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Abstract

Describes the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), a research procedure that consists of asking individuals to provide systematic self-reports at random occasions during the waking hours of a normal week. Files created from sets of these self-reports from a sample of individuals become an archival file of daily experience. The ESM obtains information about the private as well as the public aspects of individuals' lives, secures data about behavioral and intrapsychic aspects of daily activity, and obtains reports about people's experiences as they occur, thereby minimizing the effects of reliance on memory and reconstruction. (51 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... The subjective well-being literature, however, points to a seemingly contradictory but extremely robust conclusion: the unemployed report lower overall wellbeing than the employed, even after controlling for income (Clark & Oswald, 1994, Winkelmann & Winkelmann, 1998, Theodossiou, 1998see Diener et al., 1999, Kahneman & Krueger, 2014, and Blanchflower & Oswald, 2011. Part of the answer to the puzzle is that different disciplines have focused on distinct types of subjective wellbeing: evaluative well-being, where people are asked about 'satisfaction with their life as a whole', eudemonic well-being, which captures overall feelings of meaning and purpose in life, and hedonic well-being in which people rate their momentary feelings of happiness (Dolan & Metcalfe, 2012;Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 1983). Kahneman and Krueger (2014) and Kahneman and Deaton (2010) refer to the first two measures as "life evaluation" and the hedonic measure as "emotional well-being" or "experienced utility". ...
... Measuring it, however, is far harder than evaluative measures that can be asked with a handful of questions and compared using large cross-country surveys. One hedonic approach-the Experience Sampling Method (ESM)-asks respondents to answer a short survey about the person's activity and feelings at a randomly-selected time of day over many days or weeks, and typically during many points throughout the day (Csikszentmihalyi, 2014;Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 1983). This allows both a statistical reconstruction of time use that is not prone to recall bias as well as hedonic measures of well-being during activities. ...
... As described above, the measurement of people's "experienced utility" is much more challenging and burdensome to subjects than evaluative life satisfaction measures that can be asked with one or a small number of questions in large, nationally representative surveys. Assessing momentary well-being using the ESM (Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 1983) or related Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) (Shiffman et al., 2008) requires subjects to assess emotions during activities as they happen. As Knabe et al. (2010) note, the advantage of the ESM 'is that it allows the measurement of experienced utility without any distortions caused by aspirations, retrospective evaluations or memory effects. ...
Article
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Despite work’s importance in people’s overall sense of purpose in life, several studies measuring momentary well-being find that people are very unhappy while at work. These studies have focused on workers in industrialized countries doing paid labor in the formal sector. For a large fraction of humanity, however, “work” is smallholder farming, tending cattle and collecting water and fuelwood. We measure momentary well-being with the Experience Sampling Method in a sample of 195 subjects in rural Kenya. Subjects were the household’s main water carrier; 93% were women. Each subject was asked to complete four ESM surveys per day over eight weeks. Results from 9559 ESM records show that subjects are indeed less happy “at work”, whether that work is paid or unpaid casual labor, paid formal sector employment, or resource collection. They are also less energetic, less sociable and in more pain. We also find evidence that subjects perceive themselves as less safe while working or traveling away from home. We find a statistically significant, though small, relationship between the intercepts in the model (individual-level average momentary well-being) and the log of household wages earned over the past two weeks. The relationship is stronger with wages earned by the subject herself.
... pain levels [31], researchers and practitioners often rely on the use of self-reports. Self-report studies, such as diary studies [8] or experience sampling method (ESM, also known as Ecological Momentary Assessment)-based studies [35], ask participants to (repeatedly) answer a question in which they assess their current state. Such studies are common in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) as well as the wider academic and professional landscape [64], as they can provide a more detailed understanding of an individual's experience as compared to a oneoff survey. ...
... Such studies are common in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) as well as the wider academic and professional landscape [64], as they can provide a more detailed understanding of an individual's experience as compared to a oneoff survey. In contrast to traditional surveys, ESM studies reduce reliance on participants' ability to accurately recall prior experiences by asking them to reflect on their current experience rather than an event or experience that occurred in the past [16,35,64]. Use of the ESM has evolved from analogue pen-and-paper input, to PDAs, and eventually to smartphones as the predominant form of data collection [64]. ...
... The form factor of ESM questionnaires has changed drastically since the initial development of this self-report method. In the initial ESM studies, participants completed pen-and-paper self-reports following the arrival of an alert on their pager [35]. Participants were, therefore, required to carry with them both the questionnaire papers and a beeper at all times. ...
Conference Paper
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Tangible input has been explored as a means for participants to self-report experiences while minimising disruption and allowing for discrete data collection. However, the accuracy of these tangible devices has not been studied systematically. We compared six input techniques, including slider, slider with resistance, capacitive touch slider, squeeze, rotary knob, and joystick, to understand their accuracy and resolution profile. Each of these wireless devices was designed in a similar form factor and intended to be operated discretely with one hand. We assessed input accuracy and participant perceptions across devices through a controlled lab study (N=20), highlighting diverging limits to the accuracy of the input technique and possible explanations for the differences in resolution. Our results indicate that participant accuracy was highest using a slider, and lowest using a squeeze-based input. We discuss the suitability and challenges of discreet tangible self-report techniques, and highlight open research questions for future work.
... The ESM is a quasi-naturalistic data collection method used to investigate daily life as it is directly experienced. Self-reports are randomly solicited at several time points throughout a typical week, with the goal of recording an individual's perception of an experience at the moment it occurred rather than in retrospect after some considerable time has passed (Hektner et al., 2007;Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). ...
... Reporting from memory is also biased toward recent or intense experiences (see Redelmeier & Kahneman, 1996;Stone et al., 2000) and consistency, the revision of memories to fit with what individuals think and feel at the present time (see LeDeoux, 2002). Overall, the ESM is considered to be an ecologically valid form of data collection given its flexible, immediate, and minimally invasive nature, which is composed of short, direct self-report inquiries that require minimal cognitive or memory load on the part of the research participants (Hektner et al., 2007;Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). Furthermore, the ESM allows for the observation of daily life events and perceptions using a variety of formats. ...
... Furthermore, the ESM allows for the observation of daily life events and perceptions using a variety of formats. Although, traditionally, the ESM was conducted using paper-and-pencil tasks (Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014), many researchers now use the ESM with electronic alerting via pagers or phone applications (apps; Constantino et al., 2020;Csikszentmihalyi & Lefevre, 1989;Kimhy et al., 2006;Larson et al., 1994;Sloboda et al., 2001) such that participants receive alerts at randomized times during the day and are asked to complete a brief response form regarding their current or immediately preceding experience. ...
Article
Purpose: Children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) comprise a large portion of caseloads for school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Despite the existence of several evidence-based SSD intervention approaches, the translation from research to practice is often limited by ecological validity because of various factors unique to school settings (e.g., scheduling constraints, caseload size, child availability). The purpose of this study was to use the experience sampling method (ESM) to examine the current practices of school-based SLPs when treating children with SSDs on their caseloads. Method: SLPs (N = 106) from 42 different states working full-time in school-based K-12 settings participated in this study. At the beginning of the study, each SLP completed a one-time demographic survey about treatment practices for children with SSDs. The SLPs then participated in a series of brief surveys every day for one workweek using a specialized ESM phone application that randomly alerted participants to report on their treatment practices for children with SSDs. Results: Findings revealed that although most SLPs reported using a variety of SSD intervention approaches in a one-time survey, the majority of SLPs reported using one of three approaches in situ: the traditional articulation therapy approach, cycles, and minimal pairs. We also report a significant negative relationship between the years of experience of an SLP and the number of different approaches used. Conclusions: This study is the first to use the ESM to determine which approaches school-based SLPs use to treat children with SSDs. Findings demonstrate that SLPs have knowledge of many different SSD approaches but tend to utilize only a few in school-based settings.
... Puranik and his colleagues conclude by outlining some potential future research directions that might flow from their theoretical model, including the need for a scale to measure gaffe behavior. They propose that studies of gaffe behavior need to address gaffe-making as both within-person (e.g., using experience sampling methods or ESM, see Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014) processes and between-persons levels of analysis. ...
