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Effects of Transcendental Meditation compared to other methods of relaxation and meditation in reducing risk factors, morbidity and mortality

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Abstract

Reviews literature comparing relaxation and meditation techniques. Meta-analyses show transcendental meditation (TM) to be significantly more effective than other forms of relaxation or meditation in (1) reducing psychophysiological arousal, (2) decreasing trait anxiety, (3) increasing positive mental health on measures of self-actualization, and (4) reducing alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drug use relative to standard treatment and prevention programs. Randomized controlled trials show that the TM technique significantly reduced hypertension and mortality in the elderly compared with a mental or physical relaxation technique. Epidemiological studies show that TM Ss had significantly lower inpatient and outpatient visits and medical expenditures than comparable groups over a 5- to 6-yr period. TM's effects on stress-related endocrine and homeostatic imbalances implicated in heart disease and other chronic illnesses are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Al controlar la edad se produjeron resultados significativos para la TM en la PAS cuando se comparó con RMP (p < 0,025) o ES (p < 0,0005), y para la PAD, TM comparado con RMP (p <0 ,05) o ES (p < 0,00005). La TM parece ser más eficaz para los que no están tomando medicación, pero también disminuye simultáneamente la PA y el uso de la medicación antihipertensión (Schneider, Alexander, Staggers, Orme-Johnson et al., 2005), y se ha encontrado que reduce la dependencia y el deseo de los medicamentos en general (Alexander, Robinson y Rainforth, 1994). Un análisis separado por subgrupo y sexo fue publicado por Alexander et al. y sugirió la eficacia de la TM para tratar la hipertensión en pacientes en las categorías de riesgo tanto alto como bajo para seis medidas de riesgo relacionadas con la hipertensión: obesidad, ingesta de alcohol, estrés psicológico, razón dietética sodio a potasio, inactividad física y presencia de riesgos múltiples (Alexander, Schneider et al., 1996). ...
... La investigación ha establecido una relación sólida entre el alcohol y una mayor PS (Klatsky, 2003) y las ECV (Rehm, Sempos y Trevisan, 2003). Los efectos de la TM sobre el abuso del tabaco, del alcohol y de las drogas han sido revisados en una serie de grupos que van desde la población general hasta presos encarcelados por delitos relacionados con las drogas (O'Connell y Alexander, 1994). Una amplia gama de evidencia sugiere que el descanso restaurador producido por la TM normaliza los desequilibrios neuroquímicos causados por el abuso de dichas sustancias (Walton y Levitsky, 1994). ...
... Como resultado, se cree que la base fisiológica del deseo disminuye, lo que a menudo es acompañado de una reducción del uso de la sustancia (Hawkins, 2002). Un metaanálisis de 198 estudios sobre las técnicas conductistas de reducción del consumo de tabaco, alcohol y drogas sugirió que la TM causó unos efectos mayores relativos para reducir el consumo de sustancias dañinas que otras técnicas, incluyendo los programas de relajación, rehabilitación terapéutica, intervención farmacológica, programas educativos, y tratamientos no convencionales (por ejemplo la acupuntura) (Alexander, Robinson y Rainforth, 1994). Los estudios de la TM también demostraron que los patrones de abstinencia se mantuvieron durante un mayor tiempo. ...
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Se ha considerado que el estrés contribuye a la patogénesis y la progresión de las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV). Se ha demostrado que la reducción del estrés mediante la Meditación Trascendental [Transcendental Meditation (TM)®] ha bajado los niveles de presión arterial (PA) y reducido el riesgo de ECV en adultos y adolescentes. Este artículo repasa los resultados que sugieren el impacto beneficioso de la TM en reducir la PA en adultos hipertensos en reposo y en adolescentes pre-hipertensos en reposo, durante un estrés agudo creado en el laboratorio y durante la actividad diaria normal. Dichos resultados tienen implicaciones importantes para la inclusión de la TM en los esfuerzos que se realizan para prevenir y tratar las ECV y sus consecuencias clínicas.
