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Television and the American Child

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Abstract

Intended to emphasize that, in many aspects, the evidence from the social and behavioral sciences on television and children is particularly pertinent to American children. Most of this research has been done in the US. For example, fewer than 5% of the 230 empirical studies of the effects of exposure to antisocial or prosocial television portrayals encompassed in a meta-analysis were done outside the US. The television that enters into the paradigm, then, has been American television, just as the persons under scrutiny have been American. There is thus a control for cultural differentiation, imposed by the sites of inquiry, that makes the available data particularly pertinent and interpretable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Use of interactive media steadily increases from very low levels during infancy to relatively high levels during early adolescence. At all ages there are great individual differences in reported use of media, with some children spending little or no time with media and others watching TV and using interactive media more than 60 hours per week (for reviews and examples of these studies, see Comstock & Paik, 1991;Neuman, 1995;Rideout, 2011Rideout, , 2013Rideout, Foehr & Roberts, 2010;Rideout & Hamel, 2006). ...
... The typical finding from simple correlational studies of media time with achievement is a curvilinear, inverted-U-shaped function with higher achievement at moderate levels of media consumption (usually 1 to 2 hours per day) and lower achievement at either low or high levels of media consumption (for reviews, see Comstock & Paik, 1991;Neuman, 1995). ...
... When these factors are taken into account, the association between media-use time and educational achievement changes, and when many of these are statistically controlled, the association is often null. For example, Comstock and Paik (1991) examined results from a yearly assessment of achievement conducted in California. They noted that among children from lower-SES families, the association was positive, that is, the more the children watched TV, the better they did in school; conversely, among high-SES children, the association was negative. ...
... As compared to children of higher socio-economic status and intellectual ability, those with lower socioeconomic status and intellectual abilitywatch more television and witness more television violence most probably due to various reasons including disappointment with social norms, entertainment and other tasks requiring more intellectual interest and effort. Parents' television habits and child rearing practices influence a child's television habits (Comstock and Paik, 1991). Such parenting factors as harsh punishment, rejectionof the child, and lack of discipline also contribute to the child's aggression (Tremblay, 2000). ...
... Such parenting factors as harsh punishment, rejectionof the child, and lack of discipline also contribute to the child's aggression (Tremblay, 2000). AlthoughComstock and Paik (1991) reported that children in lower socio-economic status viewed more television and consumed moretelevision violence on the average than did children in higher socio-economic status,Huesmann and his colleagues (2002) emphasized that the connection between the socio-economic status and television viewing did not provide an explanation for the general relationship between viewing media violence and criminal behaviours of young adults. Huesmann and Taylor (2006), on the other hand, affirmed that children in lower socio-economic status were more likely to behave aggressively in adulthood as they had been more exposed to media violence in childhood. ...
... Most research on the impact of media violence on violent and aggressive behavior has focused on violence in fictional television and film. This is not surprising given the prominence of violent content in these media and the prominence of television and film in modern life-children in the United States spend an average of between three and four hours per day viewing television (34). The accumulated body of research is consistent and clear-television violence causes an increase in violent and aggressive behavior. ...
... The effect of media violence on aggression is essentially the same for low-and high-socioeconomic status (SES) children. Low-SES children on average watch more television and television violence than do high-SES children (34), but the SES link to television viewing does not account for the overall association between viewing media violence and perpetrating aggression among youth (57). However, the generally high dose of media violence given to low-SES children is yet another risk factor for adulthood violence in this population. ...
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In recent decades, there has been remarkable growth in scholarship examining the usefulness of community-engaged research (CEnR) and community-based participatory research (CBPR) for eliminating health inequities. This article seeks to synthesize the extant literature of systematic reviews, scoping reviews, and other related reviews regarding the context, processes, and research designs and interventions underlying CEnR that optimize its effectiveness. Through a scoping review, we have utilized an empirically derived framework of CBPR to map this literature and identify key findings and priorities for future research. Our study found 100 reviews of CEnR that largely support the CBPR conceptual framework. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 41 is April 1, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Strange & Leung (1999) and Jordan & Page (1992) argued that public opinion and public policies are greatly affected by the news reports presented in print and electronic media. Comstock (1991) stated that three to four hours duration on daily basis is spend by the children in the United States watching television. Violent and aggressive behaviour is also increases by television violence. ...
Article
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The study examines the role of mass media in promotion of mob violence in cities. Data was collected from a sample of 384 respondents from two major urban cities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa through a structured interview schedule based on Likert Scale. A Chi- Square test was applied to ascertain association between mass media and mob violence. The non�identification of mob violent perpetrator by mass media was found significantly associated (p=.016) with mob violence while emphasis of media on sensitive issue has shown a non�significant association (p=.080) with mob violence. Mass media can both; positively and negatively, influence the intensity of mob violence. Media should play its positive role of investigative journalism in the prevention of mob violence in the society.
... Como forma de manejar tensiones debido a las consecuencias positivas de diferente índole (sociales, psicológicas) que obtienen con la situación de maltrato (Caurcel y Almeida, 2008), algunos agresores la describen diciendo "me siento bien haciéndolo" (6.2%) o "me gusta" (8.6%). Comstock y Paik (1991) apuntan la existencia en el adolescente de un estado de excitación no resuelta, como desahogo emocional, resultado de innumerables tensiones, contradicciones y ansiedades; como una vía de expresión y de intensificar sus vivencias personales y así reducir las tensiones. El gusto por la violencia proporciona, en una perspectiva de lo inmediato y de lo no racional, sensación de calor, pasión y adrenalina (Pérez y Tropea, 1996). ...
Article
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The objective of the presented research was to explore the causal attributions made by students and employees at middle school, regarding mistreatment among equals. Data were obtained through self-reports, with a section of open-ended questions. The results reveal a pattern of attributions that show elements that concern only each actor, and other elements that are shared and accepted by most of the students and employees at the school. This leads us, in the first case, to various explanations of mistreatment among equals, according to their experience; and in the second case, to the operation of deeply rooted beliefs that can generate a series of consequences in the educational community.
... Moreover, the weakening of the old socializing social institutions such as the family (Popenoe, 2008) and the community (Young, 1990) make the media a powerful socializing agent. Conway et al. (1981) found, for example, that exposure to news and political knowledge determines political attitudes to a much greater extent to other influences such as parents, gender, or education (see also Comstock & Paik, 1991;Scheufele & Nisbet, 2002). ...
