Article

Sustainability of Teacher Expectation Bias Effects on Long-Term Student Performance

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Abstract

In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. These predicted expectations were estimated from a multilevel model in which teacher expectations of students' future performance in secondary education were regressed on students' prior achievement, IQ, and achievement motivation. Multilevel analyses were performed on a data set of about 11,000 students who entered secondary school in 1999 and who were monitored for 5 years. We found relationships between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics as well as a clear effect of expectation bias on long-term student performance. Teacher expectation bias partly mediated the effects of student characteristics on students' performance. Moreover, its effect was moderated by some of these characteristics. Mediation and moderation effects were the strongest for parents' aspirations. The effects of teacher expectation bias dissipated partly during the first 2 years but afterwards remained stable over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Overall, in their meta-analysis, Südkamp et al. (2012) have shown that the shared variance between teacher judgements and students' achievement-including results from standardised achievement tests as well as curriculum-based measures-is around 40%. Moreover, the shared variance is higher when measures of student motivation and cognitive abilities are considered alongside their achievement (e.g., de Boer et al. 2010). The remaining variance might be interpreted as inaccuracy (e.g., Gentrup et al. 2020). ...
... Second, if students are taught by the same teacher over several years, her or his judgements and behaviour should affect students' achievement more strongly than if the teacher were to change every year (see Raudenbush 1984). Still, teacher bias might nevertheless affect student achievement even with yearly teacher turnover: research has shown that the effects of teacher expectations can persist over years even when teachers change (e.g., Alvidrez and Weinstein 1999;de Boer et al. 2010;Hinnant et al. 2009;Rubie-Davies et al. 2014). Reasons for such long-term, cross-year effects could be that students internalise teachers' positive or negative perceptions of their performance which could then affect, for instance, their motivation and effort. ...
... Reasons for such long-term, cross-year effects could be that students internalise teachers' positive or negative perceptions of their performance which could then affect, for instance, their motivation and effort. / indicate that we expect the bias to be higher than in the countries we have specified as having lower bias K It is also possible that students face systematically different learning opportunities (especially where ability grouping exists; e.g., de Boer et al. 2010). The typical situation for England is that, in primary school, the child has a single teacher for all subjects (the "class teacher"; Burgess and Greaves 2009). ...
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Article
This study takes a cross-country perspective to examine whether inaccurate teacher judgements of students’ math skills correlate with student social origin and whether such bias is associated with math achievement in primary school. We focus on England, Germany, and the US because these countries differ in the teachers’ growth mindsets, accountability, the use of standardised tests, and the extent of ability grouping. The data stem from three large-scale surveys, the Millennium Cohort Study for England, the National Educational Panel Study for Germany, and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 for the US. At the beginning of primary education, teacher judgements were not entirely consistent with student scores in standardised tests. In England and Germany, teachers underrated students with low-educated parents and overrated those with high-educated parents. In the US, no such differences were found. In all three countries, overrated (or underrated) students performed better (worse) later on. In England and, to a lesser extent, in Germany, we found evidence that biased teacher judgements contribute—over the course of primary school—to widening inequalities in value-added achievement by parental education. Such effects were negligible in the US. Our findings suggest that a cross-country perspective is essential to better understand contextual factors’ role in systematic bias in teacher judgements and its relevance for educational achievement. This study can be seen as a starting point for future research to investigate the mechanisms of such contextual effects more thoroughly.
... Some (see Spitz 1999 for a review) argued that low teacher expectations were the cause of low achievement among students from poor socioeconomic backgrounds even though the study had focused on creating false high expectations among teachers; low expectations were not measured. There were, however, strong criticisms of the study on methodological grounds (Elashoff and Snow 1971), for example, that the effects were only among the Grade 1 and 2 students, rather than at every level. Nevertheless, despite the methodological shortcomings of the original Pygmalion study, there was broad acceptance that teachers' expectations could have an effect on student outcomes. ...
... Alexander and Entwisle 1988;Baron et al. 1985) established that teachers often held lower expectations for students from poorer home backgrounds than for students from middle-class backgrounds -even when achievement was initially the same. Over time, such initial early differentiation can have marked differential effects on student outcomes adding advantage to students from middle-class backgrounds while deleteriously affecting those from less advantaged homes (de Boer et al. 2010). ...
... Jussim (Jussim and Harber 2005;Jussim et al. 2009) has argued that teacher expectations are generally accurate. However, several recent studies (de Boer et al. 2010;Hinnant et al. 2009;Meissel and Rubie-Davies 2016;Timmermans et al. 2015) have suggested that teacher expectations, particularly for some students, are quite inaccurate. The equivocal results in this area mean that the issue is not fully resolved, leaving the opportunity for future research to more fully explore accuracy or inaccuracy of teacher expectations. ...
... The findings are less consistent when considering teacher biases with respect to a student's ethnic or migration background. Of the 22 studies that report results on teacher biases by ethnic or migration background, 9 studies find (some) evidence suggesting that teachers evaluate ethnic minority students more negatively (Boone et al., 2018;Bruneau et al., 2020;Glock et al., 2012Glock et al., , 2013Klapproth et al., 2012Klapproth et al., , 2018Krolak-Schwerdt et al., 2018;Lüdemann & Schwerdt, 2013;Sprietsma, 2013), 6 studies find no support for biases by students' migration or ethnic background (Boone & Van Houtte, 2013;De Boer et al., 2010;Feron et al., 2016;Niklas & Schneider, 2017;Timmermans et al., 2015Timmermans et al., , 2016, and another 6 studies find (some) support that students with an ethnic minority background receive higher track recommendations than their native counterparts when accounting for student performance (and SES) (Barg, 2013;Caro et al., 2009;Driessen et al., 2008;Dumont et al., 2019;Timmermans et al., 2018;Timmermans et al., 2019). Finally, there are two studies that show that teacher track recommendations are less accurate for students from migration backgrounds (Glock et al., 2015;Pit-ten Cate et al., 2016). ...
... Whether intentionally or not, teachers base their track recommendations on students' behaviour and attitudes in class. Some scholars even argue that a teacher's expectations, judgements, or track recommendations are accurate when they are explained by either a student's performance, ability, or motivation or effort in school (e.g., De Boer et al., 2010;Timmermans et al., 2015). Of the 26 studies included in our systematic review, six studies report findings on the relation between students' school behaviour and attitudes and teacher track recommendations (De Boer et al., 2010;Driessen et al., 2008;Glock et al., 2012;Klapproth et al., 2012Klapproth et al., , 2018Krolak-Schwerdt et al., 2018;Timmermans et al., 2016). ...
... Some scholars even argue that a teacher's expectations, judgements, or track recommendations are accurate when they are explained by either a student's performance, ability, or motivation or effort in school (e.g., De Boer et al., 2010;Timmermans et al., 2015). Of the 26 studies included in our systematic review, six studies report findings on the relation between students' school behaviour and attitudes and teacher track recommendations (De Boer et al., 2010;Driessen et al., 2008;Glock et al., 2012;Klapproth et al., 2012Klapproth et al., , 2018Krolak-Schwerdt et al., 2018;Timmermans et al., 2016). Moreover, some experimental studies account for student school behaviour and/or attitudes by including it as a stable factor in their experimental set-up (Glock et al., 2013(Glock et al., , 2015Pit-ten Cate et al., 2016). ...
Preprint
Sorting students into hierarchically ordered tracks or streams on the basis of their academic performance (i.e., tracking) is ubiquitous in educational systems, and oftentimes based on teachers’ track recommendations. International surveys indicate that tracking is associated with educational inequalities. To determine if inequalities in tracking may be due to teacher recommendations being biased against students from disadvantaged socio-economic and/or ethnic backgrounds, we conducted a systematic review of 26 recent articles on tracking recommendations and students’ socio-economic or ethnic background. We find that teacher recommendations are biased against students from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds, yet evidence with respect to ethnic biases is more mixed. We also conducted an integrative review to examine which factors may account for social and ethnic inequalities in teacher tracking recommendations. We conclude that students’, parents’ and teachers’ attitudes and behaviours play a role in tracking recommendations but cannot fully account for the inequality in these recommendations. We discuss promising areas for future study, and argue that research may want to focus on finding institutional moderators in order to combat biases in educational institutions.
