Cyclic Test Comparison of All-Inside Device and Inside-Out Sutures for Radial Meniscus Lesion Repair: An In Vitro Porcine Model Study
Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.A.Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.21). 10/2012; 28(12). DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2012.06.015
PURPOSE: To compare biomechanical fixation and gapping characteristics of a new all-inside meniscus repair method for radial meniscus lesion repair versus conventional inside-out suture repair under submaximal cyclic loading and load-to-failure test conditions. METHODS: Fresh-frozen porcine tibiae with attached lateral menisci and joint capsules were harvested and stored for 48 hours at -20°C. After thawing for 12 hours, equivalent-size healthy specimens were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 8 specimens each. Standardized radial lesions were repaired with the Sequent device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL) (group 1) or conventional inside-out suturing with No. 2-0 braided polyester suture (group 2). Repaired specimens were placed in custom clamps and mounted on a servohydraulic device. After a 2-N preload, specimens were cycled from 5 to 20 N (0.1 Hz), before undergoing 1,000 submaximal loading cycles between 5 and 20 N (0.5 Hz). A 40-second delay at 100, 500, and 1,000 cycles enabled digital photographs to be taken for gapping measurement determination. Specimens then underwent load-to-failure testing (12.5 mm/s). Fixation failure mode was documented. RESULTS: Group displacement did not differ after 1, 100, 500, and 1,000 submaximal loading cycles. Group peak gapping did not differ at 100, 500, and 1,000 submaximal loading cycles. Load at failure and displacement and stiffness during load-to-failure testing did not differ between groups. During load-to-failure testing, all-inside specimens failed by implant dislodgement from the meniscus periphery whereas the inside-out repaired specimens failed by suture rupture. CONCLUSIONS: Under controlled in vitro biomechanical test conditions, the all-inside device provided radial meniscus lesion fixation that was comparable, but not superior, to conventional inside-out suturing. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The all-inside radial lateral meniscus lesion repair method may provide comparable fixation to conventional inside-out suturing without the need for additional incisions and their associated neurovascular injury risks.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:All-inside meniscus repair eliminates the need for an extra incision and decreases neurovascular injury risk. Biomechanical testing can help delineate the efficacy of all-inside device use. HYPOTHESIS:There would be no group differences between 4 peripheral meniscus repair techniques and 3 different devices tested. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:Equivalent-sized menisci with attached tibiae were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 test groups (8 specimens each), as follows: group 1, Fast-Fix using No. 0 braided polyester suture; group 2, inside-out repair using 2-0 braided polyester suture; group 3, Sequent using No. 0 ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) suture in a continuous "N" configuration; and group 4, Sequent using No. 0 UHMWPE suture in an interrupted configuration. After placement in a clamp, specimens underwent preconditioning from 5 to 20 N for 10 cycles (0.1 Hz), 500 submaximal loading cycles from 5 to 20 N (0.5 Hz), and load-to-failure testing at 12.5 mm/s. A 30-second pause after 10 preconditioning cycles and after 10, 100, and 500 submaximal loading cycles enabled digital photographs to be taken for gapping measurements. Failure mode was recorded. RESULTS:Specimens in group 3 withstood greater failure loads than did those in groups 1 and 4 (P ≤ .027), and group 3 specimens were stiffer than those in groups 2 and 4 (P ≤ .048). Displacement during submaximal loading and load-to-failure testing did not differ between groups. Groups 1, 3, and 4 each gapped less than group 2 during submaximal cyclic loading (P ≤ .05). Groups 1 and 2 failed primarily by suture breakage (P < .0001), while groups 3 and 4 failed primarily by the suture pulling free from an implant (P < .0001). CONCLUSION:Sequent using No. 0 UHMWPE suture in a continuous "N" configuration displayed superior load at failure compared with repairs using Fast-Fix with No. 0 braided polyester suture and displayed greater stiffness and less gapping than inside-out repair using 2-0 braided polyester suture. The suture pulling free from an implant was the primary failure mode for Sequent using No. 0 UHMWPE suture regardless of whether a continuous "N" or an interrupted configuration was used. Study groups that used No. 0 UHMWPE sutures (groups 3 and 4) had more specimens fail by the suture pulling free from an implant. Compared with the weaker braided polyester suture in the inside-out and Fast-Fix groups, the No. 0 UHMWPE suture used in the Sequent groups likely influenced study results, as this suture has stronger material properties. However, the continuous "N" configuration likely also improved the performance of the Sequent with No. 0 UHMWPE suture, as failure load was significantly less with an interrupted configuration. