Patterns of Attachment Behavior Shown by the Infant in Interaction with His Mother

ArticleinMerrill-Palmer quarterly (Wayne State University. Press) 10(1):51-58 · January 1964with 838 Reads 
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Abstract
In observations of African babies 13 patterns of attachment behavior toward the mother as a special person were catalogued. The baby is active and takes initiative in forming attachments. Attachment can be maintained through a middle distance through distance receptors. Babies become attached to others than the mother, people who merely play and interact with them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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  • ... T he interaction with the primary caregiver (mostly the mother) in the first years of life is thought to have a relatively critical impact on peoples' lives. Attachment theory examines the relationship between infant and primary caregiver and explains the development of personality on the basis of this relationship (1,2). Attachment is defined in the broadest sense as 'emotional bond developed to a special person' (1)(2)(3). ...
    ... Attachment theory examines the relationship between infant and primary caregiver and explains the development of personality on the basis of this relationship (1,2). Attachment is defined in the broadest sense as 'emotional bond developed to a special person' (1)(2)(3). The need for emotional bonding is highly functional for the survival and developmental course of the newborn (4-7). ...
    ... The findings of these analyses are shown in Table 2. A significant difference was found between the groups in the total scores of satisfaction with life with respect to the level of academic achievement (highintermediate-low), (F [2,420] Analysis of the total scores of satisfaction with life based on perceived economic level (low-middle-high) revealed that there was a significant difference between the groups (F [2,420] =33.072, p<0.001). Levene's homogeneity of variance analysis shows that the variances are not homogeneous (p=0.003). ...
    Article
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    Objective: The main objective of the current research is to investigate the relationship between attachment styles and life satisfaction, and psychological resilience of university students. Another purpose of the present research is to have sight the differentiated life satisfaction scores with regard to resilience level. Methods: The current study is a descriptive research designed as a relational survey method. The sample of the study consisted of 425 university students whose 302 (71.1%) were female and 123 (29.9%) were male students. Convenience sampling model was used in sampling selection. The sample group composed of undergraduate, graduate and PHD students. Data was collected by Experiences in Close Relationships-Revise (ECR-R) for attachment styles, The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SCLS) and The Resilience Scale for Adults. Results: Research findings concerning attachment styles of university students indicated that 49.4% of sample was avoidant and 48.9% of sample was anxious. Individuals taking the score below the median in both anxious and avoidant dimensions of attachments were defined with secure attachment. They constituted 31.7 percent of the sample group. According to research findings, attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance predicted the total score of satisfaction with life in negative direction. An increase in anxious and avoidant attachment scores was associated with lower levels of life satisfaction. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the anxious and avoidant attachment styles were not important predictors of the resilience scores. In addition, satisfaction with life scores varied according to levels of resilience. Individuals who had high level of resilience were found to have more satisfied with life in contrast with individual who had low level of resilience. Discussion: There are many studies which introduce the influence of attachment styles on subjective well-being. The results showed that secure attachment has an influence on life satisfaction which is one of the elements of subjective well-being and positive development. This study revealed that the adaptive skills to stressful life events and coping with negative situations were associated with satisfaction with life among the university students. Thus, psychotherapeutic interventions based on development of attachment relations and enhancement of resilience may increase the general life satisfaction.
  • ... Attachment theory is a psychological model that articulates a behavioral phenomenon and illustrates how humans attach to their caregivers to establish a healthy and foundational childhood base allowing the child to take risks and explore the environment in a safe and secure manner. The following are the major philosophers that have researched and established attachment theory concepts (Lorenz, 1935;Harlow, 1958;Bowlby, 1958;and Ainsworth, 1964). Lorenz and Harlow studied attachment with animals while Bowlby and Ainsworth made the transition to the study of human engagement. ...
    ... Her methods not only made it possible to test some of Bowlby's ideas empirically but, also, helped expand the concepts of attachment theory. Ainsworth (1964) contributed the hypothesis that the attachment figure should be a secure base from which a newborn can explore the world. Also, Ainsworth articulated the concept of maternal sensitivity to infant gesticulations and how that behavior impacts the development of the newborn's attachment patterns to the mother. ...
    ... Also, Ainsworth articulated the concept of maternal sensitivity to infant gesticulations and how that behavior impacts the development of the newborn's attachment patterns to the mother. Ainsworth (1964) used Bowlby's research as a base to determine individual differences in attachment. She used the Strange Situation Procedure to measure the types of attachment classifications. ...
  • ... Attachment theory is a psychological model that articulates a behavioral phenomenon and illustrates how humans attach to their caregivers to establish a healthy and foundational childhood base allowing the child to take risks and explore the environment in a safe and secure manner. The following are the major philosophers that have researched and established attachment theory concepts (Lorenz, 1935;Harlow, 1958;Bowlby, 1958;and Ainsworth, 1964). Lorenz and Harlow studied attachment with animals while Bowlby and Ainsworth made the transition to the study of human engagement. ...
    ... Her methods not only made it possible to test some of Bowlby's ideas empirically but, also, helped expand the concepts of attachment theory. Ainsworth (1964) contributed the hypothesis that the attachment figure should be a secure base from which a newborn can explore the world. Also, Ainsworth articulated the concept of maternal sensitivity to infant gesticulations and how that behavior impacts the development of the newborn's attachment patterns to the mother. ...
    ... Also, Ainsworth articulated the concept of maternal sensitivity to infant gesticulations and how that behavior impacts the development of the newborn's attachment patterns to the mother. Ainsworth (1964) used Bowlby's research as a base to determine individual differences in attachment. She used the Strange Situation Procedure to measure the types of attachment classifications. ...
  • ... Historically, attachment theory has focused on the attachment between an infant/child and his/her caregiver (Ainsworth, 1962(Ainsworth, , 1964Mead, 1962;Bowlby, 1952Bowlby, , 1958Bowlby, , 1969Bowlby, , 1973Bowlby, , 1979Bowlby, , 1980Bowlby, , 1988aVelotti, Di Folco, & Cesare-Zavattini, 2013) and has most often been discussed in the field of psychology (Ainsworth, 2010;Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 2015;Tracy & Ainsworth, 1981). Attachment is defined as the relationship between an infant/child and his/her caregiver and is characterized by the infant/child seeking proximity to their caregiver as well as protesting when separation occurs (Ainsworth et al., 2015;Bowlby, 1952Bowlby, , 1958Bowlby, , 1969Bowlby, , 1973Bowlby, , 1979Bowlby, , 1980Bowlby, , 1988aMead, 1962;Sadock, Sadock, & Ruiz, 2014;VandenBos, 2015). ...
    ... An important characteristic of attachment is the infant/child experiencing security in the relationship with the caregiver (Sadock et al., 2014;VandenBos, 2015). Specifically, the infant/child must find a safe haven in their caregiver during times they perceive threat as well as a place of safety from which the infant/child can explore situations that may or may not be unsafe but that the child perceives as unsafe or is seeking to determine if it is safe or unsafe (Ainsworth, 1962(Ainsworth, , 1964(Ainsworth, , 2010Ainsworth et al., 2015;Bowlby, 1952Bowlby, , 1958Bowlby, , 1969Bowlby, , 1973Bowlby, , 1980Bowlby, , 1988aDSM-5, 2013;Tracy & Ainsworth, 1981). This security and safe haven becomes the building blocks of trust through the lifespan (Ainsworth et al., 2015;Bowlby, 1952Bowlby, , 1958Bowlby, , 1969Bowlby, , 1973Bowlby, , 1980. ...
    ... Healthy attachment is linked to psychological well-being (Ainsworth, 1962(Ainsworth, , 1964(Ainsworth, , 2010Ainsworth et al., 2015;Bowlby, 1952Bowlby, , 1958Bowlby, , 1969Bowlby, , 1973Bowlby, , 1980Bowlby, , 1988a. Attachment in the context of religion has focused on whether the relationship between an individual and their God concept/God image could be defined within the framework of attachment theory (Granqvist & Hagekull, 1999;Kirkpatrick, 1997aKirkpatrick, , 1997bKirkpatrick, , 1998Kirkpatrick & Shaver, 1990;Kirkpatrick & Shaver, 1992). ...