... A number of studies found empirical support for the Beneficial Judgment Hypothesis, that is, the higher the teacher judgment of a students' performance, the higher was the students' learning when prior achievement was controlled (Friedrich et al., 2015;Jussim & Eccles, 1992;Madon et al., 1997;Muntoni & Retelsdorf, 2018;Rubie-Davies et al., 2014). Likewise, several studies have reported positive effects of teachers' overestimation of student performance in different subjects (de Boer, Bosker, & van der Werf, 2010;Gentrup et al., 2020;Rubie-Davies et al., 2014;Stang & Urhahne, 2016). Madon et al. (1997) studied the Diminishing and Increasing Overestimation and Diminishing and Increasing Beneficial Judgment Hypotheses by including squared terms into their models to estimate non-linear effects. ...
... None of the models that reflected these assumptions (i.e., the Accuracy Model, the Overestimation Model, the Diminishing or Increasing Overestimation Model, or the Optimal Margin Model) were supported by our data. This is in contrast to previous studies that tested these models selectively and reported that student learning was associated with teacher judgment accuracy (Anders et al., 2010;Karing et al., 2011;Karst et al., 2014) or teacher overestimation (de Boer et al., 2010;Gentrup et al., 2020;Madon et al., 1997;Rubie-Davies et al., 2014;Stang & Urhahne, 2016). ...
... It is important to note that these considerations concern the aspect of fairness of selection and placement decisions in tracked educational systems, and not the impact on individual learning. For the individual student, high teacher judgments were found to be beneficial, even if this means that students end up in higher tracks than they should, given their performance (de Boer et al., 2010). One way to solve this dilemma would be to use different sources of information for different pedagogical tasks. ...
Article
Previous findings on effects of teachers' judgments on student learning have been contradictory leading to the question of what kinds of judgments are most beneficial: accurate or (overly) positive ones? In this study, we provide the first competitive test of prominent but contradictory hypotheses regarding the consequences of teachers' judgments in the context of reading proficiency using reading fluency and reading comprehension performance judgments from 145 teachers and measures of real performance and learning progress across eight points of measurement from 2,880 students. Response Surface Analyses combined with an information-theoretic approach for model comparison revealed no evidence of positive effects of judgment accuracy or overestimation of student performance by teachers. Instead, progress in reading fluency and reading comprehension was best predicted by students' prior achievement. For reading comprehension, the positivity of teachers' judgments was additionally beneficial: The higher a teacher judged a student's performance, the more the student learned.
... Teacher expectation research began with Rosenthal and Jacobson's (1968) seminal work called 'Pygmalion in the Classroom', which paved the way for the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy. Teacher expectation research, which began to be considered as a part of educational psychology with this study, has been an important and developing field of research in terms of the subject area that continues to this day due to its impact on student achievement (de Boer et al., 2010;Rubie-Davies et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2018). The term teacher expectation refers to the inferences teachers make about students' academic and non-academic potential behavior, towards the future based on their experience (Chen et al., 2011;Good, 1987;Riley & Ungerleider, 2012). ...
... Rubie-Davies' (2015) contextual teacher expectation model is depicted with a series of steps shown in Figure 1. Rubie-Davies's (2015) In teacher expectation researches that have been conducted to date, student perceptions of individual teacher expectation are evaluated, and individual interactions between teachers and students, in general, are examined, rather than at the class level (de Boer et al., 2010;Diamond et al., 2004;Friedrich et al., 2015;Hinnant et al., 2009). In contrast with the previous models that focused on individual teacher expectations (see for details. ...
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Article
This study aims to develop a ‘Teacher Expectation Scale’ (TES) to accurately and reliably measure teachers' expectations from their students. The development process of TES has an exploratory mixed method research design. The maximum variety sampling method was used when collecting qualitative data for the study, and the simple random sampling method was used for quantitative data. In the study groups of the research, there are 27 teachers for semi-structured interviews, 423 teachers for Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and 750 teachers for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). For the content and face validity of the scale, six experts' opinions were obtained. A structure consisting of 36 items and 2 factors was revealed, which explains 73.54% of the total variance as a result of EFA. It has been seen that the items contained in TES show high levels of affiliation to the relevant factors and that all items are discriminative. The explored structure with EFA was evaluated using CFA. The following results were obtained when examining the compliance indices of the obtained model: χ²/df=4.53<5; CFI=0.99; TLI=0.99; RMSEA=0.07; SRMR=0.05. From the calculated reliability coefficients, McDonald's Omega (0.98) and stratified alpha coefficient (0.96) for the scale overall and Cronbach alpha coefficient (.98) for the dimensions were obtained. Reliability and validity results, obtained from TES showed that it is a valid and reliable measurement tool with two factors and 36 items. The subject of teacher expectation can be examined in terms of many variables using TES developed in the current research.
... Nevertheless, researchers have found more powerful self-fulfilling prophecies among some groups (e.g., girls and minority boys, Jamil et al., 2018;students with low SES, Sorhagen 2013) and under some conditions (e.g., teacher expectations at the whole-class level were found to have an effect of d = 1.05 on students' academic achievement in classes with high-expectation teachers; Rubie-Davies 2010). Further, long-term teacher expectation effects have been documented (e.g., Alvidrez & Weinstein 1999;De Boer et al., 2010;Gregory & Huang, 2013;Sorhagen, 2013). For example, controlling for achievement, teacher expectations for preschool students' IQ has been shown to significantly predict students' academic achievement 14 years later, particularly for students whose ability was underestimated (Alvidrez & Weinstein, 1999). ...
... However, observed effects of both present-and future-oriented teacher expectations might be a reflection of the accuracy of teacher expectations (Brophy, 1983;Jussim, 1989;Jussim & Harber, 2005;Smith et al., 1998), given that teachers' estimation of student achievement has been found to be based on objective information about students' prior or present performance (e.g., Südkamp et al., 2012;Zhu et al., 2018). Hence, to distinguish the effects of teachers' inaccurate expectations from accurate expectations, researchers (e.g., Cooper et al., 1982;De Boer et al., 2010;Li & Rubie-Davies, 2017;Wang et al., 2020;Timmermans et al., 2016) have started to evaluate teacher expectation effects based on the discrepancies between teacher expectations and students' prior or current achievement that reflect the extent to which teachers expect different achievement for students with equal previous achievement. Some researchers have used the term "teacher expectation bias" (e.g., De Boer et al., 2010) to portray discrepancies between teacher expectations and students' prior or current achievement. ...
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Article
Whether teachers maintain their expectation bias for students over time is crucial for understanding self-fulfilling prophecy effects. However, the stability of teacher expectation bias has been largely ignored in the literature. We examined the stability of teacher expectation bias across a sample of teachers and the change trajectories of teacher expectation bias across high-, medium-, and low-expectation teacher groups across all teachers and in the curriculum areas of mathematics, Chinese, and English. Our analyses were based on two-year longitudinal data with four time points from 567 Chinese senior high school students and their 50 teachers. The results showed that across all teachers, teacher expectation bias at the individual student level was dynamic over time. That is, teachers seemed to adjust their initial expectation bias in the first few months but then maintained the adjusted expectation bias afterwards. However, when students moved from Grade 11 to Grade 12 (the last year of high school), teachers seemed to change their expectation bias again. The evidence from HLM analyses further supported these results. That is, all the high- and low-expectation teachers alleviated their initial expectation bias significantly in the first six months and then adhered to their adjusted expectation bias. However, when students moved to the last year of high school, some high- and low-expectation teachers’ expectation biases were volatile again. Nevertheless, most high- and low-expectation teachers (except for Chinese low-expectation teachers) tended to either over-estimate or under-estimate their students across two school years. Further, compared to Chinese and mathematics teachers, English teachers’ biases seemed to be even more stable. Our findings suggested that some teachers consistently over- or under-estimated their students over an extended time period and this could have implications for student outcomes.
... The literature is also home to many studies investigating the factors indicating how teacher expectations are shaped. Students' ethnicity (Rampaul, Singh, & Didyk, 1984) and socio-economic status may show parents' incapacities to academically assist their children and provide resources at home (Claassen & Mulders, 2003;De Boer, Bosker, & Van der Werf, 2010;Ditton, Krüsken, & Schauenberg, 2005). Gender of the students may also lead to differential teacher expectations. ...
... İlgili alanyazın, öğretmen beklentilerinin nasıl şekillendiğini gösteren faktörleri araştıran birçok çalışmaya da ev sahipliği yapmaktadır. Öğrencilerin etnik kökenleri (Rampaul et al., 1984) ve sosyoekonomik statüleri, ebeveynlerin çocuklarına akademik olarak yardım etme ve evlerde kaynak sağlama konusundaki yetersizliklerini gösterebilir (Claassen & Mulders, 2003;De Boer et al., 2010;Ditton et al., 2005). Öğrencilerin cinsiyeti de öğretmen beklentilerinin farklılaşmasına yol açabilir. ...