... Possibly involved in some of these benefits, previous research has shown declines of cortisol, TSH, and GH acutely during practice of the TM technique (Bevan et al., 1976; Jevning et al., 1978 Jevning et al., , 1987 Jevning et al., , 1992). Based on the apparent longitudinal effects of regular practice of the TM technique on these hormones, it has been suggested that the technique strengthens adaptive mechanisms, with effects on hormonal regulation opposite to those resulting from chronic stress (Bevan et al., 1976; Werner et al., 1986; Alexander et al., 1994;). The present prospective, randomized controlled study attempts to elucidate this possibility further by investigating baseline changes and changes in neuroendocrine responses to acute laboratory stressors before and after 4 months of twice-daily practice of the TM technique compared to a cognitive approach to stress reduction. ...
... Evidence indicates the technique facilitates quieting of the mind and body to a state distinctly different from sleep or eyes-closed rest (see for review Jevning et al., 1992; Alexander et al., 1990), and numerous studies have found this technique to outperform other approaches to stress reduction in relieving psychological stress, anxiety and physiological signs of stress or fatigue (see for review Eppley et al., 1989; Alexander et al., 1989 Alexander et al., , 1991). The TM program was taught by a qualified instructor according to standard procedures used worldwide (Roth, 1994; Alexander et al., 1994). The stress education class, which served as an active control treatment, was taught by an instructor from the University of Iowa Counseling Center. ...
... Plasma serotonin in the TM group appeared to decrease both at baseline and in response to acute stress, while in the SEC group, it appeared to increase (MacLean et al., 1992b). These results are consistent with the possibility that a decrease in plasma serotonin (Vanhoutte, 1991), along with decreases in cortisol, aldosterone, sodium intake, sodium/potassium ratio and catecholamines apparently resulting from practice of the technique (), play a role in reducing hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases (Alexander et al., 1994Alexander et al., , 1996 Schneider et al., 1995; Zamarra et al., 1996). In view of the present results, and of other studies which support a cumulative improvement in health (Orme-Johnson, 1987; Alexander et al., 1989; Herron et al., 1996), it would appear important to examine, in the same study, the long-term effects of the TM program on adaptive mechanisms and on comprehensive health status. ...
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Stress has been implicated in both somatic and mental disorders. The mechanisms by which stress leads to poor health are largely unknown. However, studies in animals suggest that chronic stress causes high basal cortisol and low cortisol response to acute stressors and that such changes may contribute to disease. Previous studies of the Transcendental Mediation® (TM) technique as a possible means of countering effects of stress have reported altered levels of several hormones both during the practice and longitudinally after regular practice of this technique. In this prospective, random assignment study, changes in baseline levels and acute responses to laboratory stressors were examined for four hormones—cortisol, growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and testosterone—before and after 4 months of either the TM technique or a stress education control condition. At pre- and post-test, blood was withdrawn continuously through an indwelling catheter, and plasma or serum samples were frozen for later analysis by radioimmunoassay. The results showed significantly different changes for the two groups, or trends toward significance, for each hormone over the 4 months. In the TM group, but not in the controls, basal cortisol level and average cortisol across the stress session decreased from pre- to post-test. Cortisol responsiveness to stressors, however, increased in the TM group compared to controls. The baselines and/or stress responsiveness for TSH and GH changed in opposite directions for the groups, as did the testosterone baseline. Overall, the cortisol and testosterone results appear to support previous data suggesting that repeated practice of the TM technique reverses effects of chronic stress significant for health. The observed group difference in the change of GH regulation may derive from the cortisol differences, while the TSH results are not related easily to earlier findings on the effects of chronic stress.
... Meditation is an important means toward attaining spiritual goals in Buddhism, as consistent meditation practice brings about successively higher states of consciousness, culminating in enlightenment (Smith, 1991). Research conducted on Americans has identified psychological processes underlying meditation (Alexander, Robinson, Orme-Johnson, Schneider, & Walton, 1994; Ivanovski & Mahli, 2007 ). However, these studies typically focus on Christian samples. ...
... However, these studies typically focus on Christian samples. This literature has demonstrated that meditation can be used as an emotion-focused coping strategy (Aldwin, 2007), improving physiological and psychological markers of stress (Alexander et al., 1994; Ivanovski & Mahli, 2007). Meditation is also a means by which to achieve mindfulness, which is an awareness of the present moment without judgment (Chen, 2006). ...