  • ... Dusunen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, Volume 31, Number 3, September 2018 GİRİŞ Y aşamın ilk yıllarında temel bakım veren kişi (çoğunlukla anne) ile kurulan etkileşimin bireyin yaşamında oldukça önemli bir etkisinin olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bağlanma kuramı bebek ile temel bakım veren arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemekte ve bu ilişki temelinde kişilik gelişimini açıklamaktadır (1,2). Bağlanma, en genel ifadeyle 'özel bir insana karşı geliştirilen duygusal bağ' şeklinde tanımlanmaktadır (1)(2)(3). ...
    ... Bağlanma kuramı bebek ile temel bakım veren arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemekte ve bu ilişki temelinde kişilik gelişimini açıklamaktadır (1,2). Bağlanma, en genel ifadeyle 'özel bir insana karşı geliştirilen duygusal bağ' şeklinde tanımlanmaktadır (1)(2)(3). Duygusal bağ kurma ihtiyacı yeni doğan bebeğin hayatta kalması ve gelişimsel seyri için oldukça işlevseldir (4)(5)(6)(7). Temel bakım veren kişiyle kurulan duygusal bağın çocuğun çevresini keşfedebilmek için 'güvenli bir temel' işlevi de bulunmaktadır (3,8,9). ...
    ... Güvensiz bağlanma boyutlarının yaşam doyumu ile anlamlı bir ilişkisi olduğu (R=0.338, R 2 =0.115) olduğu gözlemlenmiş ve bağlanmanın kaygı ve kaçınma alt boyutlarının, yaşam doyumunun anlamlı bir yordayıcısı olduğu görülmüştür (F [2,420] =27.162, p<0.001). Yaşam doyumundaki artış, kaygılı ve kaçınmacı bağlanma puanlarındaki azalmayla ilişkili bulunmuştur. ...
  • ... Attachment theory is a psychological model that articulates a behavioral phenomenon and illustrates how humans attach to their caregivers to establish a healthy and foundational childhood base allowing the child to take risks and explore the environment in a safe and secure manner. The following are the major philosophers that have researched and established attachment theory concepts (Lorenz, 1935;Harlow, 1958;Bowlby, 1958;and Ainsworth, 1964). Lorenz and Harlow studied attachment with animals while Bowlby and Ainsworth made the transition to the study of human engagement. ...
    ... Her methods not only made it possible to test some of Bowlby's ideas empirically but, also, helped expand the concepts of attachment theory. Ainsworth (1964) contributed the hypothesis that the attachment figure should be a secure base from which a newborn can explore the world. Also, Ainsworth articulated the concept of maternal sensitivity to infant gesticulations and how that behavior impacts the development of the newborn's attachment patterns to the mother. ...
    ... Also, Ainsworth articulated the concept of maternal sensitivity to infant gesticulations and how that behavior impacts the development of the newborn's attachment patterns to the mother. Ainsworth (1964) used Bowlby's research as a base to determine individual differences in attachment. She used the Strange Situation Procedure to measure the types of attachment classifications. ...
    Preprint
    The increase in immigrant, refugee and disenfranchised children in education is growing exponentially, and therefore, causing a demand for understanding the reasons that marginalized children are struggling to succeed within the current educational system. One response to this academic quandary is, as the research suggests, that attachment to the caregiver is a vital platform for all child development and learning Bowlby (1958). Another proposition is that attachment theory premises can be used to identify if and how attachment to a parent impacts attachment to literature and literacy development, which directly affects academic achievement. The association between attachment to the caregiver and a child’s attachment to literature among Anglo-Germanic groups (Van Ijzendoorn, 1996) has been studied, and the results demonstrate a direct correlation between the rapport with the caregiver and literacy acquisition and reading readiness. The link between attachment and literacy/reading acquisition as a cognitive phenomenon has not yet been studied among children that comprise immigrant, refugee, and disenfranchised children, and therefore, is the hypothetical imperative for recommended research.
  • ... The pioneering work of John Bowlby (1973Bowlby ( , 1982 and his colleague, Mary Ainsworth (1964Ainsworth ( , 1989, along with more recent theoretical extensions and contributions by Belsky et al. (1991), Hazan and Shaver (1987), and others, forms the basis for attachment theory as it is understood today. This middle-level evolutionary theory is reflected universally in humans as a behavioral system that is initiated in infancy and persists throughout adulthood, aiming individuals toward greater inclusive fitness (i.e., successful passing of one's genes to the next generation) in the anticipated environment. ...
    ... Attachment behaviors include signaling behaviors (e.g., smiling, cooing), aversive behaviors (e.g., crying, screaming), and active behaviors (e.g., clinging, following; Bowlby 1982). As children become more mobile, the caregiver serves as a secure base who can be returned to as needed during play and exploration (Ainsworth 1964(Ainsworth , 1989. The attachment behavioral system is conceptualized as reflecting the caregiving behavioral system such that once a child's attachment system is activated, it initiates the caregiver's caregiving system (George and Solomon 1999). ...
  • ... We hope that this study will encourage further research on the benefits and limits of novel couple activities as a relational maintenance strategy, using improved methodology in order to produce more decisive conclusions. Ainsworth, M. D. (1964). Patterns of attachment behavior shown by the infant in interaction with his mother. ...
    ... Attachment theory, originally developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (e.g., Ainsworth, 1964Ainsworth, , 1967Ainsworth, , 1969Ainsworth & Bell, 1970;Ainsworth, Bell, & Stayton, 1974;Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978;Bowlby, 1969Bowlby, /1982Bowlby, , 1973Bowlby, , 1980, explains the connection between people's experiences in, beliefs about, and behaviours in relationships with others. People's early experiences in relationships shape their beliefs about the general trustworthiness, supportiveness, predictability, warmth, and availability of others. ...
    Article
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    Intimate partner violence and sexual communication are two areas of research that have been extensively studied, but only few findings connect these areas. This literature review will examine the research that has been done on intimate partner violence, sexual communication and the connections between these two variables. In the light of the discoveries in this field of research, a U shape model is proposed to explain the connection between sexual communication and intimate partner violence. With this information, preventive interventions could be created to stop intimate partner violence before it happens. Full text available at https://docs.google.com/viewerng/viewer?url=http://jiriri.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/V10_ONLINE.pdf
  • ... Parents from both groups also reported behaviours from the dog which may represent a strong attachment bond between the child and the dog, such as the dog looking lovingly at their child and the dog moving closer and leaning into their child [58]. There were a few comments that the dog would favour sitting with the children when they were eating than the adults in the hope of receiving a food-treat. ...
    ... Child initiated situations that would prompt the dog to seek the parent included meltdowns and tantrums and possibly threatening interactions for the dog, such as being run over by toys. Parents commented that they would reassure the dog, through touch and voice in these circumstances, which is consistent with the caring style within secure attachments [58]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    There is growing scientific and societal recognition of the role that pet dogs can play in healthy development of children; both those who are neuro-typically developing and those who live with a neuro-developmental disorder, such as autism or attention deficit hyperactiv-ity disorder. However, little attention has been paid to how living with children positively and negatively affects quality of life of a pet dog. In this exploratory study we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents of neuro-typically developing children (n = 18) and those with a neuro-developmental disorder (n = 18) who owned a pet dog, until no new factors were identified. Living with children brought potentially positive benefits to the dog's life including: imposition of a routine, participation in recreational activities and the development of a strong bond between the child and the dog.