... As reflected in the articles in another recent Special Issue of the Journal of Organizational Behavior (Levasseur et al., 2020), scholars in OB are beginning to realize the significant value of capturing temporal dynamics in interpersonal work relationships (see also, Tse et al., 2018). In the present issue, the authors of three articles (Liu et al., 2021;Xing et al., 2021) collectively take a step forward in response to this call by The Role of Affect in Interpersonal Work Relationships Page 16 adopting ESM (see Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014;Fisher & To, 2012) to study the temporal dynamic of affect in interpersonal work relationships. These authors focus on momentary variations of affect and examine how in-the-moment affect can shape daily interactions between the two parties in a dyad, and that this ultimately determines the state of their relationship. ...
Preprint
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The impetus for this Special Issue, which focuses on the role of affect in interpersonal work relationships, derives from recent concerns scholars have expressed about one model of interpersonal work relationships, namely, the leader-member exchange (LMX) perspective. In particular, scholars have noted that research on the role of affect in LMX is being impeded because of three factors: (1) limited theoretical frameworks, (2) insufficient research integrating both relationship parties, and (3) a scarcity of studies that adopt a multilevel perspective. In this introductory article, we begin by detailing our reasons for undertaking the Special Issue, and discuss why the three factors hamper research on affect, not only in LMX, but in understanding the nature of interpersonal work relationships in general. We next summarize the eight articles comprising this Special Issue and examine how each tackles the three issues by either considering alternative theoretical frameworks, incorporating all
... Many smartwatches are equipped with a microphone, which allows people to flexibly describe their activities using speech. As an on-body device, a smartwatch can collect continuous activity sensing data and deliver notifications, which is necessary to collect in-situ data through an experience sampling method (ESM) [64]. Furthermore, prior work co-designing wearable activity trackers with older adults showed that the "watch-like" form factor was mostly preferred due to its ability to tell time, on-body position, and public acceptance [121]. ...
... For example, in responding to a survey, people were likely to accurately estimate the past duration of intensive physical activities [9,52,109], whereas they were likely to underestimate or omit light and sedentary activities [9,52,66,107,109]. To collect more ecologically valid self-report data, researchers devised Diary Study [8] and Experience Sampling Method (ESM, often interchangeable with ecological momentary assessment or EMA) [64]. Both methods have been employed before the widespread use of smartphones, but smartphones and their notification capability have made it much easier to facilitate these methods. ...
Preprint
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Current activity tracking technologies are largely trained on younger adults' data, which can lead to solutions that are not well-suited for older adults. To build activity trackers for older adults, it is crucial to collect training data with them. To this end, we examine the feasibility and challenges with older adults in collecting activity labels by leveraging speech. Specifically, we built MyMove, a speech-based smartwatch app to facilitate the in-situ labeling with a low capture burden. We conducted a 7-day deployment study, where 13 older adults collected their activity labels and smartwatch sensor data, while wearing a thigh-worn activity monitor. Participants were highly engaged, capturing 1,224 verbal reports in total. We extracted 1,885 activities with corresponding effort level and timespan, and examined the usefulness of these reports as activity labels. We discuss the implications of our approach and the collected dataset in supporting older adults through personalized activity tracking technologies.
... Therefore, researchers have hypothesized that depression is a maladaptive or exacerbated form of sickness behavior in some patients with chronic low-grade inflammation [76][77][78][80][81][82]. Besides their reward-sensitivity related symptoms, recent studies suggest that also trauma-and anxiety-related symptoms are related to inflammatory markers, resulting in a mix of overlapping symptoms of mood, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder [83][84][85][86]. ...
... A new field of research is beginning to emerge in which patient-specific symptom networks are assessed [85]. In order to identify these networks, a patient is asked to report their symptoms over the course of several weeks, multiple times a day [86]. This method of intensive, acute, and real-life measurement is also known as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) [87]. ...
... The participants were then asked to rate their emotions (not included in the present study) and the time spent in a state of flow, both pre-pandemic in their in-person classes and in their ERT setting. They filled out items extracted from Larson and Csíkszentmihályi's [44] Experience Sampling Method and used in Dewaele and MacIntyre [12,13]. The items were preceded by the question: "What percentage of EFL class time does this apply to you (ranging from 0%-never to 100%-always)? ...
... The finding that the proportion of time in a state of flow in ERT classes is lower than in-person class is not surprising, as it fits with the patterns for learner emotions in both settings. Lower FLE, slightly lower FLCA and higher FLB in the ERT setting compared to in-person confirms a general feeling of social and emotional detachment [9,35,36,44]. Dewaele et al. [41] also found that many students were worried about the stability of the internet connection and the fear of being literally left in the dark. They also complained about their own disengagement, distraction, and feelings of isolation during their ERT classes. ...
Article
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The present study focuses on the experience of flow among 168 Arab and Kurdish English Foreign Language (EFL) learners in both in-person and emergency remote teaching (ERT) classes. Statistical analyses of questionnaire data revealed that learners did experience flow in their ERT classes but for a significantly shorter time than in the pre-pandemic in-person classes. Those who experienced flow in in-person classes were also more likely to experience it in ERT classes. In the in-person classes, the proportion of time in flow was linked to age, self-rated proficiency, attitudes toward English, attitudes toward the teacher, and the teacher frequency of use of English. In contrast, in ERT classes, the proportion of time in flow was only linked to attitude toward the teacher. This is interpreted as evidence that the ERT does not just cause physical and social isolation but also mental isolation.
... In this way, data rich in moment-to-moment information is obtained, providing a unique and detailed insight into the individual's everyday life flow (Myingermeys et al., 2018). While ESM is not new and has its roots in ecological psychology (Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014), an increasing number of researchers are now turning to ESM to examine within-person psychological processes (Stange et al., 2019). ESM is, for instance, often Ginette Lafit and Glenn Kiekens contributed equally to this work. ...
Article
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The experience sampling method (ESM) has revolutionized our ability to conduct psychological research in the natural environment. However, researchers have a large degree of freedom when preprocessing ESM data, which may hinder scientific progress. This study illustrates the use of multiverse analyses regarding preprocessing choices related to data exclusion (i.e., based on various levels of compliance and exclusion of the first assessment day) and the calculation of constructs (i.e., composite scores calculated as the mean, median, or mode) by reanalyzing established group differences in negative affect, stress reactivity, and emotional inertia between individuals with and without psychosis. Data came from five studies and included 233 individuals with psychosis and 223 healthy individuals (in total, 26,892 longitudinal assessments). Preprocessing choices related to data exclusion did not affect conclusions. For both stress reactivity and emotional inertia of negative affect, group differences were affected when negative affect was calculated as the mean compared to the median or mode. Further analyses revealed that this could be attributed to considerable differences in the within- and between-factor structure of negative affect. While these findings show that observed differences in affective processes between individuals with and without psychosis are robust to preprocessing choices related to data exclusion, we found disagreement in conclusions between different central tendency measures. Safeguarding the validity of future experience sampling research, scholars are advised to use multiverse analysis to evaluate the robustness of their conclusions across different preprocessing scenarios.
... Future studies could also use experience sampling method (ESM) to gather information about individuals' daily experiences and to realize a stronger study identification. ESM is an intensive longitudinal research procedure that allows signaling participants on multiple occasions over time and to ask them to report their thoughts, feelings, and behavior (Larson and Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). For example, participants in a weight loss study could be asked to report their weight on a daily basis, as well as their daily eating/physical exercise behavior, and their motivation to lose weight in order to attain a more detailed insight into participants' (psychological) processes of losing weight effectively. ...
Article
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Overweight individuals often struggle to lose weight. While previous studies established goal setting as an effective strategy for weight loss, little is known about the effects of numeric goal precision. The present research investigated whether and how the precision of weight loss goals—the number of trailing zeros—impacts a goal’s effectiveness. In two preregistered, longitudinal experiments, we contrasted competing predictions as to whether precise (e.g., 2.923 kg) or round (e.g., 3.000 kg) goals are more effective compared to a waiting control condition. In Experiment 1 ( N = 121), participants in the two goal conditions lost more weight compared to the control condition—an effect that was mainly driven by precise (rather than round) goals. In Experiment 2 ( N = 150), we sought to replicate this effect but found no significant weight loss differences. An individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis across both experiments revealed that (a) the goal groups jointly lost more weight than the waiting control group and (b) the precise and round goal groups did not differ in weight loss success. An IPD-based multiple mediation analysis showed that healthier eating, but not physical exercise accounted for goal-setting-induced weight loss. We discuss possible explanations for the null findings in Experiment 2 and highlight directions for future research.
