Article

The Association between Internet Addiction and Problematic Alcohol Use in Adolescents: The Problem Behavior Model

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Abstract

This study aimed to a) evaluate the association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use; b) based on problem behavior theory, explore whether Internet addiction, as well as problematic alcohol use, correlated with the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors among adolescents. A total of 2,114 high school students (1,204 male and 910 female) were recruited to complete the questionnaire assessing Internet addiction, problematic alcohol use, and associated psychosocial variables. The result revealed that Internet addiction was associated with problematic alcohol use. Besides, the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors is associated with Internet addiction as well as problematic alcohol use in adolescents. These results suggest Internet addiction might be included in the organization of problem behavior theory, and it is suggested that prevention and intervention can best be carried out when grouped with other problem behaviors.

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... Considering the widespread occurrence of substance-related problematic behavior patterns and problematic use of digital media in adolescence, it seems quite relevant to examine whether there are empirical relationships. Initial studies (e.g., [5]) have conducted a combined investigation of substance-related problem behavior (e.g., problematic alcohol use) and problem behavior unrelated to substance use (e.g., problematic Internet use or problematic use of specific online applications). Another important approach specifically to explain Internet-use disorders is the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model by Brand et al. [6]. ...
... In the study by Ha et al. [26], problematic alcohol use in South Korean adolescents (mean age: 15.8 years) did not occur more frequently in youth with problematic Internet use than among those without problematic Internet use. In contrast, Ko et al. [5] reported that problematic alcohol use occurred more often in Taiwanese adolescents with problematic Internet use than without problematic Internet use (average age of the sample was 16.26 years). Golpe et al. [27] found a statistically significant positive correlation (0.36) between problematic alcohol use and problematic Internet use among Spanish youth (mean age: 14.52 years). ...
... To sum up, empirical evidence predominantly suggests relations between problematic alcohol use and problematic Internet use in adolescence [5,25,[27][28][29]. Whether such associations exist between problematic alcohol use and problematic gaming or problematic social media use is currently unclear for youth. ...
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Adolescents frequently show risky behavior, and these problematic behavior patterns often do not occur in isolation, but together. Problematic alcohol use is widespread among youth, as is problematic use of the Internet and of specific online applications (video games or social media). However, there is still a lack of findings for minors regarding the relations between these behavioral patterns (particularly between problematic alcohol use and problematic gaming or problematic social media use). Standardized instruments were used to survey problematic alcohol use, problematic gaming, problematic social media use, problematic Internet use and mental health among 633 adolescents (mean age: 15.79 years). Bivariate correlation and multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted. The correlation analyses showed statistically significant positive bivariate relationships between all four behavioral patterns each. Antisocial behavior was related to all problematic behavioral patterns. Whereas, emotional distress, self-esteem problems and hyperactivity/inattention were associated with substance-unrelated problematic behavior patterns only. Anger control problems were related to problematic alcohol use and problematic gaming. In adolescence, the findings revealed small effect sizes between substance-related and substance-unrelated problematic behavior patterns, but moderate to large effect sizes within substance-unrelated behavioral patterns. Similarities and differences were found in the relations between the behavioral patterns and mental health.
... This can be attributed to the psychosocial proneness of problematic internet use. According to Ko et al. (2008), 30 PIU is entangled in the youth's perceived environment and social environment as it relieves them of their original identity problems by providing the anonymity and fluidity of identity and helps them cope with the lack of control over real-life situations by providing a sense of control online. Such psychosocial *** = p = .000; ...
... This can be attributed to the psychosocial proneness of problematic internet use. According to Ko et al. (2008), 30 PIU is entangled in the youth's perceived environment and social environment as it relieves them of their original identity problems by providing the anonymity and fluidity of identity and helps them cope with the lack of control over real-life situations by providing a sense of control online. Such psychosocial *** = p = .000; ...
... 31,32 While disturbances in all lifestyle indicators were significantly correlated with internet use, with moderate correlations with routine, academics and relationship with friends and impact of COVID, the only effect of COVID was found as a significant independent predictor of problematic internet use. The detrimental impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been observed in the increased addictive behaviours by various researchers, especially in PIU, 29,30 given how social distancing restrictions increased reliance on the internet. Problematic use of the internet could be understood as a 'pseudo-coping strategy'. ...
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Background Globally, problematic internet use (PIU) is acknowledged as a significant behavioural problem in adolescents and youth. It is being researched for further clarity as an independent behavioural disorder. It is crucial to explore predictors of PIU to understand the high-risk psychosocial indicators of problematic internet use, particularly amid the COVID-19 pandemic in India. Aim The present study aimed at studying age, gender, mental health, coping strategies and lifestyle indicators as predictors for PIU in adolescents, young adults and middle-aged adults. Methods The study used a cross-sectional design, and the data was collected using Perceived Stress Scale, Internet Gaming Disorders-9, DSM-5 Self-Rated Level-1, and Brief-COPE scale. Multiple regression analysis was employed to find the predictors of PIU in a sample of 1027 i.e., adolescents (13–19 years), young adults (20–39 years), and middle-aged adults (40–60 years). Separate regression analyses were carried out for the three subgroups as well. Results Results showed that the age, perceived stress, maladaptive coping strategies (substance use, self-blaming, self-distraction, behavioural disengagement), repetitive thoughts and actions, and impact of COVID-19 were significant independent predictors of PIU. Furthermore, differences in independent predictors were found in different sub-groups of age. Discussion This study indicated that adolescents and youth are more susceptible to PIU. In addition, maladaptive coping strategies predicted PIU significantly, which indicates that PIU is not an effective coping strategy but can be understood as maladaptive behaviour involving escapism. Furthermore, only repetitive thoughts and actions predicted PIU, which clarifies PIU as an independent pathology. Conclusion This study found specific predictors for the three sub-groups – adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults - that would further aid management plans for problematic internet use. Moreover, the role of the COVID-19 pandemic on PIU is also critical.
... 39 Internet, during the pandemic, could also allow young individuals to form close social relationships with online friends which could help compensate for their real-life poor support resources, and provide them with a sense of understanding and security, knowing that there is someone online to listen to them when needed. 40 The anonymity and dynamicity of online identity can relieve adolescents of their original identity, and controlling their online lives could help them cope with the helplessness in real life. Moreover, virtual success through gaming, posting, etc., may be utilized to cope with lower self-esteem and poor life satisfaction in the real world 40 ...
... 40 The anonymity and dynamicity of online identity can relieve adolescents of their original identity, and controlling their online lives could help them cope with the helplessness in real life. Moreover, virtual success through gaming, posting, etc., may be utilized to cope with lower self-esteem and poor life satisfaction in the real world 40 ...
... The psychosocial proneness, including the perceived environment, personality system, and behaviors, could develop the psychosocial framework for problem behavior. 40 It became pertinent to understand whether this surge indicates an increase in internet addiction or presents itself as a form of coping. It became pertinent to understand whether this surge indicates an increase in 'internet addiction' or presents itself as a coping mechanism. ...
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Background Globally, there is a constant state of flux amid the ‘new normal’ period of the COVID-19 pandemic, as people try to accommodate to uncertainty, stress, and the threat of facing subsequent waves. It is crucial to explore and compare the psychological and behavioral processes of adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults amid such an era in a developing country like India. Aim The present study compared the stress, internet use, substance use, and coping among adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults amid India's ‘new normal’ era. Methods A cross-sectional design was used on an online platform. The sample included 1027 participants [ 456 adolescents; 347 young adults, and 224 middle age-adults] using Perceived. Stress Scale, Internet Gaming Disorders-9, DSM-5 Self-Rated Level-1, and Brief-COPE scale. Results Results showed moderate stress among all participants across all ages. Adolescent females perceived the highest stress (20.91, SD = 8.65); Adolescents reported higher internet use (Females: M = 3.59, S.D. = 2.44; Males: M = 3.40, S.D. = 2.30); Young and middle-aged adults Males reported significantly higher substance use (M = 1.60, S.D. = 2.96; M = 1.17, S.D. = 2.21). Maladaptive coping was used more by Young Adult Males (M = 10.83, S.D. = 4.66). Internet use was positively correlated with perceived stress (0.40) and maladaptive coping (0.40). Substance Use was also moderately positively correlated with maladaptive coping (0.38). Discussion The study reveals significant variations in perceived stress, internet use, substance use, and coping based on gender and age variations. Adolescent females were the most affected and reported high perceived stress, whereas middle-aged adults were the least affected. Conclusion The study provides further avenues to understand the stress and coping in different sections of society amid the ‘new normal’ era. It also gives an idea about resilience and identifies the sections of society which require focused interventions.
... Growing empirical evidence suggests that each of these two disorders is positively associated with adolescents' mental health issues [1,2], substance use [3,4], and physical violence [3,5]. With regard to epidemiologic data, at present, it is estimated that 0.2%-12.3% of adolescents in Europe meet the criteria for internet gaming disorder [6], whereas 0.2%-5.0% ...
... Growing empirical evidence suggests that each of these two disorders is positively associated with adolescents' mental health issues [1,2], substance use [3,4], and physical violence [3,5]. With regard to epidemiologic data, at present, it is estimated that 0.2%-12.3% of adolescents in Europe meet the criteria for internet gaming disorder [6], whereas 0.2%-5.0% ...
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Adolescence is characterized by emotional instability and risk-taking behaviours that can lead to, among other things, an increased risk of developing pathological video-gaming and gambling habits. The aim of this Study is to assess the prevalence and type of video gaming and gambling habits in adolescent students attending Italian upper-secondary schools. The cross-sectional study was conducted via an online survey using validated questionnaires. The primary outcome measures were the prevalence of past-year video gaming and gambling activities. The sample consisted of 502 adolescent students from first- and second-grade secondary schools. A total of 40.8% of participants were video gamers, 4.8% were gamblers, 17.8% were both video gamers and gamblers, and the remaining 36.6% were not players. Among participants who reported video gaming activity ( n = 294), 68.0% were classified as nonproblem gamers, 24.5% as at-risk gamers, and 7.5% as disordered video gamers. Among the participants who reported gambling activity ( n = 113), 85.8% were not problematic gamblers, 8.9% were at-risk gamblers, and 5.3% were pathological gamblers. Only 0.2% of all subjects met the criteria for both pathological gambling and pathological video game use. The findings indicate that video gaming and gambling are common leisure times among adolescent students. However, a small but significant minority of these adolescents met the criteria for either severe problem gaming or gambling or both.
... Moreover, PIU has also been shown to result in various forms of interpersonal impairments, likely to further increase the risk of increased PIU level (Cheng et al., 2018), but also of other forms of addictive behaviors (Stickley et al., 2014). Indeed, PIU has been positively associated with alcohol use (Ko et al., 2008), and other forms of substance use (Liu et al., 2011). These associations can be partly explained by the self-medication model (Khantzian, 1997), proposing that adolescents might start using various substances (e.g., alcohol, smoking, drugs) as a way to cope with the high level of negative feelings and emotions accompanying PIU. ...
... Second, initial levels of PIU (but not increases over time in PIU levels) predicted increases in substance use, which is in line with our expectations (Hypothesis 7a) and previous research results (e.g., Ko et al., 2008) documenting high levels of comorbidity between PIU and substance use (Liu et al., 2011), leading to similar forms of addictions. Our results are also consistent with the self-medication model (Khantzian, 1997), suggesting that youth might come to use various substances (e.g., alcohol, smoking, drugs) as a way to cope with the negative feelings and emotions accompanying PIU. ...
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Given the detrimental effects associated with problematic internet use (PIU) and the need to better understand its nature and evolution, the present study examined the development of PIU in a sample of 1750 adolescents (aged 16-19) from Finland over a three-year period. We documented the social (loneliness, perceived maternal and paternal behaviors) and individual (sex) antecedents, as well as the outcome implications (depressive symptoms, substance use, academic achievement) of PIU trajectories. Outcomes also predicted PIU trajectories. Latent curve modeling revealed an initially moderate, and subsequently decreasing trajectory of PIU. PIU was predicted by loneliness, paternal neglect, maternal care, depressive symptoms, and being male. In turn, PIU trajectories predicted increases in depressive symptoms and substance use, but decreases in academic achievement.