  • ... In the contract, students outline, select, and then concretize theories relevant to the disciple and course in which they are enrolled. For example, students taking a developmental psychology class might use Mary Ainsworth's (1964) attachment theory as a way to understand one of their life experiences. The phrase "life experience" is broad and encompassing. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between a curricular design and transformational learning. This research explores how adult students use the Living Research Project (LRP) as a transformative learning tool. Using focus group interviews and survey data, this exploratory study seeks to examine students' experiences completing LRPs. The study reveals (1) how students define and value the LRP, (2) their experiences integrating components of the LRP and (3) students' experiences using critical reflection in their LRPs. Results suggest students defined the LRP as a worthwhile assignment that connected their life experiences to course content. Although students had difficulty employing aspects of the curricular design, they deemed it a valuable tool for reflection. Misinterpretations of the design may have prevented its use as a transformative tool. Suggestions, such as employing explicit transformation language, are offered in developing deliberate transformative curricular designs for adult learners.
  • ... Temeli erken çocukluk yıllarında anne ile bebek arasındaki duygusal etkileşime dayanan (Ainsworth, 1964(Ainsworth, , 1969) bağlanma örüntüsü, yetişkinlik yıllarında da etkisini sürdürmekte olup (Gillath ve ark., 2016) bireyin ruh sağlığını ve davranışlarını etkilemektedir (Cömert ve Ögel, 2014). Yaşam boyu gelişim bakış açısından son yıllarda bağlanma çalışmaları, bebeklik ve çocukluk döneminin yanı sıra yetişkinlikteki ve az sayıdaki çalışmayla yaşlılık dönemindeki bağlanma biçimlerine yönelik araştırmalarla devam etmektedir (Çalışır, 2009). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Bu çalışmada aleksitimi kavramının gelişimi, aleksitimik belirtiler ve özellikler, aleksitiminin etiyolojisine ilişkin yaklaşımlar; psikanalitik, bilişsel, sosyal öğrenme ve bağlanma olmak üzere dört başlıkta incelenmiştir. Bu çalışma literatürde yapılan araştırmaların ışığında aleksitimi ile ilgili çalışmaların seyrini ortaya koymayı ve sağlıklı popülasyonda ortaya çıkma ihtimalini incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Ayrıca bağlanma örüntülerinin gelişimi ile aleksitimik özellikler arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi de çalışmanın bir diğer amacını oluşturmaktadır. Bu amaçla güvensiz bağlanma stillerinin (kaygılı, kaçınmacı) aleksitimiyi yordadığı hipotezi sınanmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemi Türkiye'nin çeşitli illerinde öğrenim görmekte olan 425 üniversite öğrencisinden oluşmaktadır. Hiyerarşik regresyon analizi sonuçlarına göre eğitim seviyesi ve güvensiz bağlanmanın kaygı ve kaçınma boyutları aleksitimi puanlarının önemli yordayıcılarıdır. Aleksitimik özelliklerin ortaya çıkma ihtimalini etkileyen faktörler ise ayırma analizi ile incelenmiştir. Buna göre, güvensiz bağlanma stillerinin, bireylerin aleksitimik belirtiler geliştirme ihtimalini anlamlı ölçüde artırdığı görülmektedir. Aleksitimik olan ve olmayan grupları ayırmaya en fazla katkısı olan değişkenin ise kaygılı bağlanma olduğu bulgulanmıştır. Buradan hareketle aleksitiminin normal sağlıklı bireylerde de ortaya çıkabildiği ve aleksitiminin oluşumunu ve nedenlerini açıklayan yaklaşımlar arasında "bağlanma kuramının" önemli bir yerinin bulunduğu söylenebilir. Bağlanmanın aleksitimiyi yordamasına ilişkin önemli veriler bulunmakla beraber, aleksitimiye neden olan diğer etmenlerin de incelenmesi gerekmektedir. The current study investigated the development of alexithymia concept, alexithymic symptoms and characteristics, and etiology of alexithymia in the light of psychoanalytic, cognitive, social learning, and attachment theories. The aim of this study was to examine the process of researches concerning with alexithymia and the probability of the incidence of alexithymia among healthy population. Second aim of the current research was to investigate the association between the development of attachment patterns and alexithymic features. For this purpose, the hypothesis of anxious and avoidant dimensions of insecure attachment styles prediction over the alexithymia scores was tested. Participants were 425 university students in Turkey. The hierarchical regression analysis results revealed that education level, anxious and avoidant dimensions of insecure attachment were important predictors of the alexithymia scores. The factors influencing the probability of incidence of alexithymia symptoms were examined by discriminant analysis. According to the results, insecure attachment styles increase significantly the incidence probability of alexithymic.
  • ... Der bisherigen Bindungsfor- schung zufolge wird dieses Sicherheitsbedürfnis bis zur Adoleszenz weitestge- hend nur von erwachsenen Bindungspersonen erfüllt (Allen 2008;Kerns 2008). Diesem Ansatz liegt dabei die Idee der Monotropie zugrunde, nach der sich Kinder anfänglich nur an eine Person binden und diese Beziehung für eine positive psy- chische Entwicklung eine hohe Kontinuität aufweisen muss (Ainsworth 1964;Bowlby 1969Bowlby , 1973. Doch auch in der Erforschung von Bindung werden zuneh- mend die Grenzen eines eurozentrischen Vorgehens aufgezeigt. ...
    Book
    Full-text available
    Die Zuverlässigkeit alltäglicher Dinge erscheint als Fundament der Orientierung in unserer Lebenswelt. Bei vielen Gegenständen offenbart jedoch ein zweiter Blick ganz andere, oftmals überraschende Eigenschaften. Dies kann Umgangsweisen, Kontexte oder Umwertungen betreffen. Durchweg erweist sich eine eindeutige Einbettung als fragwürdig oder unhaltbar. Das Buch präsentiert ausgewählte Gegenstände, bei denen durch genauere Betrachtung deren offenkundige Mehrdeutigkeit zutage tritt. Die originellen Studien hinterfragen scheinbar selbstverständliche Auffassungen, zum Teil zu alltäglichen und vertrauten Dingen, zum Teil auch mit Bezug zu besonderen Objekten, die im Spannungsfeld politischer Aushandlungen stehen.
  • ... Bowlby's early investigation of institutional care in Europe and North America, his resulting attachment theory, and Mary Ainsworth's (1964) labeling of attachment styles led to further research on child-caregiver attachment in institutional care around the world. Mary Ainsworth (1967) tested the theory through longitudinal observations of the mother-child attachment relationship in Africa. ...
    Thesis
    Full-text available
    Institutional care for children separated from parents is expanding in Africa, but little research exists on caregiving at these institutions. This study explores the caregiver-child relationship in two residential institutions in South Sudan by investigating how caregivers experience their role and how children experience their lives in the institution. Semi- structured interviews assessed 14 caregivers’ backgrounds, parenting experience, attitudes, education, and motivations. The Orphans and Vulnerable Children Wellbeing Tool (OWT) assessed 98 adolescent residents, who also gave feedback about their answers. Caregivers employ parenting styles used by their parents and report treating non-relative children the same as biological children. Children report relatively lower family and social wellbeing as compared with other domains of wellbeing, such as food, shelter, and spirituality. Despite disparities in caregivers’ age, experience, and education between the two institutions, the adolescent groups at both sites report similar mean wellbeing scores, indicating the institutional framework may influence adolescent wellbeing more strongly than particular characteristics of the caregivers at those institutions. Future studies in South Sudan could compare adolescent wellbeing across a spectrum of alternative care settings (relative foster care, non-relative foster care, institutional care) to determine which form of alternative care provides the highest wellbeing for children.
  • ... Temeli erken çocukluk yıllarında anne ile bebek arasındaki duygusal etkileşime dayanan (Ainsworth, 1964(Ainsworth, , 1969) bağlanma örüntüsü, yetişkinlik yıllarında da etkisini sürdürmekte olup (Gillath ve ark., 2016) bireyin ruh sağlığını ve davranışlarını etkilemektedir (Cömert ve Ögel, 2014). Yaşam boyu gelişim bakış açısından son yıllarda bağlanma çalışmaları, bebeklik ve çocukluk döneminin yanı sıra yetişkinlikteki ve az sayıdaki çalışmayla yaşlılık dönemindeki bağlanma biçimlerine yönelik araştırmalarla devam etmektedir (Çalışır, 2009). ...
    Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    Bu çalışmada aleksitimi kavramının gelişimi, aleksitimik belirtiler ve kişilik özellikleri, aleksitiminin etiyolojisine ilişkin yaklaşımlar; psikanalitik, bilişsel, sosyal öğrenme, bağlanma ve biyolojik olmak üzere beş başlıkta incelenmiştir. Bu çalışma literatürde yapılan araştırmaların ışığında aleksitimi ile ilgili çalışmaların seyrini ortaya koymayı ve sağlıklı popülasyonda görülme oranlarını incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Ayrıca bağlanma örüntülerinin gelişimi ile aleksitimik özellikler arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi de çalışmanın bir diğer amacını oluşturmaktadır. Bu amaçla güvensiz bağlanma stillerinin (kaygılı, kaçınmacı) aleksitimiyi yordadığı hipotezi sınanmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemi Türkiye’nin çeşitli illerinde öğrenim görmekte olan 425 üniversite öğrencisinden oluşmaktadır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre güvensiz bağlanmanın kaygı ve kaçınma boyutları aleksitimiyi pozitif yönde yordamaktadır. Aleksitimik özelliklerin ortaya çıkma ihtimalini etkileyen faktörler (bağlanma boyutları) ise ayırma analizi (diskriminant) ile incelenmiştir. Buna göre, güvensiz bağlanma stillerinin, bireylerin aleksitimik özellikler geliştirme ihtimalini anlamlı ölçüde artırdığı görülmektedir. Aleksitimik olan ve olmayan grupları ayırmaya en fazla katkısı olan değişkenin ise kaygılı bağlanma olduğu bulgulanmıştır. Buradan hareketle aleksitiminin normal sağlıklı bireylerde de ortaya çıkabildiği ve aleksitiminin oluşumunu ve nedenlerini açıklayan yaklaşımlar arasında “bağlanma kuramının” önemli bir yerinin bulunduğu söylenebilir. Bağlanmanın aleksitimiyi yordamasına ilişkin önemli veriler bulunmakla beraber, aleksitimiye neden olan diğer etmenlerin de incelenmesi gerekmektedir. Bu nedenle, aleksitiminin neden ve nasıl ortaya çıktığının daha iyi anlaşılabilmesi ve aleksitimiye yönelik yapılabilecek terapötik müdahalelerin çerçevesini belirlemek için kuramsal yapıların etkisine yönelik karşılaştırmalı verilere ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır.
  • ... One of the primary goals of a prison nursery programs is to increase the likelihood that mothers and infants will form secure attachments (Borelli et al., 2010;Sharp & Marcus-Mendoza, 2001). Infants develop a secure attachment when a caregiver recognizes the emotional and physiological needs of the infant and responds appropriately to those needs (Ainsworth, 1964;Bowlby, 1969;1982). Studies also indicate strong bonds decrease the likelihood of engaging in delinquent or deviant behavior (Allen et al., 2002;Dodson, 2009;Hirschi 1969). ...
    Preprint
    The purpose of this study is to conduct a comprehensive evidence-based evaluation of prison nursery programs to determine whether they are effective in reducing recidivism. Seven studies evaluating the effectiveness of prison nursery programs are examined and classified using the Maryland Scientific Methods Scale. The results show some empirical evidence for the ability of prison nursery programs to reduce recidivism. However, weak methodological research designs and insufficient statistical analyses led us to classify the effectiveness of prison nursery programs as "unknown." Suggestions for improving the methodological quality of studies examining prison nursery programs and directions for future research are discussed. Abstract The purpose of this study is to conduct a comprehensive evidence-based evaluation of prison nursery programs to determine whether they are effective in reducing recidivism. Seven studies evaluating the effectiveness of prison nursery programs are examined and classified using the Maryland Scientific Methods Scale. The results show some empirical evidence for the ability of prison nursery programs to reduce recidivism. However, weak methodological research designs and insufficient statistical analyses led us to classify the effectiveness of prison nursery programs as "unknown." Suggestions for improving the methodological quality of studies examining prison nursery programs and directions for future research are discussed.
  • ... Given differences in terms of instructional focus and student development across grade levels (Mihaly & McCaffrey, 2014), it is possible that CLASS might function differently across grade levels. For example, attachment theory is useful in explaining young children's behavior in classrooms (Ainsworth, 1964;Bowlby, 1969). Yet, it may not be very useful in explaining the behavior of adolescents. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) has been used extensively to measure teacher-student interactions and classroom quality. With a theoretical foundation rooted in the developmental theory of learning, CLASS has three primary domains—Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and Instructional Support. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of the factor structure of CLASS using Cheung’s two-stage structural equation modeling (TSSEM) approach. After searching the literature, we obtained 26 correlation matrices of the 10 dimensions shared by multiple versions of CLASS. This meta-analysis supports the three-factor model initially proposed by CLASS developers. The finding of this meta-analysis provides important evidence pertinent to the CLASS factor structure and has significant implications regarding the interpretation and use of CLASS scores.
  • ... This is where the intersection of race and social class becomes imperative in creating research, theory, and practice that recognize the ways in which the social class and the race of a parent factor into the parent-child experience. Early attachment theory explored attachment security across cultures (Ainsworth, 1964). But quickly a cultural bias was engrained in the research and the application of attachment theory and our preconceived notions about parenting, with a cultural bias that favors the White, middle-class American experience. ...
    Article
    Changing gender roles and caretaking roles in the family have resulted in greater involvement of fathers in the day-to-day care of their children (Parker & Livingston, 2017). As a result, there is a need to better understand the nature of father-child relationships on many levels and within the context of multiple circumstances. One specific example is the role of non-offending fathers in the care of children after child sexual abuse disclosure. Employing attachment theory as a theoretical framework, this two-paper dissertation examines the experiences of fathers as caregivers. The first paper reviews the evolution of paternal roles in the United States, documenting ways in which cultural and economic pressures of fathering have been interconnected with the development and implementation of attachment theory, child welfare policy, and direct clinical practice. Building on the discussion of paternal roles, the second paper offers a case study of a non-offending father’s experience in parenting his child after the disclosure of sexual abuse. Findings from this case study identify the protective support a father offers, the barriers and resources of support he may experience, and the importance of a father’s secure attachment relationship with his child after the disclosure of child sexual abuse. This two paper dissertation is meant to serve as a critical beginning step in exploring the role of fathers in the care and healing of their children. Implications for social work practice include enhanced acknowledgement, engagement, intervention and prevention strategies that incorporate fathers effectively, better utilizing fathers as allies in the overall care of their children.
  • ... However, it may be advantageous to consider the attachment categories from the DMM model of attachment (Crittenden, 2015) to determine attachment security. It has been suggested that the DMM may have greater theoretical and clinical value than the Ainsworth (1964), and Main and Solomon (1990) models. This is because it takes into consideration multiple environmental factors (e.g. ...
    Thesis
    Full-text available
    Substance abuse can take a significant toll over parenting. This cross-sectional study uses an attachment perspective to examine whether reflective functioning mediates the relationship between mental representations of caregiving and maternal sensitivity, in a sample of 142 substance-abusing mother-infant dyads (Mage = 29.83 mothers; 24.04 children). Baseline data was obtained from two randomized controlled trials using the Working Model of the Child Interview, Parent Development Interview, and Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Teaching Scale. All outcome variables were positively correlated. Maternal reflective functioning mediated the relationship between representational quality and maternal sensitivity, after controlling for demographic variables. Findings support attachment- and mentalization-based interventions, underscoring the importance of reflective functioning for positive parenting outcomes.
  • ... Later on, John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth had pioneering works on restructuring the concepts from evolutionary, biological, developmental, and cognitive sciences into a theory of attachment. According to their theory, a child innately and intrinsically seeks a certain level of proximity to the mother (the attachment figure), i.e. when she is too far, the attachment system gets activated and the infant utilizes his/her effort to regain proximity to the mother; when the proximity is gained, attachment system gets terminated and the child starts exploration (Ainsworth, 1964). In this process, the aim of the child is not attaining the object (e.g., the mother, or a toy), but instead, it is maintaining the state of feeling secure and feeling competent. ...