... By dialoguing with projective manifestations of peoples' experiences, the goal of this method is to elicit access to the procedural aspects of our own reasoning and imagining. Other methods such as photographic elicitation [12], experience sampling [17], and microphenomenology [25] are grounded in a similar principle of scaffolding first-person experience systematically, although without the designerly quality of the dialogue proposed in this pictorial. Additionally, TBMs use the bodily dimension of others as a point of articulation of experience. ...
Conference Paper
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Through this pictorial, I propose a generative method for the elicitation of autoethnographic themes for design research. This dialogue with tangible traces uses photography in conversation with tangible body maps (TBMs) towards harvesting evocative content for exploration. This dialogical tool functions as a way of generating conceptual knowledge inspired by the self and environment, including other subjectivities. This dialogue with tangible traces contributes to first-person design research, where traceability and communicability of outcomes become necessary preconditions for rigour. Although systematic, this method also respects the non-prescriptive and drifting nature of design
... 1. Sample somatic experience: is similar to experience sampling [22], but with an explicit focus on bodily experience. It is the first step in observing the self and taking a somatic snapshot [17] of what is coming to awareness of one's bodily experience. ...
... This method was originally developed to perform in situ data collection for behavioural medicine [111]. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM) aims to assess participant thoughts, behaviours, and feelings during daily life by collecting self-reports, triggered at various moments during the day [112]. The two terms (EMA and ESM) are used interchangeably, and in practice, they are measured using the same methods [113]. ...
Chapter
Energy and fatigue carry important implications for vitality and overall quality of life. Lacking energy and experiencing fatigue can be both burdensome as well as adaptive. This chapter first classifies energy and fatigue and then reviews their measurement. This chapter closes with opportunities for future directions. Energy and fatigue are present under varying conditions including in daily performance, during and after acute physical or mental strain (capacity), and in the context of chronic conditions. Energy and fatigue have been measured both subjectively and objectively. Subjective outcomes can be derived from self-reported scales and prompts; objective outcomes may be derived from performance and capacity tasks and technology-reported physiological, biological, and behavioural markers. The scales and tasks employed to measure energy have been traditionally validated but may lack daily life context and ecological validity. Prompts and behavioural monitoring methods are emerging as promising alternatives. Energy and fatigue have also been routinely monitored for specific diseases and occupations. However, fewer studies monitor healthy individuals through consumer technology in daily life contexts. More research is needed for an objective, unobtrusive, longitudinal, and contextual measurement of energy and fatigue in the healthy general population, in service of improving health, wellbeing, and quality of life.
... In order to examine associations within individuals, repeated measures data needs to be utilized (Collins, 2006;Molenaar & Newell, 2010;Molenaar, 2004;Raudenbush, 2001), and ideally this data should be intensive longitudinal data containing a relatively high number of observations per participant (Hamaker et al., 2018). One way to collect such intensive longitudinal data is experience sampling, also known as ecological momentary assessment (Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). Experience sampling is a research procedure that involves repeated sampling of participants' current behaviors, feelings or thoughts in real time in their natural environment (Shiffman et al., 2008). ...
Article
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The dual continua model assumes that psychological distress and mental well-being are two related, yet distinct dimensions of mental health. Previous studies did convincingly show the distinctiveness of these two dimensions using mainly cross-sectional research. Despite the importance to distinguish between-and within-person associations in psychological theories, to date, no study specifically distinguished between-and within-person associations for the relationship between distress and well-being. Therefore, the objective of this study was to validate whether the dual continua model actually holds when examined within individuals. Intensive longitudinal data were collected through experience sampling. The sample included 25 university students (mean age = 23.50 years, 56% female), who completed a baseline questionnaire as well as momentary measures of psychological distress and mental well-being three times per day for two weeks. 1,014 timepoints were analyzed using multilevel models and person-mean centering was applied to distinguish between-and within person associations. A significant moderate negative between-person association was found for the relationship between psychological distress and mental well-being (β = −.363, marginal R 2 = 0.15, p < .001). The within-person association was also significant and similar in magnitude (β = −.432, marginal R 2 = 0.18, p < .001) at the group level. Individual within-person associations between distress and well-being varied substantially, but were negative for almost all participants. This study is an important step towards validating the applicability and universality of this widely used model. The current findings provide preliminary evidence that the dual continua model does not only hold between people, but also on the level it is actually used for, namely within individual people.
... Thus, methods in the field have been developed to complement laboratory methods. One such method is the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) [1], also known as Ambulatory Assessment (AA) or Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) [2,3]. ...
Article
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In situ self-reports are a useful tool in the social sciences to supplement laboratory experiments. Smartwatches are a promising form factor to realize these methods. However, to date, no user-friendly, general-purpose solution has been available. This article therefore presents a newly developed, free and open-source firmware that facilitates the Experience Sampling Method and other self-report methods on a commercially-available, programmable smartwatch based on the ESP32 microcontroller. In a small-scale pilot study comparing this smartwatch and firmware to an equivalent design on smartphones, participants using the smartwatch showed increased compliance. The presented project demonstrates a useful tool for complementary tools like smartphones for self-reports.
... However, while many studies have examined the consequences of emotional stability, few have investigated its causes. Based on the Selflessness/Selfcenteredness Happiness Model (SSHM, Dambrun & Ricard, 2011) and an experience sampling methodology (Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 1983) this study tests the contribution of selflessness to high and stable happiness. ...
Article
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Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of a positive relationship between selflessness and happiness. However, none of these studies yet differentiated the between—and within—person levels of analysis. Moreover, the Selflessness/Selfcenteredness Happiness Model (SSHM) suggests that selflessness might stabilize happiness. In this experience sampling study, we explored the relationships between selflessness and happiness—baseline and stability—at both the within and betweenperson levels. During five consecutive days, participants responded seven times a day to short questions about happiness and selflessness. Our results showed that more selfless individuals were happier and that more selfless moments of an individual were also happier moments. Moreover, more selfless individuals were more stable from one day to the other. Finally, people becoming more selfless experienced more happiness stability at the following assessment moment and the next day. This study brings new evidence of the importance of selflessness for happiness.
... Different levels of ESB have different effects on the same tourist on different days. The experience sampling method can capture the continuous variation of emotional exhaustion of the same tourist on different days (Larson, R., & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014), and test everyday relationships between ESB and emotional exhaustion. ...
Article
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Environmentally sustainable behavior influences tourists purchasing decisions on whether to engage in sustainable consumption. Based on resource conservation theory and an actor-centric perspective, the current study investigates how and when engaging in environmentally sustainable behavior directly and indirectly affects emotional exhaustion and unneeded behavior. Emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between environmentally sustainable behavior and unneeded behavior, with moderating effects of environmental concern and perceived environmental knowledge. Using the experience sampling method, data are collected in a10-day questionnaire from 151 tourists in Shanghai. Results from multi-level structural equation modeling show negative impacts of tourist environmentally sustainable behavior on unneeded behavior via emotional exhaustion. The nexus between environmentally sustainable behavior and emotional exhaustion is stronger at low environmental concern and weaker at perceived environmental knowledge. This conclusion may enrich conservation theory and show practical values for tourism policy makers, producers and marketers.
... For example, participants could ask about facts, or for technical instruction, but were discouraged from making requests for the system to directly alter document content. In the first study, we collected questions via an experience sampling method [35] by having participants install a Microsoft Word add-in which, at random points in time while they were working on a document, would prompt them with a short questionnaire asking about their current information need, but did not directly answer participant queries. In the second study, participants submitted their questions via an add-in and received answers from a human-in-the-loop document Q&A system. ...
Preprint
While digital assistants are increasingly used to help with various productivity tasks, less attention has been paid to employing them in the domain of business documents. To build an agent that can handle users' information needs in this domain, we must first understand the types of assistance that users desire when working on their documents. In this work, we present results from two user studies that characterize the information needs and queries of authors, reviewers, and readers of business documents. In the first study, we used experience sampling to collect users' questions in-situ as they were working with their documents, and in the second, we built a human-in-the-loop document Q&A system which rendered assistance with a variety of users' questions. Our results have implications for the design of document assistants that complement AI with human intelligence including whether particular skillsets or roles within the document are needed from human respondents, as well as the challenges around such systems.
... In all 44 studies, researchers captured SETs' perceptions of working conditions using a survey administered at a single time point. No studies measured SETs' working conditions using other quantitative methods, such as the experience sampling method (Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014), observation, or evaluation of artifacts. ...