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Researchers in the United States have examined spiritual coping in Christians, Jews, Hindus, and Muslims, but rarely Buddhists. Using qualitative methodology, the present study represents an initial investigation into Buddhist forms of coping. Twenty-four Buddhists from across the United States were interviewed by phone, examining how their spirituality is used to cope with stress. Thematic analyses revealed six forms of Buddhist coping—right understanding, meditation, mindfulness, spiritual struggles, morality, and finding support in one's sangha. Implications of the study are discussed, including possibilities for future research on Buddhist coping.
... in people who do not [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36], suggesting that it is possible to modulate the neuroendocrine system through neurological pathways. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that transcendental meditation, Zen meditation and Yoga correlate with lower oxidative stress levels [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43]. ...
... A reduction in both glucocorticoids and oxidative stress has been documented in people who practice meditation regularly. Hormonal reactions to stressors, in particular plasma cortisol levels, are lower in people who meditate than in people who do not313233343536, suggesting that it is possible to modulate the neuroendocrine system through neurological pathways. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that transcendental meditation, Zen meditation and Yoga correlate with lower oxidative stress levels37383940414243. Melatonin could also be involved in the reduction of oxidative stress because increased levels of this hormone have been reported after meditation444546. ...
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Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1 h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals.
... There is also a large body of literature concerning meditation techniques drawn from the yogic tradition (for a review see Murphy & Donovan, 1999). Transcendental Meditation (TM), a form of meditation that utilizes mantra, has been found it to be useful for reducing anxiety, depression, and other symptoms of stress (Alexander, Robinson, Orme-Johnson, Schneider, & Walton, 1994; Brooks & Scarano, 1985; Dillbeck, 1977; Eppley, Abrams, & Shear, 1989). A recent pilot study of a non-TM meditation and mantra program for women who were dementia family caregivers found that there were statistically significant pre/post reductions in depression and anxiety and improvements in perceived self-efficacy. ...
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The purpose of the current paper is to compare meditational and dissociative states in terms of their effects on consciousness, attention, affect, cognition, identity, and pain sensitivity. To illustrate these dimensions of dissociation, a case example is presented of a veteran with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder who had particularly severe dissociation symptoms. The Classical Yoga literature is reviewed to examine these dimensions as they pertain to meditational states. Although dissociative and meditational states can involve alterations in consciousness, attention, affect, cognition, identity, and pain sensitivity, the nature of changes in these two states is distinct. Applications of meditation in treatment contexts have made use of some of the powerful techniques for attention control but do not incorporate the full range of practices because of the secular setting of treatment and the goal of symptom relief. The use of meditation as a treatment for dissociation has not been systematically evaluated.
... In recent years, literature on meditation based therapy programs has been rapidly growing. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was the first spike of interest with the transcendental meditation (TM) program being studied widely and showing promising effects compared to other relaxation or therapeutic techniques in anxiety [1], psychological health [2], and various other issues such as drug addiction and behavioral problems [3], blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors [4,5] The TM program is a mantra-based concentration technique derived from the Vedic tradition and is heavily dependent on the whole TM-system with especially installed and approved teachers and a strong in-group with close relationships that have sometimes been likened to those of religious sects. Interest in this specific type of meditation program seems to have decreased following the death of its founder Maharishi Mahesh Yogi several years ago. ...
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This article systematically reviews the evidence for Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and analyses the conditions around their rising popularity. MBSR, MBCT and Mindfulness Meditation were used as key words. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials using the standard MBSR/MBCT program with a minimum of 33 participants. Twenty four studies were included. MBSR improved mental health in ten studies compared to waitlist control or treatment as usual. Moreover, MBSR was as efficacious as active control group in four studies, and showed a tendency over active control in one study. MBCT reduced the risk of depressive relapse in all five included studies. Evidence supports that MBSR improves mental health and MBCT prevents depressive relapse. It is interesting to observe that meditation based therapy programs are rapidly enjoying popularity. We discuss the cultural and theoretical implications.