... Internet addiction of adolescents during Covid-19 pandemic is found to be high. These results are similar to the study carried out by (Ko et al., 2008) also obtained similar results in their study carried out before the pandemic. Thus, more accurate assessment of internet addiction data obtained in this study is possible only when internet addiction level of the adolescents before the pandemic is determined. ...
... Internet addiction rate is lower among adolescents with parents who are graduate of junior high and university. In the study performed by (Ko et al., 2008) correlation between education level of the family and internet addiction of the adolescents was found also correlated. ...
... Since the 1990s, the rapid expansion of the internet has characterized a digital revolution, creating widespread social implications [3]. The internet has become the most important means for people to communicate, profoundly affecting individual lifestyles and behavioral decisions [4][5][6][7][8], including women's fertility intentions. ...
... The mediation effect can be tested via a Z-test Z Mediation = Z a·b /σ Z ab . We can estimate a (b) and its standard error Sa (Sb) from Equations (6) and (7).â andb are the estimation of a and b, respectively,Ŝ a andŜ b are the standard errors ofâ andb; according to the above parameters, we can calculate Z a =â/Ŝ a , Z b =b/Ŝ b , ...
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The purpose of this study is to verify the influence of internet usage frequency on women’s fertility intentions and to examine the mediating effects of gender role attitudes, under the influence of internet usage frequency that affects women’s fertility intentions, combined with the specific Chinese cultural context. A cross-sectional secondary data analysis was conducted using a sample of 3113 women of childbearing age in the Chinese General Social Survey in 2017 (CGSS2017). The results of the negative binomial regression model showed that, under the premise of controlling individual characteristic variables, the higher the frequency of internet usage, the lower the fertility intention (p < 0.01). The results of the mediating effect model show that the more frequently women use the internet, the lower their fertility intentions, and the less they agree with Chinese traditional gender roles, which are “men work outside to support the family while women stay at home to take care of the family”. These findings have implications in formulating public policies aimed at increasing the fertility rate; that is, it is not enough to increase women’s fertility intentions under China’s universal two-child policy. Moreover, public policy formulators need to consider gender role attitudes and the influence of the internet as a method for dissemination of information.
... Relaxed access and social networking are two of the several aspects of the Internet development of addictive behaviour [16]. Internet addiction is a newly emerged behavioral problem of adults which was reported after problem behavior theory was proposed [17]. Behavioral addictions operate on a modified principle of the classic addiction model [18][19][20]. ...
... In this study, students who drank alcohol currently were 2.3 times most likely to have Internet Addiction as compared with students who didn't drink alcohol. Other studies reported a similar finding [17,34,68,69]. Probable reasons involve; based on the problem behavior theory, the problem behaviors (Internet Addiction and substance abuse) are inter-related. ...
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Background: Internet addiction is a common problem in university students and negatively affects cognitive functioning , leads to poor academic performance and engagement in hazardous activities, and may lead to anxiety and stress. Behavioral addictions operate on a modified principle of the classic addiction model. The problem is not well investigated in Ethiopia. So the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of internet addiction and associated factors among university students in Ethiopia. Objectives: Main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of internet addiction among University Students in Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among Wollo University students from April 10 to May 10, 2019. A total of 603 students were participated in the study using a structured questionnaire. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to recruit study participants. A binary logistic regression method was used to explore associated factors for internet addiction and variables with a p value < 0.25 in the bivariate analysis were fitted to the multi-variable logistic regression analysis. The strength of association between internet addiction and associated factors was assessed with odds ratio, 95% CI and p value < 0.05 in the final model was considered significant. Results: The prevalence of internet addiction (IA) among the current internet users was 85% (n = 466). Spending more time on the internet (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 10.13, 95% CI 1.33-77.00)), having mental distress (AOR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.02-7.06), playing online games (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.38-4.18), current khat chewing (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI 1.14-9.83) and current alcohol use (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.09-4.92) were associated with internet addiction. Conclusions: The current study documents a high prevalence of internet addiction among Wollo University students. Factors associated with internet addiction were spending more time, having mental distress, playing online games, current khat chewing, and current alcohol use. As internet addiction becomes an evident public health problem, carrying out public awareness campaigns may be a fruitful strategy to decrease its prevalence and effect. Besides to this, a collaborative work among stakeholders is important to develop other trendy, adaptive, and sustainable countermeasures.
... Relaxed access and social networking are two of the several aspects of the Internet development of addictive behaviour [16]. Internet addiction is a newly emerged behavioral problem of adults which was reported after problem behavior theory was proposed [17]. Behavioral addictions operate on a modified principle of the classic addiction model [18][19][20]. ...
... In this study, students who drank alcohol currently were 2.3 times most likely to have Internet Addiction as compared with students who didn't drink alcohol. Other studies reported a similar finding [17,34,68,69]. Probable reasons involve; based on the problem behavior theory, the problem behaviors (Internet Addiction and substance abuse) are inter-related. ...
... This is consistent with other studies suggesting to diversify users depending on the intensity of the use of dating apps (Orosz et al. 2016), as psychological factors might be implicated in adaptive or "problematic" dating app use (Rochat et al. 2019). On the other hand, however, this result unconfirms our Hypothesis 3, based on previous studies indicating a positive association between PIU and problematic alcohol use (Alacam et al. 2015;Ko et al. 2008). Investigating possible common underlying mechanisms between PIU and alcohol consumption within the framework of the "problem-behavior" theory (Jessor 1987), Ko et al. (2008) found that PIU and problematic alcohol use shared the same psychosocial proneness to engage in approach behavior for stimuli with reward, resulting in negative outcomes. ...
... On the other hand, however, this result unconfirms our Hypothesis 3, based on previous studies indicating a positive association between PIU and problematic alcohol use (Alacam et al. 2015;Ko et al. 2008). Investigating possible common underlying mechanisms between PIU and alcohol consumption within the framework of the "problem-behavior" theory (Jessor 1987), Ko et al. (2008) found that PIU and problematic alcohol use shared the same psychosocial proneness to engage in approach behavior for stimuli with reward, resulting in negative outcomes. Our diverging findings suggest differentiating between problematic dating app use and problematic internet use, considering them as separate entities (Orosz et al. 2016). ...
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The aim of this study was to explore the association between dating app use and alcohol consumption among the general population. A cross-sectional study was conducted including app users, non-users, and former users: 1278 respondents completed an online ad hoc questionnaire assessing dating app use, motivations for installing dating apps, alcohol use, and demographics. Multiple logistic regression analysis was run to investigate the association between dating app use, demographic features, and alcohol consumption. Whereas educational level, age, and gender significantly contributed to the regular consumption of alcohol, dating app use did not account for a significant amount of variance between regular and not regular drinkers. However, people who installed and used dating apps with the motivation of searching for sexual partners were more likely to be regular drinkers. Among the active users, heavy app users were less likely to drink regularly. The study indicates that underlying factors (sexual aspects, motives for using the apps) and the intensity of using the apps may mediate the relationship between dating app use and alcohol use.
... Today, Internet has changed how people do things (Weiss, 2010). Ko, et al. (2008) pointed out as a new emergent disorder of men and women, Internet addiction is associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Ko, et al (2008) further said that there is an association seen between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use. ...
... Ko, et al. (2008) pointed out as a new emergent disorder of men and women, Internet addiction is associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Ko, et al (2008) further said that there is an association seen between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use. ...
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The study endeavors to ascertain whether drug related offense, Internet use, alcohol consumption are precursors of rape cases in eighty (80) selected countries. Fractal statistics was used to determine the fractal dimensions of the aforementioned variables. The results show roughness on the selected variables indicating that they are fractal random variables. The fractal correlation measure was used to determine the correlation between the dependent variable and each of the three independent variables. Findings shows that considerable roughness or ruggedness of rape incidence levels was induced by Internet use levels (Rλ=95), drug offense (Rλ=97), and alcohol consumption levels (Rλ= 94). The direction of the effects of the three independent variables on rape incidence was shown by the bivariate x-y plots. As shown, the selected variables have a direct relationship with rape cases such that when one variable increases, the other also increases and vice versa. These findings suggest that incidence of forcible sexual intercourse is a function of social precipitators of rape such as Internet use as well as mental and behavioral-altering substances like dangerous drugs and alcohol.
... Relaxed access and social networking are two of the several aspects of the Internet development of addictive behaviour [16]. Internet addiction is a newly emerged behavioral problem of adults which was reported after problem behavior theory was proposed [17]. Behavioral addictions operate on a modified principle of the classic addiction model [18][19][20]. ...
... In this study, students who drank alcohol currently were 2.3 times most likely to have Internet Addiction as compared with students who didn't drink alcohol. Other studies reported a similar finding [17,34,68,69]. Probable reasons involve; based on the problem behavior theory, the problem behaviors (Internet Addiction and substance abuse) are inter-related. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Internet addiction is a common problem in university students and negatively affects cognitive functioning, leads to poor academic performance and engagement in hazardous activities, and may lead to anxiety and stress. Behavioral addictions operate on a modified principle of the classic addiction model. The problem is not well investigated in Ethiopia. So the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of internet addiction and associated factors among university students in Ethiopia. Objectives: Main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of internet addiction among University Students in Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among Wollo University students from April 10 to May 10, 2019. A total of 603 students were participated in the study using a structured questionnaire. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to recruit study participants. A binary logistic regression method was used to explore associated factors for internet addiction and variables with a p value < 0.25 in the bivariate analysis were fitted to the multi-variable logistic regression analysis. The strength of association between internet addiction and associated factors was assessed with odds ratio, 95% CI and p value < 0.05 in the final model was considered significant. Results: The prevalence of internet addiction (IA) among the current internet users was 85% (n = 466). Spending more time on the internet (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 10.13, 95% CI 1.33-77.00)), having mental distress (AOR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.02-7.06), playing online games (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.38-4.18), current khat chewing (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI 1.14-9.83) and current alcohol use (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.09-4.92) were associated with internet addiction. Conclusions: The current study documents a high prevalence of internet addiction among Wollo University students. Factors associated with internet addiction were spending more time, having mental distress, playing online games, current khat chewing, and current alcohol use. As internet addiction becomes an evident public health problem, carrying out public awareness campaigns may be a fruitful strategy to decrease its prevalence and effect. Besides to this, a collaborative work among stakeholders is important to develop other trendy, adaptive, and sustainable countermeasures.
... So abnormal OFC activity in addiction might be related to dysfunction of cognitive control ability (15). Activation was also found in ACC in IGD group when compared to the control group in resting state (17). ACC involved in modulating emotion, motivation and attention and monitoring conflicts to trigger desired execution and control outputs (18). ...
... IGD was related to smoking (40). More interestingly, nicotine addiction effect independent of other addictions like gambling (77) and disease like schizophrenia (78) and IGD associated with harmful alcohol use among college students was also found (17,79). Compulsive internet use might have a causal relationship with changes in substance use in female (80). ...
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Converging lines of evidence indicates that smoking and internet gaming disorder (IGD) affect spontaneous brain activity, respectively. However, little is known about whether these two factors work together on the human brain. In this study, we investigated the interaction between smoking and IGD on local spontaneous brain activity using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) based on resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). Forty-six cigarette smokers, 38 IGD individuals, 34 participants with both IGD and cigarette smoking (IGD-Smoking), and 60 healthy individuals involved in the study. Voxel-wise analysis of covariance of ALFF revealed that there were significant interactions between IGD by smoking in the right medial pre-frontal cortex (MPFC)/ventral striatum, bilateral cerebellar, and visual-related regions as well as the left temporal gyrus. In the right MPFC/ventral striatum and left temporal gyrus, ALFF in smoking group was significantly higher than healthy group while there were no significant ALFF differences between IGD-Smoking group and IGD group. While in the bilateral cerebellar and visual-related regions, ALFF in the smoking group was significantly lower than healthy group while ALFF in IGD-Smoking group did not show significant difference with IGD group. In addition, in the smoking group, ALFF of the right MPFC/ventral striatum was associated positively with anxiety and depression scores while the ALFF value in the smoking group had a trend toward negative correlation with SDS scores in the bilateral cerebellar and visual-related regions. The ALFF value in the smoking group was associated positively with anxiety score in the left temporal gyrus. These findings indicate that smoking and IGD interacted with each other in the human brain. Our results, in terms of spontaneous brain activity, may imply the fact that IGD people are more tended to get smoking. Moreover, it is possible to predict that smokers may be more easily to get internet addiction than healthy people.