Article
Special education teachers’ (SETs) working conditions play a crucial role in shaping the size, quality, and effectiveness of the SET workforce, and thereby shape the quality of instruction provided to students with disabilities. Valid measures of SETs’ working conditions are essential for conducting robust research on how to improve working conditions. We systematically reviewed measures of SETs’ working conditions across 44 studies, assessing evidence of validity. We find that evidence of validity for existing measures is limited, but that extant measures provide a starting point for future measurement development. We urge researchers to develop valid measures in the future, for use in both research and policy aimed at better supporting SETs.
... [30][31][32][33] Researchers have begun to explore different types of data for use in machine learning. The experience sampling method (ESM 91,92 ), also known as ecological momentary assessment (EMA 93 ), offers many possibilities for providing data on individuals' behaviours and experiences in real time, in the context of their everyday lives. One study found that supplementing EHR data with ESM data improved its algorithm's recall for predicting suicidal ideation from 48·13% to 67·78%. ...
Article
In ever more pressured health-care systems, technological solutions offering scalability of care and better resource targeting are appealing. Research on machine learning as a technique for identifying individuals at risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death has grown rapidly. This research often places great emphasis on the promise of machine learning for preventing suicide, but overlooks the practical, clinical implementation issues that might preclude delivering on such a promise. In this Review, we synthesise the broad empirical and review literature on electronic health record-based machine learning in suicide research, and focus on matters of crucial importance for implementation of machine learning in clinical practice. The challenge of preventing statistically rare outcomes is well known; progress requires tackling data quality, transparency, and ethical issues. In the future, machine learning models might be explored as methods to enable targeting of interventions to specific individuals depending upon their level of need—ie, for precision medicine. Primarily, however, the promise of machine learning for suicide prevention is limited by the scarcity of high-quality scalable interventions available to individuals identified by machine learning as being at risk of suicide.
... The three sources of data include semi-structured interviews (pre, mid, post-hike), audio diaries, and Instagram content (photos, videos, captions). To gather data in real-time, we employed the 360 Diary Method (Rohn & Arnold, in press), a data collection method grounded in multiple approaches: experience sampling (Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 1983), photovoice (Latz & Mulvihill, 2017), and diary method (Bartlett & Milligan, 2015). This method enabled students to share their experiences in context, using cell phones and media of their everyday lives. ...
... Akış Teorisi, ilkin, müzik dinlemek, dans etmek, bisiklet sürmek, dağa tırmanmak, spor yapmak, oyun oynamak, televizyon izlemek, film izlemek, satranç oynamak, çalışmak, kitap okumak, yazı yazmak, alışveriş yapmak gibi günlük yaşamda fiziksel olarak yapılan aktiviteler için uygulama alanı bulmuştur (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975a(Csikszentmihalyi, , 1975b(Csikszentmihalyi, , 1978(Csikszentmihalyi, , 1982(Csikszentmihalyi, , 1988(Csikszentmihalyi, , 1990(Csikszentmihalyi, , 1996(Csikszentmihalyi, , 1997(Csikszentmihalyi, , 2014Csikszentmihalyi ve Figurski, 1982;Csikszentmihalyi vd., 1977;Larson ve Csikszentmihalyi, 1983;Csikszentmihalyi ve Lefevre, 1989;Csikszentmihalyi ve Csikszentmihalyi, 1988;Ellis vd., 1994;Csikszentmihalyi ve Rathunde, 1993;Csikszentmihalyi ve Nakamura, 1989;Jackson ve Marsh, 1996;Moneta ve Csikszentmihalyi, 1996;Voelkl ve Ellis, 1998;Engeser and Rheinberg, 2008 (Mannheim, 1952(Mannheim, , 1970 (Xu vd., 2015). Ayrıca, yardımcı olma ve ikna edilebilirlik açısından güvenilirliğin, arama mallarına kıyasla deneyim malları için tüketici algıları üzerinde, daha büyük olumlu etkisi olmaktadır (Xu vd., 2015). ...
... To pursue the above avenues for future research, we suggest that scholars move away from the cross-sectional designs that have dominated EGB research (Norton et al., 2015) toward other, more advanced, research designs including longitudinal and multilevel designs. Specifically, daily diary studies such as in Bissing-Olson et al. (2013) or experience sampling method (ESM) studies (Larson and Csikszentmihalyi, 2014) are needed to investigate links between momentary experiences (e.g., emotions) and EGB. Moreover, intensive longitudinal studies, with several waves of daily diary-or ESM data collection separated by several weeks or months (for an example, see Quintus et al., 2020), allow researchers to link day-to-day or momentary experiences to longer term developments. ...
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Employees can play a decisive role in combatting climate change by engaging in green behavior at work. Research on employee green behavior has recently gained traction, with research results pointing to the considerable influence of positive variables (e.g., personal values, positive affect) on employee green behavior. While such positive variables lie at the heart of the scholarly discipline positive organizational psychology, there is scant research at the intersection of positive organizational psychology and employee green behavior. The current manuscript aims to give impetus to such research. To this end, the manuscript presents a systematic review of the literature on positive predictors of employee green behavior and identified 94 articles that investigate such predictors. We explicitly map these investigated predictors onto a positive (organizational) psychology frame of reference. Subsequently, we use the findings of the review to identify gaps and outline concrete suggestions for future research at the intersection of positive organizational psychology and employee green behavior, addressing both theoretical and methodological suggestions.
... Ecological momentary assessment [EMA], and experience sampling methods [ESM] focus on the highly ecological nature of measurements, encompassing subjective (e.g., self-report surveys), independent of the nature of the data acquired (e.g., one's emotions vs daily activities), and may/may not involve the use of digital means (e.g., paper-pencil questionnaires) [11,49,113]. Similarly, ambulatory assessment employs computer-assisted technology to capture subjective/objective data collection [80,86,168,182]. ...
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Background This PRISMA systematic literature review examined the use of digital data collection methods (including ecological momentary assessment [EMA], experience sampling method [ESM], digital biomarkers, passive sensing, mobile sensing, ambulatory assessment, and time-series analysis), emphasizing on digital phenotyping (DP) to study depression. DP is defined as the use of digital data to profile health information objectively. Aims Four distinct yet interrelated goals underpin this study: (a) to identify empirical research examining the use of DP to study depression; (b) to describe the different methods and technology employed; (c) to integrate the evidence regarding the efficacy of digital data in the examination, diagnosis, and monitoring of depression and (d) to clarify DP definitions and digital mental health records terminology. Results Overall, 118 studies were assessed as eligible. Considering the terms employed, “EMA”, “ESM”, and “DP” were the most predominant. A variety of DP data sources were reported, including voice, language, keyboard typing kinematics, mobile phone calls and texts, geocoded activity, actigraphy sensor-related recordings (i.e., steps, sleep, circadian rhythm), and self-reported apps’ information. Reviewed studies employed subjectively and objectively recorded digital data in combination with interviews and psychometric scales. Conclusions Findings suggest links between a person’s digital records and depression. Future research recommendations include (a) deriving consensus regarding the DP definition and (b) expanding the literature to consider a person’s broader contextual and developmental circumstances in relation to their digital data/records.
... Keywords: suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, experience sampling method, ambulatory assessment, electronic diary INTRODUCTION Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) refers to data collection methods were momentary information is collected in real life (1). EMA is also known as experience sampling method (ESM) (2) or ambulatory assessment (AA) (3). These three terms emphasize the defining features of this methodology: catching individuals in their natural environments while they go about their daily lives, and probing them about their experiences as they unfold in the moment. ...
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Suicide and suicide-related behaviors are prevalent yet notoriously difficult to predict. Specifically, short-term predictors and correlates of suicide risk remain largely unknown. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) may be used to assess how suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) unfold in real-world contexts. We conducted a systematic literature review of EMA studies in suicide research to assess (1) how EMA has been utilized in the study of STBs (i.e., methodology, findings), and (2) the feasibility, validity and safety of EMA in the study of STBs. We identified 45 articles, detailing 23 studies. Studies mainly focused on examining how known longitudinal predictors of suicidal ideation perform within shorter (hourly, daily) time frames. Recent studies have explored the prospects of digital phenotyping of individuals with suicidal ideation. The results indicate that suicidal ideation fluctuates substantially over time (hours, days), and that individuals with higher mean ideation also have more fluctuations. Higher suicidal ideation instability may represent a phenotypic indicator for increased suicide risk. Few studies succeeded in establishing prospective predictors of suicidal ideation beyond prior ideation itself. Some studies show negative affect, hopelessness and burdensomeness to predict increased ideation within-day, and sleep characteristics to impact next-day ideation. The feasibility of EMA is encouraging: agreement to participate in EMA research was moderate to high (median = 77%), and compliance rates similar to those in other clinical samples (median response rate = 70%). More individuals reported suicidal ideation through EMA than traditional (retrospective) self-report measures. Regarding safety, no evidence was found of systematic reactivity of mood or suicidal ideation to repeated assessments of STBs. In conclusion, suicidal ideation can fluctuate substantially over short periods of time, and EMA is a suitable method for capturing these fluctuations. Some specific predictors of subsequent ideation have been identified, but these findings warrant further replication. While repeated EMA assessments do not appear to result in systematic reactivity in STBs, participant burden and safety remains a consideration when studying high-risk populations. Considerations for designing and reporting on EMA studies in suicide research are discussed.
