mRNA levels of TLR4 and TLR5 are independent of H pylori

Departmento de Microbiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Madero y Dr. Aguirre s/n, Colonia Mitras Centro, Monterrey 64460, Mexico.
World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 10/2008; 14(34):5306-10.
Source: PubMed


To determine if the presence H pylori or its virulence affect toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR5 mRNA expression levels.
For the in vivo assays, gastric biopsies were obtained from 40 patients and H pylori status was determined. For the in vitro assays, human gastric adenocarcinoma mucosal cells (AGS) were cultured in the presence or absence of twelve selected H pylori strains. H pylori strains isolated from culture-positive patients and selected strains were genotyped for cagA and vacA. The cDNA was obtained from mRNA extracted from biopsies and from infected AGS cells. TLR4 and TLR5 mRNA levels were examined by real-time PCR.
The presence of H pylori did not affect the mRNA levels of TLR4 or TLR5 in gastric biopsies. The mRNA levels of both receptors were not influenced by the vacA status (P > 0.05 for both receptors) and there were no differences in TLR4 or TLR5 mRNA levels among the different clinical presentations/histological findings (P > 0.05). In the in vitro assay, the mRNA levels of TLR4 or TLR5 in AGS cells were not influenced by the vacAs1 status or the clinical condition associated with the strains (P > 0.05 for both TLR4 and TLR5).
The results of this study show that the mRNA levels of TLR4 and TLR5 in gastric cells, both in vivo and in vitro, are independent of H pylori colonization and suggest that vacA may not be a significant player in the first step of innate immune recognition mediated by TLR4 or TLR5.

Download full-text


Available from: Virgilio Bocanegra-Garcia, Mar 24, 2014
  • Source
    • "It has been observed that H. pylori vacA s1/m1 strains produce high levels of the cytotoxin, strains s1/m2 produce moderate levels, and strains s2/m2 produce little or no toxin [7,9]. The vacA s1 subtype is related to higher disease severity and a higher risk of developing ulcers and stomach cancer [5,6,10]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The association between proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms and gastric diseases related to Helicobacter pylori varies by population and geographic area.Our objective was to determine if the IL-1B -511 T>C and -31 C>T polymorphisms and H. pylori vacA genotypes are associated with risk of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer in a Mexican population. We conducted endoscopic studies in 128 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia. We took two biopsies from the body, antrum, or ulcer edge from each patient, and classified our histopathological findings according to the Sydney System. H. pylori infection and vacA genotyping were accomplished via PCR from total DNA of the gastric biopsies. We confirmed the presence of anti-H. pylori serum IgG and IgM in 102 control subjects. In both case subjects and control subjects, the IL-1B -511 T>C polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-RFLPs and the IL-1B -31 C>T polymorphism was genotyped by pyrosequencing. Sixty-two point seven (62.7%) of the 102 control subjects were H. pylori-seropositive. Among the case subjects, 100 were diagnosed with chronic gastritis and 28 with gastric ulcer. We found that 77% of the patients with chronic gastritis and 85.7% of the patients with gastric ulcer were H. pylori-positive. The predominant H. pylori genotype was vacA s1m1 (58.4%) and the most frequent subtype was vacA s1. The -511 TC, (rs16944 -511 T>C) genotype and the -511C allele were associated with chronic gastritis (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.4-6.8 and OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.0, respectively). The subjects carrying -31T (rs1143627 -31 C>T) were found to be at a higher risk of having chronic gastritis (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3-5.8). The IL-1B -511C/-31T haplotype was associated with chronic gastritis (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.8) but not with gastric ulcer. The H. pylori vacA genotypes identified herein were similar to those reported for other regions of Mexico. The vacA s1m1 genotype was not associated with gastric ulcer. In the southern Mexican population, the IL-1B -511C and -31T alleles and the -511C/-31T and -511T/-31T haplotypes are associated with increased risk of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · BMC Gastroenterology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori infection is thought to be involved in the development of several gastric diseases. Two H. pylori virulence factors (vacuolating cytotoxin A and cytotoxin-associated gene A) reportedly interact with lipid rafts in gastric epithelial cells. The role of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling in response to H. pylori infection has been investigated extensively in host cells. However, the receptor molecules in lipid rafts that are involved in H. pylori-induced innate sensing have not been well characterized. This study investigated whether lipid rafts play a role in H. pylori-induced ceramide secretion and TLR4 expression and thereby contribute to inflammation in gastric epithelial cells. We observed that both TLR4 and MD-2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in H. pylori-infected AGS cells than in mock-infected cells. Moreover, significantly more TLR4 protein was detected in detergent-resistant membranes extracted from H. pylori-infected AGS cells than in those extracted from mock-infected cells. However, this effect was attenuated by the treatment of cells with cholesterol-usurping agents, suggesting that H. pylori-induced TLR4 signaling is dependent on cholesterol-rich microdomains. Similarly, the level of cellular ceramide was elevated and ceramide was translocated into lipid rafts after H. pylori infection, leading to interleukin-8 (IL-8) production. Using the sphingomyelinase inhibitor imipramine, we observed that H. pylori-induced TLR4 expression was ceramide dependent. These results indicate the mobilization of ceramide and TLR4 into lipid rafts by H. pylori infection in response to inflammation in gastric epithelial cells.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Infection and immunity
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the most common bacterial infection worldwide. Persistent infection of the gastric mucosa leads to inflammatory processes and may remain silent for decades or progress causing more severe diseases, such as gastric adenocarcinoma. The clinical consequences of H. pylori infection are determined by multiple factors, including host genetic predisposition, gene regulation, environmental factors and heterogeneity of H. pylori virulence factors. After decades of studies of this successful relationship between pathogen and human host, various mechanisms have been elucidated. In this review, we have made an introduction on H. pylori infection and its virulence factors, and focused mainly on modulation of host immune response triggered by bacteria, changes in the pattern of gene expression in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, with activation of gene transcription involved in defense mechanisms, inflammatory and immunological response, cell proliferation and apoptosis. We also highlighted the role of bacteria eradication on gene expression levels. In addition, we addressed the recent involvement of different microRNAs in precancerous lesions, gastric cancer, and inflammatory processes induced by bacteria. New discoveries in this field may allow a better understanding of the role of major factors involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of H. pylori.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
Show more