Book
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Self-censorship in contexts of conflict: Theory and research
... The content of the watched programs is more significant than watching time. For example watching of learning programs (such as the "Sesame Street") tends to influence positively on language and cognition development [16,32,33,36] and school achievement [7,66]. The studies suggest that computer learning games may positively affect visual spatial and spatial reasoning skills, reaction time and multitasking [13,37,42,43,70]. ...
Conference Paper
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In this study authors examined the relationships between preschoolers’ usage of digital technologies and their social competence. Previous research has shown that there aren’t many connections between children’s ICT using and their social competence. Social competence was measured through three types of a source of information (children, parents, kindergarten teachers). The impact of two independent variables (gender and engagement if ICT usage) on social competence of preschoolers was considered. The findings revealed impact of gender on children’s social competence’s development regarding their engagement in ICT usage.
... Moreover, the weakening of the old socializing social institutions such as the family (Popenoe, 2008), and the community (Young, 1990) make the media to be a powerful socializing agent. Conway et al. (1981) found for example that exposure to news and political knowledge determines political attitudes to a much greater extent to other influences such as parents, gender, or education (see also Comstock & Paik 1991;Scheufele & Nisbet, 2002). ...
Chapter
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This chapter describes the characteristics of self-censorship in the media with regard to narratives of political violence. It first reviews state and media self-censorship, then presents a broad theoretical aspect of the central social functions of the media in modern states, and also shows the close relationships between the state and the media. However, the focus of this chapter is on the widespread use of self-censorship by journalists. It elaborates the factors and motivations for using self-censorship and the manifestations and consequences of this practice.
... Television Moreover, it has been suggested by some media scholars that one thing that children and teenagers do learn from television from the early window is gender or sex roles. For instance, Comstock ( 1991) through decades of research on children's sex role socialisation concluded that a "modest but positive association" exists between children's exposure to television and the holding of traditional notions and beliefs of gender and sex roles. "Portrayals in television and other media of highly attractive persons may encourage dissatisfaction or lowered evaluations of the attractiveness of those of the pertinent sex in real life" (Comstock, 1991 , p. 176). ...
Article
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Television has evolved into a potent force in the transmission of social values and norms in a civilised society. Moreover, there are TV stations that have emerged with specialised programming in entertainment, called entertainment television. This study, sought to find out the frequency of teenagers' exposure to entertainment TV; the kinds of entertainment programmes they watch; what they pay attention to in the programmes they watch; and how the entertainment programmes shape their social behaviours. The results show that teenagers frequently watched entertainment TV as represented by 81.9% of them who indicated so. It was also evident that there was a significant relationship between teenagers frequency of exposure to entertainment television programmes, and their role in shaping their social behaviour. It was also noted that the influence of the programmes on the teenagers could be negative or positive depending on the individual teenager and the kind of programme he or she is frequently exposed to.
... The study revealed that 10% of the students were seeking counseling for such symptoms as anxiety, being afraid to be alone, nightmares, withdrawal, and even violence 35 . It has been demonstrated that there is a positive statistical relation between aggression and television violence 36,37 . A review over two hundred studies on age groups showed a relation between aggressive behavior and viewing television violence, regardless of age 38 . ...
Article
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No one can deny the effect of modernization on different aspects of people` life. Education, communication and even social relationship have undergone different changes. Meanwhile, adolescents are the most vulnerable group suffering from negative effects of modernization. The models of adaptation have changed greatly under the influence of modernization and social relationships have paved the way of anomaly. What is more important is that adolescent preferred to have electronic entertainment and online teaching which help to make them more isolated. The role of family has been stressed by some theories but the models of prediction and remedy are very difficult to assess. Challenges of adaptation and coping in interpersonal and social relationship are of great priority for adolescents while the rapid change of modernization, on the other hand, may counterbalance all the efforts to make a balance. While many authors believe modernization must be used to solve the problems it brings about, this paper reveals and discusses the hidden points of modernization impact on social life and especially on adolescents and proposes some models to modify the abnormalities created.
... The children were from 3 rd to 5 th grade (ages 7-12 years old), as this was a requirement for eligibility. This was the target age group selected because children can understand the implications of assenting to participate in research, including what is expected of them by age 7 (Conrad & Horner, 1997;Lowes, 1996), and the majority of children demonstrate the ability to understand the persuasive intent of commercials around age 8 (Blosser & Roberts, 1985;Chan, 2001;Comstock & Paik, 1991;Donohue, Henke, & Donohue, 1980;Lawlor & Prothero, 2002;Oates, Blades, & Gunter, 2011). Also, the range of ages needed to be close enough so that they were developmentally at a similar level. ...
... Indeed, violence that is depicted as being justifi ed is one of the most strongly reinforcing elements in whether it will be learned or imitated (see Paik & Comstock, 1994). According to Comstock (1991), key factors that determine how violence will be interpreted by viewers include effi cacy , or whether violence results in the achievement of desired goals, and normativeness , or whether the violence is portrayed as socially acceptable. Both of these factors are highlighted in most action-adventure programs that feature superheroes. ...
... Children of poverty watch television, and television is one clear route of educational intervention. Although television may be of little educational value to advantaged children, the evidence is that television viewing is associated with increased achievement for low-income children (e.g., Comstock & Paik, 1991). Educational television that is specifically designed to educate children who have fewer outside resources and activities is successful in better preparing them for school (Zill, 2001). ...
... Their findings showed that children under the ages of four and five are unable to distinguish between the adverts showed in the program from and the other programs. They are unable to recognise that people are trying to sell them things (Comstock, 1991.) All the above is further increased by the goal of the marketing focused on children, namely that children are able to identify and differentiate the products based on brand/logos as soon as possible. ...
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Nowadays children face lots of slogans every single day. A good slogan generates feelings. Of course these feelings, brand names and slogans can be placed in mind of children by marketing experts. The remember rate of slogans is shockingly high, higher than is case of their parents. We can state that well-placed slogans play a very important role in influencing of children. All of these contribute to the development of brand loyalty, which – if it develops during childhood – can last an entire lifetime. My primary research (sample size is 1222 children) shows the remember rate of slogans and brand names in case of different foods with high level of fat-, sugar-and/or salt content.
... Indeed, violence that is depicted as being justifi ed is one of the most strongly reinforcing elements in whether it will be learned or imitated (see Paik & Comstock, 1994). According to Comstock (1991), key factors that determine how violence will be interpreted by viewers include effi cacy , or whether violence results in the achievement of desired goals, and normativeness , or whether the violence is portrayed as socially acceptable. Both of these factors are highlighted in most action-adventure programs that feature superheroes. ...