... This study had a between-person design with two experimental groups. We used the experience sampling method (ESM; Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014) to sample personality states in people's everyday lives. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Participants in the not-relevant group were offered the additional "not relevant" response option for the personality state items; participants in the treatment-as-usual group were not offered this response option. ...
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Are personality states relevant and applicable in every situation? Although this question is important from both a theoretical and methodological perspective, a detailed investigation of the (ir)relevance of personality states in everyday situations is still needed. In an experimental experience sampling study (total N = 248; n = 3,253 observations), we compared personality states measured with a scale including or not including a “not relevant” response option. Overall, “not relevant” responses were quite prevalent, but the prevalence varied considerably among personality states, items, and persons. Certain characteristics of the situation (particularly sociality) but not of the person predicted the use of the “not relevant” response option. Additionally, we found significant differences in means and distributions between the different response scales. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of systematically addressing how personality states should be measured and provides first evidence that their relevance is an important yet overlooked aspect.
... Experience sampling consists of measuring people's behaviors on an almost "continuous" basis (i.e., several times per day over many days). It is employed in a range of investigations, including everyday creativity in daily life (Karwowski et al., 2017;Silvia et al., 2014Silvia et al., , 2017, the creative process in art-making (Benedek et al., 2017), the relationship between creativity and daydreaming (Zedelius et al., 2020) or mood states (Han et al., 2019), creativity at work (Volmer et al., 2019), and of course, flow experience (Stollberger & Debus, 2020) which has historically stimulated the ESM methodology (Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). ...
Article
Individual differences perspectives have dominated the scientific study of creativity since the 1950’s. These perspectives, however, mainly emphasize group-level variations or inter-individual differences, with limited interest in individual-level variations. Yet, (1) group-level findings are often used to make inferences at the person-level, which might not apply consistently across individuals, and (2) a focus on intra-individual variations could supplement knowledge based on inter-individual differences and accurately inform creativity as a dynamic and multifaceted psychological construct. Indeed, when observed at the individual level, creativity can vary from moment to moment, task to task, and even item to item, which is not well reflected in the current understanding of creativity. After introducing the historical context for the study of individual differences in creativity, this article presents and illustrates three fundamental and distinct aspects of intra-individual variability as they apply to creativity, namely (in)consistency (or processing fluctuation), dispersion, and intraindividual change. While doing so, recent developments in apparatus and methods to assess creativity as a more dynamic phenomenon are presented. The article concludes by discussing the promise of accounting for intra-individual variability in creative performance and potential and the new knowledge it may elicit for both creativity research and practice.
... This method was originally developed to perform in situ data collection for behavioural medicine [110] . The Experience Sampling Method (ESM) aims to assess participant thoughts, behaviours, and feelings during daily life by collecting self-reports, triggered at various moments during the day [111] . The two terms (EMA and ESM) are used interchangeably, and in practice, they are measured using the same methods [112] . ...
Thesis
Chronic diseases represent a significant share of the burden of disease globally. They are responsible for 86% of premature deaths in Europe. Unhealthy behaviours, such as physical inactivity, insufficient sleep, poor nutrition, and tobacco intake, explain up to 50% of chronic disease risk. However, the evidence is not precise enough to assess the risk for each disease. Human subject studies monitoring behaviours over long periods (longitudinally) during daily life (in situ) by leveraging unobtrusive (observational) technology can allow human behaviours to unfold. They can not only qualify, but also quantify the relationships between behaviours, health, and Quality of Life (QoL) outcomes from compliant participants. This PhD thesis explores two research areas. In the first area, we research the motivation and facilitation of participation in human subject studies. We propose a presentational model using personalised stories to improve human studies’ participation. We design two unifying frameworks for conducting a wide range of human subject studies (mQoL mobile app, mQoL-Chat chatbot). They leverage two modules designed and developed by the author in mQoL-Lab, the lab platform of the Quality of Life Technologies lab. In the second area, we research the relationships between behavioural, health, and QoL outcomes (co-calibration). We present the coQoL computational model for co-calibration. We demonstrate its feasibility in a study on N = 42 healthy older individuals (a population at risk, appropriate for disease prevention, and having benefitted from insufficient co-calibrations). They answered questionnaires on eight physical and psychological validated scales (physical activity: IPAQ, social support: MSPSS, anxiety and depression: GADS, nutrition: PREDIMED and SelfMNA, memory: MFE, sleep: PSQI, and health-related QoL: EQ-5D-3L). They wore consumer wearables (Fitbit Charge 2) for up to two years. The wearables reported behavioural markers (physical activity, sleep, heart rate) in situ. We observed new relationships between these outcomes. We described the study’s human factors and data quality. The scientific contributions in both research areas can inform the design of future studies leveraging consumer technology that monitors behaviours longitudinally in situ to assess and improve health and QoL.
... The tests were used to measure experimental group students' attentional capacities, memory processes, and cognition abilities before and after the intervention. In the experimental phase, the study also used the experience sampling method (Larson & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). This was to involve the sampled students in the reporting on their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours in different settings such as before doing their studies online, after the classes, after they practiced breathing exercises, meditation, or yoga. ...
Article
p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of the study was to identify what neuropsychological effect online learning had on psychology students and how it could be moderated. The study was descriptive and combined qualitative and quantitative methods to address the research questions. The study relied on three phases such as baseline study, experiment, and reporting. The experiment utilised neuropsychology tests adopted from the NeurOn platform. It was found that the Psychology students’ perceptions of e-learning and their emotional reaction to them were found not to be appreciative. The practices in breathing exercises, meditation, or yoga were proved to be able to moderate the impact of online learning on the experimental group students’ attentional capacities, memory processes, and cognition abilities. The above findings were supported by the results obtained for the neuropsychology tests and the experimental group students’ self-reflections yielded from the use of the MovisensXS App. The students confirmed that breathing exercises, meditation, or yoga reduced study stress and burnout caused by e-learning and improved their academic performance. The focus group online discussion also showed that integration of breathing exercises, meditation, and yoga helped the experimental group students keep emotional balance, concentrate on their studies easier, remember more information, and meet deadlines in completing assignments. The education scientists are suggested to study how the e-learning curriculum could be reshaped so that it used relaxation practices on regular basis.</p
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Social functioning is an important part of recovery and a key treatment target in clinical research in schizo-phrenia. Evaluating and comparing interventions is challenged by the choice of many measures which focus on different aspects of functioning, with little to guide selection. This results in difficulties comparing outcomes of treatment where studies have used different measures. To improve the measurement of social functioning in intervention research, we aimed to provide practical information on suitability of measures. We conducted a systematic review of measures developed or psychometrically evaluated since 2007, and assessed and discussed the structure, content, quality, and the use of the measures in intervention research. Thirty-two measures of social functioning and 22 validation papers were identified. Measures included structured questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and assessment of performance on specific tasks. The content of measures was organised into eight categories, which are in order of frequency with which they were covered by measures: activities of daily living, productive activity, relationships, leisure activities, cognition, antisocial behaviour, psychosis symptoms and self-esteem and empowerment. In terms of quality, most measures were rated as moderate, with the Personal and Social Performance Scale gaining the highest rating. However, there was little data on responsiveness of measures, or how they compare to objective or 'real-world' indicators of functioning. The Social Functioning Scale and Personal and Social Performance Scale have been most frequently used in intervention studies to date. Future research should aim to provide further data on psychometric properties relevant to intervention research.