    Thesis
    Full-text available
    The main area of exploration is the work life for adults and the extent to which adults are engaged in their works, determines their level of productiveness and mastery. One of the important factors related to work engagement is perceived partner responsiveness, which is defined as one’s perception of his/her partner as understanding, validating, and caring. Motivated by the lifespan development perspective of the attachment theory, it was aimed to examine the relation between work engagement and perceived partner responsiveness in the current study. It was hypothesized that perceived partner responsiveness will be positively related to participants’ work engagement behaviors on the next day. This hypothesis is tested with dual earner married couples in a Turkish sample. Three weeks of daily dyadic data is analyzed in a multilevel model for the current hypothesis where the days are nested under couples. The results showed that perceived partner responsiveness is beneficial on next day’s work engagement only for men but not for women. Moreover, the variables for the same day were related to each other for both genders but work engagement and next day’s perceived partner responsiveness is not significantly related for neither of genders.
  • ... Bowlby (1982) was among the first to highlight the way in which parent-child relationships can contribute to troubled behavior in childhood. Bowlby's (1944Bowlby's ( , 1956) studies of children who were separated from their mothers in infancy laid the foundation for his later writings on attachment theory and links with research of Ainsworth (1964Ainsworth ( , 1979. The Ainsworth Strange Situation Assessment (Ainsworth, 1979) led to the formation of four attachment styles: secure, avoidant, ambivalent-resistant, and disorganized-disoriented. ...
  • ... (Shulman, 1985, p. 248) Interestingly, the development of the attachment motive in attachment theory appears to parallel the development of Adler's social interest. Both are innate, both have to be developed in interaction with primary caregivers, and the degree to which both are present in an individual's life affects the degree to which that person moves toward or against or away from fellow human beings (Ainsworth, 1964;Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1979;Bowlby, 1982;Forgus & Shulman, 1979;Mosak & Maniacci, 1999;Peluso et al., 2004;Shulman & Watts, 1997;Watts, 2003a;Watts & Shulman, 2003). ...
  • ... Children do deserve a secure base which has traditionally been defined as an individual, typically the mother, that the child will use when in need of protection or when starting to explore. The secure base also creates an internal working model of what secure relationships should be like (Ainsworth, 1964). The idea that caregiving will be responsive to the needs of the child resonates although the expression of that will vary (van Ijzendoorn & Sagi-Schwartz, 2008). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    INTRODUCTION: The article challenges the current interpretation of Attachment Theory (AT) which favours placement of Indigenous children in non-Indigenous homes. Historical attempts to assimilate Indigenous populations are examined in relation to ongoing assimilation within child intervention and justice systems. The goal is to stimulate discussion about possible culturally appropriate models to articulate the complex and multiple attachments formed by an Indigenous person who is brought up in an Indigenous community, compared to the popular Western and Eurocentric view of parenting through dyadic attachment derived from AT.METHODS: A review of AT literature examining key questions of cross-cultural applicability validity in relation to Indigenous populations. Consultations were held with Elders from the Blackfoot Confederacy of Alberta as part of the Nistawatsiman project. Data were gathered in a project relating to AT and the Supreme Court of Canada.FINDINGS: Cultural Attachment Theory is emerging as a preferred way to think of Indigenous contexts as opposed to applying traditional AT. The validity of AT with Indigenous families is likely not valid and perpetuates colonial and assimilative understandings of family, parenting and the place of culture.CONCLUSIONS: Pan-Indigenous methods bias child intervention, blinding them to the capacity of Indigenous caring systems’ capacity to raise their children. The use of AT sustains over- representation of Indigenous children in care and continues the colonial practices of fracturing Indigenous caregiving systems which, in turn, creates the patterns for the next generation’s over-representation in care. Indigenous ways of knowing and being are required along with Indigenous-based decision making.
  • ... Attachment theory, originally developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (e.g., Ainsworth, 1964Ainsworth, , 1967Ainsworth, , 1969Ainsworth & Bell, 1970;Ainsworth, Bell, & Stayton, 1974;Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978;Bowlby, 1969Bowlby, /1982Bowlby, , 1973Bowlby, , 1980, explains the connection between people's experiences in, beliefs about, and behaviours in relationships with others. People's early experiences in relationships shape their beliefs about the general trustworthiness, supportiveness, predictability, warmth, and availability of others. ...
  • ... Parental sensitive care may be an important environmental influence. First, because sensitive caregiving includes the ability to perceive and appropriately respond to an infant's distress and attentional focus (Ainsworth, 1964;Ainsworth, 1967) sensitive parents will often help to orient infants' attention away from distressing events and, through correctly detecting subtle infant cues, towards objects or persons that the infants' behavior suggests are endogenously interesting. Thus, infants of sensitive caregivers may help their infants practice goal-directed attention, thereby facilitating the development of endogenous control in everyday life. ...
    Article
    Despite claims concerning biological mechanisms sub-serving infant attention, little experimental work examines its underpinnings. This study examines how candidate polymorphisms from the cholinergic (CHRNA4 rs1044396) and dopaminergic (COMT rs4680) systems, respectively indicative of parietal and prefrontal/anterior cingulate involvement, are related to 6-month-olds’ (n = 217) performance during a visual expectation eye-tracking paradigm. As previous studies suggest that both cholinergic and dopaminergic genes may influence susceptibility to the influence of other genetic and environmental factors, we further examined whether these candidate genes interact with one another and/or with early caregiving experience in predicting infants’ visual attention. We detected an interaction between CHRNA4 genotype and observed maternal sensitivity upon infants’ orienting to random stimuli and a CHRNA4-COMT interaction effect upon infants’ orienting to patterned stimuli. Consistent with adult research, we observed a direct effect of COMT genotype on anticipatory looking to patterned stimuli. Findings suggest that CHRNA4 genotype may influence susceptibility to other attention-related factors in infancy. These interactions may account for the inability to establish a link between CHRNA4 and orienting in infant research to date, despite developmental theorizing suggesting otherwise. Moreover, findings suggest that by 6 months, dopamine, and relatedly, the prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate, may be important to infant attention.
  • ... Attachment theory focuses on the active, ongoing dynamics of interpersonal relationships between human beings (Ainsworth, 1964). Psychoanalytic theory concentrates on both healthy and maladaptive aspects of the human personality and interrelationships. ...
    Article
    There are an estimated 2.5 million people in the United States of America suffering from opioid use disorders. Of the 2.5 million Americans impacted by opioid use disorders, over half are women. One of the most challenging aspects of opioid use disorders occurs in the context of pregnancy. Discourse surrounding the topic of addiction often identifies the root cause of addiction as a moral failing, rather than a pathophysiological disease. This stigma is amplified in the context of pregnancy and perpetuates the false, discriminatory notion that pregnant women with opioid use disorders are knowingly “harming” their babies without regard. Instead of receiving support, education, and encouragement, pregnant women with opioid use disorders are faced with stigma, judgment, shame, and guilt. These negative interactions ultimately serve as barriers that interfere with the ability for early attachment bond development, a monumentally important piece of newborn development and the most significant contributor to healthy attachment development. These avoidable, institutionally created barriers propagate both short- and long-term risk factors for the mother and infant, both independently and as a dyad. This dissertation will systematically explore several aspects of perinatal opioid use disorders to develop an evidence-informed practice model for healthcare providers working with pregnant and postpartum women with opioid use disorders. This dissertation will also explore the intersection of perinatal opioid use disorders and attachment theory, which will serve as the framework for the PARTNER model, an attachment-based practice model for providers working with mothers and infants impacted by perinatal opioid use disorders. Composite case vignettes, informed by clinical experience and empirical literature, are integrated throughout this dissertation to illuminate and connect the critical concepts that set the foundation for the PARTNER model.