... Applying this skill has been shown to lead to bradycardia, vasodilation, and reduced oxygen consumption (Schneider, Alexander, & Wallace, 1992; Wallace, 1970). As a consequence of these and other effects, the skill reduces anxiety and buffers stress in a variety of settings (Alexander, Robinson, Orme- Johnson, Schneider, & Walton, 1994; Alexander et al., 1993; Berger, 1994; Feuerstein, Labbe, & Kuczmierczyk, 1986). ...
Article
The article proposes that individuals who acquire certain psychological support skills may experience accelerated learning and enhanced performance in many domains. In support of this proposal, we present evidence that these skills enhance learning and performance, that they are domain-general in that they can be applied in a variety of domains, and that they can be taught and learned. We also discuss two implications of the skills for current theories of expertise. The first is that any observed transfer of expertise between domains might result as much from the support supplied by application of the skills during learning and performance as from any direct transfer achieved due to two domains sharing similar task elements. The second is that use of these skills might contribute to an understanding of how performers sustain the motivation necessary for the extended period of deliberate practice required to maximize skill acquisition.
... Vedic tradition, which was formulated in the Vedic psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, provides uniform procedures for the practice of TM (Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, 1969 Yogi, , 1972). TM is a technique that allows attention to settle from active to quieter levels of the mind and is generally thought to have two aspects (Alexander, Robinson, Orme-Johnson, Schneider, & Walton, 1994). The first aspect is a mantra, or particular thought, which is chosen for its sound value (Alexander, et al.) and may have spiritual meaning. ...
... There have already been several reviews on the psychological effects of meditation for nonclinical groups of practitioners (Alexander, Rainforth, & Gelderloos, 1991; Alexander, Robinson, Orme‐Johnson, Schneider, & Walton, 1994; Eppley, Abrams, & Shear, 1989). These meta‐analyses, mostly conducted by members of the Maharishi International University, found strong effects of meditation on measures of trait anxiety and self‐actualization, as well as strong reductions in drug use. ...
Article
In this meta-analysis, we give a comprehensive overview of the effects of meditation on psychological variables that can be extracted from empirical studies, concentrating on the effects of meditation on nonclinical groups of adult meditators. Mostly because of methodological problems, almost ¾ of an initially identified 595 studies had to be excluded. Most studies appear to have been conducted without sufficient theoretical background. To put the results into perspective, we briefly summarize the major theoretical approaches from both East and West. The 163 studies that allowed the calculation of effect sizes exhibited medium average effects ( = .28 for all studies and = .27 for the n = 125 studies from reviewed journals), which cannot be explained by mere relaxation or cognitive restructuring effects. In general, results were strongest (medium to large) for changes in emotionality and relationship issues, less strong (about medium) for measures of attention, and weakest (small to medium) for more cognitive measures. However, specific findings varied across different approaches to meditation (transcendental meditation, mindfulness meditation, and other meditation techniques). Surprisingly, meditation experience only partially covaried with long-term impact on the variables examined. In general, the dependent variables used cover only some of the content areas about which predictions can be made from already existing theories about meditation; still, such predictions lack precision at present. We conclude that to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of why and how meditation works, emphasis should be placed on the development of more precise theories and measurement devices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
... Mindfulness meditation has shown benefit for psychological illnesses, chronic pain, and some physical conditions (Kabat-Zinn, Lipworth, & Burney, 1985; Kabat-Zinn et al., 1998; Miller, Fletcher, & Kabat-Zinn, 1995). Other forms of meditation have also been demonstrated to be helpful for depression, anxiety, and psychological stress (Alexander, Robinson, Orme-Johnson, Schneider, & Walton, 1994; Eppley, Abrams, & Shears, 1989). Highlighting the benefits of therapeutic dissociation, institutionalized forms of trance and dissociation occur worldwide (Castillo, 2003). ...
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Milder forms of dissociation often provide a defensive function diminishing the impact of disturbing emotional states. It is proposed that compartmentalization and absorption can be applied as psychotherapy strategies. Therapeutic compartmentalization and therapeutic absorption are easy to learn and master, and can be used to treat anxiety, depression, and other adverse emotional states. Therapeutic dissociation strategies fit in well with the real-life eclectic mix of techniques used by most psychotherapists, and can serve as an adjunct to other forms of therapy.