... 28 Parker et al (2008) found that EI is a relatively good index to evaluate addiction like behaviors, for example excessive use of internet and online games. Also, there was a significant relation between EI and IA. 29 Ko et al (2008) reached similar results and found that there is a relation between IA and alcohol use. 30 Xiuqin et al (2010) done a study on 304 teenager and found that internet dependent people have more psychological disorder than control group. ...
... Also, there was a significant relation between EI and IA. 29 Ko et al (2008) reached similar results and found that there is a relation between IA and alcohol use. 30 Xiuqin et al (2010) done a study on 304 teenager and found that internet dependent people have more psychological disorder than control group. Results of this study showed that IA Is associated with psychological sign and behavior like introspective and isolation. ...
... Sun and colleagues (2020) further found that the pandemic not only exacerbated symptoms of anxiety and depression but also influenced relapse from abstinence from various substances. Regardless of the pandemic, an earlier study in US shows that internet addiction and alcohol misuse is particularly prevalent among school aged adolescents (Ko et al., 2008). ...
... To conclude, the main objective of this study was to examine the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on online behaviours and how this may have changed from before the pandemic in adolescents. As adolescents have been susceptible to internet addiction before lockdown was reported (Ko et al., 2008), we wanted to examine whether the pandemic would have a detrimental effect on this. Further we wanted to explore the relationship between these online behaviours and psychological well-being. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on everyday functioning, considerable measures being taken to reduce the spread of the virus. Schools and social avenues have been placed on prolonged lockdowns, with people continuing to maintain physical distance. Adolescents and young people have had to endure significant stress alongside dealing with developmental characteristics. Amidst all of this, studies report an increase in gaming addiction and internet use with detrimental impact on psychosocial well-being. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of lockdown on internet use in adolescents, comparing their habits from before the pandemic. Furthermore, this research aimed to investigate the relationship between gaming addiction, internet use and COVID-19 worries. Adolescents from several countries (e.g., India, Malaysia, Mexico and the UK) completed online questionnaires, shared via social media and youth networks. These measures included questions on internet, social media, gaming, depression, loneliness, escapism and COVID-19. Results show that adolescents generally have increased their use of social media sites and streaming services. Further, those who scored highly on gaming addiction, compulsive internet use and social media use also reported high scores of depression, loneliness, escapism, poor sleep quality and anxiety related to the pandemic. Our findings indicate that, regardless of country of residence, the COVID-19 outbreak has had a significant effect on adolescent internet use and psychosocial well-being. The need to address pandemic related distress to reduce the effect of maladaptive coping strategies is highlighted. Resumen El impacto del confinamiento por el COVID-19 en el uso de internet y la evasión en los adolescentes. La pandemia del COVID-19 ha tenido un impac-to significativo en el funcionamiento diario, tomándose medidas importantes para reducir la propagación del virus. Las escuelas y los espacios públicos se han cerrado durante largos periodos, y la distancia física se ha impuesto. Los adolescentes y jóvenes han tenido que soportar un estrés significativo al tiempo que lidiar con las situaciones propias de su desarrollo. Los estudios informan de un aumento en la adicción al juego y al uso de Internet con un impacto perjudicial en el bienestar psicosocial. El objetivo del presente estudio fue examinar el impacto del confinamiento en el uso de Internet en los adolescentes, comparando sus hábitos con antes de la pandemia. Además, se estudia la relación entre la adicción al juego, el uso de Internet y las preocupaciones por el COVID-19. Adolescentes de varios países (India, Malasia, México y Reino Unido) completaron los cuestionarios online, que se distribuyeron a través de redes sociales y redes de jóvenes. Se incluyeron preguntas sobre Internet, redes sociales, juego, depresión, soledad, aversión y COVID-19. Los resultados muestran que los adolescentes en general han aumentado el uso de redes sociales y de servicios de transmisión. Además, los que obtuvieron puntuaciones altas en adicción al juego, uso compulsivo de Internet y uso de redes sociales también informaron de puntuaciones altas en depresión, soledad, aversión, mala calidad del sueño y ansiedad relacionada con la pandemia. Nuestros hallazgos indican que, independientemente del país de residencia, el confinamiento por COVID-19 ha tenido un efecto significativo en el uso de Internet y en el bienestar psicosocial de los adolescen-tes. Se destaca la necesidad de abordar el distrés relacionado con la pandemia para reducir el efecto de las estrategias de afrontamiento desadaptativas.
... Adolescents are influenced by deviant peers through observational learning and behavior modeling as well as peer pressure [36], which increases the likelihood of disapproved behaviors, which may result in social rejection. Moreover, one study suggests that the appeal of Internet gaming could rapidly satisfy individuals' psychosocial needs, as adolescents can achieve virtual success in online games to escape the interpersonal stress of real life [37]. Furthermore, some longitudinal studies reveal that deviant peer affiliation is a mediator between family factors and adolescent externalizing problems [23,38]. ...
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Abundant empirical research indicates a relationship between parental psychological control and adolescent Internet gaming disorder (IGD), but the direction and underlying mechanism of this association remain unclear. Using a two-year longitudinal design across three time points, the present study examined the reciprocal processes between parental psychological control and IGD and explored whether deviant peer affiliation explains this bidirectional association. The sample consisted of 908 participants (480 boys and 428 girls) who participated in three measurements and completed questionnaires assessing parental psychological control, deviant peer affiliation, and IGD. Autoregressive cross-lagged models indicated a direct reciprocal relationship between parental psychological control and IGD. Furthermore, the results showed that parental psychological control exerts an indirect effect on adolescent IGD via deviant peer affiliation, but the inverse indirect effect via deviant peer affiliation was non-significant. Knowledge regarding the direct and underlying mechanisms of the reciprocal relationship between parental psychological control and IGD has important implications for prevention and intervention of adolescent IGD.
... 18 Problematic alcohol use is defined as heavy drinking or drinking that is accompanied by unpleasant consequences. 19,20 Alcohol use disorders include alcohol dependence, high intensity-drinking, difficulty cutting back, life interference, and or hazardous use such as binge drinking. 21,22 Depression, anxiety, difficulty sleeping, suicidal thoughts and attempts, as well as abuse of other notorious drugs, have been associated with alcohol dependency. ...
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Informal workers may be prone to problematic substance use due to many factors, including adverse working conditions and low income. The aim of this secondary analysis was to investigate problematic alcohol use risk factors among male informal workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. Alcohol use among the two groups of informal workers in the analysis y golf caddies and waste pickers was measured using the World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) tool. The WHO self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ) for common mental health disorders (CMD) was used to assess mental health. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to explore the predictors of problematic drinking in informal workers. The study consisted of 514 participants, of which 48.4% were golf caddies and 51.6%, waste pickers. Most participants were younger than 40 years (50.9%). Over half of the participants (54.7%) were alcohol consumers and 74.1% were smokers. Over 60% of the participants who were alcohol consumers had a probable drinking problem. Unstratified regression results showed that common mental distress (aOR = 1.06; 95%CI: 1.01-1.09), age: 30-40 years (aOR = 2.17; 95%CI: 1.18-3.97), smoking (aOR = 2.25; 95%CI: 1.34-3.79), and other water sources (aOR = 0.2; 95%CI: 0.04-0.99) were associated with a probable alcohol problem. Waste pickers (aOR = 0.33; 95%CI: 0.20-0.70) were less likely to be problematic drinkers compared to golf caddies. Problematic drinking in this study was common in both caddies and waste pickers along with smoking. Problematic alcohol use was associated with caddying, mental distress, age, and smoking. Measures such as providing counseling services to informal workers and improvement of working conditions may help change the behaviors of these vulnerable groups.
... Substance use disorders and AIU are similar on many levels [55], and people have argued that specific addictive behavior, such as substance use disorders, pathological gambling, and AIU, are merely different manifestations of the same underlying syndrome of addictive behavior [90]. Other studies showed a clear relationship between AIU and the use of illegal drugs [24] and harmful alcohol use [48]. The results of the present study contradict these findings in that we found no higher prevalence of substance use among students with AIU. ...
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The last 2 decades have seen an increase in the number of reports of excessive internet use. Therefore, this study aimed to examine internet use among university students to gain more insight into the novel phenomenon of addictive internet use (AIU). Data were collected by the means of an online questionnaire sent to 4391 students. Approximately 10% of the 4391 students could be included in the statistical analysis. Of those 483 students, almost all (99.2%) used the internet, and a quarter (24.8%) showed AIU. The students used the internet mostly for information searches, random browsing, social networking, and online shopping; however, AIU was seen most often in the areas of social networking, random browsing, information searches, gaming, and pornography. One in four of the respondents showed addictive behavior in at least one area of internet use. Students with AIU in the area of random browsing were significantly less far advanced in their studies than those without AIU, and well-being was significantly poorer across AIU groups than in those who did not show AIU. The study confirms the importance of AIU, as reflected in the high prevalence of AIU among the students and the significantly lower level of well-being in those with AIU. Undifferentiated consideration of AIU does not do justice to its various facets, and future research should consider all areas of internet use, with the aim to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of AIU and develop more differentiated treatment approaches.
... Furthermore, data from several studies suggest that IUD are more prevalent in younger age groups (Bakken, Wenzel, G€ otestam, Johansson, & Oren, 2009;Mentzoni et al., 2011;Wittek et al., 2016). In addition, IUD are associated with a poor mental health and several comorbidities, like depressive disorders (Bargeron & Hormes, 2017;Brunborg, Mentzoni, & Frøyland, 2014;Kim et al., 2016;Kir aly et al., 2014;M€ annikk€ o, Billieux, & K€ a€ ari€ ainen, 2015;Mentzoni et al., 2011;Ostovar et al., 2016;Strittmatter et al., 2015;Wang, Cho, & Kim, 2018;Yen, Ko, Yen, Wu, & Yang, 2007), anxiety disorders (Bargeron & Hormes, 2017;Kim et al., 2016;M€ annikk€ o et al., 2015;Mentzoni et al., 2011;Ostovar et al., 2016), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (Strittmatter et al., 2015;Yen, Ko, et al., 2007;Yen, Liu, et al., 2017), conduct disorders (Strittmatter et al., 2015) as well as substance and alcohol abuse (Bakken et al., 2009;Ko et al., 2008). Moreover, IUD is related to lower life satisfaction (Bargeron & Hormes, 2017;Mentzoni et al., 2011). ...
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Background and aims Instances of Internet use disorders (IUD) including Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and non-gaming pathological Internet use (ng-PIU) have the extent that they are now a growing mental health issue. Individuals suffering from IUD show a large range of symptoms, high comorbidities and impairments in different areas of life. To date there is a lack of efficient and evidence-based treatment programs for such adolescents. The present registered single-arm trial ( ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT03582839) aimed to investigate the long-term effects of a brief manualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for adolescents with IUD. Methods N = 54 patients (16.7% female), aged 9–19 years ( M = 13.48, SD = 1.72) received the CBT group program PROTECT+. IUD symptom severity (primary outcome variable) as well as comorbid symptoms, risk-related variables and potentially protective skills (secondary outcome variables) were assessed at pretest, posttest, as well as 4 and 12 months after admission. Results Patients showed a significant reduction in IUD symptom severity at the 12-month follow-up. Effect sizes were medium to large depending on the measure. Beyond the statistical significance, the clinical significance was confirmed using the reliable change index. Secondary outcome variables showed a significant reduction in self-reported depression, social anxiety, performance anxiety and school anxiety as well as in parental-reported general psychopathology. Discussion and conclusions The present study shows long-term effects of a manual-based CBT treatment for adolescents suffering from IUD. The results indicate that even a 4-session brief intervention can achieve a medium to large effect over 12 months. Future work is needed to confirm the efficacy within a randomized controlled trial (RCT).
... Pathological Internet use is one of the individual factors that can predict left-behind children's problem behavior. As more left-behind children become addicted to Internet, problem behavior related to pathological Internet use among adolescents have arisen [41][42][43][44][45][46]. Pathological Internet use has been recognized as a risk factor due to its impacting on adolescents' aggressive behavior [47], interpersonal problems [48][49][50], sexting behavior [48,51]. ...
