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Achievement American Style: The Rewards and Costs of Individualism

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Abstract

Suggests that the US is a success-oriented society whose attitudes toward achievement can be traced to the Protestant heritage and its emphasis on individualism and the work ethic. Although they are implied to have universal significance, it is contended that contemporary theories of achievement and achievement motivation are rooted in individualism and may have validity primarily for American and similar cultures. Concerns about the erosion of the work ethic and the destructive aspects of individualism are discussed. (61 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Japanese culture generally accepts a more distant partner relationship and a greater mother-child dependency, leading to greater child overprotection. Spanish and Italian cultures generally accept a closer partner relationship and more outstanding mother-child care but not overprotection, considered a form of spoiling [106,107]. ...
... On the other hand, Spanish and Italian cultures consider parental sensitivity more focused on care, perceiving and responding to the child's signals and requests for help, without anticipating his/her needs [18, 91,106,107]. In addition, Spanish and Italian childcare goes hand in hand with a view of the parental couple in a romantic model expected to be enduring after marriage and child-rearing [103][104][105]. ...
... It probably feeds a trend to avoid closeness [27,59,108,109,111]. This trend is unshared with Western cultures, which are more care-oriented [106,107], underling the controversy about whether attachment principles are universal or culturally dependent [73]. Western cultures, such as Italian and Spanish ones, consider "parental sensitivity" as the ability to perceive and respond effectively to the child's cues and requests for help [91]. ...
Article
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Attachment is an innate human relational mechanism that develops progressively from early childhood, influences individuals' representations and behaviors, shapes relationships, and affects the social and cultural environment. Parental bonding refers to the ability of parents to be emotionally and behaviorally available to the child during infancy. Attachment style refers to the individual's relational attitude in close relationships that influences adult love, bonding, handling relationships, and social exploration. The role of intergenerational, cultural and developmental factors influencing the relationship between the attachment style in adulthood and the parental bonding style recalled during childhood has been debated. This study explores the relationships between recalled parental bonding, adult attachment style, and cultural background in a sample of Spanish, Italian, and Japanese adults using a cross-sectional and cross-cultural design. For this purpose, the validated versions of the Experience in Close Relationship Scale and the Parental Bonding Instrument were administered to a non-clinical population of three hundred and five participants in the three countries. Results show that the most frequent adult attachment style is the secure style, followed by the dismissing-avoidant, the preoccupied, and the fearful-avoidant style. The dismissing-avoidant style was the most frequent insecure attachment style in the Japanese sample whereas the preoccupied style was the most frequent insecure attachment style in the Ital-ians and Spaniards. Japanese are more anchored to the memory of maternal and paternal overprotection, which is related to more avoidance in actual close relationships. Spaniard's current relationships are mildly independent of recalled parental bonding, showing an association between lower current avoidance to primary parental care. In the Italian sample,
... Put simply, societal attitudes, values and, in particular, society's judgement of certain behaviours, lifestyles and classes of people as being "undesirable", "undeserving" or "a drain on society", will undoubtedly influence the way in which staff interact with patients and how they interpret the behaviours of such [276]. Thus, regardless of the intentions of any individual staff member, they cannot escape their derivation as a product of their society, culture, and environment [277]. A study investigating the decision-making abilities of Approved Mental Health Professionals found that, when faced with resolving a high-risk scenario, each participant identified and interpreted the risk differently, and in accordance with their (differing) personal belief systems and socially constructed view of the world [278]. ...
... Recall that to 'have capacity' according to TEWV, means 'to be presumed to have capacity to make any and all decisions at any and all times.' Despite this not being a valid application of the Presumption, if the Trust really were treating these patients as fully capacitous individuals, they would also have treat their right of consent as absolute 277 . Hence, should these fully capacitous patients request crisis intervention when in crisis 278 , there is, quite obviously, no legal barrier to providing such, and absolutely no need to invoke any statutory powers at all. ...
... The particulars of patient complaints in mental health settings are covered elsewhere in this report 279 . Suffice to say: both healthcare providers, professional bodies, the state and 277 Certain rare exceptions inc MHA 278 Patients are only lawfully entitled to treatment appropriate to their situation, Though the Protocol makes numerous claims regarding crisis intervention not being appropriate for "BPD+" patients, this has no basis in evidence, treatment guidelines or the law. 279 Section 5.3 Patient Complaints society are marked by a very long tradition of routinely dismissing the complaints and concerns of mental health patients as invalid, untrue and unreliable, or as a mere product of whatever diagnostic label is assigned to them. ...
Research
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Investigative report into the “Protocol for the reduction of harm associated with suicidal behaviour, deliberate self harm and its treatment (for people with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and related conditions)”, also known as the “BPD+ Protocol”. The report details the history of the BPD+ Protocol within Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys NHS Foundation Trust, and considers its use in terms of English and European Law, national clinical guidelines and relevant academic research. There is extensive use of first-person testimony from TEWV patients, former patients, and family members. While the report focuses on Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys NHS Foundation Trust, the subjects discussed, the information gathered, and the implications of the findings are far reaching. 23/06/2022: Correction of minor errors in paragraph on page 235-236. The errors do not affect the understanding of the document. - 'crisis manager' change to 'team manager' - 'completely unknown to' change to 'barely knew'. - "are still in force today" change to "and remained in place for some time" - "remained unchanged since the plan was drawn up in 2016" change to "remained unchanged for a considerable period of time"
... On the aspect of antecedents, personal effort and ability have been the major considered factors in causal attributions for success and failure (e.g., Weiner, et aJ., 1971;Frieze, et al., 1982). On the aspect of standards, sense o f achievement vs. outstanding is similar to the distinction between the self-referring and others-referring standards (NichoUs, 1984;Kukla & Scher, 1986 and extrinsic values (prestige and material gains) (Spence, 1985) In addition, the appraisals revealed many culture-specific values relevant to career achievement that were not paid too much attention before. ...
... Several theorists have broadened the concept of achievement motivation in terms of task values (Parsons & Goff, 1980;Eccles et ai., 1984;Spence, 1985). Task values referred to the expected ■ fco consequences of a given task that will infiuence a persoiéapproach^the task. ...
... According to these theorists, the positive consequences of achievement can be classified into three categories; intrinsic consequences, extrinsic consequences, and utility consequences. Intrinsic consequences are the inherent satisfaction one gets fi'om succeeding in an achievement task which may include taking pride in one's performance (Spence, 1985), and pleasure of doing the task (Parsons & Goff^ 1980;Eccles ei al., 1984). Extrinsic consequences represent the immediate rewards brought by the successful performance such as money, prestige and so on (Spence, 1985). ...
Thesis
This thesis examined an integrated theory which connects values with situations through valuations. It proposes that the relevant values are activated as reward or cost values in each specific situation, and a person's attitude toward the situation is determined by the resultant trade-off. The Rokeach Value Survey (Rokeach, 1973) and Schwartz's (1987, 1992) value questionnaire were combined and modified to measure valuation elements which included the relevant values, their status (as reward or cost values) and importance. The theory was supported by Study 1 which measured British subjects' valuations and attitudes about nuclear weapons and about abortion. Study 2 replicated previous work to explore the stability and change in valuations over time (5 weeks). The results revealed that most subjects' valuations and attitudes remain stable while some subjects changed their attitudes which could be predicted from changed status of core relevant values. Furthermore the measurement of valuation is applied to study career achievement domain of British and Taiwanese university students. Study 3 explored their perceptional appraisals about career achievement indicating that the Taiwanese subjects held broader views than the British subjects did on the antecedents and standards of career achievement, but both the samples held similar views on the consequences of career achievement Study 4 investigated their motivational appraisals about the standards and consequences of career achievement, and for whom do they seek or avoid career achievement. The results indicated the core components within the subjects' career achievement motivation, and their tendencies of individualism or collectivism on career achievement. These results challenge the previous views on these topics. This research provides a theoretical framework and a new way to investigate a person's valuation about a situation and thereby many other value-related variables.