... Strange & Leung (1999) and Jordan & Page (1992) argued that public opinion and public policies are greatly affected by the news reports presented in print and electronic media. Comstock (1991) stated that three to four hours duration on daily basis is spend by the children in the United States watching television. Violent and aggressive behaviour is also increases by television violence. ...
Article
Abstract The study examines the role of mass media in promotion of mob violence in cities. Data was collected from a sample of 384 respondents from two major urban cities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa through a structured interview schedule based on Likert Scale. A Chi- Square test was applied to ascertain association between mass media and mob violence. The nonidentification of mob violent perpetrator by mass media was found significantly associated (p=.016) with mob violence while emphasis of media on sensitive issue has shown a nonsignificant association (p=.080) with mob violence. Mass media can both; positively and negatively, influence the intensity of mob violence. Media should play its positive role of investigative journalism in the prevention of mob violence in the society.
... Television characterization, in particular, is considered to be a powerful gender modeling tool (Durkin, 1985), especially when according to Bandura's social learning theory; kids identify themselves with the characters they see onscreen (Preiss, Mae Gayle, Burrell, Allen, Bryant, 2007). With multiple researches proving that kids do learn gender stereotypes and that their perceptions of sex-roles are influenced by the content they watch (Comstock & Paik, 1991;Mayes & Valentine, 1979), television's discourse on gender cannot be ignored. ...
Article
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Kids’ television channels in India air a mix of foreign and domestic programming. Comparisons between the two types of programming have been made on a variety of issues. A less talked about aspect though, is the differences or similarities in how both types of productions represent gender. This study aims to identify whether both genders are presented equally in domestic and foreign productions that airs in India. A content analysis of evening prime time programming on various kids’ channels showed that the average ratio of male to female characters in an individual programme was 3:1. Males also outnumbered females in the programming of the majority of the countries. The gender ratio of almost all countries’ productions (including India) did not reflect the gender ratio of their own population as well as that of India’s census population. All three countries (USA, India and Japan) with the highest number of programmes in this sample had more titles with the names of male characters than females. Among the character roles, the role of the protagonist’s ally/friend/co-worker was the most common role which all countries allotted to both genders. In terms of gender representation, American productions were the most similar to Indian productions.
... At least 2 respondents were selected from each level (first to final year). The reason for the mixed sampling techniques was due to the unavailability of detail information on the students to the researchers [28][29][30][31]. Table 2.5, 48% of the respondents disagreed that responding to domination and suppression in violence as necessary, 28% strongly disagreed, 14% agreed that responding to domination and suppression in violence as necessary and 10% strongly agreed. ...
Article
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Ethno-Religious and Communal conflict is one of the serious challenges facing African nations and other parts of the world. This has sucked the blood of the innocent members of the communities and nations involved and the members of international peace keeping forces and moreover, has placed an enormous burden on the economy of the nations involved as well as the United Nations as a global body concerned over the affairs of the entire globe. Of great importance here is the threat of this form of violence to the right and lives of women and children who are usually the most vulnerable in this situation. Many factors are suspected as the culprits and accomplices to this phenomenon, however, beyond the socio-economic analysis, this study focused on the youth exposure to media violence and attitude towards the phenomenon focusing on the University of Nigeria Undergraduates as the study population. The study involved 150 students from various faculties and departments (From first year to fifth year) between the ages of 17-35. The hypotheses that guided the study were tested using Pearson-r and Spearman Rank correlation co efficiency. According to the findings, there is a positive correlation between exposure to media violence and positive attitude towards ethno-religious and communal conflict (rho=0.14, p<0.001), there a positive correlation between exposure to media violence and negative attitude towards peaceful conflict resolution (rho=0.12, p<0.001), there is a negative correlation between age and regular exposure to media violence (r=0.002, p<0.001) and, there is a positive correlation between age and positive attitude towards ethno-religious and communal conflict (r=0.042, p<0.001).
... Respondents reported they were more likely to take steps to prevent cervical cancer after watching medical dramas. These studies confirm the importance of ongoing research on television's influence for all ages, the world over (Ahammer & Murray, 1979;Comstock & Paik, 1991;Greenberg, 1974;Rubin, 1977Rubin, , 1979Strasburger, 1995). ...
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The current study examines the actions of Michael Scott, self‐proclaimed “World's Best Boss”, to determine how he communicates leadership on The Office. Using Northouse's (2020) definition of leadership, Scott's behavior is content analyzed to establish his particular message transmission tendencies. Further, given Scott's unique management style, George's (2003) dimensions of authentic leadership are used to code Scott's behavior as Scranton's regional manager. Based on a quantitative coding of shows, two main findings are advanced. First, Scott's leadership prioritizes verbal over nonverbal messages. Second, Scott's approach to leadership emphasizes the authentic dimensions of close relationships, clear purpose, and a caring heart most often with his employees. Scenes from The Office are identified that validate these findings and feature authentic leadership theory in action. Pragmatically, the current research offers trainers, managers, and teachers a resource for educating trainees and students on the role of verbal and nonverbal messages in leadership as well as a tool for developing authentic leadership in others.
... La investigacion sobre los efectos de los medios ha mostrado que los efectos de pautas prolongadas de presentacion de la informacion asentadas en las dos ultimas décadas corno la fragmentacion de la informacion (Adatto, 1990), la explotacion atencional (del Rio, 2000;Comstock, 1991) y el confusionismo publicitario (advertising cluttering: Stewart y Ward, 1994) tiene un impacto a largo plazo en el desarrollo de las estructuras cognitivas y atencionales de los ciudadanos, y otro inmediato en su procesamiento, comprension y recuerdo de la infor macion vehiculada por los medios. Eso ha llevado a investigar dos procesos complementarios que se producen en la comunicacion de masas y que condicionan su impacto: uno por el que muchos especta dores no logran desarrollar estructuras cognitivas adecuadas y una buena atencion estratégica y se instalan en un procesamiento de la informacion mosaico y asociativo, episodico, sensoria! ...
Chapter
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En este capitulo se recogen algunas de las tendencias teóricas y metodológicas en ciencias sociales que apuntan hacia la investigación y explicación de los hechos humanos en general (y los politicos y electorales en particular) en ciclos más largos y se analizan algunos de los hechos que caracterizaron la campaña electoral del año 2000 en España.
... (Schmidt & Vandewater, 2008). In conclusion, television viewing and academic achievement are negatively associated when television displaces cognitively enriching moments, but positively associated when it supplies those experiences (Comstock & Paik, 1991). ...