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Article
The aim of the present study was to scrutinize how teacher expectations are shaped and reflected in teachers' classroom behaviors by presenting a holistic picture of teacher expectation literature that has significantly developed since 1968. To achieve this, a systematic review design was utilized in the study, and different academic databases, which were namely EBSCOhost, ERIC, Science Direct, Journal Park Academic, and HEC Theses Centre, were examined. Among 1.227 of the studies conducted, 32 research studies were included in the current review based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria after the identification, screening, and eligibility processes. After the content analysis carried out on the included studies, the review extracted certain factors shaping teachers' expectations of students' academic achievement, which were grouped as students' readiness, skills and abilities, teacher-and family-related factors, and school policies. In classes, teachers differentiated their instructional methods according to students' ability levels, presented more group work opportunities, established more eye-contact, assigned cognitively harder tasks, and expected more quality work from high-expectancy students. Teachers also tended to decrease their interaction time by turning to another student when a low-expectancy student could not answer a question, and to know personal or academic strengths of high-expectancy students more than low-expectancy ones.
... This can lead to bias if these characteristics exert a different effect on student performance than that expected by the teacher. Pupil characteristics that teachers include in their judgements include motivation (Kaiser et al., 2013), cognitive ability (Dompnier et al., 2006;Hoge & Coladarci, 1989) and the extent to which pupils are encouraged by their parents (De Boer et al., 2010). The ethnicity and socio-economic status of pupils may also play a role in teacher judgement accuracy (Timmermans et al., 2015). ...
... The ethnicity and socio-economic status of pupils may also play a role in teacher judgement accuracy (Timmermans et al., 2015). Moreover, it is known that primary school teachers systematically have higher expectations of girls than boys (De Boer et al., 2010). This is probably different for technology. ...
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Article
Accurate teacher judgements can enhance pupils' learning about science and technology. This study explored primary school teachers' judgements about their pupils' ability to reconstruct an electrical and a mechanical system. The judgement accuracy of most teachers was poor, gender-biased, and underestimation was more common than overestimation. The teachers’ gender or self-efficacy beliefs do not seem to affect their judgement accuracy, whereas greater technical knowledge and teaching experience might be beneficial. The teachers’ judgements were primarily based on their estimation of pupils’ cognitive abilities and learning behaviour, which both had less bearing on pupils’ performance than the teachers had expected. Diagnostic tasks for technical abilities, like the ones used in this study, can be used by primary school teachers working with children aged nine and above to calibrate their judgement accuracy and adapt their teaching to their pupils’ varying levels of prior knowledge. Pupils’ performance on these non-verbal tasks can reveal unexpected abilities.
... In terms of classroom practices, teachers' perceptions of children influence their interactions with children, such as the decision to praise a child or direct discipline directives toward a child (Dobbs & Arnold, 2009). Evidence suggests teachers' perceptions of children's abilities are associated with children's standardized outcomes and academic performance (de Boer et al., 2010). ...
... Teacher perception of change in language abilities suggest that strong social bonds with teachers can serve as ecological assets that promote gains in teacher report of language skills and positive behaviors for boys of color (Gaylord-Harden et al., 2018;Lee & Bierman, 2015). These results are important because teachers' perceptions of children's achievement are related to children's later standardized test scores and academic performance (de Boer et al., 2010). This is consistent with other studies that have shown the salience of student-teacher relationship for the development and learning of boys of color. ...
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Article
The present study examined boys’ race in moderating the association between teacher–child relationship quality, measured by closeness and conflict, and boys’ language gains and conduct problems change scores during Pre-K. The study was conducted using data from the National Center for Early Development and Learning’s (NCEDL) Multi-State Study of Pre-Kindergarten and the NCEDL-NIEER State-Wide Early Education Programs Study (SWEEP Study). Participants were 1,228 boys in 660 pre-K classrooms. On average, pre-K teachers had closer relationships with White boys than Latino boys and more conflictual relationships with Black boys than boys of other races. The results from the moderation analyses suggest that close teacher–child relationships serve as a promotive factor for Latino and Black boys’ teacher-reported language gains. Simultaneously, teacher–child relationships characterized by high levels of conflict predicted larger change scores in conduct problems for Black boys compared to boys of other races. The findings from this study highlight the impact of teacher–child relationships for the development and learning of boys of color. The present study may inform future professional development efforts to enhance positive teacher–child relationships for children of color in early childhood settings.
... Whether accurate or not, it is widely accepted among scholars that teacher expectations do influence students' academic outcomes -albeit only moderately (de Boer et al., 2010). The bulk of teacher expectancy literature has predominantly focused on cognitive student outcomes in the short term (Good, Sterzinger, and Lavigne, 2018;Wang, Rubie-Davies and Meissel, 2018). ...
... The bulk of teacher expectancy literature has predominantly focused on cognitive student outcomes in the short term (Good, Sterzinger, and Lavigne, 2018;Wang, Rubie-Davies and Meissel, 2018). Nevertheless, in the last decade, attention has increasingly been directed towards the long-lasting effects of teacher expectations (de Boer, Bosker, and van der Werf, 2010;Rubie-Davies, et al., 2014;Sorhagen, 2013). For instance, Gregory and Huang (2013) demonstrate that teacher expectations influence students' likelihood of enrolling in higher education. ...
... En segundo lugar, son muchos los trabajos que han mostrado el efecto que las expectativas del profesorado pueden ejercer sobre las expectativas y el logro académico del alumno (Becker, 2013;de Boer et al., 2010;Kelly & Carbonaro, 2012), observando además que tales evaluaciones y expectativas que los docentes mantienen sobre los alumnos no están enteramente justificadas por los resultados académicos, desarrollo cognitivo y nivel de motivación de los estudiantes, sino que están sesgadas por otros aspectos como su origen social o étnico (Barg, 2013;Kelly & Carbonaro, 2012;Timmermans et al., 2015Timmermans et al., , 2018. Lee et al. (2015) han mostrado el importante papel que las expectativas del profesorado pueden desempeñar, por ejemplo, en decisiones sobre la matriculación en carreras STEM (Ciencias, Tecnología, Ingeniería y Matemáticas), donde constituyen un predictor más relevante que las expectativas de los progenitores y explican una parte sustancial del gap de género en tales decisiones educativas. Asimismo, Wu y Bai (2015) han observado en el caso chino que si bien las expectativas de los progenitores son el mejor predictor de las expectativas de matriculación universitaria de los alumnos, solo las expectativas del profesorado mantienen su significatividad estadística a la hora de predecir la matriculación en la universidad una vez consideradas las expectativas del propio alumno. ...
... Por ejemplo, Barg (2013) observó en Francia que los profesores tendían a recomendar en mayor medida la vía académica en la educación postobligatoria a alumnos de extracción social alta tras controlar por su rendimiento académico previo y las preferencias familiares. Dicho sesgo del profesorado en favor del alumno de clases acomodadas se ha demostrado estable a lo largo del tiempo (Timmermans et al., 2018) y se ha observado que provoca efectos sobre el logro académico en el largo plazo (Becker, 2013;de Boer et al., 2010). ...
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Thesis
La presente investigación analiza la evolución de las expectativas formativas entre los años 2003 y 2018 en España, y los mecanismos y estrategias que generan desigualdad por origen social en los planes formativos del alumnado español. Para ello, se emplea información del estudio PISA y se analiza la expectativa vertical de matriculación en la Educación Secundaria Superior, la expectativa horizontal de matriculación en el Bachillerato entre aquellos que esperan matricularse en la Educación Secundaria Superior, la expectativa vertical de matriculación en la Educación Terciaria y la expectativa horizontal de matriculación en la universidad entre aquellos que esperan matricularse en la Educación Terciaria.
... Het opleidingstype van ouders is niet de enige factor die de kansen van leerlingen beïnvloedt: ook mechanismen op scholen spelen een belangrijke rol. Onderzoek laat bijvoorbeeld zien dat leraren lagere verwachtingen neigen te hebben van leerlingen uit lagere sociaaleconomische milieus en/of leerlingen met een migratieachtergrond (De Boer et al., 2010;Speybroeck et al., 2012). De verwachtingen van leraren beïnvloeden zowel de inrichting van het onderwijs aan leerlingen (Ready & Chu, 2015) als de leeropbrengsten van leerlingen doordat zij zich naar de verwachtingen kunnen gaan gedragen (Jussim & Harber, 2005). ...
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Book
Bij de gemeente Amsterdam konden middelbare scholen subsidie aanvragen voor onderwijsinterventies gericht op het bevorderen van kansengelijkheid: de Kansenaanpak VO. De scholen hebben zelf interventies ontwikkeld die passen bij de eigen schoolcontext en kregen daarbij veel vrijheid. Kohnstamm Instituut en Onderzoek & Statistiek (O&S) doen onderzoek naar de manieren waarop de interventies bijdragen aan de gelijke ontwikkelkansen van leerlingen.