... As an immigrant who cannot speak English or stably communicate with communities other than the Chinese community, Hayley highly valued the power of collectivism when constructing a small CBHL school. However, Hayley's practice of collectivism, to some extent, conflicted with individualism, which is the foundation of the U.S. society and education system (Hu, 2014;Spence, 1985). ...
... Individualism sees a person as an entity that has a basic sense of self and works as a basic unit of perception. Being separated from others and becoming an individual is a natural right, and the heritage of U.S. culture (Spence, 1985). In a society where individualism is valued, personal achievement and development override those of the group (Hu, 2014). ...
Article
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This study investigates the language teacher identity of one teacher of Chinese in a community-based language school in the U.S. Inspired by Tochon’s authentic learning model (2000) and Bourdieu’s theory of habitus (1977), this study developed a conceptual framework which views language teacher identity as a learning–practice relational triangle that is composed of experiential knowledge, learned knowledge, and knowledge-in-action. The life history of a teacher of Chinese in a community-based language school was investigated. Narrative inquiry was used as the methodology (Clandinin, 2013). The results show that teachers of Chinese are productive practitioners in forming their language teacher identities. Their problem solving and reflective thinking show that they continuously establish communication between different cultural ideological views, and establishing such dialogues is the ultimate goal for language teachers. The results also demonstrate the effectiveness of the learning–practice relational triangle for conceptualizing language teacher identity as a contextualized and life-long process.
... For example, studies report associations among individualism and the need for achievement (e.g. Hui and Villareal, 1989;Spence, 1985;Triandis, 1983). Similarly, Triandis et al. (1985) found that idiocentrism was related to higher achievement and greater feeling of loneliness. ...
... Moreover, individualists are shown to be more self-contained rather than seeking communication with others (Sheldon et al., 2017). Theoretical assertions such as Chirkov et al. (2005) or Hofstede (1983) and empirical findings such as Hui and Villareal (1989) in Chinese, Munro (1985) in African, or Spence (1985) in Hispanic populations let us conclude that the investigation of the effect of individualism on psychological needs is worth pursuing. Therefore, we hypothesized that individualism as operationalized by Singelis et al. (1995) would significantly affect psychological needs as operationalized by Heckert et al. (2000). ...
Article
2018),"Depression and social anxiety in relation to problematic smartphone use: The prominent role of rumination", Internet Research, Vol. 28 Iss 2 pp. 315-332 <a href="https://doi. If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information. About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com Emerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society. The company manages a portfolio of more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books and book series volumes, as well as providing an extensive range of online products and additional customer resources and services. Emerald is both COUNTER 4 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation. Abstract Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role of psychological needs in the association between individualism and internet addiction. Design/methodology/approach-A mixed-method design was used by comprising of 602 college students' (70.3 percent women) responses obtained through the Individualism-Collectivism Survey, New Needs Assessment Questionnaire, and Internet Addiction Scale. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to investigate the theoretical relationships among the constructs. Constant comparative method was employed to analyze qualitative data that resulted from the transcription of semi-structured interviews with 12 field experts. Findings-Quantitative results showed that individualism has a significant effect on internet addiction through affiliation, dominance, achievement, and autonomy (i.e. psychological needs). As students' needs for dominance, achievement, and autonomy increased their internet addiction levels decreased. However, increase in the need of affiliation led to increase in the likelihood of internet addiction. Qualitative findings suggested alternative ways to satisfy psychological needs in socially more proper ways. Originality/value-Psychological needs and internet addiction have long been investigated both independently and in relation to each other. However, the investigation of espoused culture (i.e. individualism) in relation to psychological needs and internet addiction is relatively recent. A review of the recent literature showed that an investigation of the mediating role of psychological needs in the effect of individualism on internet addiction is highly original. Moreover, initial quantitative results and follow-up qualitative findings help the authors understand psychological needs underlying internet addiction and suggest socially more appropriate means to satisfy these needs. Findings have theoretical values for researchers as well as practical values for those who work with students.
... From here, culturally acceptable patterns are as important as the ones which are unacceptable. The physiological factor of how students perceive those differences is one of the elements teachers have to have in mind, as Spence (1985) points out that in Middle Eastern culture sociological patterns dictate the behavioural matrices of the population. Those matrices are embedded in the language itself, and that dictates the permissiveness of the collective to which the individual belongs to (Spence, 1985). ...
... The physiological factor of how students perceive those differences is one of the elements teachers have to have in mind, as Spence (1985) points out that in Middle Eastern culture sociological patterns dictate the behavioural matrices of the population. Those matrices are embedded in the language itself, and that dictates the permissiveness of the collective to which the individual belongs to (Spence, 1985). Therefore, cultural limitations affect interaction (Porter, 1987), as the freedom of expression, especially sexual, is bounded to the culture itself. ...
... For both WEIRD and African (and many Asian) settings, it can be realised that there are two fundamental but opposing senses of agency: an agentic sense of self that is manifested in self-assertiveness and self-protectiveness, and a sense of selflessness (communal self) that is expressed in a person's desire to become one with others (Markus & Kitiyama, 2004;Nwoye, 2015;Spence, 1985). People in theses settings are confronted with the challenge to reconcile and balance these conflicting senses. ...
... People in theses settings are confronted with the challenge to reconcile and balance these conflicting senses. While people in Western societies resolve this balance by shifting toward the individualistic sense, exemplified in personal freedom and choice, people in the African cultural context and many Asian societies such as Japan emphasise the selfless sense of self in which the communal takes precedence over the individualistic (Adams et al., 2012;Adjei, 2018;Spence, 1985). It is often stressed in mainstream psychological accounts that agency is more highly developed in WEIRD cultural settings than in "majority-worlds," to the extent that being agentic is almost always synonymous with individualism (Miller, 2007). ...
Article
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One of the functions of psychological science is to develop concepts for thinking about people and their well-being. Since its establishment as a scientific discipline in the late 19th century, psychology has developed concepts that are essentially rooted in the specific spatio-temporal context of Western, Educated, Industrial, Rich, and Democratic (WEIRD) countries. There is a growing ontological and epistemological awareness that psychological science and practices from WEIRD cultural spaces cannot be exclusively representative of the African experience. I draw from interpersonal violence research to discuss the concepts of personhood, agency, and morality from an African perspective and highlight their theoretical and practical utility for psychological science. Based on African communalism, I argue that an understanding of personhood, agency, and morality as culturally contextualised and socially intentioned phenomena is foundational to the advancement of heterogeneous practices of knowledge production in diverse contexts.
... For example, studies report associations among individualism and the need for achievement (e.g. Hui and Villareal, 1989;Spence, 1985;Triandis, 1983). Similarly, Triandis et al. (1985) found that idiocentrism was related to higher achievement and greater feeling of loneliness. ...