  • ... Zudem ist von einer höheren Alexithymie-Prävalenz in Populationen niedrigen sozioökonomischen Status auszugehen, wobei sich in dieser Personengruppe gleichzeitig eine höhere Zahl psychosomatischer Erkrankungen, sowie im Speziellen der Somatisierungsstörung findet (Chander et al., 2019;Guttman & Laporte, 2002;Lesser, Ford & Friedmann, 1979 (Klüwer, 1997). Die Bindungstheorie von Bowlby (1958) erfuhr von Seiten anderer Psychoanalytiker*innen starke Kritik (Freud, A., 1960;Schur, 1960 Ainsworth et al. (1964Ainsworth et al. ( , 1967 (Ainsworth et al., 1978), wobei diese in den 80er-Jahren um den unsicher-desorganisierten Stil (D) ergänzt wurden (Main & Solomon, 1986). ...
    Thesis
    Different to the concept of somatization as a residual diagnosis for medically unexplained symptoms, psychodynamic theories understand somatization as a psychic mechanism, that can occur after debilitating experiences. Therefore, the following thesis deals with answering the question, how traumatic experiences can result in symptoms of somatization, from a psychodynamic view. Studies show, that symptoms of somatization are significantly correlated to previous traumatic experiences, even when only a few of the symptoms meet the criteria for somatization disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Somatization shows high associations with traumatic childhood experiences, but also appears after traumatic experiences in adulthood. That’s why somatization may be considered a post-traumatic symptom. In general, psychodynamic theories understand somatization to be a coping mechanism for dealing with trauma. The theories of desomatization and resomatization, two-phasic repression, and narcissistic defense are useful to describe ongoing processes between traumatization and somatization, despite there being little empirical verification available. The concepts of alexithymia, attachment and dissociation were empirically examined but only contribute to outlining explanatory approaches to somatization after traumatic experiences. In conclusion, the presented psychodynamic theories support an idea of somatization processes that enable a view of the symptoms that focus on the individual. Nevertheless, there is still need to analyze the correlation between somatization and harm of the integrity of the body regardless of whether the adverse experience meets all criteria for being traumatic. Key words: somatization, trauma, PTSD, psychodynamics
  • ... Las principales investigaciones que han abordado el estudio de las conductas de apego de los niños adoptados lo han hecho principalmente a través de la situación del extraño. Mary Ainsworth (1962Ainsworth ( , 1964, discípula de Bowlby diseñó y aplicó un programa conocido como "Experiencia Extraña" para evaluar la calidad del vínculo entre una madre y su hijo, basándose en que las figuras de apego actúan como sustento de la conducta exploratoria y por tanto las separaciones son seguidas de efectos psicológicos y fisiológicos en el niño. Los tipos de vínculos descritos por ella son: a) Pauta de apego seguro: en esta existe una confianza por parte del niño hacia sus padres (o figuras parentales), quienes serán accesibles, sensibles a las señales del niño y colaboradores, cuando el infante se encuentre en situaciones adversas o amenazantes. ...
  • ... As has been explicated elsewhere (Watermeyer, 2009), part of a life lived in the face of stereotyping involves attempts not at proving who one is, but at disproving who one is assumed to be. This is at the heart of the melancholic predicamentthe imperative to strive for an identity which can never be attained, drawing one away from inhabiting one's own narrative in a manner which might bring loss to light and validationhere, the frozen watchfulness of an infant with an avoidant attachment comes to mind (Ainsworth, 1964). Grief is humanizing; its prohibition may dehumanize. ...
    Article
    This paper presents a theoretically-informed psychosocial analysis of the case of M, a physically disabled man from South Africa. We use M’s account as a platform from which to consider projection, melancholic suspension and grief, as these are played out in the negotiation of dependency in relationships for disabled people. Making use of a case study methodology, we examine the various strategies through which M manages those disability stereotypes which are ascribed to him, creating a picture of how identity is negotiated in the face of interpersonal dependency as well as disablist prejudice. A central proposition is that, for M, upholding relationships which bring much-needed assistance means caring for the emotional lives of his carers, in a manner which leaves him more vulnerable to internalizing identity insults, and less able to resist his own oppression. Employing a psychoanalytic frame, we suggest that the “melancholic suspension” which some disabled people may be subject to, may lead to the necessity to “take on” certain projections, in the process of accessing much-needed care. As shall be seen, M maneuvers creatively through this relational realm by engaging in trade-offs between positive identity and physical need, employing strategies which include self-deprecation, the performance of mastery, playing with gender, and humor. With these and other techniques, he navigates the relational and psychic economy of his dependency.
  • ... Physiologically, low affiliation with peers, in the form of peer provocation, is related to increased heart rate reactivity and vagal regulation (Hessler & Fainsilber Katz, 2007). Attachment stress has been tested at the physiological level through cortisol and progesterone levels (Wirth & Schultheiss, 2006), at the behavioral level through the strange situation task (Ainsworth, 1964), and at the paradigm level using the Cyberball paradigm (Yaakobi & Williams, 2016). Moreover, subjective ratings of interpersonal attachment provide insight into perceptions of attachment and affiliations by one's self or by others (Schwartz, Lindley, & Buboltz Jr, 2007). ...
    Article
    Objective: This meta-analysis advances a framework to understand correspondence among units of analysis of the social processing construct within Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Method: As requested for this special issue, eligible studies cited an RDoC-initiative paper or mentioned RDoC in the abstract, title or keywords, were empirical and peer-reviewed, and described a correlation or regression analysis (r, β, or Odds Ratio) between two different units of analysis in the social processing domain in youth. We examined the frequency (descriptive statistics) and magnitude of correspondence between unit-pairs (random-effects models), and predefined moderators (meta-regression). Results: Eight of twenty-eight possible unit-by-unit pairs were identified, with subjective-by-behavior units being the most common. Of those, only subjective-by-circuit had significant correspondence between units. Moderator analysis revealed that age and diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) moderated correspondence between subjective-by-circuit units of analysis, and that a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder moderated correspondence between subjective-by-gene units of analysis. Younger ages and inclusion of either diagnostic group reduced correspondence. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the RDoC initiative has generated limited research within the social processing domain across units of analysis in youth to date. Moreover, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded studies do not appear to be biased towards supporting the RDoC framework. However, the limited number of included studies precludes the generalizability of these findings and underscores the need for further research. Despite this, results suggest that the NIMH model for providing standard batteries of measurement tools may effectively reduce spurious correlations between subjective-by-behavior units of analysis.
  • ... A significant challenge in integrating the attachment-STB research literature is the inconsistent use of terminology used to describe different patterns of attachment. This is, in part, because attachment theory comprises different conceptual approaches including Bowlby and Ainsworth's original conceptualization (e.g., Ainsworth, 1964;Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991;Bowlby, 1988) and the contemporary frameworks on adult attachment (e.g., Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991;Hazan & Shaver, 1987;Mikulincer & Shaver, 2016c). This inconsistency complicates the process of synthesizing the studies since the authors conceptualize attachment in such diverse ways, even though they are analyzing the same psychological phenomena. ...
    Article
    We aimed to (1) determine the extent of the relationship between attachment and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB), (2) investigate whether any gender differences exist, and (3) conduct a theoretical synthesis of the included studies. A systematic search of the databases Web of Science; EBSCO Host Medical and Psychology-related resources, which includes CINAHL, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and PsycINFO; and EMBASE was conducted, with 52 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. While secure attachment acts as protective factor, insecure attachment orientations appear to be vulnerability factors compromising an individual’s capacity to cope with relationship issues, increasing suicide risk. There is insufficient evidence about gender differences. The theoretical synthesis suggests that attachment, interacting with other psychological traits in response to negative life events, acts as a vulnerability or protective factor for STB. Implications for treatment are also discussed.
  • ... One of the primary goals of a prison nursery programs is to increase the likelihood that mothers and infants will form secure attachments (Borelli, Goshin, Joestl, Clark, & Byrne, 2010;Sharp & Marcus-Mendoza, 2001). Infants develop a secure attachment when a caregiver recognizes the emotional and physiological needs of the infant and responds appropriately to those needs (Ainsworth, 1964;Bowlby, 1969Bowlby, , 1982. The development of secure attachments sets infants on a trajectory toward positive life outcomes. ...