Chapter
Die Lernmotivation gilt als einer der wichtigsten individuellen Prädiktoren für gelingende Lernprozesse und für schulischen Erfolg. Die Erfüllung der psychologischen Grundbedürfnisse nach Autonomie, Kompetenz und sozialer Eingebundenheit nimmt dabei eine zentrale Rolle für die qualitative Ausprägung der selbstbestimmten Motivation ein. Der vorliegende Text stellt die Beziehung zwischen zwei Formen der selbstbestimmten Motivation – intrinsische und identifizierte Motivation – und den psychologischen Grundbedürfnissen im Mathematikunterricht anhand einer Längsschnittstudie (drei Messzeitpunkte) mit 348 Schülerinnen und Schülern der Sekundarstufe I in den Mittelpunkt. Die Analysen von insgesamt sechs Cross-Lagged Panel Modellen ergeben keine reziproken Zusammenhänge, sondern ausschließlich autoregressive und vereinzelte unidirektionale Beziehungen, die jedoch in ihrer Stärke und Richtung zwischen den drei psychologischen Grundbedürfnissen (Relevanz der Inhalte als Proxy für Autonomie, Kompetenzerleben und soziale Eingebundenheit) variieren.
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Technological embeddedness into everyday life and interconnectivity between omnipresent devices, termed the Internet of Things (IoT), have spurned a dedicated research venture in the field of mental health. Recognizing that mental health issues are on an alarming rise, affecting the individual and the society in a progressively multi-faceted nature, and that existing human resources are not sufficient to tackle the crisis, decision-makers have turned to technology to see what opportunities it may offer. More than ever, this endeavor has gained importance due to the COVID-19 pandemic, whose consequences not only severed the already fickle live human contact between the professionals and their patients but also onset a broad mental health crisis stemming from the virus’ impact on health and the implemented measures to control it. The role that IoT-enabled technology plays in this new landscape of digital mental health can be roughly divided into two complementary processes: assessment and intervention. Assessment concerns monitoring, learning about, and recognizing a person’s mental health issues through their physiology, behavior, thinking, emotional and cognitive states, and the context they live in. Intervention follows, and it conforms to the specifics of an assessment, attempting to effect attitude and behavior change in a person. Technology, especially artificial intelligence, enables assessment and intervention to be tailored very specifically to the individual. Omnipresent devices—e.g., smart bracelets—allow increasingly more accurate assessments, which allow not only better interventions but also interventions that can be delivered momentarily—e.g., with an intelligent cognitive assistant on a smartphone—with the continuous interchange of both as the biggest leap forward. Due to the research field still being young and thus not systematized into a coherent framework, even lacking an overview of methods, trends, and directions, this book chapter serves as an early attempt to codify this highly interdisciplinary relationship between technology and mental health.
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The present study adopted a mixed-methods approach using a convergent parallel design to focus on the role that positive and negative emotions have in the Foreign Language (FL) classroom on the ontogenesis of positive flow. Participants were 1,044 FL learners from around the world. They provided quantitative and qualitative data on FL enjoyment (FLE), classroom anxiety (FLCA) and experience of flow via an on-line questionnaire (Dewaele, Jean-Marc & Peter D. MacIntyre. 2014. The two faces of Janus? Anxiety and enjoyment in the foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 4. 237–274). FLE was a significantly stronger predictor of frequency of flow experience than FLCA. Further statistical analyses revealed that flow experiences are typically self-centred, infrequent and short-lived at the start of the FL learning journey and when the perceived social standing in the group is low. They become an increasingly shared experience, more frequent, stronger and more sustained as learners reach a more advanced level in their FL. What starts as an occasional individual spark can turn into a true fire that extends to other group members. The findings are illustrated by participants’ reports on enjoyable episodes in the FL classroom in which some reported complete involvement in an individual or collective task, merging of action and awareness, joyful bonding with classmates, intense focus and joy, loss of self-consciousness, sense of time and place.
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Background: This PRISMA systematic literature review examined the use of digital data collection methods (including ecological momentary assessment [EMA], experience sampling method [ESM], digital biomarkers, passive sensing, mobile sensing, ambulatory assessment, and time-series analysis), emphasizing on digital phenotyping (DP) to study depression. DP is defined as the use of digital data to profile health information objectively. Aims: Four distinct yet interrelated goals underpin this study: (a) to identify empirical research examining the use of DP to study depression; (b) to describe the different methods and technology employed; (c) to integrate the evidence regarding the efficacy of digital data in the examination, diagnosis, and monitoring of depression and (d) to clarify DP definitions and digital mental health records terminology. Results: Overall, 118 studies were assessed as eligible. Considering the terms employed, “EMA”, “ESM”, and “DP” were the most predominant. A variety of DP data sources were reported, including voice, language, keyboard typing kinematics, mobile phone calls and texts, geocoded activity, actigraphy sensor-related recordings (i.e., steps, sleep, circadian rhythm), and self-reported apps’ information. Reviewed studies employed subjectively and objectively recorded digital data in combination with interviews and psychometric scales. Conclusions: Findings suggest links between a person’s digital records and depression. Future research recommendations include (a) deriving consensus regarding the DP definition and (b) expanding the literature to consider a person’s broader contextual and developmental circumstances in relation to their digital data/records.
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Small-scale fisheries have been associated with the subjective well-being of coastal communities through their links with culture, identity, and social cohesion. But although fish catches are usually considered the primary ecosystem service that benefits fishers, little is known about how subjective well-being is influenced by the fishing activity itself. Here, we applied the experience sampling method in two small-scale fisheries in Bangladesh to assess the effects of fishing on fishers’ occurrence of positive and negative affect, two measures of subjective well-being. We found that fishing activities were not directly associated with increased momentary affect and that the frequency of positive affect actually decreased as the fishing trip progressed. Furthermore, although very low catches were associated with less positive affect, the highest frequency of positive affect was achieved with relatively small catches. Our results imply that the benefits provided by small-scale fisheries to the momentary subjective well-being of fishers are not strongly related to the actual catching of fish.
Chapter
Currently, one out of 160 children have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the world. This problem is observed in both developed and low-middle-income countries (LMICs) around the globe. Usually, in developed countries, the number can be estimated, but in LMICs, this number is largely unknown, and in some cases, many children with ASD are not treated after identification of the problem. In these cases, both for the developed and LMICs, mobile technology can continuously monitor children with ASD. In this chapter, the authors describe the techniques of remote monitoring of the behavioral and milestone parameters development for children with ASD that care practitioners can use as an evidence-based tool to make the decision in the treatment process. Lastly, the authors describe the advantages and challenges of using the mHealth tools in the ASD treatment based on the NIH-funded successful completion project “mCARE” in Bangladesh.
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Even though well-being can be seen as a multidimensional construct, made up of a variety of interacting aspects, most studies examine total scores on well-being measures, treating well-being as a latent variable. This so-called common cause perspective assumes that aspects of well-being are mere effects of a common cause, namely well-being itself. The network approach moves away from this approach by suggesting that research should no longer focus only on the mean level of psychological constructs, but on the relations between the different aspects of a construct over time. Instead of a static, common cause approach to well-being, the network perspective views thoughts and feelings not as reflections but as constituents of well-being, treating them as agents in a causal system instead of passive indicators. In this paper, we applied the network approach to investigate how fluctuations in specific symptoms of well-being are associated with fluctuations in other symptoms of well-being. Based on a sample of 151 working adults with on average 32.66 data points collected over a five-day period, we found that in general, the low arousal emotion of feeling satisfied played a central role in the dynamics between various aspects of well-being in the momentary context of daily life. This means that feeling satisfied cannot just be seen as a passive indicator of well-being, but also as an active agent in a causal system that brings about other aspects of well-being. These results provide insight into daily dynamic processes related to the development of well-being over time and contribute to our understanding of well-being and how to improve it.
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Describes technological methods and tools for objective and quantitative assessment of quality of life (QoL) Appraises technology-enabled methods for incorporating QoL measurements in medicine Highlights the success factors for adoption and scaling of technology-enabled methods
Chapter
Quality of life (QoL) is a subjective term often determined by various aspects of living, such as personal well-being, health, family, and safety. QoL is challenging to capture objectively but can be anticipated through a person’s emotional state; especially positive emotions indicate an increased QoL and may be a potential indicator for other QoL aspects (such as health, safety). Affective computing is the study of technologies that can quantitatively assess human emotions from external clues. It can leverage different modalities including facial expression, physiological responses, or smartphone usage patterns and correlate them with the person’s life quality assessments. Smartphones are emerging as a main modality, mostly because of their ubiquitous availability and use throughout daily life activities. They include a plethora of onboard sensors (e.g., accelerometer, gyroscope, GPS) and can sense different user activities passively (e.g., mobility, app usage history). This chapter presents a research study (here referred to as the TapSense study) that focuses on assessing the individual’s emotional state from the smartphone usage patterns. In this TapSense study, the keyboard interaction of n = 22 participants was unobtrusively monitored for 3 weeks to determine the users’ emotional state (i.e., happy, sad, stressed, relaxed) using a personalized machine learning model. TapSense can assess emotions with an average AUCROC of 78%(±7% std). We summarize the findings and reflect upon these in the context of the potential developments within affective computing at large, in the long term, indicating a person’s quality of life.