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:All-inside meniscus repair with continuous suture function may translate into improved patient outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:A tear of the posterior medial meniscus root (PMMR) is increasingly recognized as a serious knee joint injury. Several suture techniques for arthroscopic transtibial pull-out repair have been described; however, only limited data about the biomechanical properties of these techniques are currently available. HYPOTHESIS:There are significant differences between the tested suture techniques, with more complex suture configurations providing superior biomechanical properties. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:A total of 40 porcine medial menisci were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (10 specimens each) according to suture technique: two simple stitches (TSS), horizontal mattress suture (HMS), modified Mason-Allen suture (MMA), and two modified loop stitches (TLS). Meniscus-suture constructs were subjected to cyclic loading followed by load-to-failure testing in a servohydraulic material testing machine. RESULTS:During cyclic loading, the HMS and TLS groups showed a significantly higher displacement after 100, 500, and 1000 cycles compared with the TSS and MMA groups. After 1000 cycles, the highest displacement was found for the TLS group, with significant differences compared with all other groups. During load-to-failure testing, the highest maximum load and yield load were observed for the MMA group, with statistically significant differences compared with the TSS and TLS groups. With regard to stiffness, the TSS and MMA groups showed significantly higher values compared with the HMS and TLS groups. CONCLUSION:The MMA technique provided the best biomechanical properties with regard to cyclic loading and load-to-failure testing. The TSS technique seems to be a valuable alternative. Both the HMS and TLS techniques have the disadvantage of lower stiffness and higher displacement during cyclic loading. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Using a MMA technique may improve healing rates and avoid progressive extrusion of the medial meniscus after transtibial pull-out repair of PMMR tears. The TSS technique may be used as an alternative that is easier to perform, but a more careful rehabilitation program is possibly necessary to avoid early failure.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the biomechanical properties of four different suture materials for arthroscopic transtibial pull-out repair of posterior meniscus root tears, with special focus on the meniscus-suture interface. Forty fresh-frozen lateral porcine menisci were used. The posterior meniscus root was sutured in a standardized fashion with a simple stitch using four different suture materials: group A, No. 2 PDS™; group B, No. 2 Ethibond™; group C, No. 2 FiberWire™; and group D, 2-mm Fibertape™. Meniscus-suture constructs were subjected to cyclic loading followed by load-to-failure testing using a servo-hydraulic material testing machine. During cyclic loading, group D showed a significantly higher displacement after 100, 500, and 1,000 cycles compared to group A (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, and p = 0.001), and a significantly higher displacement after 100 and 500 cycles compared to group B (p = 0.010 and p = 0.045). Group C showed a significantly higher displacement compared to group A after 100 cycles (p = 0.008). The highest maximum load was observed in group D, with significant differences compared to group A (p = 0.013). Group B showed a significantly higher stiffness compared to group A (p = 0.023), and both group C and group D showed a significantly higher stiffness compared to group A and group B (p < 0.001). None of the evaluated suture materials provided clearly superior properties over the others during both cyclic loading and load-to-failure testing. Based on the results of this study, FiberWire™ may be the preferred suture material for transtibial pull-out repair of posterior meniscus root tears because of comparably low displacement during cyclic loading and high values for maximum load and stiffness. In the clinical setting, FiberWire™ may improve healing rates and avoid progressive extrusion of the meniscus after transtibial pull-out repair of posterior meniscus root tears.
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