Article
Today, children are growing up immersed in television screen media, which has been shown to have both positive and negative effects on language development. Young children are considered developmentally vulnerable, and today, they are growing up highly immersed in digital media. Strict guidelines by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) suggest that limiting the use of screen time. However, there is limited current research on the effect of coviewing while watching television programs on the language development of children. This investigation sought to contribute to efforts aimed at understanding the impact of coviewing on language output.
... Research indicating that the implications of television viewing depend on the type of activities it displaces is relevant for understanding why the effect of television can be highly heterogeneous. Television viewing is associated with worse outcomes for children whose alternative use of time would be high-quality interaction with their parents, but more positive outcomes among groups of children who lack such experiences (Comstock and Paik, 1991;Linebarger et al., 2014). For example, among low-income, low-educational attainment or immigrant (e.g., non-native speaking) households, educational programming is associated with positive educational outcomes, such as language development and executive function enhancement (Linebarger et al., 2014). ...
Preprint
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The role of digital technology in shaping attention and cognitive development has been at the centre of public discourse for decades. The rapid evolution of the technological landscape in recent years has made it increasingly difficult to study how digital devices might interact with cognition in a way that directly informs the present generation of media users. The current review presents findings from three main bodies of evidence on the implications of technology use for attention and executive functions: television, video games, and digital multitasking with the aim of identifying key lessons from prior research for the current generation of digital users. In particular, the lack of scientific consensus on whether digital technologies are good or bad for children reflects that effects depend on users’ characteristics, the form digital technologies take, the circumstances in which use occurs and the interaction between the three factors. Some features of digital media may be particularly problematic, but only for certain users and only in certain contexts. Similarly, individual differences mediate how, when and why individuals use technology, as well as how much benefit or harm can be derived from its use. We discuss the importance of leveraging existing knowledge and integrating past research findings into a broader theoretical framework in order to guide emerging technology-based research. We end with a discussion of some of the challenges and unaddressed issues in the literature, and propose directions for future research.
... And there is some empirical support towards the idea that high-quality TV/video content (such as the program Sesame Street) has a positive impact on children's school performance and cognitive abilities 58 . Especially when high-quality TV/video content replaces less enriching activities in the child's routine 59 . ...
Preprint
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Digital media defines modern childhood, but its cognitive effects are unclear and hotly debated. We estimated the impact of different types of screen time (watching, socializing, or gaming) on children’s intelligence while controlling for genetic differences in cognition and socioeconomic background. We analyzed 9855 children from the ABCD dataset with measures of intelligence at baseline (ages 9-10) and after two years. At baseline, time watching and socializing were negatively correlated with intelligence, while gaming had no correlation. After two years, gaming positively impacted intelligence, but socializing had no effect. This is consistent with cognitive benefits documented in experimental studies on video gaming. Unexpectedly, watching videos also benefited intelligence, contrary to prior research on the effect of watching TV. Broadly, our results are in line with research on the malleability of cognitive abilities from environmental factors, such as cognitive training and the Flynn effect.
... La televisión es un medio poderoso de comunicación y entretenimiento (Comstock & Paik, 1991;Clemente & Vidal, 1995;Degrado Godoy, 2005;Vázquez Miraz, 2017a). En un intento por aproximarnos a la comprensión de la predilección de este medio por parte de los usuarios, debemos considerar la postura de García Reina (2004), la cual concluye que dicha selección reside en la profundidad de factores como "la unión de la imagen y el sonido, la posibilidad de contemplar los acontecimientos en tiempo real, la capacidad de conocer realidades remotas, su capacidad para interpelar a varios sentidos al mismo tiempo, para integrar diferentes artes (literatura, música, arquitectura, pintura, fotografía...), para generar emotividad, códigos comunes, y otras muchas características " (p. ...
Article
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Se presenta en el siguiente artículo de carácter científico la revisión del argumento, aspectos físicos y diálogo de los diversos personajes asociados al cortometraje titulado "El Matón", un capítulo de la serie animada estadounidense de Nickelodeon "Bob Esponja"; producto televisivo creado por Stephen Hillenburg, emitido desde 1999 en EE. UU. y posteriormente serializado en diferentes países durante las décadas siguientes. La serie está protagonizada por diversas figuras marinas que imitan comportamientos racionales y sufren sucesos que comprometen sus vidas, presentándose estos bajo el disfraz del humor negro. El análisis de contenido realizado a "El Matón" confirma que esta animación en cuestión transmitió a la audiencia infantil un mensaje contundente focalizado en la identificación de los patrones comportamentales que configuran la identidad de un abusador, estando presente en la longevidad del episodio una carga emocional representada por el estado anímico del protagonista y la supresión real de las consecuencias de los actos, aspectos que imposibilitaron a la teleaudiencia la comprensión total del argumento del capítulo.
... Research indicating that the implications of television viewing depend on the type of activities it displaces is relevant for understanding why the effect of television can be highly heterogeneous. Television viewing is associated with worse outcomes for children whose alternative use of time would be high-quality interaction with their parents, but more positive outcomes among groups of children who lack such experiences (Comstock and Paik, 1991;Linebarger et al., 2014). For example, among low-income, low-educational attainment or immigrant (e.g., non-native speaking) households, educational programming is associated with positive educational outcomes, such as language development and executive function enhancement (Linebarger et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The role of digital technology in shaping attention and cognitive development has been at the centre of public discourse for decades. The current review presents findings from three main bodies of literature on the implications of technology use for attention and cognitive control: television, video games, and digital multitasking. The aim is to identify key lessons from prior research that are relevant for the current generation of digital users. In particular, the lack of scientific consensus on whether digital technologies are good or bad for children reflects that effects depend on users’ characteristics, the form digital technologies take, the circumstances in which use occurs and the interaction between the three factors. Some features of digital media may be particularly problematic, but only for certain users and only in certain contexts. Similarly, individual differences mediate how, when and why individuals use technology, as well as how much benefit or harm can be derived from its use. The finding emerging from the review on the large degree of heterogeneity in associations is especially relevant due to the rapid development and diffusion of a large number of different digital technologies and contents, and the increasing variety of user experiences. We discuss the importance of leveraging existing knowledge and integrating past research findings into a broader organizing framework in order to guide emerging technology-based research and practice. We end with a discussion of some of the challenges and unaddressed issues in the literature and propose directions for future research.
... When television displaces the time a child would otherwise spend on reading practice, that child is delayed in acquiring reading skills (Comstock, 1991). With regard to meaningfulness of the TV programmes, only a handful of programs teach children important skills such as math, reading, science or problem solving. ...