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This study aimed to determine how pathological Internet use and emotional intelligence affect the relationship between perceived personal discrimination and problem behavior of left behind children. Data were collected from 406 left-behind students from 6 rural primary and secondary schools in Mainland China. Results indicated that perceived personal discrimination could be a predictor of left-behind children's pathological Internet use, and further cause their problem behavior. Pathological Internet use had a partial mediating effect on the relation between perceived personal discrimination and problem behavior. In addition, emotional intelligence played a moderating role in the relationship between perceived personal discrimination and problem behavior, as well as between pathological Internet use and problem behavior. Emotional intelligence could alleviate the negative impact of perceived personal discrimination on problem behavior, as well as the negative impact of pathological Internet use on problem behavior.
... More specifically, the widely recognized theories of adolescent problematic behaviour, such as the Problem-Behaviour Theory (PBT, Jessor and Jessor 1977) and the Social Development Model (SDM, Catalano et al. 1996), acknowledge the importance of environment in the occurrence of issues like delinquency, alcohol use, and conduct problems. The research has shown that problematic behaviour and EIU in adolescents are related (Ko et al. 2008), and that they share some psychological and personality characteristics (Wang et al. 2017;Müller et al. 2017). Thus, the models that describe problematic behaviour are potentially applicable to the understanding of EIU. ...
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Objectives Excessive internet use (EIU) has been studied predominantly within the context of individual risk factors. Less attention has been paid to social factors, especially in a fashion complex enough to include the multiple domains of adolescent socialization. This study examined the relationship between EIU and constraints within family, school, peer groups, and neighbourhoods, while controlling for emotional and behavioural difficulties. Methods This study was based on survey data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, which was conducted in Slovakia in 2018. The sample of representative adolescents totalled 8400 (mean age: 13.44 years; SDage = 1.33; 50.9% boys). Results Multiple-step linear regression revealed that, after controlling for sociodemographic factors and emotional and behavioural difficulties, peer problems had the least effect, while the constraints related to family and neighbourhood stood out as especially problematic. Combined variables explained 20% variance of EIU. Conclusions Social constraints proved to be important factors in adolescent EIU. The important role of a problematic neighbourhood is a novel finding and suggests that it should be targeted in prevention.
... WHO de nes a standard drink as a 10 g of pure alcohol, and advises that both men and women not to drink more than two standard drinks a day (17). Problematic alcohol use is de ned as heavy drinking or drinking that is accompanied by unpleasant consequences (18,19). Alcohol use disorders include alcohol dependence, high intensity-drinking, di culty cutting back, life interference, and or hazardous use such as binge drinking (20,21). ...
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Background Informal workers may be prone to problematic substance use due to many factors, including adverse working conditions and low income. Therefore, research must be conducted to improve the lifestyle of this vulnerable group of workers. This research aimed to assess problematic alcohol use and risk factors among male informal workers in Johannesburg. Methods Two groups of informal workers, waste pickers, and golf caddies were included. Alcohol use was measured using the World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) tool. The WHO self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ) for common mental health disorders (CMD) was used to assess mental health. Data analysis included demographic analysis of the participants, assessment of substance use, and the ascertainment of drinking problem risk factors. Results The study consisted of 514 participants, of which 48.4% were golf caddies and 51.6%, waste pickers. Most participants were younger than 40 years (50.9%). Over half of the participants (54.7%) were alcohol consumers and 74.1% were smokers. Over 60% of the participants who were alcohol consumers had a probable drinking problem. The prevalence of mental distress in the study group was 27% mental distress. Unstratified regression results showed that informal workers positive for mental distress were more likely to have a probable drinking problem (aOR=1.06; 95%CI: 1.01 – 1.11). Informal workers aged 30 – 40 years (aOR=2.06; 95%CI: 1.13 – 3.75), and those who were smokers (aOR=2.25; 95%CI: 1.33 – 3.80) were also more likely to have a probable drinking problem. Conclusion Problematic drinking amongst informal workers in this study was common along with smoking. Problematic alcohol use was associated with the type of informal work, mental distress, age, and smoking. Measures such as providing counselling services to informal workers and improvement of working conditions are needed to change the behaviours of this vulnerable group.
... In addition, the scores of BIS, BAS-fun seeking, and BAS-reward responsiveness were reduced following active tDCS. Previous studies indicated higher scores of BIS/BAS in individuals with Internet or smartphone addiction (Kim et al., 2016;Ko et al., 2008;Yen, Ko, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2009). Individuals with both higher sensitivity to reward stimuli and higher anxiety to anticipated punishment may choose online gaming due to lower risk and immediate pleasure. ...
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Background and aims: Some online gamers may encounter difficulties in controlling their gaming behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on various kinds of addiction. This study investigated the effects of tDCS on addictive behavior and regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) in problematic online gamers. Methods: Problematic online gamers were randomized and received 12 sessions of either active (n = 13) or sham tDCS (n = 13) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex over 4 weeks (anode F3/cathode F4, 2 mA for 30 min, 3 sessions per week). Participants underwent brain 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans and completed questionnaires including the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS), and Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scales (BIS/BAS) at the baseline and 4-week follow-up. Results: Significant decreases in time spent on gaming (P = 0.005), BIS (P = 0.03), BAS-fun seeking (P = 0.04), and BAS-reward responsiveness (P = 0.01), and increases in BSCS (P = 0.03) were found in the active tDCS group, while decreases in IAT were shown in both groups (P < 0.001). Group-by-time interaction effects were not significant for these measures. Increases in BSCS scores were correlated with decreases in IAT scores in the active group (β = -0.85, P < 0.001). rCMRglu in the left putamen, pallidum, and insula was increased in the active group compared to the sham group (P for interaction < 0.001). Discussion and conclusions: tDCS may be beneficial for problematic online gaming potentially through changes in self-control, motivation, and striatal/insular metabolism. Further larger studies with longer follow-up period are warranted to confirm our findings.
... In addition to some of the aforementioned confounding factors controlled in this study, poor sleep quality (Pigeon, Pinquart, & Conner, 2012), substance abuse (C. H. Ko et al., 2008;Waldrop et al., 2007), and impulsivity (F. Cao, Su, Liu, & Gao, 2007) can also lead to the development of internet addiction and suicide behavior. ...
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Background Internet addiction is common, but its relationship with suicide attempts is rarely reported among Chinese college students. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of internet addiction among Chinese college students. Methods A cross‐sectional study was conducted among 8,098 college students in Hunan province, China. We collected the following data: demographic variables, suicidal behaviors, internet addiction (Revised Chinese Internet Addiction Scale), depression (Self‐reporting Depression Scale), and anxiety (Self‐Rating Anxiety Scale). Results The prevalence of internet addiction was 7.7% in these Chinese college students. Logistic regression analysis showed that good relationship with mother (1.730 [1.075, 2.784]), good relationship with father (0.615 [0.427, 0.885]), family history of mental disorders (2.291 [1.122, 4.676]), anxiety (1.987 [1.382, 2.857]), depression (2.016 [1.384, 2.937]), suicidal ideation (2.266 [1.844, 2.784]), and suicide attempts (1.672 [1.258, 2.224]) were independent correlates for internet addiction, the adjusted R square for this model is 13.7%. Furthermore, the prevalence of suicide attempts among internet addiction participants was 21.4%, and anxiety (3.397 [1.058, 10.901]), suicidal ideation (26.984 [11.538, 63.112]), and suicide plans (8.237 [3.888, 17.451]) were the independent predictors for suicide attempts, the adjusted R square for this model is 51.6%. Conclusion Our results show that internet addiction is common among Chinese college students. In addition, suicide attempts are very common among internet addicts, suggesting that special measures and attention should be provided to these students according to risk factors to prevent their suicidal behavior.
... Multiple factors were found to be correlated with AUD among adolescents, such as cigarette smoking; although AUD and smoking usually co-occur, studies showed that smoker adolescents have a higher vulnerability to AUDs [7,8]. Other factors include internet addiction [9], social anxiety [10], child abuse [11,12], and bullying victimization [13,14]. ...
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Background: This study objective was to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and related factors (smoking, internet addiction, social anxiety, child abuse, and bullying) among a representative sample of Lebanese adolescents, and to validate and confirm psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Methods: A cross-sectional study, conducted between January and May 2019, enrolled 1810 adolescents aged between 14 and 17 from schools of all Lebanese districts. From the total number of schools, a proportionate number was selected in each district. AUD was defined as a high AUDIT score (≥8; score range 0-40). A principal component analysis technique to confirm the validity of the construct of the AUDIT scale score was done and a confirmatory analysis to assess the structure of the instrument was conducted. Spearman correlation was used for linear correlation between continuous variables. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the means of two groups, while the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare three groups or more. A stepwise linear regression was conducted, taking the AUDIT total score as the dependent variable and taking child abuse (psychological, sexual, physical and verbal), cigarette and waterpipe smoking dependence, bullying, social phobia, and internet addiction as independent variables. Results: The mean AUDIT score was 6.46 ± 8.44 and high risk of AUD was found in 507 (28.0%) adolescents [95% CI 0.259-0.301]. One factor solution of the AUDIT scale was found after running the factor analysis (αCronbach = 0.978). Higher AUDIT scores were significantly associated with higher cigarette (Beta = 0.527; p < 0.001) and waterpipe (Beta = 0.299; p < 0.001) dependence, higher childhood sexual abuse (Beta = 0.656; p < 0.001) and neglect (Beta = 0.126; p < 0.001), higher bullying victimization (Beta = 0.236; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Alcohol use disorder among Lebanese adolescents seems to be associated with several factors, such as cigarette and waterpipe dependence, parents' divorce, higher internet addiction, bullying victimization, and childhood sexual abuse and neglect. Parents and healthcare professionals could use this data for early interventions.
... More than half of the world's population are internet users 3,4 . Excessive internet use is associated with negative psychological consequences such as poor life satisfaction 5,6 , anxiety and aggression 7,8 , low self-esteem and depression 9,10 , and alcohol abuse 11,12 . ...
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An increasing number of young people use internet excessively over the last decades, which leads to adverse impacts on individuals and society. The structural and functional brain characteristics associated with the excessive use of the internet have attracted substantial research attention in the past decade; however, due to the small sample sizes of past studies, many findings are inconsistent. Also, the relationship between internet addiction tendency (IAT) and regional brain activity during working memory (WM), a critical cognitive function governing learned behavior, has not been explored. In current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and multiple regression analysis to assess the relationship between IAT score and regional gray and white matter volumes (rGMVs and rWMVs) and brain activity during a WM task in a large sample of healthy young adults (n= 1,154, mean age, 20.71 ± 1.78 years). We found a significant positive correlation between IAT score and GMV of right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG) and significant negative correlations with WMVs of right temporal lobe (sub-gyral and superior temporal gyrus), right sublobar area (extra-nuclear and lentiform nucleus), right cerebellar anterior lobe, cerebellar tonsil, right frontal lobe (inferior frontal gyrus and sub-gyral areas), and the pons. Also, IAT was significantly and positively correlated with brain activity in the default-mode network (DMN), medial frontal gyrus, medial part of the superior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex) during a 2-back WM task. Moreover, whole-brain analyses of rGMV showed significant effects of interaction between sex and the IAT scores in the area spreading around the left anterior insula and left lentiform. This interaction was moderated by positive correlation in females. These results indicate that IAT is associated with (a) increased GMV in rSMG, which is involved in phonological processing, (b) decreased WMVs in areas of frontal, sublobar, and temporal lobes, which are involved in response inhibition, and (c) reduced task-induced deactivation of the DMN, indicative of altered attentional allocation.
... Literatürde siber bağımlılıkların pek çok psikiyatrik bozuklukla birlikte görüldüğüne dair çeşitli araştırmalar bulunmaktadır. [38][39][40] Bunlardan biri de yasadışı madde kullanımıdır. Yen ve ark. ...
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Siber bağımlılık; sosyal medya kullanımı, internette oyun oynama, çevrimiçi sohbet, çevrimiçi kumar oynama ve akıllı telefon kullanımı gibi siber davranışların aşırı ve zararlı bir şekilde gerçekleştirilmesi olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Bu çalışmada siber bağımlılığa ilişkin yapılan çalışmalar gözden geçirilmiş; siber bağımlılığın kapsamı, tanı kriterleri, nedenleri, ülkemizde ve dünyadaki yaygınlığı ve yasadışı madde kullanımı ile ilişkisi ele alınmıştır. Siber bağımlılık konusunda daha fazla çalışmaya ihtiyaç olması nedeniyle DSM-5’te siber bağımlılık türleri henüz bir bozukluk olarak tanımlanmazken, ICD-11’de sadece oyun oynama bozukluğu tanımlanmıştır. Yapılan çalışmalarda siber bağımlılığın depresyon, anksiyete, madde kullanımı ve diğer pek çok psikiyatrik tanıya eşlik ettiği görülmüştür. Özellikle siber bağımlılık ile madde bağımlılığının nörobiyolojik alt yapısının ve bağımlılığa neden olan psikolojik faktörlerin benzer olduğu bazı araştırmalarda ortaya konulsa da, bu konuda daha fazla çalışmaya ihtiyaç olduğu görülmektedir.