Chapter
Personal interactions are an important element of an individual’s health and life quality in the long term. As the site of many interpersonal interactions has been moved to the digital domain, human society has never been more intertwined. The digital footprints of interpersonal interactions can be quantified and measured via smartphones and wearables, providing more objective, quantitative, and accurate measurements. This chapter focuses on quantifying personal relationships in the context of quality of life, specifically focusing on novel technology-based quantification solutions. It first analyzes traditional qualitative quality of life measures based on subjective self-reporting that include measures of personal relationships, specifically the WHOQOL-BREF, WHOQOL-100, RAND-36, KIDSCREEN-27, SWLS, and Beach Center FQOL, as well as other non-validated measures. The chapter then proposes novel technological solutions for data gathering and analysis by introducing the concept of digital item representation, a process that leverages personal datasets originating from smartphones and wearables. The chapter also discusses issues relating to users’ privacy that influence the acceptance of such everyday technologies as well as the quality of data collected in the long term.
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This study investigates the peak–end rule's applicability in evaluating the product user experience in the context of overall satisfaction with smartphone applications, a chronological evaluation of past impressive episodes with the use of applications, and the satisfaction level of each episode. The effects of the positive and negative peaks (maximum and minimum satisfaction score) and the end (satisfaction score at the most recent episode) were analyzed against the overall satisfaction in a series of episodes. Two representative groups (satisfied and dissatisfied) were surveyed regarding their satisfaction with a selected application. A correlation analysis between the variables revealed that the peaks and the end correlated with overall satisfaction. Further analysis with hierarchical multiple regression models revealed that the positive and negative peaks do not necessarily explain overall satisfaction dominantly in the regression model of this study. However, the possibility that they are related to the overall satisfaction was confirmed. In contrast, this study demonstrated the significant influence of the most recent event on the overall satisfaction level.
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The longitudinal actor–partner interdependence model (L-APIM) is used to study actor and partner effects, both linear and curvilinear, in dyadic intensive longitudinal data. A burning question is how to conduct power analyses for different L-APIM variants. In this paper, we introduce an accessible power analysis application, called PowerLAPIM, and provide a hands-on tutorial for conducting simulation-based power analyses for 32 L-APIM variants. With PowerLAPIM, we target the number of dyads needed, but not the number of repeated measurements for both partners (which is often fixed in longitudinal studies). PowerLAPIM allows to study moderation of linear and quadratic actor and partner effects by incorporating time-varying covariates or a categorical dyad-level predictor to test group differences. We also provide the functionality to account for serial dependency in the outcome variable by including autoregressive effects. Building on existing study that can yield estimates and thus plausible values of relevant model parameters, we illustrate how to perform a power analysis for a future study. In this illustration, we also demonstrate how to run a sensitivity analysis, to assess the impact of uncertainty about the model parameters, and of changes in the number of repeated measurements.
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Mobile-health applications can be used to deliver timely and personalized health information to family and friends of chronically ill adults living in the community. This scoping review aims to investigate the nature and extent of native smartphone applications for informal caregivers. Six databases were searched for articles on applications across ten chronic conditions, namely heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic obstructive respiratory disease, asthma, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease or other dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, and mood or anxiety disorders. In total, 36 articles were included, encompassing 26 applications. Of these, smartphone applications were designed for use only by caregivers (n = 15), with a few applications also intended to be used with patients (n = 5), healthcare providers (n = 4), or all three roles (n = 2). Most applications targeted a single chronic condition (n = 25), with Alzheimer’s and other dementia being the most common (n = 18). Only one application was designed for management of multiple chronic conditions. Long-term evaluation methods are needed to continually assess the impact of applications on a range of process and health outcomes, such as usability, caregiver burden, and quality of life. Additional directions to advance native smartphone applications for caregivers are discussed, including personalization and expansion of eligibility criteria.
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Information technology (IT) interruptions are IT-based events that capture users’ attention and interfere with other activities. This study focuses on repeated IT interruption and task performance. We draw on dual-process theory and suggest that users may get used to repeated IT interruption, known as habituation, or may become hypersensitive, known as sensitization. We validate the research model based on data from a laboratory experiment with 100 subjects by using a multivariate latent growth model (LGM). With subjective and objective measurement techniques, we show how users respond to repeated IT interruption with physiological arousal, psychological exhaustion, and behavioral task performance. Our results indicate that user responses follow different patterns over time, revealing time-dependent effects of arousal and exhaustion on task performance. We contribute to literature by providing evidence that repeated IT interruption results in unique habituation and sensitization user response patterns compared to a single IT interruption.
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Even though group mood has a significant impact on organizational functioning, there is no typology available to describe distinct group moods. We propose that designing products and services to facilitate beneficial group mood experiences requires a granular and experience-oriented understanding of the phenomenon. This article introduces an initial typology of eight group moods using a componential approach. The typology was generated via an exploratory study designed to identify aspects and qualities of group mood experienced in professional settings. We observed real-life meetings of five small workgroups. Group mood perceptions were self-reported in situ and later described collectively in a group session. By categorizing the group mood qualities in participants’ descriptions, we developed eight group mood types. This typology aims to facilitate a granular understanding of the group mood phenomenon for designers (practitioners and researchers). We envision this overview of eight group moods as the first step toward developing a systematic knowledge of group mood in the field of design.
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Individuals with a tendency to experience more positive affect have been shown to preferentially attend to positive stimuli. Anecdotal evidence even holds that individuals perceive more beauty when positive affect prevails. In two studies, we investigated the role of dispositional affect in predicting the frequency and intensity of aesthetic experiences. In Study 1, we examined experience sampling method (ESM) data on 99 students’ aesthetic experiences. In Study 2, we used an intensive ESM investigation over the course of two weeks to collect data on aesthetic emotions (N = 97), and then associated the ESM data with dispositional affect questionnaires. The results of both studies showed a positive association between dispositional positive affect and the intensity of aesthetic experiences. However, dispositional affect and the frequency of aesthetic experiences were found to be unrelated. These findings suggest that dispositional affect does not predict how much beauty we see, but rather how much we enjoy it.
Chapter
Seven hundred and fifty-three observations were collected on 25 adolescents at random times during an average week. The observations consisted of self-reports completed in response to an electronic pager. The study was aimed at the question: What is the experience of time alone like for adolescents? The results suggest a complex but consistent relationship: while aloneness is generally a negative experience, those adolescents who spend a moderate amount of time alone (about 30 % of their waking time) tend to show better overall adjustment than adolescents who are either never alone or spend more than the optimal proportion of time alone. Alienation and average moods showed inverse linear or quadratic relationships with amount of time alone. These results are discussed in terms of the possible psychosocial functions of aloneness at the adolescent stage of the life cycle.
Article
Twenty-five adolescents reported their daily activities and the quality of their experiences for a total of 753 times during a normal week, in response to random beeps transmitted by an electronic paging device. In this sample adolescents were found to spend most of their time either in conversation with peers or in watching television. Negative affects were prevalent in most activities involving socialization into adult roles. Television viewing appears to be an affectless state associated with deviant behavior and antisocial personality traits. The research suggests the importance of a systemic approach which studies persons' activities and experiences in an ecological context. The experiential sampling method described in this paper provides a tool for collecting such systemic data.
Article
This research uses a new time sampling method to compare adolescent and adult mood variability. Over 9000 self-reports from 182 people are used to evaluate the widespread theoretical assumption that adolescents experience greater mood variability as part of a syndrome of psychosocial disequilibrium. The findings confirm that adolescents experience wider and quicker mood swings, but do not show that this variability is related to stress, lack of personal control, psychological maladjustment, or social maladjustment within individual teenagers. Rather than representing turmoil, wide mood swings appear to be a natural part of an adolescent peer-oriented life style. However, there are indications that adolescent mood variability interferes with capacity for deep involvement, especially in school.