... Moreover, individualists are shown to be more self-contained rather than seeking communication with others (Sheldon et al., 2017). Theoretical assertions such as Chirkov et al. (2005) or Hofstede (1983) and empirical findings such as Hui and Villareal (1989) in Chinese, Munro (1985) in African, or Spence (1985) in Hispanic populations let us conclude that the investigation of the effect of individualism on psychological needs is worth pursuing. Therefore, we hypothesized that individualism as operationalized by Singelis et al. (1995) would significantly affect psychological needs as operationalized by Heckert et al. (2000). ...
Article
Purpose This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of psychological needs in the association between individualism and Internet addiction. Design/methodology/approach A mixed-method design was used by comprising of 602 college students’ (70.3% women) responses obtained through the Individualism-Collectivism Survey, New Needs Assessment Questionnaire, and Internet Addiction Scale. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to investigate the theoretical relationships among the constructs. Constant comparative method was employed to analyze qualitative data that resulted from the transcription of semi-structured interviews with 12 field experts. Findings Quantitative results showed that individualism has a significant effect on Internet addition through affiliation, dominance, achievement, and autonomy (i.e., psychological needs). As students’ needs for dominance, achievement, and autonomy increased their Internet addiction levels decreased. However, increase in the need of affiliation led to increase in the likelihood of Internet addiction. Qualitative findings suggested alternative ways to satisfy psychological needs in socially more proper ways. Originality/value Psychological needs and Internet addiction have long been investigated both independently and in relation to each other. However, the investigation of espoused culture (i.e., individualism) in relation to psychological needs and Internet addiction is relatively recent. A review of the recent literature showed that an investigation of the mediating role of psychological needs in the effect of individualism on Internet addiction is highly original. Moreover, initial quantitative results and follow-up qualitative findings help us understand psychological needs underlying Internet addiction and suggest socially more appropriate means to satisfy these needs. Findings have theoretical values for researchers as well as practical values for those who work with students.
... For example, whereas a leisurely life was a symbol of status in the past, busyness is a symbol of status today in the United States since it implies that the person is in high demand and more competent (Bellezza et al., 2017). Individual accomplishment and a strong work ethic are encouraged and honored, particularly in western societies such as the United States (Kemper, 1968;Spence, 1985). Status in today's western societies is no longer determined simply by ascribed characteristics such as inherited wealth and family social class. ...
... Status in today's western societies is no longer determined simply by ascribed characteristics such as inherited wealth and family social class. Rather, people value achieved characteristics of status such as one's own earned income and believe financial success should be the result of the exercise of virtues such as devotion to hard work and perseverance (Eisenstadt, 1968;Spence, 1985;Tigar, 2000;Weber, 1930Weber, /2005. As a consequence, individuals who have the capability to acquire resources are seen as more prestigious and therefore ascribed higher status (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2008;Fiske & Cuddy, 2002;Fiske, Xu, & Cuddy, 1999). ...
Article
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People frequently observe others’ consumption, making inferences about both the consumer and the consumed brands. Although these observations are often beneficial for brands, this research demonstrates that observing luxury brand consumers whose consumption arose from unearned (vs. earned) financial resources reduces observers’ brand attitudes when observers place a high value on fairness. When fairness values are high, observers do not perceive luxury brand consumers who use unearned (vs. earned) consumption resources as prestigious, and in turn lower prestige perceptions adversely affect observers’ brand evaluations for luxury brands. Consistent with our theorizing regarding the signaling of prestige, the joint effect of consumers’ consumption resources and observers’ fairness values on observers’ brand attitudes does not hold for non-luxury brands, which are not associated with prestige and thereby are not denigrated when the consumer is not perceived as prestigious. This research sheds light on the role of moral values in marketplace judgments of luxury consumption and brand attitude by considering the influence of consumption resources on observers’ judgments.
... Such differences could possibly be explained by the distinction between fostering "individualism (in the U.S.)" and "collectivism" as societal values. In most Asian and Latin American cultures, interdependence is the core value (Harrison, Wilson, Pine, Chan, & Buriel, 1990;Murillo, 1971;Spence, 1985;Triandis et al., 1986), whereas Western European and North American cultures tend to focus on the individual (Spence, 1985;Triandis et al., 1986). Thus, child-rearing practices in the United States may focus on promoting autonomy and consider disobedience less of an issue in young children than in Asian and Latin American cultures (Kim, Kim, & Rue, 1997;Lin & Fu, 1990;Okagaki & Sternberg, 1993;Williams & Ispa, 1999). ...
... Such differences could possibly be explained by the distinction between fostering "individualism (in the U.S.)" and "collectivism" as societal values. In most Asian and Latin American cultures, interdependence is the core value (Harrison, Wilson, Pine, Chan, & Buriel, 1990;Murillo, 1971;Spence, 1985;Triandis et al., 1986), whereas Western European and North American cultures tend to focus on the individual (Spence, 1985;Triandis et al., 1986). Thus, child-rearing practices in the United States may focus on promoting autonomy and consider disobedience less of an issue in young children than in Asian and Latin American cultures (Kim, Kim, & Rue, 1997;Lin & Fu, 1990;Okagaki & Sternberg, 1993;Williams & Ispa, 1999). ...
Article
The Chinese government has announced the 2013 Guidelines for developing a national system for early detection of disability among children under 6 years of age. However, given limited resources, challenges exist with developmental measures required in the 2013 Guidelines. In order to meet the needs for a more accurate and cost-efficient measure for developmental assessment, the Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Inventory (ASQ:I) was translated into Simplified Chinese, and validated on a regional sample of 812 Chinese children ages from 1 to 25 months. Results indicated that the Chinese ASQ:I domain scores increased across children's age. When dividing the sample into seven age intervals, Cronbach's alpha in each interval ranged from 0.59 to 0.96 across five domains. When using the whole sample for analyses, item expected a posteriori/plausible value (EAP/PV) reliability was above 0.99 in all domains, test-retest reliability using intra-class correlation analyses ranged from 0.95 to 0.99, and the agreement with the concurrent measure ranged from 0.29 to 0.89. Domain scores on the ASQ:I correctly predicted 92-99% of participating children's disability status. Findings suggested that the Chinese ASQ:I has adequate psychometric properties and thus provides a promising alternative measure for screening and progress monitoring in young children in China. Implications for future research and implementation are discussed.
... Personalized energy feedback is thought to be effective because individual family members tend to care more about energy information when it is directly related to them [34]. Moreover, customizing energy-saving goals to living conditions and personal schedules are considered to be a promising strategy for family energy conservation [20,22,24,36]. ...
... Once a user completes a challenge, he or she can click the "complete" button ( Figure 1, right) and the challenge will be moved to the "challenges completed" section, which contains all completed challenges. This section is designed to create a sense of achievement by enabling users to see all competed challenges [36]. Viewing self-achievement can better engage users [16]. ...
Conference Paper
We designed, implemented, and evaluated an iOS mobile application called EnergyHome to investigate how social interaction among housemates is related to their engagement in energy-saving practices. EnergyHome enables housemates to track personal energy-saving activities and to collaborate on saving energy together. Fourteen pairs of housemates used EnergyHome for a week. Afterwards, we interviewed each participant about their use of the app. All interviews were transcribed and analyzed using an iterative comparative approach. We identified two types of social dynamics in the way housemates used the app. In complementary dynamics, one housemate took the initiative to set energy-saving challenges and the other(s) followed. In symmetrical dynamics, housemates collectively set energy-saving challenges but no one tried to exert control. Based on these findings, we discuss design strategies to motivate energy conservation that take into account different social dynamics among housemates.