Thesis
The focus of this study was to examine the effects of television viewing on children‘s learning in Ilala District. Many children have been exposed to TV with little known about its effects on learning particularly in Tanzania. Research has shown that TV viewing affects children‘s school performance, reading, eye sight, and health and brain development. TV has also been blamed for making children lazy, aggressive, non-social and expose them to obscene, vulgar language and drug abuse content. This study was a need to establish the effects of TV viewing on children‘s learning in Ilala District, Dar es Salaam. A total of 124 parents, teachers and children were purposefully sampled after a prior Kiwalani wards. Data were collected using questionnaires, interview and observations. The main findings showed that non-school children spent more time watching TV than school children, and TV watching was mainly for entertainment. TBC1, ITV, Star TV, Channel 10 and Mlimani TV were the most viewed TV stations. TV viewing had adverse effects on children‘s learning; such as school dropout, poor performance, headaches, eye aches and problems related to sleep. Positive effects included building of children‘s self-confidence, debating skills, asking and answering question skills. Children encountered problems like bullying, loss of concentration, and were even beaten by parentsas they neglected their duties due to TV watching. TV has been shown to have effects to children due to its content and time spent by children. It is recommended that display of TV profiles indicating age appropriate programmes be done by TV owners and parents by setting up regulations for TV programme monitoring. More population-based studies on the effects of specific TV programming on young should be conducted.
Chapter
I am often asked to speak to the question, “Is preschool programming educational?” As cited in this inspiring chapter, study after study has proven that, if created with the intent to teach and by utilizing the tenets of educational preschool curriculum, media can indeed have an immediate and lasting effect on education. Even still, parents want reassurance. Therefore, studies like this one by Linebarger, Brey, Fenstermacher, and Barr, help to break down the questions and provide insight as to what makes educational television truly educational.
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Examining illicit drug policy is a twofold task. One aspect involves understanding illicit drug use, and the other addresses changing behavior through public policy. These two aspects of drug policy must be distinguished, as success in one does not necessarily imply success in the other—and because success in both is necessary for any overall success in achieving effective policies regarding the management of illicit drug use.
Chapter
In Israel lief 1994 WWF-Wrestling im Zweiten Fernsehkanal und über Kabel auf einem Sportkanal. Die Sendungen wurden wöchentlich, jedoch zu unterschiedlichen Zeiten und an unterschiedlichen Tagen ausgestrahlt. Die Einschaltquoten lagen für Grundschulkinder57 im Schnitt bei 2 bis 3%; Grundschulkinder bilden also nur eine kleine Zuschauergruppe. Trotzdem gab es im Winter 93/94 eine wichtige öffentliche Diskussion über Wrestling. So wandte sich z.B. der Vorsitzende des Erziehungsausschusses des israelischen Parlamentes mit dem Ziel an die Fernsehindustrie, Wrestling-Sendungen zu stoppen oder zumindest auf Termine am späten Abend zu verlegen. Am 1. Mai 1994 schrieb die größte israelische Zeitung, daß „Dutzende von Kindern im Norden des Landes, die voll auf Wrestling abfahren, verletzt wurden, als sie zusammen mit ihren Freunden die Aktivitäten ihrer Idole nachahmten“ (Eshel 1994). Der Zweite Fernsehkanal stellte daraufhin die Wrestling-Sendungen nach einer Saison für einen längeren Zeitraum ein. Der Kabelkanal blieb jedoch dabei, Wrestling mehrmals die Woche zu senden. WWF-Wrestling als soziales Phänomen verlor jedoch bald an Bedeutung, u.a. weil der Zweite Fernsehkanal Wrestling nicht mehr kontinuierlich ausstrahlte oder der Neuigkeitseffekt verlorengegangen war. Auch Präventionsmaßnahmen der Schulen trugen dazu bei, ebenso direkte und indirekte Erfahrungen mit Verletzungen oder die zunehmende Einschätzung, das Programm sei eine Bühneninszenierung und kein Sportereignis.
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The present article suggests that the brief history of Western television news dramaturgy can be expounded as three major waves: from the early days of the talking heads in the studio, over the narrativization of the field report to a (re-)current studio- and field-based talking heads format. In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events is dissolving and transforming into an evaluative present- and future-oriented update format that resembles the 24-hour newsonly channels. Production time merges with broadcast time so that the uncertainty of live spreads to the dramaturgy.
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The current study examined if preschoolers' understanding of fantasy and reality are related to their learning from educational videos. Forty‐nine 3‐ to 6‐year‐old children watched short clips of popular educational programs in which animated characters solved problems. Following video viewing, children attempted to solve real‐world problems analogous to the problems in the videos and were asked to describe similarities between the video problems and the problems they solved in the lab. Additionally, children were tested for their understanding of which aspects of the clips and characters were realistic and possible and which were fantastical and impossible in the real world. Children were most likely to transfer solutions from clips that had moderate elements of fantasy or incorporated fantastical elements at moments that were relevant to solving the problem. Additionally, children's understanding of which elements of the clips were fantastical was related to their transfer. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the role of the fantasy understanding in children's learning from media. Highlights • Over the preschool years, children come to understand what aspects of animated programs are and are not possible in the real world. • Preschoolers learn problem-solving skills from animated shows when they have a clear boundary between fantasy and reality. • Engaging with moderate fantastical content in animated programs can support abstract thinking.
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Although a series of studies have shown that television viewing can have adverse effects on young people’s academic performance (Comstock & Paik, 1991), little is known about the processes by which television may hinder students’ academic achievement. One possible explanation is that television distracts students from homework because they do their home study in front of an operating television screen. Whereas pre-television generations of students could chose to combine doing homework with audio media, nowadays students may also combine their homework with television. According to a U.S. survey, secondary school students frequently combine doing homework with the use of background media, either television or audio media — radio, compact discs, and audio cassettes (Patton, Stinard & Routh, 1983). To our knowledge, there are no reliable data about the frequency with which European students combine doing homework with background media.
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A baby wrapped up in a white sheet is being carried into the forensic laboratory. Less than an hour ago, so we learn from the commentary that accompanies the pictures, the baby was still resting in the lap of her mother who had just arrived at a U.S. airport. The little white bundle is laid down on the dissection table. The sheet is removed, uncovering the rigid body of a dead baby. At a single glance, it is clear that the baby has been on a dissection table before. Her body appears to have been cut open from sternum to pelvis, and closed again with coarse stitches. The stitches are cut loose one by one. In the gradually increasing opening of the skin transparent plastic comes into sight, covering a white substance. The hand of the pathologist disappears in the child’s body, and takes out a plastic bag filled with heroin. The voice-over explains that the baby has been killed for the very purpose of this drugs transport.