... Within this contemporary research field, several psychopathological factors have been found to be associated with the problematic Internet use, such as social anxiety disorders (Vadher et al., 2019), depression (Musetti, Terrone, & Schimmenti, 2018;Wartberg et al., 2016), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, symptoms of sleep disturbance (Starcevic & Khazaal 2017), dysfunctional parent-adolescent relationship (Chen, Li, Bao, Yan, & Zhou, 2015;D'Arienzo, Boursier, Griffiths, 2019;Schimmenti, Passanisi, Gervasi, Manzella, & Famà, 2014), and problematic behaviors such as alcohol use (Ko et al., 2008). Moreover, other factors have been detected, such as lower social support (Mazzoni, Baiocco, Cannata, & Dimas, 2016;Wartberg, Kriston, Bröning, Kegel, & Thomasius, 2017;Wu et al., 2016), maladaptive personality features lower effortful control (Cerutti et al., 2017;Li, Zhou, Li, & Zhou, 2016;Pace, Schimmenti, Zappulla, & Di Maggio, 2013), poorer physical and mental health (Cao, Sun, Wan, Hao, & Tao, 2011;Taylor, Pattara-Angkoon, Sirirat, & Woods, 2017;Young, 1999), alexithymia (Craparo, 2011;Mahapatra, & Sharma, 2018;, and the closely connected difficulties in emotion regulation (Caplan, 2002(Caplan, , 2010Gámez-Guadix, 2014;Tokunaga, 2015). ...
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Objective: In recent years scientific interest in Internet use disorders, especially among young people, has grown dramatically. Within this contemporary research field, difficulties in regulating emotions have been increasingly explored in association with problematic Internet use (PIU). Indeed, individuals who experience difficulties in emotion regulation might be more exposed to the risk of developing PIU. Therefore, the present study aimed to review the literature from the last ten years focused on the relationship between young people's emotional dysregulation and PIU, taking into account the main variables involved in this relationship and possible gender-related differences. Method: This review included studies published between 2010 and 2020 that were indexed in major databases with the following keywords: emotion regulation, problematic Internet use, Internet addiction, social network addiction, and social media addiction. In the selection process of the studies, close attention was paid for the mean age of the involved samples that had to range between 13 and 25 years. Results: A total of 23 studies satisfied the initial inclusion criteria and were included in the present literature review. Several reviewed studies found a strong association between emotion dysregulation and both PIU and problematic social networking with controversial gender-based findings. Furthermore, the relationships among emotional dysregulation, PIU, attachment styles, and metacognitions were largely explored. Conclusions: Overall, the present review showed that problematic Internet use might represent a coping strategy to compensate for emotional regulation deficits. The lack of social support and the lack of a good parent-adolescent relationship seem to negatively affect emotional regulation abilities, which in turn increase the risk of developing PIU. Moreover, good metacognitive abilities might represent a protective factor towards emotional dysregulation and PIU. Finally, males with emotional dysregulation are likely to be more problematically engaged in Internet use than females. These results might have important practical implications to implement health prevention/promotion programs, emotion regulation-based training programmes and therapies.
... 50,51 Comorbidity with addiction including PIU is common in depression, anxiety, 52,53 aggressive behavior, [54][55][56] and substance use disorder (e.g., alcohol abuse). 57,58 On the other hand, persons with PIU were more likely to develop depressive and anxiety symptoms compared with those without PIU. 59,60 Psychosocial interventions, such as digital cognitive behavior therapy, improve functional health and psychological wellbeing in people reporting insomnia symptoms 61 and could ameliorate insomnia associated with PIU, thereby reducing the time spent on addictive activities. ...
Article
Background and objectives: The prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) in the post-COVID-19 pandemic era is not known. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of PIU among baccalaureate nursing students (hereafter: nursing students) in the post-COVID-19 era. Methods: A total of 1070 nursing students were consecutively invited to participate in this study from the nursing schools of five universities. PIU and quality of life (QOL) were assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. t Tests, χ2 , tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare basic demographic and clinical characteristics between participants with and without PIU. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine independent correlates. Results: The prevalence of PIU was 23.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.7%-25.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that second- (p = .024) and third-year (p = .012) students were more likely to suffer from PIU compared with first year students. Students with more severe depressive (p = .014) and anxiety symptoms (p = .011) were independently and significantly associated with more severe PIU. After controlling for covariates, nursing students with PIU had a lower overall QOL score (p = .002). Conclusion and scientific significance: Problematic Internet use (PIU) was common among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. Considering the negative impact of PIU on QOL and academic performance, regular screening should be conducted and effective interventions implemented for nursing students with PIU. This was the first study on the prevalence of PIU among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. The findings of this study could help health professionals and education authorities to understand the patterns of PIU and its influence on QOL among nursing students and to allocate health resources and develop effective measures to reduce the risk of PIU in this population.
... According to problem-behavior theory (Fisher & Lerner, 2005), the development of problem behaviors is explained by the interrelationships and the interactions among the various elements of different systems (i.e., the perceived-environment system, the personality system, and the behavior system (Ko et al., 2008). Grounded in this theory, we tested the role of negative coping (i.e., personal characteristic) as a mediator along with the role of cognitive reappraisal strategy (i.e., personal characteristic) as a moderator of the relation between low social support (i.e., family context, school context) and adolescent IA. ...
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We proposed a moderated mediation model to investigate the relations between social support and Internet addiction in adolescents as well as the mediating effect of negative coping and the moderating effect of cognitive reappraisal. A total of 546 adolescents (205 boys and 241 girls; ages = 12–15 years, M = 13, SD = 0.46) from Mainland China completed the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale, Self-Report Coping Scale, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Young' s Internet Addiction Scale. Social support significantly, inversely related to Internet addiction in adolescents, and negative coping behavior (e.g., withdrawal, externalizing behavior) played a mediating role in the relation between them. Adolescents’ use of cognitive reappraisal strategies moderated the mediating path between social support and negative coping, with the effect being weaker for adolescents more frequently using cognitive reappraisal to regulate their emotions. These findings reveal the necessity of considering social and individual difference factors simultaneously when evaluating risks associated with adolescent Internet addiction and offer implications for the prevention and intervention of adolescent Internet addiction.
... Ko ve arkadaşları, madde kullanımı olan ergenlerin internet bağımlılığı olmasının daha muhtemel olduğunu, internet bağımlılığı veya madde kullanımı olan ergenlerin yüksek yenilik arayışı ve düşük ödül bağımlılığı olmak üzere ortak kişilik özelliklerini paylaştığını, bununla birlikte internet bağımlılığı olan ergenlerde madde kullanımı olanlarda düşük olan zarardan kaçınma özelliğinin yüksek olduğunu bildirmiştir (14). Ayrıca Ko ve arkadaşları, sorunlu alkol kullanımı olan ergenlerin internet bağımlılığı olmasının daha muhtemel olduğunu, aynı zamanda yüksek davranış aktivasyonu, düşük benlik saygısı, düşük aile işlevselliği ve düşük yaşam memnuniyeti olmak üzere psikososyal yatkınlığın hem internet bağımlılığı hem de sorunlu alkol kullanımıyla ilişkili olduğunu belirlemiştir (15). Yine Ko ve arkadaşları, bir fonksiyonel manyetik rezonans görüntüleme çalışmasında, ipucu ile indüklenen oyun dürtülerinin, madde aşermesine karşılık gelen benzer beyin alanlarını aktive ettiğini göstermiştir (16). ...
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Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, ergenlerde internet bağımlılığı ve ilişkili değişkenlerin gelecekteki alkol ve madde kullanımını yordayan yüksek riskli kişilik özellikleri ile ilişkisini incelemek ve internet bağımlılığı olan ve olmayan ergenleri bu kişilik özellikleri açısından karşılaştırmaktı. Yöntem: Yaş ortalaması 16,7 ve 161’i erkek olan 196 katılımcının yer aldığı çalışmanın deseni kesitseldi. Değerlendirme, bir demografik form ile Madde Kullanım Risk Profili Ölçeği (MKRPÖ) ve Bağımlılık Profil İndeksi İnternet Bağımlılığı Formu (BAPİNT) olmak üzere ilaveten iki öz-bildirim ölçeğini içerdi. Bulgular: BAPİNT aşerme skorları ile MKRPÖ dürtüsellik skorları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu, ayrıca BAPİNT yaşama etki skorları ile MKRPÖ anksiyete duyarlılığı skorları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu saptandı. Katılımcıların %31,1’inde (n=61)BAPİNT aracılığıyla ölçeğe dayalı olarak internet bağımlılığı saptandı, BAPİNT skoru internet bağımlılığı düzeyinde olan ve olmayan ergenler arasında bu kişilik özellikleri açısından istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılıklar saptanmadı. Sonuç: Ergenlerde internet kullanımı değerlendirilirken dürtüsellik ve anksiyete duyarlılığının taranması ve müdahale edilmesi ergenleri internet bağımlılığına karşı koruyabilir. Anahtar kelimeler: Ergenler, internet bağımlılığı, dürtüsellik, anksiyete, aşerme (PDF) Ergenlerden Oluşan bir Klinik Örneklemde Dürtüsellik ile İnternet Bağımlılığı Aşermesi Arasındaki İlişki. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/359629596_Ergenlerden_Olusan_bir_Klinik_Orneklemde_Durtusellik_ile_Internet_Bagimliligi_Asermesi_Arasindaki_Iliski [accessed Apr 19 2022].
... This latter is characterized by "a pattern of persistent or recurrent gambling behavior, which may be online [...] or offline, manifested by: 1) impaired control over gambling […]; 2) increasing priority given to gambling to the extent that gambling takes precedence over other life interests and daily activities; and 3) continuation or escalation of gambling despite the occurrence of negative consequences" [10]. Like gaming disorders, gambling disorder is associated with various mental health issues, such as high levels of impulsivity, anxiety, depression, and stress [20][21][22] as well as substance use [23]. ...
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Background: Growing empirical evidence suggests that adolescents have a relatively greater propensity to develop problematic video gaming or gambling habits. Objective: The main objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of potential pathological gambling and video game use among adolescent students and to evaluate their risk factors. Methods: This is a cross-sectional multi-informant study based on an online survey. It will include a sample of adolescents attending secondary schools located in Brescia, northern Italy, their schoolteachers, and parents. The survey includes extensive data on adolescents’ (1) demographic, social, economic, and environmental characteristics; (2) behavioral, emotional, and social problems and adaptive functioning; (3) emotional and social loneliness; (4) perception of the reasons to use social networks; (5) video game habits and pathological use of video gaming; and (6) gambling behaviors. Results: This protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Board of the Spedali Civili of Brescia (Italy). We expect to collect data from 793 or more adolescent students, as determined by our sample size calculation. Conclusions: This multisite project will make a substantial contribution to (1) the implementation of a system for identifying pathological gambling and pathological video game use among adolescents, allowing for interventions aimed at improving adolescents’ financial, emotional, and social well-being; and (2) the identification of distinct profiles of gamblers and pathological video gamers that will contribute to setting up effective targeted prevention measures. Understanding the causes and impact of gambling and pathological video gaming on adolescents is a public health issue.
... More than half of the world's population are internet users [2,3]. Excessive internet use is associated with negative psychological consequences such as poor life satisfaction [4,5], anxiety and aggression [6,7], low self-esteem and depression [8,9], and alcohol abuse [10,11]. Physical health problems such as sleep problems [12][13][14] and social functioning impairments such as poor academic performance [15,16] are other negative consequences of excessive internet use. ...