... Det moderne liv er blevet sårbart, fordi det er organiseret omkring selvaktualisering og selvtilfredsstillelse. Synspunktet bliver fremsat af en raekke psykologer som Batson (1990), Baumeister (1991), Cushman (1990Cushman ( , 1991, Donohue (1990), Spence (1985), Taylor (1989) etc. Udviklingen har vaeret omsiggribende, således at individualisme og kollektivisme har bevaeget sig til at vaere universelle begreber, og »måske den vigtigste dimension til forståelsen af adfaerd på tvaers af kulturerne« (Kagiticibasi 2000: 8). ...
Article
For mange i Vesten er buddhismen blevet til et romantisk idealbillede på opnåelse af lykke og harmoni. Men tibetanske flygtninge er ikke specielt lykkelige og falder uden for den moderne såkaldte »positiv psykologi« om lykke og sundhed. De omskriver snarere deres lidelse i en ukuelighed, som bygger på, at de ikke har et begreb om et selv, men erstatter det i andre begreber om tilknytning, krop og spiritualitet. Den tibetanske anderledeshed med sit særlige udgangspunkt i den buddhistiske spiritualitet, skaber nogle specielle former for lidelse, som ikke umiddelbart kan sammenlignes med andre. Tibetanerne giver lidelsen en form for embodyment, som kan rumme en kompleksitet af mind/body i en kulturel og politisk kosmologi.
... This fact has an extraordinary relevance, as the success of a gamification program could be decisively determined by the educational setting. An awareness is needed of the fact that the goal-based notion of motivation has been fundamentally fed by an emphasis on the individual based on the Western tradition (Spence, 1985). In contrast to the Western perspective on the individual, the predominant paradigm in the East is an identification with the community, in which a student's desires could be less relevant than those of the class. ...
Article
So as to effectively personalize a game design and gamified experiences in a learning context, the psychological characteristics of the students must be inexorably considered. A rigorous search using scientific search engines was conducted in order to explore game user classification theories that can contribute to tailor game content. On the one hand, research revealed that personality traits can be highly predictive of the players’ degree of enjoyment of a wide range of game design elements (levels, points, leaderboards, etc.). On the other hand, research also showed that motivation to play is strongly dependent on context and, therefore, tailored player typologies can help predict playing styles more precisely than generic taxonomies of personality traits. Several models for classifying users were found, based on four approaches: personality traits, player types, player motivations, and gamification user types. The overview created and the diagram proposed by the researcher show great connectivity between these models. Parallels were identified, evincing how Vandenberghe’s ([2012]. The 5 domains of play. Applying psychology’s big 5 domains to games. Proceedings of the 2012 Game Developers Conference, pp. 25–29) 5 Domains of Play model comprises the concepts of all the others. Consequently, with the purpose of tailoring an efficient gamified classroom experience, this model might be helpful when exploring the relationship between game content and learners’ personality.
... However, it is worth mentioning that the blend of science with moral ideology is not unique to attachment theory and in fact the advocacy for the humane treatment of children was an honorable cause. Nonetheless, as Spence (1985) commented, such a common cultural or ideological stance that most researchers adopt may compromise the scientific inquiry because of the collective blindness to alternative explanations (Rothbaum et al., 2000). ...
Research
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Originating in a unique historical and cultural context, Bowlby and Ainsworth’s attachment theory represents a WEIRD cultural pattern of parent-child relatedness: Western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic. Hailed as the single norm of optimal development for all humankind, Bowlby and Ainsworth’s attachment theory has become the only theoretical lens to examine attachment phenomena. In this study, I critique the narrow and biased theoretical focus and inherent problems of ethnocentrism and class-centrism in Bowlby and Ainsworth’s model. Given the challenges of crosscultural studies that are still under Bowlby and Ainsworth’s influence, I argue that Bowlby and Ainsworth’s model as the dominant paradigm of child development has brought the scientific inquiry of child development in general and attachment in specific to a dead end. Instead, I propose enculturation as an effective and comprehensive paradigm to understand the diversity of parental behaviors in relation to child development due to its ability to encapsulate diverse cultural values within historical contexts. Furthermore, I present an enculturation conceptualization of attachment. Specifically, I apply enculturation both as a research paradigm and as a parenting paradigm to understand a particular pattern of parenting in relation to attachment in rural mid-century China. Lastly, in comparison to the problems of parenting interventions that are based on Bowlby-Ainsworth’s model, I envision the promise that enculturation as a holistic and contextualized formulation holds for parenting practices and future psychological research. Keywords: attachment, culture, enculturation, Chinese
... In the US context there are different value-backgrounds with regard to nepotism. In typically Western, individualistic cultures, people tend to characterize achievement in the job market based on their own individual morals or dreams (Spence, 1985). In this cultural context, nepotism is most viewed with a negative connotation (even being referred to as an "inherent evil"; Olsson, 2017), but it can also be seen as a positive factor by lowering unemployment. ...
Article
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Being poor can influence how one makes ethical decisions in various fields. Nepotism is one such area, emerging as kinship-based favoritism in the job market. People can be poor on at least three levels: one can live in a poor country (cross-cultural poverty), be poor compared to others around them (socio-economic poverty), or feel poor in their given situation (situational poverty). We assumed that these levels can simultaneously influence nepotistic hiring decisions among Hungarian (N = 191) and US participants (N = 176). Prior cross-cultural, non-experimental studies demonstrated that nepotism is more prevalent in poorer countries such as Hungary than in richer countries such as the United States. However, contrary to our expectations, in our non-representative, preliminary study, US participants showed stronger nepotistic behavioral tendencies than Hungarians (cross-cultural level). Furthermore, people with lower socioeconomic status had less nepotistic intentions than richer people (socio-economic level). When participants were asked to imagine themselves as a poor person (situational level), they tended to be more nepotistic than had they imagined themselves to be rich. Finally, nepotistic hiring intentions were in general stronger than non-nepotistic hiring intentions. These seemingly paradoxical results were interpreted in the light of the COVID-19 job market context and were explained by the mechanisms described by research on wealth and immoral behaviors, as well as the presence of risk aversion.
... Skinner's article lamented the educational mediocrity of American schools in terms of student achievements, motivational levels, and learning. Spence (1985), in her American Psychological Association Presidential Address, also noted the lack of excellence in schools, especially in fostering the learning of math and science. Indeed, there has been growing concern that Americans are falling behind students from other countries in educational achievements. ...
... Las anteriores son las características que se les han dado tradicionalmente a los estudiantes sinohablantes, como podemos ver en las siguientes opiniones: "Su forma de aprender descansa considerablemente en la memorización mecánica" (Carson, 1992). "La orientación de los logros alcanzados se basa firmemente en valores colectivistas antes que en valores individuales" (Spence, 1985). ...