... For example, girls have been found to be more susceptible to teacher expectation effects on their creativity (Karwowski et al., 2015) and reading motivation (Boerma et al., 2016). In contrast, no significant moderation effects of gender were found on the long-term effects of teacher expectations on students' educational careers (De Boer et al., 2010). ...
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Article
Two developments in teacher expectation research formed the basis for the current study. First, researchers have begun investigating the self-fulfilling prophecy effects of teacher expectations on a variety of psycho-social outcomes in addition to the effects on academic achievement. Second, researchers have started to realize that some groups of students appeared to be more vulnerable or susceptible to teacher expectations. The current study aimed to investigate whether students’ gender and minority background were moderators of teacher expectation effects for both academic outcomes and self-concept and subjective task value in the mathematics domain. The study is based on a sample of 1663 students (Grades 6 and 7) in 42 classes from three intermediate schools in New Zealand. Multilevel modeling was applied using MLwiN software. First, after controlling for students’ beginning-of-year mathematics achievement, teacher expectations were higher for Asian and lower for Māori, compared with New Zealand European students. Expectations within the domain of mathematics, however, were higher for girls than for boys. Second, teachers’ beginning-year expectations were predictive of achievement and self-concept of students at end-of-year, after controlling for beginning-of-year achievement and self-concept. Teachers’ expectations were, however, not predictive of end-of-year intrinsic and utility value. Third, we did not find evidence for moderation effects of students’ gender and minority background. These findings imply that despite the roughly similar magnitude of teacher expectation effects for various student groups, teacher expectations may contribute to gaps in students’ achievement and self-concept because of differential expectations at the beginning of the year.
... Auch in den Niederlanden gibt es Berichte über Bildungsungleichheiten aufgrund der Übergangsentscheidungen (Geven et al., 2018;Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuuren Wetenschap [OCW], 2017;van de Werfhorst & Mijs, 2010). Die Auswirkungen der sozialen Herkunft der Schüler*innen auf die Übergangsentscheidungen beziehen sich hier aber hauptsächlich auf das Bildungsniveau der Eltern (de Boer et al., 2010;OCW, 2017;Timmermans et al., 2015). In diesem Zusammenhang konnten wir in einer Studie in Zusammenarbeit mit dem niederländischen Ministerium für Bildung, Kultur und Wissenschaft (die Bildungsinspektion 3 ) zeigen, dass Lehrkräfte gegenüber Schüler*innen von Eltern mit höherem und niedrigerem Bildungsniveau unterschiedliche implizite Einstellungen haben (Pit-ten Cate & Glock, 2018). ...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel präsentieren wir zwei experimentelle Studien, die darauf abzielen, über Trainings den Einfluss sozialer Hintergrundmerkmale auf die Übergangsentscheidung von Lehrkräften zu reduzieren. Ein Training konzentrierte sich auf die Vermittlung von theoretischem Wissen über Urteilsbildung, ein anderes Training auf die Einübung von statistischen Regeln bezüglich der gewichteten Integration von Schüler*inneninformationen in die Übergangsentscheidung. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Übergangsentscheidungen luxemburgischer Lehrkräfte vor den Trainings für Schüler*innen mit Migrationshintergrund weniger genau waren. Die Urteilsgenauigkeit war nach den Trainings erhöht, insbesondere bei Entscheidungen für Schüler*innen mit Migrationshintergrund. Die Ergebnisse waren unabhängig von der Art des Trainings. Wir diskutieren weiterhin, dass die für Luxemburg entwickelten Trainings erfolgreich für andere Settings (d. h. für Deutschland und die Niederlande) angepasst werden können und wurden. In allen drei Settings deuten die Erfahrungen mit den Trainings darauf hin, dass ein zunehmendes Bewusstsein für die Auswirkungen stereotyper Überzeugungen auf Urteile, entweder durch theoretisches Wissen oder durch die systematische Anwendung formaler Entscheidungsregeln, die Entscheidungsprozesse und Urteilsgenauigkeit verbessern kann. Dies kann letztendlich zu einer Verringerung von Bildungsungleichheiten führen.
... Teachers' perceptions of children's challenging behaviors may also lead to underestimating children's academic ability (Bennett et al., 1993;Espinosa & Laffey, 2003;Johnson-Jordan, 2021). Children whose academic abilities are underestimated by their teachers have lower academic achievement later on, even after controlling for children's initial academic performance, IQ, and SES (Baker et al., 2015;de Boer et al., 2010;Gentrup et al., 2020;Jussim & Harber, 2005). ...
Article
Research Findings: This study examined associations between observed emotion-focused teaching practices and preschool children’s emotion expression, emotion-related behaviors, and learning behaviors. Four centers located in large midwestern and mid-Atlantic metropolitan areas participated in the study. Of these, one center was a Head Start program, one served families on a sliding scale fee, one was focused on providing services to low-income families, and one was a faith-based center with middle- and upper-income students. Structural equation modeling revealed that children displayed fewer negative emotion expressions, better emotion regulation, reduced maladaptive emotion-related behaviors, and increased learning behaviors at the end of the year when teachers engaged in greater emotion-focused teaching practices. Practice or Policy: Preschool teachers play an important role in socializing children to be emotionally competent. Our findings suggest the need for professional development to improve teachers’ emotion-focused teaching as an effective strategy to address children’s challenging behaviors and emotions in the classroom and to better prepare children to engage in learning.
... This can be explained by the important role of instructors' expectations in facilitating students' learning and performance (De Boer, Timmermans, and Van Der Werf 2018). It was demonstrated that negatively biased instructors' expectations detrimentally influence student achievement (De Boer, Bosker, andvan der Werf 2010, 2018). ...
Article
This paper explores the associations between math-gender stereotypes and two dimensions of student engagement – class engagement and disengagement – among Russian engineering students. The data collected in three Russian universities (n = 2,074) were utilised. Structural equation modelling was employed to test hypotheses about relationships between key variables and their variations for male and female subsamples. We revealed that the students’ attribution of math-gender stereotypes to faculty slightly decreased class engagement and increased disengagement for both male and female students. Therefore, we hypothesise that male students can be more overconfident about their future performance in exams on math-related subjects because of a better reputation in the eyes of instructors, which can result in less engagement and, as a consequence, lower academic outcomes. These findings demonstrate the high importance of faculty in encouraging engineering student engagement and providing a bias-free learning environment.
... Third, our manipulation of immigrant status by student names creates some difficulties. Names do not only imply a certain origin but also evoke many other associations, for example, about the students' socioeconomic status -which can have a considerable impact on teachers' expectations (e.g., de Boer et al., 2010;Elhoweris, 2008;Tobisch & Dresel, 2017). As being an immigrant in Germany is often connected with a lower social status (see, e.g., Beyer 2017), our manipulation of students' immigrant background might have also triggered unfavorable assumptions about their social situation. ...
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Article
Teachers often provide more positive feedback to ethnic minority students than to ethnic majority students in order to compensate for potential discrimination. However, even feedback that sounds positive can have unwanted effects on the students, such as reinforcing negative beliefs and reducing motivation. In this experimental pilot study, we investigated whether teachers were more likely to convey such dysfunctional feedback to students from immigrant backgrounds than to students from non-immigrant backgrounds. Teachers ( N = 186) read descriptions of classroom situations and indicated the feedback they would provide to the fictive students. The students’ names implied either an immigrant background associated with low competence stereotypes or no immigrant background. For the most part, feedback did not differ according to immigrant status. Yet, there were some situation-specific differences: When immigrant students failed despite effort, teachers used a simpler language in their feedback. In one of two scenarios describing students who succeeded easily without effort, teachers were more likely to provide dysfunctional ability feedback, dysfunctional effort feedback, and inflated praise to a student from an immigrant background than to a student from a non-immigrant background. A subsequent expert survey ( N = 12) was conducted to evaluate the scenario-based feedback test. In sum, the study contributes to the field by providing first signs that students from immigrant backgrounds might be at risk of receiving not only more positive but actually more dysfunctional feedback. Furthermore, the study presents a practice-oriented, standardized, and economic instrument to assess teachers’ dysfunctional feedback, which may be used in future research.
... Teacher expectations are the ideas that teachers hold about what their students are capable of achieving. There is clear evidence that teacher expectations can influence student achievement and that these effects can be long-term (de Boer, Bosker, & Van der Werf, 2010;Hinnant, O'Brien, & Ghazarian, 2009;Rubie-Davies et al., 2014). Policy makers frequently call for teachers to have high expectations for all students yet provide little guidance about how teachers would enact these high expectations. ...
