Article

Neural Stem Cells Confer Unique Pinwheel Architecture to the Ventricular Surface in Neurogenic Regions of the Adult Brain

Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
Cell stem cell (Impact Factor: 22.27). 10/2008; 3(3):265-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Neural stem cells (NSCs, B1 cells) are retained in the walls of the adult lateral ventricles but, unlike embryonic NSCs, are displaced from the ventricular zone (VZ) into the subventricular zone (SVZ) by ependymal cells. Apical and basal compartments, which in embryonic NSCs play essential roles in self-renewal and differentiation, are not evident in adult NSCs. Here we show that SVZ B1 cells in adult mice extend a minute apical ending to directly contact the ventricle and a long basal process ending on blood vessels. A closer look at the ventricular surface reveals a striking pinwheel organization specific to regions of adult neurogenesis. The pinwheel's core contains the apical endings of B1 cells and in its periphery two types of ependymal cells: multiciliated (E1) and a type (E2) characterized by only two cilia and extraordinarily complex basal bodies. These results reveal that adult NSCs retain fundamental epithelial properties, including apical and basal compartmentalization, significantly reshaping our understanding of this adult neurogenic niche.

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    • "The CP also secretes Slit2, the critical molecule in guiding NSPCs' migration in the SVZ, into the CSF (Hu 1999;Wu et al., 1999). The type-B cells in the SVZ extend their primary cilium into the ventricle space and thus are in direct contact with the CSF (Gil-Perotin et al., 2009;Han et al.,Ming and Song, 2005;Mirzadeh et al., 2008). Considering the unique anatomical connection between the CP and SVZ through the CSF, we propose that there is a " CP-CSF-SVZ " epithelia-ventricle-interactive lineage axis. "
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    • "nd differentiation capacities . Radial glial NSCs—the so - called type B cells—extend an apical ending that is exposed to the ventricle and possess a long basal process ending on blood vessels ( Mirzadeh et al . , 2010 ) . These cells are surrounded by multiple ependymal cells ( type E cells ) forming pinwheel structures on the ventricle surface ( Mirzadeh et al . , 2008 ) . Type B cells divide slowly to generate transit - amplifying type C cells , which proliferate actively and further differentiate into neuroblasts also named type A cells . Finally , these cells form chains and migrate over long distances toward the olfactory bulb ( OB ) , via the rostral migratory stream ( RMS ) . In the OB , neurobl"
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    • "Recent studies indicate the importance of astrocyte-like cells and tanycyte-like ependymal cells lining the brain ventricle for neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Astrocyte-like B1 NSCs in the subependymal zone of the SVZ are surrounded by ependymal cells to form a unique rosette or pinwheel-like structure (Mirzadeh et al. 2008). Spatial association of NSCs and ependymal cells provides a special micro-environment niche for mitosis of NSCs that is characterized by expression of collagen IV, β1 and γ1 laminin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, and matrix metalloprotease (Kerever et al. et al. 2006). "
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