Thesis
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La tesis "Propuesta de diseño curricular para los grados de Filología Hispánica en las universidades chinas: adaptación del método e integración de destrezas" es un trabajo académico en el que se realiza un análisis del contexto y de la situación de la lengua española en China en el actualidad. A través de un riguroso recorrido histórico se observa cómo los diferentes métodos de enseñanza se fueron introduciendo en China y cómo es el estudiante sinohablante de español. Este investigación analiza los planes de estudio de varias universidades para realizar una comparación y encontrar aspectos comunes. Además, se analizan los exámenes nacionales de español (EEE-4 y EEE-8), y el manual utilizado en todos los centros de enseñanza superior "Español Moderno" en sus dos versiones de 1999 y 2014. Este proceso analítico es el que concluirá con una propuesta curricular basada en la coordinación docente y en la integración de métodos, asignaturas y destrezas. Una propuesta basada en las necesidades, intereses y expectativas de los estudiantes.
... However, as evidence of the increased interest in the PWE among psycho logists, the president of the American Psychological Association based her annual address on it in 1985. Spence (1985) argued that individualism was cen tral to the American character and the origins lie in the PWE and the philos ophy of the enlightenment. The Protestantism of the PWE sought not only to render unnecessary any intervention (i.e. ...
... Collectivism and individualism may be regarded as two separate constructs and exist as tendencies within all societies and individuals. Spence (1985) found a positive relationship between individualism and the need for achievement. He suggests that http://dx.doi.org/10. ...
Article
Individualism versus collectivism as an aspect of culture and extraversion as an aspect of personality may help explain self-presentation attitudes, intentions, and behaviors on social networking sites. Thus, this study aims to investigate the individual differences and relationships among individualism versus collectivism, extraversion, and self-presentation attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. The Individualism-Collectivism Scale and the Big Five Personality Scale were used to collect the data from 311 college students (75.9% woman, mean age = 20.68). Results show that individualism has a significant positive correlation with extraversion, which has a significant correlation with selfie posting attitudes, intentions and behaviors. Even though the correlation between individualism and attitudes toward self-presentation was statistically significant, the magnitude of the association was small.
... In contrast, individuals in collectivist cultures are likely to exhibit cooperative behaviors that benefit the group, irrespective of personal gains from it. (Spence, 1985). ...
Article
This paper utilizes the lenses of knowledge capital and institutional theories to examine the role knowledge capital plays in the context of entry into social versus commercial entrepreneurship. We also investigate the moderating role of national culture in the relationship between knowledge capital and entrepreneurship. Using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, we find that social capital is relatively more important in social entrepreneurship than commercial entrepreneurship. We also find that national culture moderates this relationship such that in high individualism cultures, specific human capital is directed towards commercial entrepreneurship compared to social entrepreneurship. However, in high uncertainty avoidance cultures, social capital is directed towards social entrepreneurship rather than commercial entrepreneurship. Our findings uncover the nature of the contingent effects of informal institutions on the relationship between knowledge capital and entrepreneurship, leading to important implications for theory and development policy.
... Currently, there is new development which believed that masculinity and femininity can be re-conceptualized in terms of the gender identity construction, thus as part of one's self concept. For example Spence (1985) as cited from Hoffman, Borders, Hattie (2000: 479) proposed that masculinity or femininity as refer to an individual's self-concept and conceptualized as gender identity. Lewin (1984) as cited from Hoffman, Borders, Hattie (2000: 479) suggested that masculinity and femininity be conceptualized as "the gender-relevant aspects of a person's self-concept" thus allowing for "individual variation in the specific content of the self-image as related to gender". ...
... Through early social experiences, individuals formulate a concept of the "generalized other" (Mead, 1934). Following this logic, many researchers (e.g., Hogan, 1975;Hofstede, 1980;Sampson, 1977;Spence, 1985) studied macro level societal phenomena from this individualistic perspective. One of the most famous among them was Hofstede who aggregated the responses of IBM managers from 46 countries to derive four major dimensions on which cultures were compared and contrasted Despite such a strong tradition of individualistic approach of self-reported evidence for constructing social reality, there were voices of skepticism that started rising in the Western psychology. ...
... The fact that women still assure greater responsibility for family may help explain their lesser degree of work involvement (Spence, 1985). Paradoxically, married women individuals generally report greater levels of work involvement probably due to their family responsibilities. ...
Article
An important issue that our society has been facing in the recent past is the changing work and family roles of Indian women. Woman, today, function within multiple roles simultaneously operating in both work and family domains as a mother, spouse, housekeeper, as well as maintaining full-time employment outside the home. The relationship between these dual roles has thus become a topic of interest among organizational researchers. This study deals with selected antecedents and their influence on the role conflict among Indian women in technology. A sample size of 598 Indian women in technology was taken for the study and the result shows the occurrence of work-family conflict. Three predominant factors that influence the work-family conflict time-dimension are work exhaustion, work thought interference and perceived workload in the order of merit.
... Freytag and Thurik (2007) consider that low national income and poor technological development are not the main contributing factors to the low level of entrepreneurial activity, but that the differences observed are mainly institutional and of cultural nature. Therefore, many studies attribute a high level of entrepreneurial activity to the influence of cultural values such as freedom, independence, need for achievement, individualism/collectivism and materialism Spence, 1985). ...
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The main objective of the research is to examine, for the first time, the influence of dimensions of culture according to the GLOBE model on the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation. The research sample belongs to the service sector within the transitional society of Serbia, i.e. tourism and medical sector, which are linked through the ever-growing health tourism industry. Different influences of dimensions of culture (uncertainty avoidance, performance orientation, group collectivism, assertiveness and gender equality) on dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation (work ethic. innovativeness, empathy, autonomy and risk readiness) are confirmed. The obtained results are important for defining the cultural framework which influences the development of entrepreneurial activities within tourism and health service sectors in Serbia.
... In practices of narrative inquiry, such learned reflections revolve around issues of relationship, identity, and power between the storyteller and their environment (Clandinin, 2006 However, the practical realities of existence mean the stories we tell about ourselves, and the rank ordering there within, are not often reflected upon. We are bound by necessitates of achievement, both for survival and for attainment, that our particular set of life circumstances outline; increasingly universalized by the competition and individualism inherent in Western-geared market economies (Spence, 1985). We are limited in our exposure to ways of thinking about ourselves and our actions, as well as to other interpretations of narrative roles and actions within our environment. ...
Article
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Research in the field of countering violent extremism (CVE) has grown significantly in the last few decades. This research project contributes to the CVE literature by studying narratives as tools of reflections on self-identity designed intentionally within gaming exercises to help contextualize and account for as much environmental complexity as possible. This paper provides theoretical understandings of narratives (and their role in our lives), discusses narratives as they relate to violent extremist ideologies, and proposes how narrative reflections may serve as a deradicalization tool within cooperative games. Additionally, this article highlights elements of narrative reflection within current CVE resources and provides a list of exercises (games) that can be used in the field to promote narrative reflections.
... Hence, teaching methods must be revised in order to prompt culturally appropriate interaction inside and outside the classroom. Spence (1985) elaborates the physiological importance of culturally acceptable and unacceptable patterns, and he points out that Middle Eastern culture as a set of sociological patterns influences not only the individual but the entire family or collective each person belongs to. Therefore, teachers have to bear in mind not only their own culture, but also those of the students and the culture they are teaching, in this case Arabic. ...