    Article
    The purpose of this study is to conduct a comprehensive evidence-based review of evaluation studies of prison nursery programs to determine whether they are effective in reducing recidivism. Seven studies evaluating the effectiveness of prison nursery programs are examined and classified using the Maryland Scientific Methods Scale. The results show some empirical evidence for the capacity of prison nursery programs to reduce recidivism. However, weak methodological research designs and insufficient statistical analyses led us to classify the effectiveness of prison nursery programs as “unknown.” Suggestions for improving the methodological quality of studies examining prison nursery programs and directions for future research are discussed.
  • ... Based on the theoretical perspectives of Bowlby (1958Bowlby ( , 1969 and Ainsworth (1964Ainsworth ( , 1967Ainsworth ( , 1969, attachment is an affectionate bond that shapes a child's future behavior and sociability. Developers of attachment theory viewed caregiver sensitivity and responsiveness as the cornerstone of defining secure attachment. ...
    Article
    This study evaluated effects of stages of child maltreatment onset and types of maltreatment on cooperation and aggression. Data from a previously conducted study at Cornell University were used. Participants (N = 300) experienced an onset of abuse at one of four stages (infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, school age) and experienced one or more forms of childhood maltreatment. Outcome measures included Pupil Evaluation Inventory (PEI), Behavior Ratings (BR), and Peer Nominations (PN) of Cooperation and Aggression. To avoid small cell sizes, the predictors were dichotomized into infancy or later for stage of onset and single or multiple maltreatment forms for type of maltreatment. All effects were non-significant, excluding one. Higher levels of aggression, as measured by the PN and BR, were observed for stages after infancy, however only at Year 4. Although mostly concluding with non-significant findings, they still emphasize consequences maltreatment has on social functioning. Instead of differentiating between age of onset or types of abuses experienced, these findings reveal that any type of abuse at any age detrimentally impacts children's social interactions.
  • ... Secure attachment is shown in a specific set of secure attachment behaviours from children (e.g. seeking proximity upon reunion, differential smiling, preference for support; Ainsworth, 1964;Ainsworth et al., 2015). These behaviours are aimed at establishing a dynamic equilibrium between proximity to the parents and exploring the environment (Bowlby, 1969(Bowlby, /1982Cassidy, 2016). ...
    Article
    The relationships between children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (ID) and their parents may fulfil attachment functions, such as regulating emotional responses to stress. This study examined the extent to which children with severe or profound ID differentiate between their parents and a stranger as a resource for stress-regulation. A home-based experimental paradigm was conducted and video-recorded in 38 families. Children (1-8 years) were exposed to four naturalistic stressors followed by comfort, randomly provided by the parents or the stranger. Emotional behaviour (arousal and valence) and the skin conductance level were simultaneously recorded. With regard to both emotional behaviour and skin conduc-tance, children significantly differentiated between their parents as attachment figures and the stranger during stress and comfort, despite their impairments on various developmental domains. Behavioural observation and physiology show complementary manifestations of parent-child attachment in this population. ARTICLE HISTORY
  • ... We concentrate on a single operationalization of the sensitivity construct, which evolved from Mary Ainsworth's (1969;1964;1967) seminal naturalistic observations of maternal behavior in Uganda and Baltimore. The Maternal Behavior Q-Sort (MBQS) (Pederson et al., 1990) is an observational coding instrument that was developed with specific reference to the original Ainsworth sensitivity scale, which defines sensitivity as a caregiver's ability to perceive, accurately interpret and adequately respond to the needs of the infant (Ainsworth et al., 1978). ...
    Preprint
    Maternal sensitivity is a modifiable determinant of infant attachment security and a precursor to optimal child development. Contextual stressors undermine sensitivity, but research was yet to be synthesized. We aimed to identify i) types of stress associations analyzed in studies of maternal sensitivity and ii) the strength of effects of various stress factors. A systematic search identified all studies that used the Maternal Behavior Q-Sort (MBQS) to code sensitivity in dyadic observations and that reported a coefficient for MBQS associations with contextual stress. Identified stressors cohered around three spheres: sociodemography (maternal education, family income, composite SES, maternal age and cohabitation status); parenting stress (perceived maternal stress related to parenting); and mental health (specifically maternal internalizing symptoms). Seven meta-analyses (combined ns range 223-1239) of a subset of 30 effects from 20 articles, and a multi-level meta-analysis (N=1324) assessed aggregated correlations with sensitivity. Significant mean effects emerged in expected directions, whereby all stress indicators were negatively associated with sensitivity. Small effects were found for associations with parenting stress (r=-0.13) and mental health indicators (r=-0.12). Generally moderate effects were found for associations with socio-demographic indicators (range r=-0.12 to r=0.32). Emerging findings support the proposition that in various contexts of stress, maternal sensitivity to infant needs can be undermined. Implications and research directions are discussed.
  • ... Sherry, Adelman, Farwell, and Linton (2013) explore the intersectionality of social class, race, and culture concerning parent-child attachment experiences. Early attachment theory explored attachment security across cultures (Ainsworth, 1964). But quickly, a cultural bias was engrained in the research and the application of attachment theory and our preconceived notions about parenting, with a cultural bias that favors the White, middle-class American experience. ...
    Article
    Changing gender roles and caretaking roles in the family have resulted in increased father involvement in the day-to-day care of their children. As a result, there is a need to better understand the nature of father–child relationships within the context of multiple circumstances. One specific example is the role of nonoffending fathers in the care of children after child sexual abuse disclosure. This article first reviews how the attachment theory has evolved to include fathers and then reviews the unique contribution of paternal attachment to the care of child victims of sexual abuse. Implications for practice include enhanced engagement and intervention strategies that incorporate fathers effectively in services, better utilizing fathers as allies in the care of their children.
  • ... Attachment theory is a comprehensive framework which endeavors to understand how emotional bonds and relationships develop (Ainsworth, 1964;Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991;Bretherton, 1992). Attachment relationships are shaped throughout the lifespan, beginning with how parents/guardians care for, treat, and raise their child (Lopez, 1995;Marvin & Britner, 1999). ...
    Article
    Objective: In this study, we aimed to conduct an in-depth psychometric investigation of the Relationships Scales Questionnaire (RSQ). Method: About 717 UK-based participants responded to an online questionnaire (F = 540, M = 177; age range 18-66 years, M = 25, SD = 8.46). We conducted (a) a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to test previously published factor models of the RSQ, (b) traditional (exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis) and contemporary (exploratory graph analysis) exploratory techniques, followed by (c) validity and reliability analyses. Results: Although the RSQ was developed to assess four categories of adult attachment (typological approach - i.e., secure, preoccupied, dismissing, and fearful), our findings do not support the hypothesis that the RSQ delivers a psychometrically consistent measure of adult attachment styles. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a two-dimensional approach (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) to assessing adult attachment is optimal.
  • Article
    Background The hallmark of attachment is that contact, proximity and relief from stress are sought from specific individuals, laying important groundwork for healthy socioemotional functioning. This study investigated the extent to which differentiated attachment behaviour can be observed in young children with significant developmental delay (DD). Method Video‐taped observations of the parent–child and stranger–child interaction were conducted at home and complemented with questionnaires in 20 families with a child with significant DD (age 2–7 years with an average DD of 49 months). Results Children displayed more intense and persistent contact‐seeking, contact‐maintaining and resistant behaviour in the episodes with their parent compared to the episodes with the stranger. Parent‐reported secure attachment behaviour was slightly more characteristic towards mother compared to father. Conclusions Even children with significant DD develop differentiated attachment behaviour. Detailed observations may support parents in identifying the interactions that make the attachment relationship with their child special.
