15-Lipoxygenase-1 activates tumor suppressor p53 independent of enzymatic activity

Eicosanoid Biochemistry Section, Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.09). 12/2008; 123(12):2741-9. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.23855
Source: PubMed


15-LOX-1 and its metabolites are involved in colorectal cancer. Recently, we reported that 15-LOX-1 overexpression in HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells inhibited cell growth by induction of p53 phosphorylation (4). To determine whether the 15-LOX-1 protein or its metabolites are responsible for phosphorylation of p53 in HCT-116 cells, we used HCT-116 cells that expressed a mutant 15-LOX-1. The mutant 15-LOX-1 enzyme, with a substitution of Leu at residue His361, was devoid of enzymatic activity. HCT-116 cells transiently transfected with either native or mutant 15-LOX-1 showed an increase in p53 phosphorylation and an increase in the expression of downstream genes. Thus, 15-LOX-1 induces p53 phosphorylation independent of enzymatic activity. Treatment of A549 human lung carcinoma cells with IL-4 increased the expression of 15-LOX-1 and also increased the expression of downstream targets of p53. This confirmed that the activation of p53 was also observed in wild-type cells expressing physiological 15-LOX-1. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that 15-LOX-1 interacts with, and binds to, DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). The binding of 15-LOX-1 to DNA-PK caused an approximate 3.0-fold enhancement in kinase activity, resulting in increased p53 phosphorylation at Ser15. Knockdown of DNA-PK by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced p53 phosphorylation. Furthermore, confocal microscopy demonstrated a colocalization of 15-LOX and DNA-PK in the cells. We propose that the 15-LOX-1 protein binds to DNA-PK, increasing its kinase activity and results in downstream activation of the tumor suppressor p53, thus revealing a new mechanism by which lipoxygenases (LOX) may influence the phenotype of tumor cells.

Download full-text


Available from: John D Roberts, Dec 16, 2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is often lethal when invasion and/or metastasis occur. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1), a member of the inflammatory eicosanoid pathway, oxidatively metabolizes linoleic acid and its expression is repressed in CRC. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that the lack of 15-LO-1 expression in CRC cells might contribute to tumorigenesis. Therefore we introduced 15-LO-1 into HCT-116 and HT-29 cells that do not have detectable levels of 15-LO-1. Our data indicate that expression of 15-LO-1 significantly decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. In addition, we observed a reduction in adhesion to fibronectin, anchorage-independent growth on soft agar, cellular motility and ability to heal a scratch wound, and migratory and invasive capacity across Matrigel. 15-LO-1 expression also reduced the expression of metastasis associated protein-1, a part of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase silencing complex. We propose that 15-LO-1 expression in CRC might contribute to the inhibition of metastatic capacity in vitro and can be exploited for therapeutic purposes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Cancer Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, like lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX), are significant in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Of these enzymes, 15-LOX-1 is expressed in colon. Aim of this article is to describe the role and regulation of 15-LOX-1 in colorectal cancer and highlight its importance in cancer therapeutics. For our electronic literature research in PubMed and MEDLINE, key words related to 15-LOX-1 and colorectal cancer were used to find articles for this review. From the evidences, we believe that 15-LOX-1 has anti-carcinogenic effects in colorectal cancer, dependent or independent of its metabolites, and is manifested through downstream pathways involving cGMP, PPAR, p53, p21 and NAG-1, increasing apoptosis and decreasing proliferation in cancer cells. Regulation of 15-LOX-1 expression is achieved at transcription level by global histone acetylation and may also be dependent on GATA-6, IL-4 and IL-13. Positive relationship exists between 15-LOX-1 and survival in colorectal cancer. Evidences strongly support that therapeutic modulation of 15-LOX-1 may be a key to the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, it is still undecided whether the up-regulation of 15-LOX-1 alone can be sufficient to treat colorectal cancer and further studies are awaited.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Tumor Biology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Different evidence supports a functional role of enzymes involved in lipid metabolic pathways, such as lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolite derivatives, in carcinogenesis. LOX enzymes catalyze the dioxygenation of arachidonic acid into hydroxyperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids, which is followed by their conversion to their corresponding eicosanoids as hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, leukotrienes, lipoxins and hepoxilins, which in turn act as cellular messengers. Subcellular LOX enzyme localization varies according to the LOX and cellular type regulating different cell functions. LOX enzymes or their products may exert their biological effects in different modes, either intracellular or in other cells. Numerous clinical studies on expression of LOXs in human tumors as well as in animal models indicate different roles of distinct LOX isoforms in carcinogenesis. In fact, different LOXs exhibit either protumorigenic or antitumorigenic activities and modulate the tumor response in a tissue-specific manner. Moreover, the LOX pathways are involved in the spread and metastasis of several cancers, including pancreas, through the activation of several cellular signaling pathways which modify gene expression affecting cellular proliferation, survival, migration and extracellular matrix production. In this review we focus on the important role and different mechanisms of action of LOX pathways in the regulation of pancreatic cancer initiation and progression. A novel approach for pancreatic cancer chemoprevention would involve targeting LOX activities, alone or in combination with other pathways as a major anticancer strategy.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Pancreatology
Show more