... As recommended by JNC-7, the first choice for such measures should be lifestyle/non-pharmacological. TM's effects in reducing BP in both hypertensive and pre-hypertensive individuals [82,84,93,96979899100 coupled with its additional benefits for health-related behaviors and well-being [99,101,102], could be extremely valuable as part of a population strategy for CVD prevention. Jevning et al. reviewed findings on the impact of TM on acute changes in oxygen consumption, respiration, circulation, tissue metabolism, endocrine, neurotransmitter and autonomic effects, EEG, evoked potential and sensory and motor responses, concluding that the impact of TM is as an integrated response [103]. ...
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Acute and chronic environmental and psychosocial stress contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Stress reduction via Transcendental Meditation (TM)® has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) levels and reduce CVD risk in adults and adolescents. This article reviews recent findings indicating a beneficial BP-lowering impact of TM in hypertensive adults at rest and in pre-hypertensive adolescents at rest, during acute laboratory stress and during normal daily activity. These findings have important implications for inclusion of TM in efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and its clinical consequences.
... The analysis of the studies on the psycho-physiological benefits of meditation shows that clear and reproducible evidence is lacking (Alexander et al., 1991; Taylor, 1998). Small sample size, suboptimal control groups, lack of long-term follow up, and problems of adherence among participants are all factors which have been criticized in these studies (Alexander et al., 1994). The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique on the RR, HR, BP and IgA in normal adults, with a view to understand its potential benefit on stress coping. ...
Article
The objective of the current study was to find out the effect of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique (IAM) on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and IgA. One hundred and fifty subjects were randomized into three groups IAM, Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) and Control. Baseline values were collected before giving the training for all the subjects and the IAM and PMR groups were given training in the respective techniques. BP, HR, RR and IgA were recorded manually at 0 h, 48 h, 2 months and 8 months after the first visit. HR was found to be reduced in the IAM group 48 h onwards and the fall sustained till 8 months (p < 0.05). IAM group showed significant drop when compared to the PMR group and control group in all the subsequent visits (p < 0.05). RR decreased significantly in the IAM group in the third and fourth visits (p < 0.05). RR of IAM showed significant decrease when compared to PMR and control from the third visit onwards. IgA showed significant increase in comparison with PMR and control in the third and fourth visits. BP did not show any difference in any of the visits. There was subject dropout from randomization to completion of the study, in all the three groups. The significant decrease in HR and RR and increase in IgA in the IAM group when compared to the PMR and control group shows the efficacy of the technique in reducing the physiological stress indicators for up to 8 months.
... A large number of studies have been conducted, but overviews and reviews are still not clear about the benefit of the program [145,162]. Earlier meta-analyses and reviews comparing randomized studies conducted to date have been largely supportive [163], with moderate to sizeable effect sizes between Cohen's d = 0.33 to d = 1.5 [159]. Skeptics sometimes criticize the non-randomized nature of some of the evidence, for instance for less health care use164165166 or crime prevention [165,166]. ...
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Mind-Body practices have become increasingly popular as components of psychotherapeutic and behavior medicine interventions. They comprise an array of different methods and techniques that use some sort of mental-behavioral training and involve the modulation of states of consciousness in order to influence bodily processes towards greater health, well-being and better functioning. Mind-body practices may thus be interpreted as the salutogenetic mirror image of psychosomatic medicine, where psychophysiological and health consequences of specific psychological states are studied, such as stress arousal, psychological trauma or depression. This contribution examines the empirical evidence of the most common mind-body techniques with regard to their salutogenetic potential. We concisely discuss some aspects of the mind-body problem, before we consider some historical aspects and achievements of psychosomatic medicine. We then turn to some prominent mind-body practices and their application, as well as the empirical database for them.