Article
The relationship between self-esteem and pubertal maturation is examined based on results of the first two years of a six-year naturalistic longitudinal study of the ecology of self-esteem during adolescence. A random sample of 40 seventh-grade adolescents of both sexes from all socioeconomic classes was selected from a local junior high school. Four measures of pubertal maturation level were obtained for participants during each year of the study. Self-esteem was assessed by means of a repeated measures self-report technique. Each adolescent carried a "beeper" paging device and responded in writing to "beeps" that occurred on a random schedule eight times daily. Males were significantly higher in self-esteem than females. The developmental pattern for the relationship between self-esteem and pubertal maturation differed between boys and girls. Three ecological contextual variables were explored: setting, activity, and participants. Physical setting was significantly associated with level of self-esteem. Activities and participants present were not significantly predictive of self-esteem. Results are discussed in terms of the onset and timing of pubertal maturation and its influence on self-esteem.
Article
One-hundred-four adult workers' affective and cognitive responses to television were studied via the recently developed Experience Sampling Method in which respondents are supplied with radio controlled electronic paging devices and signaled to report their mood states at random times over the course of a normal week. The activity of television viewing was examined within its typical social contexts (family versus solitary viewing) and in contrast to daily activities such as working, eating, and reading. Television viewing was found to be a relatively unchallenging activity requiring little cognitive investment and consistently tied to feelings of relaxation, passivity, and drowsiness.
Article
Because individual differences research fails to confront the most basic problem of all in the scientific study of personality—that of providing an adequate framework for personality description—such research is fundamentally inadequate for the purposes of a science of personality. The author therefore proposes that a clear distinction be maintained between differential psychology and personality psychology and that individual differences research be recognized as relevant to the concerns of the former. An alternative to the individual differences paradigm, termed idiothetic, is suggested as a general framework for the scientific study of personality. Within this framework, the basic problem of personality description would be approached in an explicitly idiographic manner, while the search for nomothetic principles would center around questions of personality development. (94 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Employing a new self-report technique (paging devices), this study assessed the self-feelings of 35 adolescents (mean age 13.3 yrs) in various naturalistic contexts. Regression analysis was used to assess the stability of self-feelings. Ss fell into 3 groups: stable, oscillating, and unpredictable (the largest). For the sample as a whole, self-feelings were not influenced by the immediate context, although specific settings, activities, and others present within the contexts elicited various levels of self-feelings. More crucial for predicting the self-feelings were such enduring characteristics as sex, social class, pubertal maturation, stability group, birth order, and number of siblings. The authors argue for a baseline conceptualization of adolescent self-conception from which fluctuations occur. (44 ref)
Article
Self-reports in response to repeated random paging provide reliable profiles of daily activities and psychological states relevant to the measurement of the quality of life. The subjective experience of freedom was shown to vary through the day depending on the activity subjects engaged in, depending on their sex, and time of day. The relationship of perceived skills and of intrinsic motivation to the experience of freedom was examined. Results that conflict with previous findings of experimental studies are explained in terms of differences between real life and laboratory settings. It has often been said that the essential component of the quality of human life is freedom. Freedom is a complex phenomenon that includes political, social, and philosophical dimensions. One of its most important components, however, is the subjective experience of acting voluntarily. Each person during an average day performs thousands of acts. Each of these acts is experienced as being more or less compulsory, more or less voluntary. It is therefore possible to abstract a psychological dimension of freedom along which people may vary in their daily lives. The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent and variability of the experience of freedom in the lives of average people. Social psychologists have in general assumed that the experience of freedom is an attribution persons make about their behavior under certain conditions. The relevant conditions that have been identified in laboratory experiments include the amount of choice involved among equally attractive behavioral alternatives (Steiner, 1970), and hence the unpredictability of the choice (Bringle, Lehtinen, & Steiner, 1973); the amount of skills a person perceives he or she is using in a situation (Langer, 1975); the desirability of the out
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Harvard University, 1981. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 416-425). Photocopy.
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Chicago, 1979. Includes bibliographical references (p. 224-229).
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Columbia University. Vita.
Article
Doubts are raised as to the extent of "applicability of the conceptualization that "personality" consists "of more or less stable internal factors that make one person's behavior consistent from one time to another, and different from the behavior other people would manifest in comparable situations". This is done by demonstrating the questionable validity of much of the extant empirical support for the "personality" concept. Respondents on interpersonal checklists, personality inventories and questionnaire interviews are shown to unwittingly sub stitute a theory of conceptual likenesses for a description of behavioral co-occurrences. Considerations about similarity are confounded with judgments about probability to such an extent that items alike in concept are inferred to be behaviorally characteristic of the same person even when, as is typically the case, conceptual relationships among items do not correspond to the actual behavioral relationships among items. Examined are extant "personality theories" having to do with children's social behavior, adult behavior in small groups, maternal socialization practices, and psychopathology. These "theories" are shown to be no more than statements about how respondents (and psychologists) classify things as alike in meaning.
Article
Traditionally, the "happiness" of the American population has been measured in economic or objective terms. But research (A. Campbell et al, in press) indicates that between 1957 and 1972, while the economic and social indicators were rapidly moving upward, the proportion of the population who described themselves as "very happy" declined steadily, particularly among the most affluent portion of the population. It is argued that in order to describe the quality of the experience of the population, more subjective measures are needed to examine the experience itself. Three general measures of life experience (satisfaction with life, affective quality of life, and perceived stress) are discussed in terms of an earlier (1972) author-conducted study. Findings from that study indicate that while the 3 measures are moderately related to each, people living in different circumstances express different patterns of well-being and that these patterns reflect the peculiar quality of the situation in which they live. (18 ref)
Article
The concept of "research alliance" is introduced to describe the relationship between a psychiatric researcher and his subject in which the aim is to obtain valid data in a limited number of interviews. The authors describe three possible difficulties in establishing such an alliance: detachment, seduction, and resistance, but conclude on the basis of their experience in a longitudinal research project with teenagers that through careful structuring of interviews a meaningful relationship can be established that will help realize research goals.
Article
Bulimia is an eating disorder purported to comprise binge eating episodes with subsequent depressive moods and self-deprecating thoughts. This study reports the development and preliminary construct validation of a Binge Scale intended to provide more descriptive, quantifiable information about the behavioral and attitudinal parameters of bulimia. Over two-thirds of the females and nearly one-half of the males in the samples reported binge eating occurences. The severity of binge eating was associated with degree of dieting concern (“restraint”) and inversely related to self-image acceptance, particularly among females. Maintaining body weight below “set point” through restrained eating efforts may increase the susceptibility to periodic binge episodes.
Article
An innovative sampling method was used to compare normal-weight bulimic patients to normal controls on four dimensions: (1) overall moods, (2) extent of mood fluctuating, (3) degree of social isolation, and (4) extent of food-related behavior. In addition, a sequence analysis was conducted to explore the impact of binging and purging episodes on various affective states among the bulimics. Results indicated that the bulimics experienced significantly more dysphoric and fluctuating moods than normal controls and that they spent much more time alone and in food-related behavior than the control group. The discussion presents a hypothetical integration regarding the etiology and maintenance of the bulimic behavior based on the results of the data and post-trial interviews with the bulimic patients.
Byudzhet Vremeni [Time-Budget]. Perm
  • M Altshuller
Fitting analysis of variance models to experientially sampled data
  • L Chalip
The dialectic of immediate experience and recollection in adolescence
  • M Freeman
Behavioral consistency: an analysis of the person-by-situation interaction through repeated measures
  • R Graef
Subjective experience in marital interaction. Paper presented at a meeting of the society for experimental social psychology
  • E Donner
Energy consumption in leisure and perceived happiness
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The future of self-knowledge
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Bulimia: A survey of 500 patients. Paper presented at the conference on Anorexia Nervosa
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Time alone in daily experience: loneliness or renewal? Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research, and therapy
  • R Larson
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Attention and alienation in daily experience. Paper presented at the annual convention of the
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  • M Csikszentmihalyi
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Psychological modernity: A comparative study of some African and American graduate students in the midwest
  • S Malik
Variations in self-esteem in the daily life of mothers. Doctoral dissertation in progress
  • A Wells
Robustness, reliability, and overdetermination Scientific inquiry and the social sciences: A volume in honor of Donald T. Campbell
  • W Wimsatt