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The structural and functional brain characteristics associated with the excessive use of the internet have attracted substantial research attention in the past decade. In current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and multiple regression analysis to assess the relationship between internet addiction tendency (IAT) score and regional gray and white matter volumes (rGMVs and rWMVs) and brain activity during a WM task in a large sample of healthy young adults (n = 1,154, mean age, 20.71 ± 1.78 years). We found a significant positive correlation between IAT score and gray matter volume (GMV) of right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG) and significant negative correlations with white matter volume (WMV) of right temporal lobe (sub-gyral and superior temporal gyrus), right sublobar area (extra-nuclear and lentiform nucleus), right cerebellar anterior lobe, cerebellar tonsil, right frontal lobe (inferior frontal gyrus and sub-gyral areas), and the pons. Also, IAT was significantly and positively correlated with brain activity in the default-mode network (DMN), medial frontal gyrus, medial part of the superior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex during a 2-back working memory (WM) task. Moreover, whole-brain analyses of rGMV showed significant effects of interaction between sex and the IAT scores in the area spreading around the left anterior insula and left lentiform. This interaction was moderated by positive correlation in women. These results indicate that IAT is associated with (a) increased GMV in rSMG, which is involved in phonological processing, (b) decreased WMV in areas of frontal, sublobar, and temporal lobes, which are involved in response inhibition, and (c) reduced task-induced deactivation of the DMN, indicative of altered attentional allocation.
... This latter view suggests that PUI shares more characteristics with addictive behaviors, including craving, tolerance, and withdrawal [36,37], than with ICDs. In this context, PUI has been described as an addiction to the internet, characterized by a general, multidimensional overuse of the internet leading to distress or functional impairment. ...
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Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in the impact of internet use and growing concern about whether problematic use of the internet (PUI) constitutes an addiction. Despite the growing number of studies investigating PUI and PUI subtypes, its conceptualization and inclusion in a classification system have not been possible yet. Several models aimed at inspiring clinical research and practice have proposed possible mechanisms involved in PUI and problematic use of social media, and multiple self-report instruments have been consequentially developed. The diversity of theoretical models and instruments currently hinders standardized assessment procedures across studies and, in turn, their comparability. The purpose of the present overview is to highlight the current conceptualization and assessment of both PUI and problematic use of social media, in order to critically discuss the existing fragmentation in the field and the need to achieve conceptual convergence. Two suggestions for future directions are also provided, i.e., define diagnostic criteria by bottom-up and top-down processes and develop a psychobiological hypothesis including the description of higher-order mechanisms involved in PUI and not other psychopathological conditions (e.g., the multiple available internet-related cues and outcomes that may lead to parallel forms of associative learning; probabilities of obtaining internet-related reinforcements; and intrinsic motivation processes).
... We controlled anxiety score and drink state in data analyses; however, the potential influence of anxiety and alcohol use on the present findings cannot be ruled out entirely. Based on problem behavior theory and previous studies, comorbidities of anxiety and alcohol use are common in IGD (Demirci, Akg€ on€ ul, & Akpinar, 2015;Ho et al., 2014;Ko et al., 2008;Tonioni et al., 2012). We hope the current findings would reflect the broad populations of IGD. ...
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Background and aims Deficits in cognitive control represent a core feature of addiction. Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) offers an ideal model to study the mechanisms underlying cognitive control deficits in addiction, eliminating the confounding effects of substance use. Studies have reported behavioral and neural deficits in reactive control in IGD, but it remains unclear whether individuals with IGD are compromised in proactive control or behavioral adjustment by learning from the changing contexts. Methods Here, fMRI data of 21 male young adults with IGD and 21 matched healthy controls (HC) were collected during a stop-signal task. We employed group independent component analysis to investigate group differences in temporally coherent, large-scale functional network activities during post-error slowing, the typical type of behavioral adjustments. We also employed a Bayesian belief model to quantify the trial-by-trial learning of the likelihood of stop signal – P(Stop) – a broader process underlying behavioral adjustment, and identified the alterations in functional network responses to P(Stop). Results The results showed diminished engagement of the fronto-parietal network during post-error slowing, and weaker activity in the ventral attention and anterior default mode network in response to P(Stop) in IGD relative to HC. Discussion and conclusions These results add to the literatures by suggesting deficits in updating and anticipating conflicts as well as in behavioral adjustment according to contextual information in individuals with IGD.
... In our study, as the time spent on the internet increases, internet addiction risk increases. In other studies, internet addiction was found to be higher in those who use internet more than 12 hours weekly (37,38). As stated in the review of Chou et al., one of the main factors for internet addiction is the length of time spent online. ...
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between internet addiction, substance use and alexithymia among students of education faculty and medical faculty. Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study included 1,257 faculty students aged 18 and over, studying at Meram Medical Faculty and Ahmet Keleşoğlu Faculty of Education. Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Fagerström Tobacco Addiction Test and CAGE alcohol use tests were applied to collect data. Results: The mean age of the participants was 21.12 ± 1.96 years, 71% (n = 893) of them were females and 29% (n = 364) were males, 37.9% (n = 477) were training at medical faculty, 62.1% (n = 780) were training at the faculty of education. Of the students, 1.5% were internet addicts, 15.3% were possible addicts, and 22.8% had alexithymia. Internet addiction was higher in those with higher alexithymia scores (p < 0.001). Internet addiction was significantly higher in male students, the third grade, ones with lower academic success, students who work their lessons less than 2 hours a week. Internet addiction was also significantly higher in smokers and alcohol users (p < 0.001). While there was a low negative correlation between the first internet using age and internet addiction (p < 0.001), there was a moderately significant positive correlation between spending uninterrupted time on the internet and internet addiction (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study, it was determined that the teacher and doctor candidates, who are studying at the faculties of education and medicine, were at risk of internet addiction. A teacher or a doctor who cannot develop social skills due to excessive internet use will not be a good model to communicate correctly with the target population.
... Most of them reported the connection between excessive internet use with some social and psychological variables such as social isolation, depression and loneliness (Kraut et al., 2002), low self-esteem and complacency. Also, Ko et al. (2008) reported that Internet addiction was linked to a variety of psychological variables such as shame, loneliness, anxiety, depression, and problems in interpersonal relationships. Alavi et al. (2010) in a study examined the relationship between psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction in Isfahan University students; they showed that there is a significant positive correlation between psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, stress, hypochondriasis, compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, aggression, paranoia, phobias, psychosis and Internet addiction. ...
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The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between Internet addiction with loneliness, depression, anxiety and stress among students of Albania’s universities. The prevalence of Internet addiction and the gender differences are other important purposes of this study. The sample consists of 1,024 university students from different Faculties of Albania’s Universities. The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between internet addiction and loneliness, anxiety, stress and depression as a whole and all its components. Data were collected using the Internet addiction scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 21). The regression results also indicated that in general, Internet addiction can predict loneliness, depression, anxiety and stress variable. T-test analysis indicated that male students are more prone to be addicted to the Internet than female ones and the prevalence rate of heavy internet addiction is about 0.7%. The data were analysed using correlation, regression, descriptive analysis and t-test. Keywords: Internet addiction, loneliness, depression, anxiety, stress.
... The Chinese version of the Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS) was used to evaluate the self-reported frustration intolerance of adolescents [39,49,50]. The FDS contains 28 items evaluated on a 5-point Likert scale, with scores ranging from 28 to 140; a higher total score indicates higher frustration intolerance. ...
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Victimization and perpetration of cyberbullying and traditional bullying are prevalent among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined the associations of impulsivity, frustration discomfort, and hostility with victimization and with the perpetration of cyberbullying and traditional bullying in adolescents with ADHD. Self-reported involvement in cyberbullying and traditional bullying was assessed in 195 adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD. Adolescents also completed questionnaires for impulsivity, frustration discomfort, and hostility. Caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist for adolescents’ ADHD, internalization, oppositional defiance, and problems with conduct. The associations of impulsivity, frustration discomfort, and hostility with victimization and perpetration of cyberbullying and traditional bullying were examined using logistic regression analysis. The results demonstrated that after the effects of demographic characteristics and behavioral problems were controlled for, frustration intolerance increased the risks of being cyberbullying victims and perpetrators whereas hostility increased the risks of being the victims and perpetrators of traditional bullying. Impulsivity was not significantly associated with any type of bullying involvement. Prevention and intervention programs should alleviate frustration intolerance and hostility among adolescents with ADHD.
Thesis
Hintergrund und Ziele Social Network Sites (SNS) nehmen seit den 1990er Jahren in ihrer Anzahl und an aktiven Nutzern stetig zu. Das Forschungsinteresse an potentiellen Internetsüchten, wie Social Network Disorder (SND) wächst seit einigen Jahren enorm. Über Risikofaktoren, Prävalenz und Konsequenzen von SND ist jedoch wenig bekannt. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es zu untersuchen, ob ein Zusammenhang zwischen Impulsivität, Sensation Seeking, Go/NoGo – Task und SND besteht. Teilergebnisse dieser Arbeit wurden veröffentlicht in Bouna-Pyrrou et al. (2018). Methoden Von einer Stichprobe von 192 Personen wurden Daten über Impulsivität, Sensation Seeking, Go/NoGo – Task, SND Kriterien sowie Nutzungszeiten von SNS erfasst. Es wurden Selbstbeurteilungsbögen und ein objektiver Test eingesetzt. Ergebnisse und Beobachtungen Weibliche Probanden erfüllten signifikant mehr SND Kriterien und hatten eine signifikant höhere Nutzungszeit von SNS als männliche Probanden (P < 0,005). Die Interne Konsistenz der SND Kriterien war akzeptabel bis gut, Cronbachs Alpha bewegte sich zwischen 0,690 und 0,774. Es zeigten sich keine deutlichen Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Art der Testung (Online, Telefon, vor Ort) und dem Geschlecht. Die maximale Nutzungszeit von SNS korrelierte hochsignifikant positiv mit den SND Kriterien (P < 0,001) in allen Gruppen (ganze Kohorte, Frauen, Männer). Die durchschnittliche Nutzungszeit von SNS korrelierte signifikant mit den SND Kriterien bei der weiblichen Kohorte (P < 0,01) und korrelierte hochsignifikant bei der männlichen sowie der ganzen Kohorte (P < 0,001). Die Korrelation zwischen der Barratt Impulsiveness Scale – Kurzversion (BIS-15) und SND zeigte folgende Ergebnisse: Die Subskalen Motorische Impulsivität und Aufmerksamkeitsbasierte Impulsivität korrelierten signifikant positiv mit den SND Kriterien (P < 0,05) für die ganze Kohorte. Aufmerksamkeitsbasierte Impulsivität korrelierte hochsignifikant positiv mit den SND Kriterien (P < 0,01) bei der weiblichen Kohorte. Nichtplanende Impulsivität korrelierte signifikant negativ mit den SND Kriterien (P < 0,05) für die ganze Kohorte. Die Korrelation der Sensation Seeking Skalen, Form V (SSS – V) mit SND zeigte signifikante Ergebnisse bei einigen Subskalen. Die Subskala Empfänglichkeit für Langeweile korrelierte signifikant positiv mit den SND Kriterien (P < 0,05) bei den weiblichen Probanden und bei der ganzen Kohorte. Enthemmung korrelierte signifikant positiv sowohl mit der durchschnittlichen als auch mit der maximalen Nutzungszeit von SNS (P < 0,05) bei den männlichen Probanden. Gefahr- und Abenteuersuche korrelierte signifikant positiv mit der durchschnittlichen Nutzungszeit von SNS (P < 0,05) bei den Männern. Der Median der Reaktionszeit im Go/NoGo – Task korrelierte signifikant negativ mit der maximalen Nutzungszeit von SNS (P < 0,05) bei der ganzen Kohorte und bei den Frauen. Praktische Schlussfolgerungen Erhöhte Impulsivität und Sensation Seeking ist mit SND assoziiert, wobei nicht alle Subskalen signifikant mit den SND Kriterien oder Nutzungszeiten korrelieren. Überraschend war das Ergebnis, dass Nichtplanende Impulsivität signifikant negativ mit den SND Kriterien korrelierte. Um die Kausalität von Impulsivität und SND zu klären, sind longitudinale Studien notwendig.