... As most skills tend to be domain-specific, the most likely bet would be that being consistent also is domain-specific, and so although there would be some stability in consistency coefficients across sessions as Fekken and Holden (1991) found, consistency coefficients in one domain would fail to predict consistency coefficients in other domains. And yet, Eccles and Feltovich (2008) have put together a list of skills that have been shown to have at least some generality across domains, including some kinds of meta-cognition skills (e.g., Ertmer & Newby, 1996), self-talk (e.g., Baddeley, Chincotta, & Adlam, 2001; Emerson & Miyake, 2003; Goschke, 2000), relaxation skills (Alexander, Robinson, Orme-Johnson, Schneider, & Walton, 1994; Alexander et al., 1993; Berger, 1994; Feuerstein, Labbe, & Kuczmierczyk, 1986), and others. Possibly, Downloaded by [ Trafimow & Rice 5 cognitive ability plays a role in determining the domain-specificity or domaingenerality of some skills (Hambrick et al., 2014). ...
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ABSTRACT We explored randomness in responding in two ways across six experiments. First, we predicted that people would differ from each other in randomness in a stable way when tested in the same domain across two sessions; people who responded more randomly in a particular domain in one session also should respond more randomly in a second session whereas people who responded less randomly in one session also should respond less randomly in a second session. Second, we predicted that there would be some domain general randomness; people's randomness in one domain should predict their randomness in another domain. We used consistency coefficients across blocks of a session as an inverse measure of randomness and found (a) consistency coefficients correlated across sessions within the same domain and (b) consistency coefficients in one domain correlated with consistency coefficients in other domains.
... As recommended by JNC-7, the first choice for such measures should be non-pharmacological changes in lifestyle. The TM program's effects in reducing BP in both hypertensive and pre-hypertensive individuals [118, 120, 122,138139140141142, coupled with its additional benefits for health-related behaviors and well-being [141, 143, 144], could be invaluable as part of a population strategy for CVD prevention. ...
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The pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases are thought to be exacerbated by stress. Basic research indicates that the Transcendental Meditation(®) technique produces acute and longitudinal reductions in sympathetic tone and stress reactivity. In adolescents at risk for hypertension, the technique has been found to reduce resting and ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, cardiovascular reactivity, and to improve school behavior. Research on adults with mild or moderate essential hypertension has reported decreased blood pressure and reduced use of anti-hypertensive medication. The technique has also been reported to decrease symptoms of angina pectoris and carotid atherosclerosis, to reduce cardiovascular risk factors, including alcohol and tobacco use, to markedly reduce medical care utilization for cardiovascular diseases, and to significantly decrease cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality. These findings have important implications for inclusion of the Transcendental Meditation program in efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and their clinical consequences.(®)Transcendental Meditation and TM are trademarks registered in the US. Patent and Trademark Office, licensed to Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation and are used with permission.
... It is recognized that different meditation techniques have widely differing methodologies[14] and all techniques do not show the same effects.[1516] Though there are several papers published in this area, small sample size, suboptimal control groups, lack of long-term follow-up, and problems of adherence among participants are all factors which have been criticized in most of the meditation studies.[17] ...
Article
Relaxation techniques like meditation have been found to be beneficial in reducing stress. The aim was to find out the effect of the Integrated Amrita Meditation (IAM) technique on the response to life changes. The IAM technique, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) technique, and the Life Changes Questionnaire (LCQ) were used. LCQ was culturally adapted to the Indian population. One hundred and fifty subjects were randomized into IAM, PMR, and Control groups. LCQ scores were documented in all groups at 0 h, 48 h, 2 months, and 8 months after the training. STATISTICS ANALYSIS: Within groups, comparison was done by the paired t-test and between groups by ANCOVA. The new LCQ was analyzed using split-half reliability and was found to be having a correlation coefficient 0.96. On within group analysis, the IAM group showed a significant decrease in LCQ scores (P = 0.004) in the second visit which was maintained in the third (P = 0.003) and fourth visits (P = 0.001). Within the PMR group, there was a significant decrease (P = 0.006) in the third visit and fourth visits (P = 0.001). No significant change was seen within the control group in any of the visits. The decrease in LCQ scores in the IAM group was significant at the end of 8 months when compared to the Control group (P < 0.05) whereas the decrease in the PMR group was not significant in comparison with the control group. The IAM technique is an efficient tool in reducing stress as measured by LCQ.