... Teachers' beliefs and attitudes about students' potential can, in turn, can affect student attitudes and performance (e.g., de Boer et al., 2010;Goddard et al. 2000;Ulug, Ozden, & Eryilmaz, 2011). There is also evidence that teachers who show a monolingual bias may engage in linguicism (Phillipson, 2016). ...
... Teacher judgment can not only affect student performance within an academic year but it may also influence a student's future evaluation and academic placement [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] . As a result, a teacher's judgment may influence (i) the teacher's expectations about the student's ability 6,[17][18][19] , but more importantly (ii) the student's perception of his or her own ability 6,14,[20][21][22][23] . The definition of teacher judgment varies slightly within the literature but refers to the teacher's assessment of a student's expected performance. ...
... In secondary schools, students are placed into one or sometimes two adjacent tracks (Korpershoek et al., 2016). For many students, the track in which they were placed in grade 1 of secondary education is strongly decisive in their educational careers in secondary school and beyond (de Boer et al., 2010;Timmermans et al., 2013). Although intermediate upward and downward mobility is possible, its extent is limited, as after 3 years in secondary education 79.3 % of students are still in the track that the teachers recommended (Inspectorate of Education, 2021a). ...
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The editors of this volume provide the reader with an interesting and timely analysis of the relationship between international testing and educational policy formulation across 10 EU Member States. The resulting national profiles and findings come at a sensitive time in our collective history, when education systems across Europe, and around the world, are grappling with the significant challenges presented by COVID-19.
... The schools were selected based on their demographics as likely to contain students from mid-low socio-economic backgrounds and minority backgrounds. Previous research has shown that students from minority backgrounds and low socio-economic backgrounds can experience more effects of their teachers' expectations than their more privileged counterparts (de Boer et al., 2010;Rubie-Davies, 2014), so schools that would be most likely to include students who were experiencing the effects of their teachers' expectations were recruited. ...
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Article
Play-based learning is an approach used in early childhood education that is well supported by research on its varieties and effectiveness for young children’s learning. Play-based learning meets the developmental needs of young children, but new research presented in this paper suggests that teenagers learn through play too. The experience of 25 Year 10 students in three Western Australian government schools was drawn upon to generate grounded theory about how students experience their teachers’ expectations of them, which included findings that playful learning approaches communicated high teacher expectations. The students were shadow-studied in their classrooms and interviewed at the end of each day. Teachers were appraised as having high expectations when they included a playful learning approach, characterised as creative, exploratory, hands-on, fun and non-didactic . The students reflected that this led to increased motivation and academic success. A foundation for conceptualising play in teenagers’ education is provided, suggesting how secondary school educators can harness play and communicate high expectations for learning through their pedagogical approach.
... Teacher expectation research has shown that low expectations can have a detrimental relation with students' educational experiences and achievement trajectories (e.g., de Boer et al., 2010;Rubie-Davies et al., 2012;Speybroeck et al., 2012;Wang et al., 2018). However, few studies to date have examined teacher judgments of achievement and their subsequent association with student progress (Zhou & Urhahne, 2013;Zhu et al., 2018). ...
Article
Previous research demonstrates that teacher judgments tend to be systematically lower for ethnic minority students, even after controlling for standardized achievement results. However, the extent to which such discrepancies differentially relate to students’ learning and achievement is less explored. The current study analyzed data from 46 schools, 198 classrooms, and 2,935 students in New Zealand to examine the association between teacher judgment inaccuracies and students’ subsequent progress in writing, in a context where teacher judgments were used as students’ final summative grade in school reports to parents and students. Results from hierarchical linear modelling showed that, overall, students who received teacher judgments that were higher than expected given their standardized achievement results, progressed faster the following year. The extent to which rate of progress was associated with discrepant teacher judgments was more pronounced for European students, than among students who were Indigenous Māori, Pacific, or of other ethnicities. These findings suggest that ethnic minority students may be more likely to form external (rather than internal) attributions in response to received teacher judgments that seem to be influenced by negative bias, potentially serving as a self-protective mechanism. Further, the resultant “boost” for European students may in fact contribute to the persistence of achievement inequities between different ethnic groups, particularly because positively biased teacher judgments are significantly more likely to occur for ethnic majority students.
... This cultural capital works as a cultural marker that teachers misconceive as educational brilliance, who, in turn, promote the academic performance and educational ambition of students that exhibit the dominant cultural dispositions. Consistently with that argument, different studies have found an association between cultural participation and academic achievement (Dumais, 2002;Scherger and Savage, 2010) and research on teachers' bias shows that the expectations and recommendations of teachers are not entirely based on students' prior results, cognitive ability and attainment motivation (de Boer et al., 2010;Timmermans et al., 2018). However, the argument that teachers misconceive cultural capital as academic brilliance and favour those cultural dispositions is more controversial, with studies both supporting and disproving that mechanism (Jaeger and Møllegaard, 2017;Leopold and Shavit, 2013;Mikus et al., 2019;Wildhagen, 2009). ...
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Article
It is a common research practice to decompose the effect of social origin on an educational expectation into a primary effect, via academic performance, and a secondary effect, computed as the inequality that survives the control of performance. In this paper, I examine how specific decisional mechanisms described in the Cultural Capital and Rational Action theories contribute to explain the inequalities that survive the control of performance in the configuration of educational expectations. Cultural Capital Theory argues that participation in the dominant culture at schools, the endowment of educational resources and the development of skill-generating habits contribute to holding ambitious expectations over and above performance. In Rational Action Theory, students form expectations at each level of performance by gathering information, pondering benefits and costs, and evaluating the risk of academic failure and social demotion, which in turn might account for the secondary effect of social origin. Relying on Spanish data from 2018 PISA, I observe that Cultural Capital and Rational Action mechanisms are compatible in the explanation of the secondary effects of social origin, although two-thirds of that inequality remain unexplained. Nonetheless, I find differences in how those mechanisms perform in vertical (whether to enrol an educational level) and horizontal expectations (what alternative is preferred in that educational level).
... A range of research methods have reflected this adult-educator focus in teacher expectation research. For example, some research has measured teacher expectations through teachers' ability group recommendations (de Boer et al., 2010;Timmermans et al., 2016), surveying teachers about students' future prospects (Friedrich et al., 2015), or by observations of teachers' differential treatment (Bohlmann & Weinstein, 2013;Weinstein & Middlestadt, 1979). Only a small minority of studies about teacher expectations have sought to focus on the students' points of view about their teachers' expectations (Weinstein, 2002). ...
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Article
Teacher expectation research has continued to establish an association between what teachers expect of their students and what students accomplish academically. These expectations affect students when they are communicated by teachers through differential treatment in the class, but no qualitative research has sought adolescent students’ points of view about how they experience teacher expectation effects. This paper presents new research findings that explain how Grade 10 students experienced their teachers’ expectations in ways that they reflected impacted their academic outcomes. Classic grounded theory methods were used to develop this new knowledge, which has implications for how teachers are educated for, and practice, interacting with secondary school students. The findings are grounded in data from more than 100 interviews with students and 175 classroom observations in three Western Australian metropolitan public secondary schools. Students’ voices are projected, explaining how their teachers convey high academic expectations through classroom interactions that instil confidence in students. The discussion invokes a connection to Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and its enduring tenants of self-efficacy beliefs and mastery learning experiences.
... In any case, although teachers play a key role in the education of students, it is necessary to consider that the attitudes of other people, such as parents and classmates (de Boer et al., 2010(de Boer et al., , 2012 can influence the inclusion of all students. For this reason, not only teachers should be prepared to deal with cultural diversity but also programs aimed at the inclusion of students with an ethnic minority background that involves their peers and parents, should also be considered. ...
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Article
Although instruments to assess implicit attitudes were introduced more than 20 years ago, there are still few studies in the field of education that use them, despite evidence that teachers with negative implicit attitudes can negatively affect their students' academic performance. This review aims to summarize the results of studies that investigated the relationship between teachers’ implicit ethnic attitudes and students’ achievement. The review was conducted according to PRISMA-statement through searches in the scientific database PsychINFO, PsycARTICLES and ERIC. Nineteen studies were included. Results show that overall teachers (from different school levels and different countries), hold negative implicit attitudes toward ethnic minority students, which play an important role by affecting the academic path of these groups of students. This review highlights the need to continue to use implicit attitudes procedures in future researches, in order to identify those factors that may contribute to the formation and expression of teachers' implicit attitudes; and the need to increase awareness of teachers' implicit attitudes and multicultural practices in teaching programmes.