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Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease worldwide and displays many atopic, but also non-atopic comorbidities. Among the latter, mental health disorders such as depression have been extensively studied. However, data on addictions is still rare. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of different kinds of addictions in adult AD patients using a single-center approach. Methods This non-interventional cross-sectional study was performed from 03/2020 to 05/2020 at the Department of Dermatology of a large German university hospital. Participants with a diagnosis of AD confirmed by a dermatologist answered questions about disease severity (Patient Oriented Eczema Measure, POEM), quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index, DLQI) and smoking habits. They were screened for problematic alcohol consumption, drug abuse, internet addiction and pathological gambling using internationally established and validated questionnaires. Results 157 patients (56.1% female; mean age of 49.9 ± 20.4) with an average POEM of 13.7 ± 7.5 and DLQI of 6.1 ± 5.4 were evaluated. 14.1% were identified as regular smokers, 12.1% screened positive for alcohol dependency, 6.4% for drug use disorders, 4.5% for internet addiction and 3.2% for pathological gambling. Co-occurrences of different addictions were observed and a positive correlation was noted between DLQI scores and smoking. Conclusions In summary, this study hints at elevated positive screening rates for problematic alcohol consumption, drug use disorders, internet addiction and problem gambling compared to the general population. Screening routinely for addictions may improve patient-centered healthcare of AD patients.
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Mobile phone addiction has raised increasing public concern in recent years, and researchers constantly demonstrated one of its factors as family risk. Parental favoritism, a common phenomenon in multiple-child family, is tightly linked to negative developmental outcomes, such as addiction and substance use, however, few studies have related it with mobile phone addiction. To investigate the underlying mechanism of parental favoritism and mobile phone addiction in Chinese adolescents, this study used the favoritism subscale of EMBU, Sibling Relationship Inventory, and Mobile Phone Addiction Index Scale, on 304 elementary school children and 303 junior school students (Mage = 12.56, SD = 1.17, 45.9% boys) from two-child families. Results suggest that parental favoritism can positively predict adolescents’ mobile phone addiction, which is further mediated by sibling hostility. Moreover, the mediating model is only significant in girls, but not in boys. That is, for girls, combination of both high paternal favoritism and maternal favoritism is associated with highest sibling hostility. To conclude, this study demonstrated the mechanism underlying the relationship between parental favoritism and adolescents’ mobile phone addiction and gender differences, contributing to the understanding of the complex mechanism between family dynamics and children’s developmental outcomes.
Chapter
In the era of digital technology, the internet has its significant role in sprouting vulnerability toward the different form of addictions and psychiatric disorders as well as providing the platform to manage them effectively. The internet provides ready access to illicit drugs, nonprescription medications which facilitate a sale of controlled substances over the Internet without a valid prescription which contributed to the rise of several forms of addictions. Studies have linked the severity of Problematic Internet Use to increase chances of substance Use disorder. Utilization of internet for longer durations serves as a booster for behavioral addictions like online gambling. Web based interventions on the positive side provides a cost effective, readily accessible and user-friendly platform to reach out majority of patients to help them in seeking treatment of Addictions and various psychiatric disorders. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the contribution of the internet in a positive and negative way to develop as well as resolve Psychiatric disorder.
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Background and aims The convergence of gaming and gambling may pose a risk for adolescents. Thus, it is important to find out how these behaviours are associated with other addictive behaviours in order to develop efficient preventive measures for youth. The aim of this study was to examine 1) whether problematic gaming and money used for gaming activities are risk factors for gambling, and 2) what kind of impact adolescents’ substance use along with other factors related to friends and parents have on this association. Methods The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs data, 2019 of Finnish adolescents aged 15 to 16 ( N = 4595). Cross-tabulations with Rao-Scott’s chisquare tests were applied to study the associations of the background factors with gambling in the past 12 months. A multinomial logistic regression model was fitted for the outcome variable (gambling in the past 12 months) adjusted for all independent and background variables. Results Problematic gaming alone was not associated with gambling participation, whereas using money for digital games increased the risk of gambling. Boys gamble more than girls. The use of alcohol and drugs increased the risk of gambling. Parental monitoring reduced the risk of gambling, whereas hanging around weekly with friends increased the risk. Discussion and conclusions Using money on gaming sites may put some adolescents at risk of developing problems with either gaming or gambling. The link between using money in digital games and gambling participation calls for preventive measures, intervention and regulatory acts.
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Internet addiction refers to problematic patterns of internet use that continually alter the neural organization and brain networks that control impulsive behaviors and inhibitory functions. Individuals with elevated tendencies to develop internet addiction represent the transition between healthy and clinical conditions and may progress to behavioral addictive disorders. In this network neuroscience study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine how and whether individual variations in the tendency of developing internet addiction rewire functional connectivity and diminish the amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in healthy brains. The influence of neurocognitive aging (aged over 60 years) on executive-cerebellar networks responsible for internet addictive behavior was also investigated. Our results revealed that individuals with an elevated tendency of developing internet addiction had disrupted executive-cerebellar networks but increased occipital-putamen connectivity, probably resulting from addiction-sensitive cognitive control processes and bottom-up sensory plasticity. Neurocognitive aging alleviated the effects of reduced mechanisms of prefrontal and cerebellar connectivity, suggesting age-related modulation of addiction-associated brain networks in response to compulsive internet use. Our findings highlight age-related and individual differences in altered functional connectivity and the brain networks of individuals at a high risk of developing internet addictive disorders. These results offer novel network-based preclinical markers of internet addictive behaviors for individuals of different ages.
Article
Objective The use of social networks has grown substantially over the past few years and especially during COVID-19. This study aims to investigate the possible relationship between social media addiction and obesity which may lead to disturbed body perception in university students.Participants: A total of 250 undergraduates participated.Results: Social media addiction depends on the number of years of social media use, meal skipping, and increased frequency of fast food consumption. There was a significant relationship between fast-food consumption frequency and body perception. No significant relationship was found between BMI and SMAS while there was a significant relationship between SMAS and body perception.Conclusion: The findings support, social media addiction may lead to increased risk factors for obesity and as a consequence impair body perception in young adults.
Thesis
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Bu çalışmada; spor yapan ve yapmayan üniversite öğrencilerinde internet bağımlılığı ve nomofobi düzeylerine göre incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmaya Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi’nde öğrenim gören toplam 486 gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. Araştırmada Young (1998) tarafından geliştirilen Bayraktar (2001) tarafından Türkçeye uyarlama çalışması yapılan “İnternet Bağımlılık Ölçeği” ve Yıldırım ve Correia (2015) tarafından geliştirilen, Yıldırım, Şumuer, Adnan ve Yıldırım (2015) tarafından Türkçeye uyarlanan, Erdem ve arkadaşları (2017) tarafından 5’li likert tipine güncellenen Nomofobi Ölçeği (NM-Q) kullanılmıştır. Veriler SPSS 22 paket programında analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen verilerin frekans ve yüzde değerleri hesaplanmıştır. İkili karşılaştırmalar için; Mann-Whitney U testi, üç ve daha fazla karşılaştırmalar için ise Kruskal Wallis testleri kullanılmıştır. Karşılaştırmaların sonucunda ortaya çıkan farklılıkların sebebi post-hoc testi yapılarak açıklanmıştır. Değişkenler arası ilişkiyi incelemek için korelasyon testi uygulanmıştır. Yapılan analizler sonucunda üniversite öğrencilerinin internet bağımlılığı ile nomofobi düzeyleri arasındaki ilişki incelendiğinde, gruplar arasında anlamlı bir ilişki tespit edilmiştir. Üniversite öğrencilerinin cinsiyet, fakülte, sınıf, aylık harcama miktarı, alkol kullanım durumu, spor yapma durumu, spor türü, günlük ortalama uyku süresi, internet kullanım araç türü, internet kullanımını kontrol edici/kısıtlayıcı faktör durumu, akıllı telefon kullanım süresi ve akıllı telefon kullanım amacına göre internet bağımlılık düzeylerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık saptanmıştır (p<0.05). Üniversite öğrencilerinin yaş, konaklama şekli, sigara kullanım durumu, konaklama yerinde internet bağlantısı durumu, internet kullanım süresi, internet kullanım amacı, sosyal medya kullanım durumu, akıllı telefona sahip olma durumu ve aylık internet kullanım paketi durumuna göre internet bağımlılık düzeylerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farklılık saptanmamıştır (p>0.05). Üniversite öğrencilerinin cinsiyet, yaş, fakülte, sınıf, sigara ve alkol kullanma durumu, spor yapma durumu, spor türü ve akıllı telefon kullanma amacına göre nomofobi düzeylerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmiştir (p<0.05). Üniversite öğrencilerinin konaklama şekli, aylık harcama miktarı, günlük ortalama uyku süresi, internet kullanım araç türü, konaklama yerinde internet bağlantısı durumu, internet kullanım süresi ve amacı, sosyal medya kullanım durumu, internet kullanımı kontrol edici/kısıtlayıcı faktör durumu, akıllı telefona sahip olma durumu, aylık internet kullanım paketi ve akıllı telefon kullanım süresine göre nomofobi düzeylerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farklılık tespit edilememiştir (p>0.05). Çağımızın büyük sorunu olan bu teknolojik bağımlılıklar gençlerin zamanını esir almaktadır. Üniversite öğrencilerine internet ve akıllı telefon kullanımına yönelik seminerlere katılmaları önerilmektedir.
Article
Purpose Emerging research suggests that adolescent patterns of socializing have shifted in recent years towards more virtual socializing and less traditional in-person socializing. At present, limited research has explored how this shift in socializing may influence outcomes traditionally linked with in-person socializing among adolescents (i.e., substance use). Procedures This paper addresses this gap in the literature by utilizing logistic regression techniques to examine the relationship between virtual socializing and an emerging form adolescents substance use (i.e., vaping) using data from the 2018 Monitoring the Future (MTF) cohort. Findings Our findings reveal that time spent socializing in the virtual sphere is significantly associated with a greater likelihood of vaping nicotine, marijuana, and flavor. In addition, our findings reveal that while the relationship between virtual socializing and vaping is attenuated by unstructured socializing (i.e., unsupervised socializing or “hanging out”) in person to some degree, time spent socializing virtually is still a significant predictor of adolescent vaping activity even after taking time spent socializing in person into account. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings indicate that virtual socializing is an important predictor of adolescent vaping activity. The implications of these findings for policy are discussed.
Article
Background Empirical research has been produced on the topic of ‘Internet Addiction’ or ‘Problematic Internet Use’ (PIU) for more than 20 years, with a variety of theoretical approaches suggested by scholars to account for the behaviour. However, the discourse has been fraught with debate around construct definition, measurement, and validity. Aims This review aimed to systematically review the extant literature on the topic of PIU, to identify the published psychological theories in the area, and to synthesise the findings to produce actionable information for practicing psychologists as well as academics. Method Given the breadth of the aims, a scoping review methodology was utilised. Four major reference libraries (Scopus, Proquest, Pubmed, Technology Research Database) were searched using a string of relevant terms. Results Of 1412 initial search results, eighteen theories were included in the study. Nine theories related to generalised PIU, seven related to specific Internet use issues, such as online gaming or social media, while two theories took account of both a generalised and specific view. Data were analysed using Formulation-Based Thematic Analysis (FBTA) to synthesise theory elements under the deductive headings of Predisposing, Precipitating, Maintaining, and Protective factors. Discussion The lack of protective factors against PIU was a prominent finding. The utility of the psychological formulation approach, particularly in an area fraught with conceptual debate and frustration with traditional medical classification systems, is emphasised.
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Background This study objective was to evaluate the prevalence as well as factors (smoking, internet addiction, social phobia, depression, child abuse and bullying) associated with alcohol use disorder among a representative sample of Lebanese young people, in addition to validating and confirming psychometric properties of the AUDIT scale. Methods A cross-sectional study, conducted between January and May 2019, enrolled 1810 adolescents aged between 14 and 17. Alcohol dependence was defined as a high AUDIT score. A principal component analysis technique to confirm the validity of the construct of the AUDIT scale score was done and a confirmatory analysis to assess the structure of the instrument was conducted. Results The mean AUDIT score was 6.46 ± 8.44 and high risk of hazardous alcohol drinking was found in 28% of adolescents. One factor solution of the AUDIT scale had been found after running the factor analysis and the confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the χ2/df=2.4, the Steiger-Lind RMSEA was 0.10 [0.084-0.155] and the Joreskog GFI equaled 0.91 and AGFI equaled 0.92. Higher cigarette (Beta=0.372) and waterpipe (Beta=0.319) dependence, higher child sexual (Beta=0.581) and neglect (Beta=0.106) abuse, higher internet addiction (Beta=0.088), separated parents compared to living together (Beta=3.202) and higher bullying victimization (Beta=0.143) were significantly associated with higher AUDIT scores. Conclusion Alcohol dependence seems to be influenced by several risk factors among the Lebanese adolescents such as cigarette and waterpipe dependence, higher internet addiction, bullying, and child sexual and neglect abuse. Parents and healthcare professionals could use this data to influence intervention efforts.