Article
Hoy en día, el aprendizaje de idiomas extranjeros se considera una prioridad dentro de cualquier currículo occidental, pero la mayoría de las investigaciones se han realizado en idiomas dominantes como el inglés o el español. Por lo tanto, nuestro objetivo aquí es enfocarnos en la enseñanza del árabe como idioma extranjero y resaltar la importancia de la cultura en su aprendizaje. Por eso, utilizando un método comparativo, hemos analizado varias suwar en el Corán para obtener información cultural que se pueda utilizar al enseñar árabe. Se han abordado temas como el matrimonio, el divorcio, el derecho de herencia y la libertad. También revisamos las implicaciones y las políticas culturales en la enseñanza del árabe en relación con el análisis diacrónico de la literatura medieval andalusí. En consecuencia, concluimos que la enseñanza de la lengua y la literatura árabes debe contextualizarse y relacionarse con los aspectos económicos, sociopolíticos y especialmente culturales, donde la rigidez religiosa se sobrepasaría y ayudaría a exaltar la libertad de expresión literaria.
... Three quarters of Americans agree that "people are in control of their own health" and "people's health is in their own hands" (Hook & Markus, 2019). Cultural roots in the Protestant ethic demand that individuals take responsibility for working hard to succeed (Quinn & Crocker, 1999;Spence, 1985;Uhlmann & Sanchez-Burks, 2014). Within this ideology, a lack of success-including failure to maintain good health-signifies laziness, carelessness, and moral failure. ...
Article
The United States suffers high rates of preventable lifestyle disease despite widespread calls for people to take responsibility for their health. The United States also stands out in its rejection of government action to guide industry practices and consumer choices. Why? We examine how deeply rooted cultural narratives about “free choice” and “personal responsibility” infuse policymaking, advertising, media, social norms, and individual attitudes about health in the United States. We argue that these narratives contribute to ill health in the United States: They encourage stress and worry over health, blame and stigmatization of the unhealthy, widened health disparities, and the failure to adopt policies that could save lives. Psychologists can play a major role in expanding narratives about health so that they include the role of personal choice and responsibility but also reflect current science about the physical, social, and cultural drivers of health. These broader narratives can be used to promote a more comprehensive understanding of health and to better inform the design, communication, and implementation of effective health-supportive policies.
... As a result, those in individualistic societies define personal goals as more important than group goals; the opposite is true in collectivist societies (Schwartz, 1990;Triandis, 1988). Since cooperation diminishes personal resources that could be used to achieve personal goals, those in individualistic cultures would be more likely to avoid cooperation (Spence, 1985;Wagner, 1995). ...
Article
Hall of Heroes, a digital game, was used to compare social and emotional skills of 63 adolescent female students matched for age across Malaysia, South Africa, and the United States. Participants were assessed on six social and emotional competencies during game play, namely impulse control, cooperation, communication, social initiation, empathy, and emotional regulation and assigned to high, average, and low categories. Chi-square and odds ratio analyses revealed novel, significant correlations between various social and emotional skills for all cultures, suggesting similarities in socio-emotional development. In view of the increasing cross-cultural compositions of classrooms, these results may be beneficial to educators and school administrators.
... Differences in parenting practices and expectations for their children's behaviors might be a result of different cultural values and beliefs. In most Asian cultures, interdependence is a core value, whereas North Americans tend to focus on the individual (Harrison, Wilson, Pine, Chan, & Buriel, 1990;Spence, 1985;Triandis et al., 1986). Thus, childrearing practices in the U.S. often focus on promoting autonomy and consider disobedience less of an issue in young children than in Asian cultures (Kim, Kim, & Rue, 1997;Lin & Fu, 1990;Okagaki & Sternberg, 1993). ...
Article
Research Findings: The Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional, Second Edition (ASQ:SE-2) was translated and adapted into Traditional Chinese in Taiwan. A sample of 1,455 children, ranging from 42 months 0 days to 53 months 30 days old, reflecting the population sizes of different regions in Taiwan, completed the 48-month ASQ:SE-2. Data were analyzed by item response theory modeling. A multidimensional Rasch Partial Credit Model was chosen for data analysis. Differential item functioning (DIF) was used to explore the difference between the Traditional Chinese ASQ:SE-2 and the English ASQ:SE-2 (N = 3,005) administered in the U.S. Results indicated that (a) item fit statistics was between 0.88 – 1.26 (M = 1.00, SD = 0.10), (b) difficulty was between -0.79 – 3.19 (M = 2.06, SD = 0.84), (c) reliability was 0.79 for all items, 0.75/0.74 for Emotion/Sociality dimension, and (d) six out of 35 items (17.1%) with moderate to large DIF. Practice or Policy: This research provided psychometric evidence for using the ASQ:SE-2-TC with a Taiwanese population. The promising psychometric findings encourage the further investment on validating ASQ:SE-2-TC. The cultural explanations can inform test developers to become aware of the potential influence from social values, parenting style, or childrearing practices.
... Specifically, high-status targets tend to be ascribed agentic characteristics, whereas low-status targets are often attributed communal characteristics (Jones, 1990). Such differences are thought to arise because agency is seen as a pre-requisite for success and achievement in modern American society (Spence, 1985) and communality plausibly serves as a way to explain lack of power and dominance in hierarchical structures (Conway et al., 1996). Considerable theoretical and empirical evidence, across a range of contexts, supports the proposition that people tend to ascribe high-status groups with agency (but not communality) and low-status groups with communality (but not agency) (Jost & Kay, 2005). ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to cast new light on possible gender biases in implicit theories people hold about various forms of entrepreneurial activity. Using social role theory, we delve into sex-role stereotypes associated with high- and low-growth entrepreneurship and commercial and social entrepreneurship. Predictions were tested with an experimental design using both a between-subject design to capture group-level stereotypes and a within-subject design to capture individual-level stereotypes. Findings reveal that commercial and high-growth entrepreneurs are perceived as more similar to men than to women and higher on agency than communality. Conversely, low-growth entrepreneurs are perceived as more similar to women than men, and higher on communality than agency. Social entrepreneurs are uniquely perceived as similar to both men and women, though they are also considered higher on agency than communality. Interestingly, female, but not male respondents, perceive some overlap between the feminine gender role and high-growth and commercial entrepreneurship. Notably, those higher on modern sexism perceive less overlap between entrepreneurship and femininity. Taken together, our results suggest that commercial high-growth entrepreneurship is most strongly male-typed, which is likely to be problematic for women (and non-traditional men) wanting to start growthoriented ventures. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. Authors: Vishal K. Gupta, Alice M. Wieland, and Daniel B. Turban
... Thus, by self-consciously employing the titular phrase "from critique to disruption," I am at least aspirationally attempting both to expose and challenge taken-for-granted assumptions (an important function of critique) and to provide some alternatives and courses of action that may help rupture or change the status quo (engage in disruption). 6 With these goals in mind, some additional issues arise when considering the role of feminist psychology in critiquing and disrupting neoliberalism: What can the theoretical apparatus of feminist psychology generate given the constraints of its disciplinary positioning within psychology, a discipline characterized by a relentless individualism (Becker & Marecek, 2008;Cabanas, 2018;Spence, 1985), and a discipline that has been (to a large extent) historically and ideologically-if not also practically and materiallycomplicit with the rise of neoliberalism (see Sugarman, 2015;Winston, 2018)? Further, what can feminist psychology offer given its historical indebtedness to a form of liberal feminism that has-to a substantial degree-relied upon the same discourses of choice and empowerment upon which neoliberalism now so problematically draws? ...