... ics and teachers emotions (Blanton, et al., 2011;A. de Boer, et al., 2011). Given the relationship between teacher expectations and student performance (Wang et al., 2018) and the associations between expectations, emotions and behaviour (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993), these findings contribute to understanding factors underlying educational inequalities (H. de Boer et al., 2010;Jussim et al., 1996). ...
Conference Paper
Teachers are faced with increasingly heterogenous student groups, whereby the successful inclusion of all students largely depend on teachers´ competence and attitudes. Attitudes are understood as a multifaceted construct with cognitive, affective and conative components. In the current study we investigated to what extent teachers´ expectations concerning students´ academic performance - reflecting the cognitive component of attitudes - varied as a function of specific student characteristics (special educational needs and immigrant background). In addition, we assessed teachers´ emotions - reflecting the affective component of attitudes - concerning the inclusion of these students in mainstream education. Result confirmed previous findings that teachers´ expectations and emotions vary as a function of student characteristics. Teachers had lower expectations of the academic performance of students with learning difficulties than students with challenging behaviour, whereby the estimates of German proficiency were also affected by the immigrant background of the student. Teachers felt however less positive about the inclusion of students with challenging behaviour than of students with learning difficulties, regardless of the immigrant background of the student. Results will be discussed in relation to theory and their practical implications.
... Various scholars also hypothesize that students will receive stronger signals about their educational performance and opportunities in more strongly differentiated systems, causing them to be more realistic about their future educational outcomes (Buchmann & Dalton, 2002;Buchmann & Park, 2009;Kerckhoff, 1977). Alternatively, track placements may influence student expectations because they come to serve as a self-fulfilling prophecy (de Boer et al., 2010). Track placements could signal to students an educational expectation. ...
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Article
In various educational systems, students are sorted into separate secondary schools on the basis of their academic ability. Research suggests that this type of tracking impacts students' educational expectations, as expectations generally align with students' ability track. However, most research is cross-sectional and students with lower expectations are possibly also sorted into lower tracks. Moreover, the extent to which track placement influences expectations may vary across students. In this paper, we address the following research question: how does ability tracking impact the development of student expectations and how does this vary by students' migration background. Based on the literature on the immigrant aspiration–achievement paradox, we expect that students with a migration background are less likely to adapt expectations downwardly, and more likely to adapt expectations upward in response to track placement. Using German panel data, we examine the educational expectations of students with and without a migration background, before and after track placement. Moreover, we use variations in tracking procedures across German states to study how students who get tracked compare with students who do not get tracked in the development of their educational expectations. We show that students are more likely to upwardly adjust their expectations when their track placement exceeds their expectations and to downwardly adjust their expectations when their track placement is below their expectations. We find little support for the hypothesized variations by student migration background. Students whose parent(s) hold (a) Bachelor degree(s) are more likely to upwardly adjust their expectations when their track placement exceeds their expectations than students whose parent(s) maximally hold an upper secondary or vocational degree(s).
... There is a large body of evidence supporting the impact of teacher training on teacher beliefs and attitudes about students, specifically finding that teachers who lack training related to working with diverse students have more negative opinions about them and less confidence in their abilities to effectively teach such students (e.g., Gandara et al. 2005;Harper & de Jong, 2009;Olson & Jimenez-Silva, 2008;Sugimoto et al., 2017;Tran, 2015). Teachers' beliefs and attitudes about students' potential can, in turn, affect student attitudes and performance, with more negative beliefs and less confidence in teachers' own abilities resulting in lower student performance (e.g., de Boer et al., 2010;Goddard et al. 2000;Ulug et al., 2011). Lucas andcolleagues (2008, 2011) specifically cite the importance of teachers' awareness of their need to advocate for their students and willingness to actively pursue political, social, and educational changes that support inclusive opportunities for their ELs. ...
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Article
With growing English learner (EL) populations enrolling in districts throughout the United States, educators must be trained to meet the needs of this culturally and linguistically diverse population. However, the approaches used to meet this growing teacher training need vary widely, with little available research on how different approaches impact student success. The current paper uses geospatial mapping to examine how states’ EL teacher certification requirements are related to the academic success of English learners in those states. The results of this study suggest that state EL teacher certification requirements are related to student outcomes and that geographic location moderates those results. The geospatial mapping technique utilized in this study improves the accessibility of available data to the general population and policy makers.
... In the context of our study, we acknowledge a body of research demonstrating that teacher perceptions affect academic development and that these effects are sometimes substantial (De Boer et al., 2010;Jussim & Harber, 2005;Smith et al., 1999). For instance, Baker et al. (2015) studied 123 pre-school teachers and their 760 pre-schoolers, and found that, after controlling for the children's actual academic skill, the older children's academic abilities were overestimated (p. ...
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Article
Due to the fixed school start in Norway in August of the calendar year of students’ sixth birthday, the age span in one class is up to twelve months. This can impact academic performance both in the early years and later. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between birth month and mathematics performance by paying attention to the content and cognitive domains addressed in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2015. In Norway, the TIMSS 2015 included four cohorts, enabling a comparison between grades. We find significant correlations between birth month and mathematics performance overall as well as in all content and cognitive domains for grades 4, 5 and 8. Furthermore, the gap in mathematics results between the youngest and the oldest in a cohort is less in grade 9 than in grade 4. We suggest that these findings have implications for mathematics teachers’ practice.
... Indeed, previous research in education and alcohol consumption has considered the accumulation of expectations across perceivers (Madon et al., 2004) and over time (Becker, 2013;Rubie-Davies et al., 2014) as potential moderators of behavioral consequences of interpersonal expectations. Such research has yielded conflicting findings, with some studies providing evidence for dissipation or weakening of expectancy effects (Becker, 2013;de Boer et al., 2010), and others demonstrating stability (Madon, Willard, Guyll, Trudeau, & Spoth, 2006;Rubie-Davies et al., 2014), or accumulation (Kuklinski & Weinstein, 2001;Madon et al., 2004) of expectancy effects. Our research builds on these findings by demonstrating that accumulating expectations from multiple media personnel over time (i. ...
Article
Objectives This study aimed to address voids in academic literature by exploring the consequences of performance expectations from the perspective of a retired athlete. Methodology An instrumental case study was used to capture the experiences of a retired female athlete who had been exposed to performance expectations throughout her career. Six conversational life story interviews were conducted with the athlete and the data were represented in two portrait vignettes. Results The vignettes provide a rich and holistic account of the participant’s experiences of performance expectations. Salient points that are detailed throughout the vignettes include: i) the consequences (e.g., fear of failure, perceptions of pressure, magnification of intrapersonal expectations) of media expectations for the athlete; ii) factors that the athlete perceived to influence the consequences of media expectations (e.g., the amount of media attention received); iii) the cumulative consequences (e.g., nausea, lack of perceived control, butterflies) of interpersonal expectations from multiple perceivers (e.g., the media, coaches, the public, opponents); and iv) the presence of a fear culture associated with expectations, which had ramifications for the athlete’s well-being and their ability to talk about their experiences. Conclusions This article offers a novel insight to the multi-modal consequences of performance expectations for an athlete, the dominant role that the media played in shaping the athlete’s experiences, and the athlete’s inability to disclose her experiences of expectations. Stakeholders are encouraged to develop their own meanings, interpretations, and evaluations of the vignettes, and apply their interpretations to policy and practice.
... Nevertheless, contradictory findings offer support for the ideas of Brophy (1983) who suggested that self-fulfilling prophecies do not automatically occur. Rather, there are a number of factors such as socio-economic status, ethnicity, age, and motivation influencing learners' susceptibility to teachers' gender stereotypes (De Boer, Bosker, & Van der Werf, 2010). ...
Article
Background: Gender stereotyping of academic domains has long been a major issue in education. However, previous research has mainly focused on male-dominated fields and women's disadvantage in such fields. Little attention has been paid to the fields of study, such as foreign language learning, which are typically stereotyped as female domains. Aims: This study aimed to investigate whether relations between (1) learners' gender stereotypes about English as a foreign language (EFL) learning and language attainment and (2) learner perceptions of teacher stereotypes of EFL learning and language attainment were mediated by anxiety and self-efficacy. Sample: Data were collected from 701 university students (Mage = 19.7 years, 49.4% male) learning EFL in three Turkish universities. Method: Data were collected over three waves. Multi-group structural equation modelling approach was used to analyse the data. Results: Results showed the relations between learners' gender stereotypes about EFL learning, and language attainment were mediated by self-efficacy. Self-efficacy also mediated the relationship between learner perceptions of teacher stereotypes of EFL learning and language attainment, but only for women. Language anxiety was not a mediator between gender stereotypes and attainment in either model tested. Conclusions: Findings show that gender stereotypes about EFL learning might affect learners' language attainment by altering their self-efficacy. Helping learners to maximise their self-efficacy will therefore be beneficial for their language attainment.
