses increased with high proportions of CD19+CD27+CD21- activated B cells (Bact), high CD8+CD39+ regulatory T cells (Treg), and low CD19+CD27-CD21- exhausted B cells (Bexhaust). IFNγ-Teff responses increased with low HIV plasma RNA, CD8+HLADR+CD38+ Tact, CD4+FoxP3+ Treg and CD19+IL10+ Breg.
In conclusion, pre-existing antibody and Teff responses to sH1N1 were associated with increased responses to pH1N1 vaccination in HIV-infected pregnant women suggesting an important role for heterosubtypic immunologic memory. High CD4+% T cells were associated with increased, whereas high HIV replication, Tact and Bexhaust were associated with decreased vaccine immunogenicity. High Treg increased antibody responses but decreased Teff responses to the vaccine. The proportions of immature and transitional B cells did not affect the responses to vaccine. Increased Bact were associated with high Bmem responses to the vaccine.
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