... It is recognized that many different meditation techniques have widely differing methodologies [17] . A metaanalysis of over 600 studies indicates that not all techniques have the same effects and in most of the studies, small sample size, suboptimal control groups, lack of long-term followup, and problems of adherence among participants were the factors criticized181920. The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique on the stress hormones in healthy subjects, with a view to understand its potential benefit on both the Active and Passive coping pathways. ...
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THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO FIND OUT THE EFFECT OF INTEGRATED AMRITA MEDITATION TECHNIQUE (IAM) ON THE STRESS HORMONES: adrenaline and cortisol. One hundred and fifty healthy subjects were randomized into three groups. Blood was collected at 0 hour, 48 hours, 2 months, and 8 months after the first visit. Adrenaline was analyzed by ELISA and cortisol by Chemiluminescent method. In the IAM, PMR and control groups 44, 44, and 36 came, respectively, for the baseline visit. Within group, cortisol and adrenaline levels reduced in the IAM 48 hours onwards and the fall sustained until 8 months (P < .05). ANCOVA (Repeated measures) on adrenaline taking the four levels of observation showed a highly significant (P = .001) drop in the IAM group. The mean cortisol values between groups were not statistically significant (P = .138). IAM Technique was effective in reducing adrenaline and cortisol levels within group comparisons.
... Transcendental Meditation (TM) program has been found to decrease CAD risk factors, cardiovascular morbidity (Schneider et al., 1995; Alexander et al., 1996), carotid atherosclerosis (CastilloRichmond et al., 2000), and mortality (Schneider et al., 1996; Alexander et al., 1994). Intensive yoga based life style modification program have been shown to retard coronary atherosclerosis (Mahajan, Reddy & Sachdeva, 1991; Manchanda, 2000). ...
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Most common medical emergencies may be categorized into following major categories: 1) Acute complications of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), 2) Injuries due to accidents and assaults, 3) Complications of infections, 4) Pregnancy related complications and 5) those due to poisoning and drug over-dosage. Lifestyle factors such as diet, physical activity, sleep, substance abuse and psychological stress, are important direct or indirect contributors towards these emergencies. We performed a integrative literature review consulting databases of ‘pubmed’ and ‘google scholar’ from the year 2000 to 2015 using following key words: ‘medical emergency’, lifestyle’, ‘yoga’, ‘meditation’, ‘prevention’ and ‘complications’. Randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, uncontrolled trials, systematic reviews and metanalyses were included in this integrative literature review. We also classified these emergencies into four categories depending on their prevalence and usefulness of yoga based lifestyle: 1) Yoga based lifestyle to manage common NCDs and Prevent Complications; 2) Yoga based lifestyle to reduce Stress, Aggression and Substance Abuse in Youth; 3) Yoga Based lifestyle for Prevention and Management of Infections; 4) Yoga based lifestyle for preventing pregnancy related complications. We found that Yoga based lifestyle (YBL) has been effectively used for prevention and management of various chronic medical illnesses. Yoga techniques that include physical postures, regulated breathing, meditation and relaxation help manage the life style better have the potential of bringing down the prevalence of medical emergencies through various direct and indirect mechanisms.
... Una revisión metaanalítica y cualitativa (Linden, 1994), si bien descarta el entrenamiento autógeno como tratamiento de elección para la hipertensión, destaca las posibilidades de esta técnica en la prevención de la angina de pecho y en la rehabilitación postinfarto. Por otra parte, estudios controlados con pacientes hipertensos han demostrado que la práctica de la meditación trascendental es una técnica eficaz en la reducción de los niveles de presión sanguínea (Alexander, Langer, Newman, Chandler y Davies , 1989; Schneider, Alexander y Wallace, 1992; Alexander, Robinson , Orme-Johnson, Schneider y Walton, 1994 ). Empero, el hecho de que estos trabajos hayan sido realizados con personas de características muy específicas (ancianos, de raza negra, con nivel de hipertensión leve) hace de la meditación trascendental una técnica solo probablemente eficaz, a la espera de confirmar tal efectividad mediante estudios con muestras de mayor representatividad poblacional. ...