... Teachers' expectations are often thought to be an accurate reflection of student outcomes and ability within education. Jussim et al. (1996) suggest this phenomenon is due to a self-fulling prophecy, in which adolescents often mirror the expectation, both positive and negative, of their teachers (Steinberg, 2019) which can have long term implications for adolescent educational achievement and psychological development (de Boer et al., 2010) with adolescents from poorer socio-economic backgrounds being more susceptible to outcomes related to teacher expectations (Sorhagen, 2013). Teachers form their expectations partly as a response to their students socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, often interacting more frequently and positively with students from more affluent backgrounds (Eccles and Roeser, 2011;Lewis et al., 2018). ...
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Thesis
Mixed method critical realist researcher into the experiences and understanding of Sexual Harassment among Irish Adolescents over a 12 month period.
... Studies have explored how students' attributes and behaviours might impact teachers' views about their students' competencies (de Boer et al., 2010;Ready & Wright, 2011;Timmermans et al., 2016). However, teachers' perceptions and pedagogical approaches to support students from diverse backgrounds remain an area for further research. ...
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Article
As the twentieth anniversary of 9/11 approaches, we contemplate and reflect on the current social/political imagination of terror(ism) and U.S./Canadian patriotism. For educators seeking to unpack 9/11 and its reverberations, it is important to highlight Islamophobic and anti-Muslim racism, discrimination, prejudice, and violence, as well as to consider Muslim students’ lived experiences. (Re)thinking about whose voices are included (or not) within the nexus of sociopolitical power is an important step toward justice and then rapprochement within and beyond the classroom. We consider this assemblage of articles to be a distinctly communal effort that responds to and attempts to disrupt the (perpetual) echoes of terror(ism) which became amplified by/through the events of 9/11.
... Low teacher expectations are linked to poorer grades, lower achievement test scores, and a decreased likelihood of high school completion (Friedrich et al., 2015;Hinnant et al., 2009;Schoon et al., 2004). These negative effects of teacher expectations and bias-that is, teachers holding lower expectations than would be expected given a student's prior achievement levels-are persistent, having impacts both within and across school years (De Boer et al., 2010;Jamil et al., 2018;Sorhagen, 2013). Conversely, parents' high expectations are positively associated with youth's academic achievement, college attendance and completion, grades, and educational attainment both within and across time (Benner et al., 2016;Pinquart & Ebeling, 2020;Zhan & Sherraden, 2011). ...
Article
The current study investigated how parents' and teachers' educational expectations both directly and indirectly shaped young people's academic outcomes in a nationally‐representative sample of high school students (Education Longitudinal Study; N = 9654 adolescents). Higher parent and math teacher expectations in 10th grade were associated with better 12th grade math scores and higher grade point averages, math course‐taking sequence, and educational attainment two years post‐high school. High parent expectations generally magnified the particularly strong positive effects of high math teacher expectations, and there was some evidence of variation in links between adult expectations and outcomes by both student race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Parents' educational involvement at school, teacher‐student relationships, and school‐parent communication mediated the links between adult educational expectations and academic outcomes.
... Aunque se haya demostrado la importancia de reevaluar las actitudes y creencias del profesorado, es importante tener en cuenta, además, el momento de la evaluación para la interpretación de los resultados, dado que las actitudes del profesorado hacia su alumnado pueden diferir dentro de un mismo curso escolar, debido a la falta de conocimiento del alumnado a comienzos del curso (De Boer et al., 2010). Esta desinformación inicial puede desencadenar en un proceso inferencial que contribuya a reforzar expectativas, tanto positivas como negativas, de los y las docentes sobre la capacidad de respuesta de sus estudiantes (Murdock-Perriera & Sedlacek, 2018). ...
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Article
Recientes investigaciones afirman que, a mayor autonomía del alumnado en la gestión de sus propios conflictos, mayor efectividad tendrán los programas de convivencia de los centros educativos. Por ello, en el presente estudio se analiza el grado de confianza del profesorado en la capacidad resolutiva de conflictos de su alumnado, dada la escasa literatura al respecto, y puesto que el apoyo percibido resulta ser un predictor de éxito en el desarrollo óptimo del adolescente. En primer lugar, se creó una Escala de Confianza ad hoc basada en la escala de “Activos y fortalezas desde la perspectiva del profesorado” de Pertegal Vega et al. (2011). Posteriormente, se administró a una muestra de 26 docentes tutores de ESO (57,7% Hombres) con edades comprendidas entre 25 y 62 años (M=42.3, DT=10.5), pertenecientes a la provincia de Valencia, España. Los resultados apuntan que a menor edad del docente mayor grado de confianza en su alumnado (ρ =-.53, p
... Aunque se haya demostrado la importancia de reevaluar las actitudes y creencias del profesorado, es importante tener en cuenta, además, el momento de la evaluación para la interpretación de los resultados, dado que las actitudes del profesorado hacia su alumnado pueden diferir dentro de un mismo curso escolar, debido a la falta de conocimiento del alumnado a comienzos del curso (De Boer et al., 2010). Esta desinformación inicial puede desencadenar en un proceso inferencial que contribuya a reforzar expectativas, tanto positivas como negativas, de los y las docentes sobre la capacidad de respuesta de sus estudiantes (Murdock-Perriera & Sedlacek, 2018). ...
Full-text available
Article
Recientes investigaciones afirman que, a mayor autonomía del alumnado en la gestión de sus propios conflictos, mayor efectividad tendrán los programas de convivencia de los centros educativos. Por ello, en el presente estudio se analiza el grado de confianza del profesorado en la capacidad resolutiva de conflictos de su alumnado, dada la escasa literatura al respecto, y puesto que el apoyo percibido resulta ser un predictor de éxito en el desarrollo óptimo del adolescente. En primer lugar, se creó una Escala de Confianza ad hoc basada en la escala de “Activos y fortalezas desde la perspectiva del profesorado” de Pertegal Vega et al. (2011). Posteriormente, se administró a una muestra de 26 docentes tutores de ESO (57,7% Hombres) con edades comprendidas entre 25 y 62 años (M=42.3, DT=10.5), pertenecientes a la provincia de Valencia, España. Los resultados apuntan que a menor edad del docente mayor grado de confianza en su alumnado. Asimismo, las correlaciones por factores muestran una relación significativa entre todos ellos. Esto puede deberse a expectativas más alentadoras en profesionales más noveles. Sin embargo, futuras investigaciones deben llevarse a cabo para comprobar la replicabilidad de resultados en muestras de tamaño superior.
... In this section, we elaborate on the results of empirical research in which the same sample of teachers provided information on their expectations of individual students on multiple occasions within the course of a school year, thus excluding studies of how teacher expectations are transferred from one teacher to the next (e.g., Hinnant et al., 2009;Rubie-Davies et al., 2014) or whether the effects of teacher expectations measured at one point in time are stable or dissipate over the longer term (e.g., Alvidrez & Weinstein, 1999;De Boer et al., 2010;Sorhagen, 2013). ...
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This chapter explores the concept of implicit racial bias as a significant factor contributing to the disparities between the discipline rates of White and Black students. While overt acts of racism are not as common as they were during other times in United States' history, implicit or unintentional racial bias still leads to differences in educational opportunities for the nation's students. The chapter begins with an examination of the concept of implicit bias broadly before turning toward implicit racial bias specifically. The chapter continues with a historical overview of the ways in which schooling for Black students has always been controlled by a dominant White society. Next, the researcher presents current data about the inequities in exclusionary discipline practices. The chapter concludes with recommendations for recognizing and addressing implicit bias and the problems it creates.
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Introduction. It has long been established that school climate can influence the course and outcomes of education, but the findings of previous research are inconsistent as to which elements of school climate are crucial for positive outcomes. This paper provides a more detailed insight into the individual contribution of the dimensions and determinants of school climate for adaptive functioning of students. Objective. The objective of the research was to consider the patterns of the relationship between the quality of school climate and its determinants (program, process and material) and adaptive characteristics of students. Methods. The research was conducted in five primary schools in Belgrade. The Charles F. Kettering, Ltd. - CFK School Climate Profile was used to assess school climate, and the TRF Adaptive Functioning Profile was used to assess adaptive characteristics of students. Both questionnaires were completed by primary school teachers. Results. Positive correlations were found between the quality of school climate, program, process and material determinants, on the one hand and, on the other hand, adaptive characteristics of students. Based on the results of regression analysis, the program determinants of school climate were singled out as the only significant predictor. Conclusion. The results of this research confirm that a good school climate, and especially school programs and practices in the domain of learning and teaching, can contribute to adaptive characteristics of students. Based on the obtained results, the paper describes the implications for future research and practice in this field.