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This research deals with the status of children’s journalism in the Arab world in the light of the information revolution, the obstacles they face, and the factors affecting its knowledge role. The research aims to describe and analyze the knowledge role of Arabic children’s magazines through the analysis of knowledge content provided by a sample of these magazines. The research revealed the lack of a clear concept of children journalism in the Arab literature. It also stressed the need to extend the concept of the children journalism to include all new types of media dealing with children. It also revealed a number of features that distinguish children journalism in the Arab world and affect its knowledge role. These features include the governmental nature of the children journalism, the limited market in which they operate seasonality of the market, and the fierce competition it faces from other media.
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Der bedeutende, international anerkannte Wirtschafts- und Agrarhistoriker legte hiermit einen lehrbuchartigen Abriss vor, der seine zwei zentralen Forschungsgebiete miteinander verknüpft: einmal die Wirtschaftsgeschichte – Wüstungen des ausgehenden Mittelalters –, zum anderen aktuelle Fragen der Agrarsozialpolitik. Abel blieb der Agrarsozialen Gesellschaft – die sich um die Etablierung sozialer Sicherungssysteme bei den westdeutschen Landwirten Verdienste erwarb – und ihrer Schriftenreihe (seit 1950 als Vorstands-, Kuratoriums- und Ehrenmitglied) über eine Generation verbunden.
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A Nowadays children face lots of slogans every single day. A good slogan generates feelings. Of course these feelings, brand names and slogans can be placed in mind of children by marketing experts. The remembering rate of slogans is shockingly high, higher than is the case of their parents. We can state that well-placed slogans play a very important role in influencing children. All of these contribute to the development of brand loyalty, which – if it develops during childhood – can last an entire lifetime. My primary research (sample size is 1 222 children and 610 youth and adult) justifies this statement. My research shows the remembering rate of slogans and brand names in case of different foods with high level of fat-, sugar-and/or salt content in the segment of children, youth and adults.
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In diesem Kapitel geht es zunächst um die biologischen und kulturellen Grundlagen aggressiven Verhaltens (Abschn. 5.1). In Abschn. 5.2 werden die Rolle von Gefühlen, insbesondere von Ärger und Frustration, aber auch von negativem Affekt allgemein für die Auslösung und Intensivierung aggressiven Verhaltens beschrieben. Um das Erlernen aggressiver Verhaltensschemata sowie die Sozialisierung in die gruppenspezifischen aggressionsbezogenen Normen geht es in Abschn. 5.3. In Abschn. 5.4 werden wichtige situative Einflussfaktoren auf aggressives Verhalten aufgezeigt und in Abschn. 5.5 wird – aufgrund der zunehmenden Relevanz – der Einfluss der Medien auf aggressives Verhalten gesondert behandelt.
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This article examines the evolution of children's television policy in the United States, analysing the forces that have shaped and influenced the nature of regulation in this area. For many years, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) functioned as an obstacle to any formal regulation of children's television. The FCC's stance, however, was overcome by the Congress when it enacted the Children's Television Act of 1990, a landmark statute that established an educational programming obligation for broadcasters and restricted advertising to child audiences. Since that law was adopted, controversy has ensued about the legitimacy of stations' efforts to fulfil their children's programming obligation. The FCC responded by strengthening its rules implementing the Children's Television Act, and recent studies suggest that, for the first time, regulation is reaping rewards in terms of improving both the quality and quantity of television for children in the United States.
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Összefoglaló Napjainkban a fiatal generáció a piac egy preferált szegmensét jelenti. Vállalatok tömege helyezi tevékenységének középpontjába a gyermek- és fiatalkorúak szegmensét, egy olyan szegmentumot, akinek nincs saját, önálló jövedelme, kiforrott preferenciarendszere. A szegmentum tagjait rendkívül egyszerű befolyásolni, meggyőzni, saját, vállalati igények szerint formálni. Mindezt fokozza, hogy a gyermek- és fiatalkorúak kevésbé értik a reklámok mondanivalóját és az átlagnál jóval nagyobb hiszékenységet mutatnak fel. A gyártói marketing aktivitás és sikeresség tovább fokozható a különböző sales promotion eszközökkel, úgymint közismert személyek, színészek bemutatása, ingyen ajándékok, nyereményjátékok bevetése. Az inaktív életmód, a magas zsír-, só-, cukortartalmú élelmiszerek megnövekedett fogyasztása és a hatékony marketing eszközök együttesen az egyéni és társadalmi jólét csökkenéséhez vezetnek. Az egyéni jólét csökkenése az elhízottsági ráta emelkedésében ölt testet. Különösen a gyermek és fiatalkorban jelentkező elhízás, mint társadalmi jelenség mára már nem csupán az egyén egészségügyi állapotát negatívan befolyásoló tényező, hanem nemzetgazdasági szinten jelentkező komoly és sokoldalú probléma. A túlsúlyosság és a belőle származó egészségügyi problémák mindenképpen hozzájárulnak mind az egyéni, mind a társadalmi jólét csökkenéséhez. Emellett mindenképpen meg kell említeni a túlsúlyosságból és elhízásból származó egészségügyi kiadások drasztikus emelkedését, mely napjainkban a legégetőbb egészségügyi-, és már-már finanszírozhatatlan gazdasági problémává nőtte ki magát. Nem elhanyagolható azoknak a száma, akik az elhízás járványszerű terjedésében jelentős szerepet tulajdonítanak az élelmiszeriparnak, a magas zsír-, só-, cukortartalmú élelmiszerek gyártóinak, a túlzottan is hatékony marketingkommunikációnak. Hazánkban komoly probléma, hogy lényegi korlátozásokkal nem kell számolnunk akkor, amikor marketingkommunikációról beszélünk. Magyarországon a magas zsír-, só-, cukortartalmú élelmiszerek fogyasztása egyre nagyobb népszerűségnek örvend, a termékek fogyasztási intenzitása magas a fiatalkorúak szegmensében. Sokkolóan magas értékeket láthatunk. A fiatalok 12%-a legalább heti rendszerességgel látogatja valamelyik gyorséttermet („heavy user”), 63,5%-uk legalább heti rendszerességgel fogyaszt cukrozott szénsavas üdítőitalt, főként kólát, és 33,3%-uk fogyaszt legalább heti rendszerességgel chipset. Fel kell hívnom a figyelmet a mindennapos kóla fogyasztók magas részarányára is (21,2%). A korcsoportot felosztó szegmentáció eredményei alapján kijelenthető, hogy Magyarország fiatalkorú