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The aim of this work is to examin the risk factors of cardiovascular dysfunctions that can be modified through psychological interventions. These risk factors are mainly classic (e.g., obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension) and emotional (e.g.,Type A behavior pattern, anger and hostility, anxiety), in general all those that possess a psychological or social component. Once examined these risk factors are analyzed, in the first place, the behavioral interventions that reduce the cardiovascular vulnerability. Later on, main technics and intervention programs and applied rehabilitation in this area are analyzed.
... Transcendental Meditation (TM) program has been found to decrease CAD risk factors, cardiovascular morbidity (Schneider et al., 1995; Alexander et al., 1996), carotid atherosclerosis (CastilloRichmond et al., 2000), and mortality (Schneider et al., 1996; Alexander et al., 1994). Intensive yoga based life style modification program have been shown to retard coronary atherosclerosis (Mahajan, Reddy & Sachdeva, 1991; Manchanda, 2000). ...
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... In contrast to the scarcity of studies on the impact of bodycentered yoga techniques, there have been hundreds of studies on the impact of meditation, both for physiological and brain measures and psychological variables (see Murphy et al., 1997, for a large collection of early studies). The psychological effects of meditation have been summarized in several meta-analyses for nonclinical groups of practitioners, mostly conducted by members of the Maharishi International University (Eppley et al., 1989; Alexander et al., 1991 Alexander et al., , 1994a). These meta-analyses found strong effects on measures of trait anxiety and self-actualization, and strong reductions in drug use, as well as a general superiority of Transcendental Meditation, an approach that is commonly traced back to the ancient Advaita Vedanta system, compared to other methods. ...
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... At present, it is unknown to what extent training in mindfulness meditation alone is responsible for health improvements. Numerous well-controlled studies demonstrated that meditation practice itself can have profound mind/body effects [25][26][27][28][29]. In one recent randomized, controlled trial, patients who practiced mindfulness mediation while undergoing ultraviolet light treatments for moderate to severe psoriasis were found to heal at approximately four times the rate of those patients who received ultraviolet treatment alone [28]. ...
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The nature of the human person has been a subject of fascination since ancient times. We desire to understand ourselves and our place in the world, and at times we also look at broader human questions: Why am I here? What is the meaning or purpose of my life? Why do people suffer? This book is about two of the most important ways that people have attempted to answer these kinds of questions—religion and psychology. Especially over the past century, there has been a fascinating interchange of views between psychologists and religious practitioners about questions of daily life and broader meaning. In this book, we will seek to understand this complex and constantly changing dialogue and its implication for our understanding of the human person (cf. Henking, 2000). We will begin our quest in this chapter with a look at the basic concepts of religion, spirituality, and psychology, as well as some history of the dialogue between them.
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Transcendental Meditation, as taught by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, is a simple technique practised for 15-20 minutes twice daily, sitting comfortably with eyes closed. It can be learned easily by anyone regardless of age, educational background, or culture. The technique is effortless and requires no belief, nor any change in lifestyle or diet. Over five million people have learned Transcendental Meditation (TM) around the world over the past 50 years. Instruction involves a standard seven-step course taught by qualified teachers who have undergone an extensive and systematic training programme, ensuring quality and consistency in instruction worldwide. Scientific research on Transcendental Meditation comprises more than 600 studies
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Resumen: En España generalmente se incluye la meditación entre las técnicas de relajación utilizadas en psicoterapia. Sin embargo, un cuerpo extenso de documentación experimental afirma que la meditación posee características cognitivas, fisiológicas y psicoterapéuticas propias, diferenciándose claramente de la relajación en cuanto a la procedencia, los efectos genéricos y específicos, las formas y los métodos de aplicación. La meditación puede producir efectos diferenciales en el sistema nervioso, sobre todo a largo plazo y, por tanto, ofrece posibilidades para aplicaciones terapéuticas en psicología clínica. Conviene distinguir esta ‘meditación clínica’ que es objeto de investigación de la psicología biológica, de la meditación como ejercicio utilizado en diversas disciplinas místicas o religiosas. Palabras clave: Meditación. Relajación. Psicoterapia.
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