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To examine adolescents' use of and attitudes toward accessing health information through the Internet. Cross-sectional, school-based survey. A socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of 412 suburban New York 10th graders (mean [SD] age, 15.8 [0.68] years). Accessing the Internet for health information. Half (49%) of the sampled adolescents had used the Internet to get health information. Topics most often explored through the Internet included sexually transmitted diseases; diet, fitness, and exercise; and sexual behaviors. Adolescents found Internet information to be of high value (using a composite gauging worth, trustworthiness, use, and relevance), with no significant differences related to sex, ethnicity, or mother's education. When considering 11 separate health topics, girls found it more valuable to have information on birth control, diet and nutrition, exercise, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and dating violence. Only for alternative medicine were there differences by ethnicity, and there were no differences based on mother's education for the value of having specific health information available through the Internet. For adolescents, the Internet is an accessed and valued information source on a range of sensitive health issues.
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Gray (1981, 1982) holds that 2 general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and a behavioral activation system (BAS). Self-report scales to assess dispositional BIS and BAS sensitivities were created. Scale development (Study 1) and convergent and discriminant validity in the form of correlations with alternative measures are reported (Study 2). In Study 3, a situation in which Ss anticipated a punishment was created. Controlling for initial nervousness, Ss high in BIS sensitivity (assessed earlier) were more nervous than those low. In Study 4, a situation in which Ss anticipated a reward was created. Controlling for initial happiness, Ss high in BAS sensitivity (Reward Responsiveness and Drive scales) were happier than those low. In each case the new scales predicted better than an alternative measure. Discussion is focused on conceptual implications.
Chapter
First, a word about “neuropsychology.” This term has commonly been used in a quite restricted sense to delineate that part of psychology which is concerned with the study, in human beings, of the effects of known (even if often poorly known) structural damage to the brain. I use “neuropsychology,” in contrast, in a much wider sense, as in my book, The Neuropsychology of Anxiety (Gray, 1982a), to mean the study, quite generally, of the role played by the brain in behavioral and psychological function, whether in human or animal subjects, and whether there is structural damage to the brain or not. Since I also take it as axiomatic (and few would, I think, disagree with the axiom) that all behavioral and psychological function depends upon the activities of the brain, it follows that “neuropsychology” has a breadth which shadows that of “psychology” itself: if there is a psychology of hunger, intelligence, love, or learning French, then there is ipso facto a neuropsychology of the same.
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Individual differences in approach and seeking-related constructs such as sensation seeking, novelty seeking and impulsivity are generally found to be most convincingly associated with substance use in young adults. One set of personality traits that may be particularly relevant to substance use is concerned with Gray’s two-dimensional factors that represent approach and avoidance sensitivity. The current study investigated whether Gray’s BIS and BAS personality characteristics are associated with drug and/or alcohol use in a sample of non-clinical college students (n = 276). Results indicated that college students’ drug and alcohol use was positively correlated with BAS and, to some extent, negatively to BIS personality characteristics. The most substantial correlations were found between BAS Fun Seeking and the number of illegal substances one had used, the quantity of alcohol use, and the frequency of binge drinking. These results suggest that BIS/BAS personality characteristics make a significant contribution to college students’ substance use.
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A social-psychological framework for the explanation of adolescent risk behavior is presented. The framework incorporates attention to both person and situational variables, and it differentiates both sets of variables into risk factors and protective factors. Risk is then considered to be a resultant reflecting the balance of risk and protection. The framework makes clear that being “at risk” for onsetting or initiating risk behaviors is an earlier developmental stage than being “at risk” for the compromising health- and life-outcomes of actually engaging in risk behaviors. The person-situation interactionist perspective that informs the framework provides an alternative to the formulation presented byArnett (1992) to account for “reckless” behavior in adolescence.
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The present study examined excessive Internet use of Taiwanese adolescents and a psychological aspect of users, sensation seeking, thus to differentiate motivation of Internet dependents and non-dependents. Seven hundred and fifty three Taiwanese high school students were selected using cluster sampling and 88 of them were categorized as Internet dependent users. Results indicated that Internet dependents spent more time on-line than non-dependents. While Internet dependents perceived significantly more negative Internet influences on daily routines, school performance, and parental relation than non-dependents, both Internet dependents and non-dependents viewed Internet use as enhancing peer relations. Making friends through the Internet has become a popular activity among adolescents, potentially leading to its excessive use. Internet dependents scored significantly higher on overall sensation seeking and disinhibition than Internet non-dependents. However, both groups did not differ in the life experience seeking subscale and thrill and adventure seeking subscale. This finding contradicts that of Lavin, Marvin, McLarney, Nola, and Scott [CyberPsychol. Behav. 2 (2000) 425]. Possible reasons for this discrepancy and for the relation between Internet dependence and disinhibition in Taiwanese adolescents are also discussed.
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Problem-Behavior Theory is a social-psychological framework which helps to explain the nature and development of alcohol abuse, drug misuse and other problem behaviors. The aims of this paper are to present a brief overview of the theory, to review some of the research that has been generated and to appraise the usefulness of the theory when applied to drinking and problem drinking among young people.
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22 adolescents, 8 boys and 14 girls, aged 12 through 18 yr., who were taking part in a youth development program, participated in the study done to determine the relationships among self-esteem, depression, and alcohol consumption. Scores on self-esteem correlated significantly with both of those on depression and alcohol consumption, whereas nonsignificant correlations were observed between scores on depression and alcohol consumption.
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Born between 1977 and 1997, Net-generation is the first generation to grow up surrounded by home computers, video games, and the Internet. As children of the Baby Boomers, the Internet is the medium of choice for the Net-geners. Based on the assumption that Net-generation has unique characteristics, this study examined (1) how Net-geners addicted to the Internet differ from the non-addicted and (2) how these attributes, together with the seductive properties of the Internet, are related to Internet addiction. Data were gathered from a probability sample of 699 Net-geners between the ages of 16 and 24. Results show that Net-geners addicted to the Internet tend to be young female students. Being emotionally open on the Net and a heavy user of ICQ were most influential in predicting Net-geners' problematic use of the Internet. Addicted Net-geners are also strongly linked to the pleasure of being able to control the simulated world in online games. The finding reinforces previous research that "dependents" of the Internet spend most of their time in the synchronous communication environment engaging in interactive online games, chat rooms, and ICQ for pleasure-seeking or escape, while "non-dependents" use information-gathering functions available on the Internet. Furthermore, Internet addicts tend to watch television significantly less, indicating a displacement effect on traditional media use for the Net-generation.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which gender and other factors predict the severity of online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. A total of 395 junior high school students were recruited for evaluation of their experiences playing online games. Severity of addiction, behavioral characteristics, number of stressors, and level of satisfaction with daily life were compared between males and females who had previously played online games. Multiple regression analysis was used to explore gender differences in the relationships between severity of online gaming addiction and a number of variables. This study found that subjects who had previously played online games were predominantly male. Gender differences were also found in the severity of online gaming addiction and motives for playing. Older age, lower self-esteem, and lower satisfaction with daily life were associated with more severe addiction among males, but not among females. Special strategies accounting for gender differences must be implemented to prevent adolescents with risk factors from becoming addicted to online gaming.
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To investigate the psychometric properties of the BMSLSS among 522 college students. Internal consistency reliability explored scale reliability, factor analysis explored construct validity, known-groups validity was assessed by use of items from the National College Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Harvard National Survey of Alcohol Use, and criterion-related validity was explored through analyses with the CDC's Health-Related Quality of Life Scale. Acceptable internal consistency reliability, construct, known-groups, and criterion-related validity were established. These findings offer preliminary support for the BMSLSS; it could serve as part of comprehensive evaluations of subjective QOL for program evaluation and/or policy purposes among college students.
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The aims of the present study were to develop diagnostic criteria of Internet addiction for adolescents and to examine the discriminating potential and validity of diagnostic criteria by an empirical community study among adolescent populations. We developed 13 candidate diagnostic criteria for characteristic symptoms of Internet addiction in adolescents. A total of 468 adolescents completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) and were systematically assessed for Internet-using behaviors by seven psychiatrists using the diagnostic interview schedule. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the 13 candidate diagnostic criteria were analyzed with references to the interviewers' global clinical impressions and CIAS results. The cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria to differentiate the Internet-addicted subjects with nonaddicted ones was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy and the receiver operating characteristic curve. This study selected nine of the 13 candidate diagnostic criteria to construct the diagnostic criteria of Internet addiction for adolescents, which were composed of three main criteria: characteristic symptoms of Internet addiction, functional impairment secondary to Internet use, and exclusive criteria. The diagnostic criteria had high diagnostic accuracy, specificity, negative predictive value, accepted sensitivity, and accepted positive predictive rate. The validity of the diagnostic criteria proposed in this study was further confirmed by comparing the demographic and Internet-using characteristics between those with and without Internet addiction. The diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction can provide health care professionals with a means to communicate and make comparisons of clinical cases.
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The purposes of this study were to examine the differences in prevalence of lifetime substance use disorders (SUDs), age at initial substance use, and knowledge and attitudes toward substance use between aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents living in a mountain region of southern Taiwan, and to separately examine the correlates of SUDs among the two groups. A total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal adolescents were recruited into this study. The results revealed that although the prevalence of SUDs was high in both aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents, no difference in the prevalence of SUDs between the two groups was found. Attitudes toward substance use and several dimensions of peer influence were associated with SUDs in both aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents. However, there were different socio-demographic and family correlates with SUDs in aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents, and an association between characteristics of personality and SUDs was found only in aboriginal adolescents. Those who devise strategies to prevent adolescent substance use may consider the differences in the correlates of SUDs between aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents.
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This study aimed to examine the differences in personality characteristics between adolescents with and without Internet addiction and substance use experience as defined by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), and to compare personality characteristics among groups of adolescents with both Internet addiction and substance use experience (comorbid group), those with only Internet addition (Internet addiction group), those with only substance use experience (substance experience group), and those without Internet addiction or substance use experience (control group). In the cross-sectional investigation, we recruited 3662 students (2328 boys and 1334 girls) from high schools in southern Taiwan. Our investigation was conducted using the TPQ, the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and Questionnaires for Experience in Substance Use. Adolescents with Internet addiction were more likely to have substance use experience. High novelty seeking (NS), high harm avoidance (HA), and low reward dependence (RD) predicted a higher proportion of adolescents with Internet addiction. High NS, low HA, and low RD predicted a higher proportion of adolescents with substance use experience. Of the 4 groups, the Internet addiction group had the highest HA scores and the comorbid group had the lowest HA scores. Adolescents with high NS and low RD should be provided with effective strategies for preventing Internet addiction and substance use. In addition, the Internet addiction group and the comorbid group should be provided with different preventative strategies focused on HA.
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Imaging studies have provided new insights on the role of dopamine (DA) in drug abuse and addiction in the human brain. These studies have shown that the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse in human beings are contingent not just on DA increases per se in the striatum (including the nucleus accumbens) but on the rate of DA increases. The faster the increases, the more intense the reinforcing effects. They have also shown that elevated levels of DA in the dorsal striatum are involved in the motivation to procure the drug when the addicted subject is exposed to stimuli associated with the drug (conditioned stimuli). In contrast, long-term drug use seems to be associated with decreased DA function, as evidenced by reductions in D2 DA receptors and DA release in the striatum in addicted subjects. Moreover, the reductions in D2 DA receptors in the striatum are associated with reduced activity of the orbitofrontal cortex (region involved with salience attribution and motivation and with compulsive behaviors) and of the cingulate gyrus (region involved with inhibitory control and impulsivity), which implicates deregulation of frontal regions by DA in the loss of control and compulsive drug intake that characterizes addiction. Because DA cells fire in response to salient stimuli and facilitate conditioned learning, their activation by drugs will be experienced as highly salient, driving the motivation to take the drug and further strengthening conditioned learning and producing automatic behaviors (compulsions and habits).
The neuropsychology of temperament Explorations in temperament: International perspectives on theory and measurement
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