lakosságának döntő többsége a magas zsír-, só-, cukortartalmú élelmiszerek intenzív fogyasztói közé tartozik (például az érdektelen egészségtelen, fast food megszállott, kólafüggő szegmentumok), nem érti az élelmiszercímke jelöléseit, nincs tisztában a termék csomagolásán feltüntetett jelzők jelentéstartalmával. A bizonytalanság csökkentésének több módozata is létezik: a törvényi szabályozás újragondolása, a magas zsír-, só-, cukortartalmú élelmiszerek kommunikációjának szabályozása, a termékek árának növelése az adóztatás eszközével, a szülők szerepének tudatosítása. A hatékony megoldás véleményem szerint ezek átgondolt kombinációjában rejlik. A szekunder irodalom bizonyítja, hogy a gyermekek fejlődésük során követik a szülői mintákat. El kell ismernünk, hogy az elhízott gyermekből elhízott felnőtt válik. A nem megfelelő tudásszint számos probléma forrásává válhat, úgymint a magas zsír-, só-, cukortartalmú élelmiszerek fogyasztása esetében. Ezeknek a termékeknek a fogyasztása közvetlenül vagy közvetve hozzájárulhat az elhízott és 2-es típusú diabéteszben szenvedő emberek számának emelkedéséhez. Ezen termékek magas fogyasztási intenzitása nem csak a családi kasszát, hanem az állami költségvetést is megterhelik. A probléma fontossága és jelentősége mérhető. Az elhízással összefüggő egészségügyi kiadások drasztikusan emelkednek. Az elhízottsági ráta világszerte elérte a 60%-ot a lakosság körében. Napjainkban már komoly következményei vannak az elhízottsági ráta és az ebből származó egészségügyi kiadások emelkedésének. A problémák a jövőben nemhogy megoldódnának, hanem sokszorozódni fognak amennyiben nem történnek lépések a trend megállítása érdekében. Tény, hogy magas zsír-, só-, cukortartalmú élelmiszerek a fiatalok kedvelt élelmiszerei közé tartoznak, azok promotálásával a gyermekkori elhízáshoz járulunk hozzá. Ennek mértéke vizsgálatok tárgyát képezheti, de a tényen nem változtat. Az „üzletember profitszemléletét” előtérbe helyező elv, a magas zsír-, só-, cukortartalmú élelmiszerek piacának szabályozatlansága, rövidtávon talán eredményt hozhat a gyártó számára. A profit a termékeket előállító vállalatoknál jelentkezik, azonban a költségeket nemzetgazdasági szinten viseljük az elhízott gyermek-, fiatalkorú majd később felnőtt megnövekedett ápolási költségeinek formájában. Felelősségteljes és racionális végiggondolás után belátható, hogy a leírt folyamat fenntarthatatlan és beavatkozást kíván, nem csupán hosszú-, hanem már rövid időtávon belül is. Summary Nowadays the young generation is one of the most preferred target groups of marketing. Most of companies are looking focuses on the young generation that does not have individual incomes and formed preference system. It is easy to influence, to persuade, and to shape the young generation according to their corporate needs. Children understand the essence of the advertisements less and they are more credulous from the average one. The efficiency of marketing activity of manufacturers can increase by using of sales promotion techniques, e.g. presentation by well-known persons, actors, free gifts, prize games. Inactive lifestyle, increased consumption of unhealthy foods and effective marketing tools lead to a drastic reduction of well-being of individuals and society. The drastic reduction of well-being of individuals manifest in the raising of obesity rate. Childhood and juvenile obesity as a social phenomenon is not just a negative factor of a person’s health, but also a very serious and versatile social economic problem. There is no doubt that overweight and the health problems arising from obesity contribute to the decrease of both individual and social welfare. I should also mention the drastic increase of health expenses caused by overweight and obesity, because recently it has became the most pressing health and almost a non-financeable economic problem. Number of people is non-negligible who think that epidemic spread of obesity is significantly attributable to food industry, to producers of foods with high level of fat, salt and sugar, and to overdrew marketing communications. The problem is that in our country we do not have to count on serious restrictions when we talk about marketing communications. Consuming foods with high level of fat, salt and sugar is more and more popular in Hungary, consuming intensity of these products is high in young’s segment. We may see extremely high values. 12.0% of young persons visit a fast food restaurant at least with weekly frequency (“heavy user”), 63.5% of the youth drink sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks (mainly cola) and 33.3% of respondents eat chips with weekly frequency. I would like to call attention to daily coke consumption (21.2%) By the results of the segmentation it can be stated that the majority of young Hungarians is an intensive consumer of foods with high level of fat, salt and sugar (e.g. segment of uninterested unhealthy, fast food chain obsesses, coke-dependents), do not understand the notations of food labels, and not aware of the signs’ meaning on product packages. There are several ways to decrease uncertainty: rethinking legislation, regulation of communication in case of foods with high level of fat, salt and sugar, increasing the price of products with the tax tools, raising awareness of parents. As to my opinion the efficient solution roots in the combination of all of these. Secondary surveys confirm that the children will follow the family's consumption patterns. We have to recognize that obese children become obese adults. The incomplete knowledge contributes to serious problems especially in the case of increasing consumption of food with high level of fat, sugar and/or salt. In this case the increasing consumption of these products can contribute to the drastic rise in the number of overweight and diabetes type 2 people. The high intensity of consumption affects the family budget and the budget of the country. Importance of the problem can be measured. The health care costs caused by obesity rise dramatically. The obesity rate around the world reached 60% among the entire population. Nowadays there are serious consequences of rising obesity rate and increasing of health care costs. Problems will multiply in the near future if supporting actions will not taken. It is a fact that foods with high level of fat, salt and sugar are popular among young people, with promoting these products we contribute to childhood obesity. Lack of legislation on market of foods with high level of fat, salt and sugar might lead to success in a short run but only for the producing companies. Profit is realized at the producing companies, but costs are borne nationally as an increased nursing cost of obese children, young and adults. Thinking it over responsibly and rationally it can be foreseeable that the described process is not sustainable and needs intervention, not just in long, but also in a short run.