  • Article
    Research shows that parenting interventions are plagued with the problem of early treatment termination. A brief 6-week intervention, parent-child care (PC-CARE) was developed to minimize the time investment for parents while maximizing the probability of improving behavioral problems of their 1-10 year old children. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of PC-CARE and examine preliminary outcomes. The data were collected as part of an open trial in a community mental health clinic and included pre- and post-treatment performance outcomes, weekly measures of treatment progress, and assessments of treatment fidelity. Participants were 64 children and their primary caregivers, referred by physicians, social workers, or self-referred for help with their children's difficult behaviors. The retention rate was 94%. Results of analyses pre- to post-intervention scores showed significant improvements in child behavioral problems as well as improvements in parenting stress and positive parenting skills. The findings suggest that PC-CARE may be a beneficial treatment for children with disruptive behaviors, encourage future research into the efficacy of this brief parenting intervention, and its effectiveness in other populations and contexts.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The Mirror Game (MG) is a common exercise in dance/movement therapy and drama therapy. It is used to promote participants’ ability to enter and remain in a state of togetherness. In spite of the wide use of the MG by practitioners, it is only recently that scientists begun to use the MG in research, examining its correlates, validity and reliability. This study joins this effort by reporting on the identification of scale items to describe the nonverbal behaviour expressed during the MG and its correlation to measures of attachment. Thus, we explored the application of the MG as a tool for assessing the embodiment of attachment in adulthood. Forty-eight participants (22 females, mean age = 33.2) played the MG with the same gender-matched expert players. All MG were videotaped. In addition, participants were evaluated on two central measurements of attachment in adulthood: The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and the Experience in Close Relationship questionnaire (ECR). To analyse the data, we developed the “mirror game scale” that coded the nonverbal behavior during the movement interaction, using 19 parameters. The sub-scales were reduced using factor analysis into two dimensions referred to as “together” and “free”. The free factor was significantly correlated to both measurements of attachment: Participants classified as having secure attachment on the AAI, received higher scores on the MG free factor than participants classified as insecure (t (46) = 7.858, p =.000). Participants who were high on the avoidance dimension on the ECR, were low on the MG free factor (r (48) =-.-285, p = .007). This is the first study to examine the MG as it is used by practitioners and its correlation to highly standardized measures. This exploratory study may be considered as part of the first steps of exploring the MG as a standardized assessment tool. The advantages of the MG as a simple, non-verbal movement interaction demonstrate some of the strengths of dance/movement and drama therapy practice.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The developmental models on positive relations between youth and educational settings have increasingly been areas of interest for researchers, educators and developmental psychologists indicating that to have each and every individual ready to learn and instructors motivated to teach; academic achievement and psychological well-being of youth require an approach of bonding model in education for today`s diverse learner needs. In this regard, vigorous research together with a robust theoretical base provided by Attachment Theory was investigated as basis of the present study in obtaining an in depth analysis of healthy process of School Psychology for practitioners, psychologists and counselors through a focus on theoretical framework of Social Control Theory. Such an approach would not only help to develop a profound look into the betterment of educational and psychological services but also provide an essential insight into predictors for strong, healthy, academic development of adolescents. Present study, primarily aims at providing Theoretical Framework of Bonding Models through analysis of Social Control Theory as to conceptualize adolescents` experiences and their attachment levels in order to prevent the risks of delinquent behavior with four major variables; attachment, commitment, involvement and belief. The study also focused on how these variables helped building bonding models of attachment in regard of its relation with fundamentals of attachment theory and its development into new directions.
  • Chapter
    This chapter applies the three central definitional components of bullying (i.e., repetition, power imbalance, and intent to harm) to child maltreatment and ongoing and intense sibling conflicts within the home. Powerless infants, toddlers, young children, and adolescents can become victims of bullying in their own homes, arguably causing more long-term trauma than any other experience across the life span. Research on victimization by parents and adult caretakers is reviewed. Power dynamics between siblings are also discussed. An overview of both of these phenomena including definitions, prevalence rates, economic cost, demographic characteristics, and negative developmental impacts is included. Then we discuss child maltreatment and ongoing and intense sibling conflict through the bullying framework, which is an innovative addition to the bullying literature, as the currently accepted definitions of bullying fail to identify ongoing, negative family dynamics as bullying. We argue that certain family dynamics can and should be defined as bullying.
  • Poster
    Full-text available
    Attachment Styles’ Effects on Life Satisfaction and Resilience
  • Chapter
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    Full-text available
    Tytuł: Rola psychologa sądowego w minimalizowaniu stresu dziecka po rozstania jego rodziców Streszczenie W artykule rozważane jest zagadnienie opieki nad dzieckiem w sytuacji rozstania jego rodziców w kontekście zbliżonej opieki matki i ojca. Autorzy podkreślają konieczność głębszej psychologicznej analizy zagadnienia, tak aby przede wszystkim odpowiedzieć na pytanie: w jaki sposób rozstający się rodzice mogą stworzyć możliwie najkorzystniejsze warunki opieki dla swego dziecka, jak zminimalizować stres towarzyszący nieuchronnie wszystkim członkom rodziny w takiej sytuacji. Poruszone problemy dotyczą rodzin, w których nie stwierdzono poważnych dysfunkcji. Dyskutowany jest proponowany model opieki zwany w polskim dyskursie publicznym naprzemienną, a przez Autorów określanym jako opieka współdzielona. Rozważania Autorów wykorzystują dotychczasowe obecne w literaturze oceny zalet i wady opieki z tak zwanym wiodącym rodzicem i opieki naprzemiennej, ale wychodzą poza te problemy i podnoszoną znaczenie wyboru takiego modelu opieki, który przede wszystkim minimalizuje nieunikniony stres dziecka związany z sytuacją rozstania jego rodziców. Przedstawiono propozycję, aby w procesie diagnozy psychologicznej dla potrzeb sądowych nie koncentrować się na tym, który rodzic ma wyższe kompetencje wychowawcze, ale konkretna sytuacja wychowawcza może być najkorzystniejsza dla dziecka, przy czym jako priorytet uznaje się pielęgnowanie więzi przywiązania z rodzicami. Powyższe zagadnienie dotyczy przede wszystkim potrzeby zmiany sposobu myślenia rodziców, prawników i psychologów. Dla biegłych psychologów zainteresowanie tą formą opieki staje się nowym wyzwaniem, wymagającym przeorganizowania struktury procesu diagnostycznego. Słowa kluczowe: rozstanie, opieka współdzielona(naprzemienna), istota modelu opieki współdzielonej, proces diagnostyczny, minimalizowanie stresu i strat dla dziecka, pomoc psychologiczna Znaczenie problemu Zjawisko rozwodu współcześnie nie należy do rzadkości, Główny Urząd Statystyczny podaje, że w Polsce w 2015 r. rozpadło się około 30% małżeństw. Dane te pokazują także wzrost liczby rozwodów z 203 na 1000 zawieranych małżeństw w 2000 r. do 356 na 1000 w
  • Article
    Objective: This meta-analysis advances a framework to understand correspondence among units of analysis of the social processing construct within Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Method: As requested for this special issue, eligible studies cited an RDoC-initiative paper or mentioned RDoC in the abstract, title, or keywords were empirical and peer reviewed, and described a correlation or regression analysis (r, β, or odds ratio) between two different units of analysis in the social processing domain in youth. We examined the frequency (descriptive statistics) and magnitude of correspondence between unit-pairs (random effects models), and predefined moderators (meta-regression). Results: Eight of the twenty-eight possible unit-by-unit pairs were identified, with subjective-by-behavior units being the most common. Of those, only subjective-by-circuit had significant correspondence between units. Moderator analysis revealed that the age and diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder moderated correspondence between subjective-by-circuit units of analysis, and that a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder moderated correspondence between subjective-by-gene units of analysis. Younger ages and inclusion of either diagnostic group reduced correspondence. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the RDoC initiative has generated limited research within the social processing domain across units of analysis in youth to date. Moreover, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded studies do not appear to be biased toward supporting the RDoC framework. However, the limited number of included studies precludes the generalizability of these findings and underscores the need for further research. Despite this, results suggest that the NIMH model for providing standard batteries of measurement tools may effectively reduce spurious correlations between subjective-by-behavior units of analysis.
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