Article
Numerous feminist scholars have argued that women, especially young women, have been constructed as ideal neoliberal subjects. Informed by Foucauldian approaches that extend neoliberalism beyond a set of free market principles to a dynamic that creates new forms of subjectivity, these scholars have demonstrated the elisions between “postfeminism” and neoliberalism in the positioning of young women as consumers, self-helpers, and “empowered” agents par excellence. The psy-disciplines have actively participated in gendering neoliberal subjectivity and I selectively review feminist critiques of this complicity. These critiques problematize discourses of empowerment, agency, and choice, even as they have seeped into feminist psychology itself. I then consider the theoretical resources that are available within and beyond feminist psychology to disrupt and even displace neoliberal forms of subjectivity. Building on insights from psychosocial studies, intersectional and decolonial approaches, and critical history and conjunctural thinking, I brainstorm some alternatives that feminist psychologists could offer.
... Even long after frontier lands had disappeared and the opportunity for expansion became limited, the individualistic spirit persisted. For example, it is reflected in the American Dream-a belief that, with hard work and talent, anyone has a chance to succeed (Hochschild, 1995;Spence, 1985). Such a focus on self-orientation aimed at achieving higher status likely contributes to the present pattern found among Frontier cultures. ...
Article
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Current theorizing on socioeconomic status (SES) focuses on the availability of resources and the freedom they afford as a key determinant of the association between high SES and stronger orientation toward the self and, by implication, weaker orientation toward others. However, this work relies nearly exclusively on data from Western countries where self-orientation is strongly sanctioned. In the present work, we predicted and found that especially in East Asian countries, where other-orientation is strongly sanctioned, high SES is associated with stronger other-orientation as well as with self-orientation. We first examined both psychological attributes (Study 1, N = 2,832) and socialization values (Study 2a, N = 4,675) in Japan and the United States. In line with the existent evidence, SES was associated with greater self-oriented psychological attributes and socialization values in both the U.S. and Japan. Importantly, however, higher SES was associated with greater other orientation in Japan, whereas this association was weaker or even reversed in the United States. Study 2b (N = 85,296) indicated that the positive association between SES and self-orientation is found, overall, across 60 nations. Further, Study 2b showed that the positive association between SES and other-orientation in Japan can be generalized to other Confucian cultures, whereas the negative association between SES and other-orientation in the U.S. can be generalized to other Frontier cultures. Implications of the current findings for modernization and globalization are discussed.
... Hence, there is a great degree of overlap between individualism and collectivism as personal traits and as cultural dimensions. People in collectivist cultures, compared with people in individualist cultures, are likely to define themselves as aspects of groups, to give priority to in-group goals, to focus on context more than the content in making attributions and in communicating, to pay less attention to internal than to external processes as determinants of social behavior, to define most relationships with in group members as communal, to make more situational attributions, and tend to be self-effacing (Hofstede, 1980;Spence, 1985;Wagner & Moch, 1986;Hui, 1988;Sampson, 1988;Wheeler, Reis, & Bond, 1989;Schwartz, 1990;Triandis & Gelfand, 1998;Triandis, 2001;Finkelstein, 2010). ...
Article
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We explore the impact of gender, individualism–collectivism on individual’s propensity to trust. The study draws on data from three groups of individuals in the United Arab Emirates: students; ( n =370); small business owners/operators ( n =324), and employed individuals ( n =376). Three main hypotheses are tested. We develop and explore three main hypotheses. Statistical results reveal that females are generally more collectivist and less trusting than their males counterparts. Further analysis revealed that small business/operators are generally more trusting than the other cohorts of respondents. Propensity to trust was also found to be strongly associated with collectivist (rather than individualist) aspirations. Implications for future research and management practice are discussed.
... Different factors intervening in the broadening of the horizon Gadamer (1975) claims that precognition is the basis of any knowledge; knowledge is an interpretation always embedded in a lived tradition. According to this view, the effort to reach an objective knowledge, a-historical, free from values, is not only impossible but also flawed.Today a postmodern hermeneutic exists and shows that there are cultural values that penetrate it from every side, despite the efforts of psychology to be neutral and objective (Christopher, 1999;Christopher, Christopher & Dunnagan, 2000;Cirillo & Wapner, 1986;Cushman, 1995a;Hogan, 1975;Kirschner, 1996;Richardson, Fowers, & Guignon, 1999;Sampson, 1977Sampson, , 1988Spence, 1985;Woolfolk, 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
... Different factors intervening in the broadening of the horizon Gadamer (1975) claims that precognition is the basis of any knowledge; knowledge is an interpretation always embedded in a lived tradition. According to this view, the effort to reach an objective knowledge, a-historical, free from values, is not only impossible but also flawed.Today a postmodern hermeneutic exists and shows that there are cultural values that penetrate it from every side, despite the efforts of psychology to be neutral and objective (Christopher, 1999;Christopher, Christopher & Dunnagan, 2000;Cirillo & Wapner, 1986;Cushman, 1995a;Hogan, 1975;Kirschner, 1996;Richardson, Fowers, & Guignon, 1999;Sampson, 1977Sampson, , 1988Spence, 1985;Woolfolk, 1998). ...
Article
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This article was originally published in Italian as 'La base empirica della medicina alla ricerca di umanità e una psicoterapia naturalistica alla ricerca delle sue radici ermeneutiche' in: "Psicologia Psicoterapia e Salute" 2006, Vol.12, No. 1, 1 – 30. The IFREP-93' review. This translation appears with the kind permission of IFREP-93.
... Allport (1968) suggests that 'as an attempt to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviours of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others' which indicated that the group and cultural levels of analysis were not considered. Then the following scholars adopted that the individual should be the basic unit of analysis (Hogan, 1975;Pepitone, 1976;Sampson, 1977;Spence, 1985). As a result, either individual or group levels of analysis were neglected in that area (Pepitone, 1976;Sampson, 1977). ...
Article
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Open innovation can motivate individualism through increasing individual creativeness. And Individualism motivates open innovation through individual emergence (see Figure 1). Contrary to this, collectivism reduces the complexity which was motivated by open innovation. But, open innovation decreases collectivism through diverse emergence. Innovation of start-ups and firms in value chain is based on the active interaction between collectivism and individualism through open innovation by value chain firms.
... Collectivism and individualism may be regarded as two separate constructs and exist as tendencies within all societies and individuals. Spence (1985) found a positive relationship between individualism and the need for achievement. He suggests that http://dx.doi.org/10. ...
Article
Individualism versus collectivism as an aspect of culture and extraversion as an aspect of personality may help explain self-presentation attitudes, intentions, and behaviors on social networking sites. Thus, this study aims to investigate the individual differences and relationships among individualism versus collectivism, extraversion, and self-presentation attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. The Individualism-Collectivism Scale and the Big Five Personality Scale were used to collect the data from 311 college students (75.9% woman, mean age = 20.68). Results show that individualism has a significant positive correlation with extraversion, which has a significant correlation with selfie posting attitudes, intentions and behaviors. Even though the correlation between individualism and attitudes toward self-presentation was statistically significant, the magnitude of the association was small.
... For example, individualistic nations often support the view that each person "is an entity separate from every other and from the group, and is endowed with natural rights"….including the right to privacy (Spence, 1985(Spence, , p. 1288. In contrast, when people emphasize collectivism they typically use the group as the unit of analysis in social relationships, and value interdependence, security, and personalized relationships (Markus & Kitayama 1991;Triandis, 1994). ...