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Having identified, in another work, that the viewing of scientific nature documentaries such as National Geographic, broadcast on television, enables students to see undeniable advantages in terms of learning the sciences in the classroom with a teacher, Paulo Coelho Dias, in the present work, will directly confront both processes of socialization, trying to identify coincidences, dissimilarities and complementarities between both, proposing concrete strategies to use the mentioned scientific documentaries in the classroom as a way to enhance the teaching-learning process of the Sciences . Methodologically, the author developed a two-year study of classroom observation in which it was sought to measure, in the various thematic units common to the Science Program and to documentaries, both in writing and in orality, the comparative learning gains of the visionary students to others who have stated that they do not see such programs, and inquiring them to identify the advantages and disadvantages of a learning environment vis-à-vis the other and possible ways of articulating them.
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Tendo identificado, numa outra obra, que o visionamento de documentários científicos sobre a natureza, tais como o National Geographic, transmitidos televisivamente, faculta aos alunos que os veem inegáveis vantagens em termos da aprendizagem das ciências em sala de aula com um professor, Paulo Coelho Dias, na presente obra, irá confrontar diretamente ambos os processos de socialização, procurando identificar coincidências, dissemelhanças e complementaridades entre ambos, propondo estratégias concretas de utilização dos referidos documentários científicos em sala de aula como forma de potenciar o processo de ensino-aprendizagem das Ciências. Metodologicamente, o autor desenvolveu um estudo de dois anos de observação de sala de aula onde foi procurar medir, nas diversas unidades temáticas comuns ao Programa de Ciências e aos documentários, quer na escrita, quer na oralidade, os ganhos de aprendizagem dos alunos visionadores comparativamente aos outros que afirmaram não ver tais programas, inquirindo-os, ainda, para identificar, na ótica dos próprios alunos, as vantagens e desvantagens de um meio de aprendizagem face ao outro e possíveis formas de articulá-los entre si.
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Die USA sind im Bereich von Medien-, Markt- und Konsumentwicklung ohne Zweifel Vorreiter, und auch die entsprechende Forschung gibt international große Impulse. Aufgrund ihrer Tradition und Philosophie nehmen die USA jedoch keine herausragende Position bei der Konsum- und Werbeerziehung ein. Es gibt keine landesweite Struktur, die jeden amerikanischen Bürger irgendwann im Verlauf seines Lebens mit Konsum- und Werbeerziehung konfrontieren würde. In diesem Beitrag wird das spezifische Verhältnis zwischen Markt und Pädagogik bzw. Schule dargestellt — viele europäische Bildungspolitiker liebäugeln mit dem „amerikanischen Modell“ — und gesellschaftliche Hintergründe einer (mangelnden) Konsumentenerziehung werden beschrieben sowie Regeln, die „kommerzielle Integrität“ gegenüber kindlichen Verbrauchern marktkonform einfordern. Ein Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Darstellung von Entwicklungen im Medien- und Konsumbereich, die u.a. eine Erziehung der Kinder zum kritischen Konsum durch den Markt, nicht durch Pädagogik, ermöglichen. Kinder werden zunehmend als Geschäftspartner, nicht als passive Konsumenten, ernstgenommen und lernen so durch eigenes Handeln, Marktmechanismen zu verstehen. Schließlich werden Perspektiven für Werbe- und Konsumkompetenz entwickelt.
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80 5- and 9-yr-olds viewed a TV program containing segments emphasizing visual, auditory, or audiovisual information. Half of the Ss were instructed to remember for later testing, and the other half to watch for entertainment. Results show that instructions increased visual orientation and cued recall in younger Ss, and free and cued recall were enhanced in older Ss. Visual orientation and recall of auditory content were positively correlated at both ages, but the association was significantly stronger in younger Ss. It is concluded that even 5-yr-olds are capable of modifying their TV viewing behavior in response to task demands. (35 ref)
Article
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80 5- and 9-yr-olds viewed a TV program containing segments emphasizing visual, auditory, or audiovisual information. Half of the Ss were instructed to remember for later testing, and the other half to watch for entertainment. Results show that instructions increased visual orientation and cued recall in younger Ss, and free and cued recall were enhanced in older Ss. Visual orientation and recall of auditory content were positively correlated at both ages, but the association was significantly stronger in younger Ss. It is concluded that even 5-yr-olds are capable of modifying their TV viewing behavior in response to task demands. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the structural relations among viewing behaviors, viewing conditions, background characteristics, and intellectual ability and 107 34–71 mo olds' learning from instructional TV. Ss viewed tapes designed to teach seriation concepts in groups of four, in dyads, or individually. Ss also completed various subtests from tests of intellectual ability (e.g., the Verbal Fluency subtest of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities); Ss' parents completed a family background questionnaire. Instructional outcomes were not affected by treatment condition, so data were pooled for subsequent analyses. A principal components analysis with oblique rotation was used to reduce the number of variables for subsequent testing of a hypothetical model using path analysis. School aptitude made the strongest contribution to learning from the tapes; viewing behavior, parental education, and family constellation also directly contributed to learning. (24 ref)
Article
Evaluated the relative effectiveness of 2 media for conveying narrative information by presenting 44 young children (aged 3–6 yrs) and 44 adults with the same story via either TV or radio. Ss then retold the story to an adult from memory. Media differences were found, with children in the radio condition showing significantly more errors in comprehension and memory than children in the TV condition. Both the inclusion of inaccurate story content and the distortion of actual story characteristics occurred more frequently for the purely aural than for the aural and visual. Although Ss in the radio condition showed greater recall of dialog and sound effects than did Ss in the TV condition, the actual events recalled with dialog or other auditory features tended not to be highly important to the overall theme. (20 ref)
Article
The degree to which psychological involvement with television is associated with conventional values, attitudes, and behaviors among adolescent youth was investigated in two independent questionnaire studies of high school and college youth. The findings of both studies strongly suggest that involvement with television is associated with a syndrome of conventionality. These findings were consistent for younger and older adolescents, for males and females at both age levels, and for samples which differed markedly in a variety of other respects.
Article
Investigated the structural relations among viewing behaviors, viewing conditions, background characteristics, and intellectual ability and 107 34–71 mo olds' learning from instructional TV. Ss viewed tapes designed to teach seriation concepts in groups of four, in dyads, or individually. Ss also completed various subtests from tests of intellectual ability (e.g., the Verbal Fluency subtest of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities); Ss' parents completed a family background questionnaire. Instructional outcomes were not affected by treatment condition, so data were pooled for subsequent analyses. A principal components analysis with oblique rotation was used to reduce the number of variables for subsequent testing of a hypothetical model using path analysis. School aptitude made the strongest contribution to learning from the tapes; viewing behavior, parental education, and family constellation also directly contributed to learning. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)