Chapter
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This chapter considers two key social issues associated with the widespread use of Internet-based work: the digital divide, and the extent to which it invades personal privacy. It discusses the results of research on these issues and offers suggestions for future research and practice on the topics. The chapter considers the limited research on national differences in the digital divide. It provides a brief review of the research on gender and racial/ ethnic differences. The chapter also provides a brief review of the research on the factors that affect individuals’ perceptions of invasion of privacy in the employment process. It reveals that there are growing concerns about the extent to which the increased use of the Internet violates applicants’ and employees’ perceived rights to privacy. The chapter also reviews the existing theory and research on privacy to discover the potential factors that affect perceptions of invasion of privacy.
Article
This study addressed the cross-cultural validation of the Chinese Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (CMRQ) in a sample of 522 seventh to ninth graders from two public schools in eastern China. Confirmatory factor analyses, item-total correlation analyses, and reliability analyses were conducted to assess the psychometric quality of the CMRQ. The results indicated that the three-factor model for the competence beliefs scale, the six-factor model for the goals for reading scale, and the two-factor model for the social motivation scale fit the data properly. All subscales showed good levels of internal consistency reliabilities, ranging from .71 to .86. The concurrent validity of the CMRQ was supported by significant correlations among subscales with reading attitudes. Students scored the highest on intrinsic motivation, followed by social motivation, competence beliefs, and then extrinsic motivation. The findings further confirmed the existence of several distinguishable dimensions of reading motivation. Finally, implications for literacy research and instruction were discussed.
Article
A survey of the patterns of absenteeism among clerical staff working in twenty-seven medical record departments in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory revealed that there was not a significant relationship between the bed size of the hospital (the organisation) and absenteeism, or between the medical record department (the work unit) and absenteeism. Absenteeism was defined as a day of sick leave without a medical certificate. Absenteeism was spread throughout the weekdays, and 56 percent of workers had at least one absent day during the period. Age and type of work were not associated with absenteeism, but males had a significantly higher rate than females (p < 0.001). The authors suggest that exchange theory rather than work unit size may better explain absenteeism. (AMRJ 1989, 19(1), 63–70).
Chapter
This chapter describes entrepreneurship as a basic concept of economic activity, as it is thoroughly addressed by three main schools of thought. After that, the analysis endeavors to explain business failures and its possible causes as well as referring to individuals’ motives for pursuing entrepreneurship and how they thus shape business culture. Also, this chapter refers to business decision-making under uncertainty and how traditional methods of measuring uncertainty are considered inadequate as tools for predicting future situations. Finally, it is clarified that entrepreneurship is not to be confused with creativity or innovation.
Article
This article examines characteristics of stories in self-improvement books and the values they promote. The analysis of 36 stories from four self-improvement books shows that they are used to illustrate advice. By focusing on grammatical features (e.g., personal pronoun you , interrogative clauses) in the story components (e.g., evaluation, coda), my study shows that these stories promote the idea that individuals, as the primary agent, are responsible for improving their lives (i.e., happier and more fulfilled lives). A study of the coda components also shows that human beings are viewed as having the ability and freedom to choose to improve their status quo. My study shows that stories in self-improvement books are a resource for promoting values.
Article
Much attention has focused on the social, institutional, and mobilization factors that influence political participation, with a renewed interest in psychological motivations. One trait that has a deep theoretical connection to participation, but remains underexplored, is narcissism. Relying on three studies in the United States and Denmark, two nationally representative, we find that those scoring higher in narcissism, as measured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory–40 (NPI-40), participate more in politics, including contacting politicians, signing petitions, joining demonstrations, donating money, and voting in midterm elections. Both agentic and antagonistic components of narcissism were positively and negatively related to different types of political participation when exploring the subfactors independently. Superiority and Authority/Leadership were positively related to participation, while Self Sufficiency was negatively related to participation. In addition, the combined Entitlement/Exploitativeness factor was negatively related to turnout, but only in midterm elections. Overall, the findings support a view of participation that arises in part from instrumental motivations.
Research
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This dissertation study assessed ethnic identity in adults of Indian origin through Culturally Centered Music & Imagery (CCMI), an arts-based, psychotherapeutic technique. The purpose was to examine how Indian music, in the context of CCMI, could evoke identity-based imagery and assess Indian identity in a globalized context. Five Indian men and women participated in CCMI sessions, and the qualitative methodology of portraiture was used in this study. The results provide support for the cultural or ethnic unconscious and suggest the potential for CCMI to access this internal, collective space. Results also indicate that CCMI may be used in a clinical and non-clinical context to help men and women from the Indian Diaspora to gain awareness of their ethnic unconscious and understand how it impacts their external life. The research also suggests that CCMI may be effective in assessing and emotionally and psychologically supporting adults who are going through the process of immigration or acculturation.
Chapter
A barrier to innovation in education is the perception that cultural practices are an inherent hindrance to new modes of learning. There is extensive research dedicated to understanding how culture strongly influences how individuals approach education and societies’ acceptance of innovative practices. Building on this literature, the purpose of this chapter is to illuminate how ethnocentrism has served as a barrier to important education innovations in Asian contexts. The chapter shows how the flipped instructional model and team-based learning can be adopted as innovative pedagogic approaches for students from Confucian Heritage Culture traditions. The author finds that traditional cultural values could positively influence pedagogic goal achievements, disputing the view that culture is a barrier to new pedagogic practice for effective learning.
Article
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This study assessed ethnic identity in adults of Indian origin through Culturally Centered Music & Imagery (CCMI), a music-centered, psychotherapeutic technique that emphasizes socio-cultural context, identity and meaning. The purpose was to examine how participants' native music, in the context of CCMI, could evoke identity-based imagery and assess ethnic identity in a globalized context. Five cisgender Indian men and women from Hindu backgrounds participated in one CCMI session each, including an interview and follow up discussions. The qualitative methodology of portraiture (Lawrence-Lightfoot, 1997) was used in this study. The results reveal how CCMI can access the cultural and ethnic unconscious, a relatively new area of consciousness in Jungian and GIM paradigms. The study also shows how CCMI can highlight the fluid and multiple nature of ethnic identity, revealing its intersection with other identities such as gender, sexual orientation, caste and religion. In addition, the data support the use of contextual and identity-based music selections in assisting participants to explore, recreate or gain a deeper understanding of their ethnic identity through image and metaphor. Major findings include new categories of ethnic identity such as Aesthetic, Ancestral, Philosophical, Mythological, Spiritual and Core Indian identities. Subthemes include experiences of Rebirth, Disconnection, Unconscious Divide, as well as other socio-cultural identities such as Kaleidoscopic, World Citizen and Global Nomad. These and other themes relate to American, global, spiritual, queer, socioeconomic , caste, gendered, and individual contexts. The research also suggests that this technique may be effective in emotionally and psychologically supporting adults who are going through the process of immigration or acculturation.
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An examination of the differences between collectivists (those who view themselves primarily as part of a whole, and who are motivated by the norms and duties imposed by the collective entity) and individualists (those who are motivated by their own preferences and needs).
Article
This case study focuses on the Cincinnati Enquirer’s coverage of the heroin epidemic. The Enquirer started the first heroin beat in January 2016, and it could serve as a model for other news organizations. Reporters used combinations of episodic, thematic, public health, and crime and law enforcement frames in their coverage. These news frames are discussed in terms of how individualism–collectivism, geographic location, available resources, and social determinants inform journalistic and societal discussions of the heroin epidemic in terms of solutions instead of responsibility or blame.
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