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The advantages and disadvantages of ability grouping for student achievement are strongly contested, with studies presenting different results. However, much of this research has focused on class-level or subject-level ability grouping. Relatively less research has focused on school-level ability grouping. More importantly, the role of teacher support has often been neglected in the ability grouping literature. The aim of this study was to shed light on the under-investigated area of school-level ability grouping, with teacher support examined as a crucial theoretical mechanism. We examined whether teacher support plays a mediating and/or moderating role in terms of how school-level ability grouping is related to student achievement in English and mathematics. The participants were 554 Hong Kong secondary students from the high- (Band 1), medium- (Band 2), and low- (Band 3) ability groups. The results indicate that students from high-ability groups enjoyed greater levels of teacher support, which partly explains their higher levels of achievement. This finding supports a mediation mechanism. Moreover, the results also provide support for a moderation mechanism. When students in low-ability groups received high levels of teacher support, they were able to achieve as much as students in the high-ability groups, in English but not for math.
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In the transition from Dutch primary to secondary education, two indicators are used to place students in the right track: primary school teachers' track recommendations (TTR) and standardized achievement tests (SATs) at the end of primary school. Which indicator is better for placing students is a long-standing issue among educational researchers and professionals. Since 2015, the SAT is administered after the TTR has been given; previously, SAT was administered first. In the current study, it was investigated to what extent TTR and a commonly used SAT predict students' educational attainment after three years of secondary education for multiple cohorts before and after 2015. The results were compared for educational tracks and for different socioeconomic status (SES) groups, using multiple samples approaching population data. For all educational tracks and SES groups the results show that TTR is a better predictor of educational attainment than SAT. Furthermore, large differential effects for SES were found. The change of administrative sequence in 2015 had no effect on the overall predictive accuracy: TTR remained the better predictor. The results give new insights into the predictive value of both TTR and SAT before and after the change in administration sequence.
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Teachers' implicit biases about ethnic differences in student achievement and teachers' mindsets have been associated with significant differences in their students’ achievement. In two studies (N = 313; N = 57) with preservice teachers undertaking a three-year teacher education programme aimed at promoting social justice, we found that third-year students showed significantly less implicit ethnic achievement bias and reduced fixed mindsets compared to the first-year preservice teachers. Students from the ethnic minority were found to have the least bias, but still associated student achievement more with the ethnic majority group. It is concluded that more is needed to reduce implicit biases and develop a growth mindset among our preservice teachers.
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How much formal schooling for their children do immigrant Latino parents aspire to and expect? Do parents' aspirations or expectations influence children's school achievement? Do aspirations or expectations diminish the longer parents are in the U.S. or if they experience discrimination? Using quantitative and qualitative methods, we address these questions in a longitudinal study (kindergarten to sixth grade) of 81 Latino children and their immigrant parents. We find that (a) parents' educational aspirations are high and invariant throughout the elementary years; however, expectations fluctuate; (b) children's school performance influences parents' expectations, but expectations do not influence performance; and (c) immigrant Latino parents attribute high instrumental value to formal schooling, and neither time spent in the U.S. nor perceived discrimination diminishes this belief.
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In a longitudinal study, long term educational attainment in secondary education was predicted by motivation, meta-cognition and self-regulation as well as student background variables and prior achievement. The dependent variables were: (1) the position in the fifth grade of the two highest tracks; (2) the choice of examination subjects; and (3) the mean achievement in the fifth grade in the chosen subjects. The position-variable correlates most strongly with the prognosis given at the end of primary education, and with the combined score on three progress tests taken during the first grade of secondary education. There was a large gender difference in the choice of examination subjects with boys choosing the three science subjects (pure mathematics, physics, chemistry) 30% more often. The choice of these subjects also correlates with the scores on the arithmetic progress test in the first grade and a mathematics test taken in the third grade. Achievement motivation and fear of failure are prominent pred...
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It is well documented that stratification in education precedes social stratification. Many authors hypothesise that the stratification patterns in education may be related to background characteristics of students in a more complex way than researched so far in this field. Therefore, in this article the interactive effects of social class, ethnicity and gender on various indicators for school success are analysed and discussed. A large-scale longitudinal database offered the possibility to establish the complex relations between the three student background variables and school careers, measured by educational attainment 6 years after entering secondary education and by technical or science related choices. Results show that school success is not always predicted by expected additive or multiplicative effects of the different background variables. For example the situation of girls from ethnic minorities is better than expected, while that of indigenous boys from low socio-economic backgrounds is worse when compared to similar boys from ethnic minorities. Inequalities arising from different choice patterns regarding technical and science subjects can only partly be deduced from differences present at the age of 12, whereas in terms of general educational attainment secondary schools even reduce arrears of ethnic minority female students as these can be observed at the age of 12.
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Students' performance may confirm teachers' expectations because teacher expectations create self-fulfilling prophecies, create perceptual biases, or accurately predict, without influencing, student performance. Longitudinal data obtained from 27 teachers and 429 students in 6th-grade math classes assessed the extent of self-fulfilling prophecies, perceptual biases, and accuracy. Results revealed modest self-fulfilling-prophecy effects on student achievement and motivation, modest biasing effects on the grades teachers assigned students, and that teacher expectations predicted student performance more because they were accurate than because they caused student performance. Results provide more support for perspectives emphasizing limitations on expectancy effects than for perspectives emphasizing the power of expectancies to create social reality. They also provide more evidence of accuracy in social perception than of error and bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Since the beginning of the century, feedback interventions (FIs) produced negative--but largely ignored--effects on performance. A meta-analysis (607 effect sizes; 23,663 observations) suggests that FIs improved performance on average ( d  = .41) but that over one-third of the FIs decreased performance. This finding cannot be explained by sampling error, feedback sign, or existing theories. The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes. The results suggest that FI effectiveness decreases as attention moves up the hierarchy closer to the self and away from the task. These findings are further moderated by task characteristics that are still poorly understood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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This research examined moderators of naturally occurring self-fulfilling prophecies. The authors assessed whether positive or negative self-fulfilling prophecies were more powerful and whether some targets were more susceptible to self-fulfilling prophecies because of their self-concepts in a particular achievement domain and previous academic records. Participants were 98 teachers and 1,539 students in sixth-grade public school math classes. Results yielded a strong pattern showing that teacher perceptions predicted achievement more strongly for low achievers than for high achievers. Results also yielded a much weaker pattern showing that teacher overestimates predicted achievement more strongly than teacher underestimates. Implications for social perceptual accuracy, self-enhancement theory, and understanding when self-fulfilling prophecies are stronger are discussed.
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The authors examined whether self-fulfilling prophecies accumulate, dissipate, or remain stable over time by using data from more than 500 6th- through 12th-grade students in public school math classes. The authors used multiple regression analyses to assess the extent to which teacher perceptions predicted students' final math marks and standardized math-test scores from 6th through 12th grade. Control variables included 5 measures of student motivation and 2 measures of previous achievement. The results were consistent with both the dissipation and stability hypotheses. Implications for understanding the extent to which social perception creates social reality and the role of expectations in social problems are discussed.
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This article shows that 35 years of empirical research on teacher expectations justifies the following conclusions: (a) Self-fulfilling prophecies in the classroom do occur, but these effects are typically small, they do not accumulate greatly across perceivers or over time, and they may be more likely to dissipate than accumulate; (b) powerful self-fulfilling prophecies may selectively occur among students from stigmatized social groups; (c) whether self-fulfilling prophecies affect intelligence, and whether they in general do more harm than good, remains unclear, and (d) teacher expectations may predict student outcomes more because these expectations are accurate than because they are self-fulfilling. Implications for future research, the role of self-fulfilling prophecies in social problems, and perspectives emphasizing the power of erroneous beliefs to create social reality are discussed.
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Research into teacher expectations has shown that these have an effect on student achievement. Some researchers have explored the impact of various student characteristics on teachers' expectations. One attribute of interest is ethnicity. This study aimed to explore differences in teachers' expectations and judgments of student reading performance for Maori, Pacific Island, Asian and New Zealand European students. A further objective was to compare teacher expectations and judgments with actual student achievement. The participants were 540 students of 21 primary teachers in Auckland schools. Of these students, 261 were New Zealand European, 88 were Maori, 97 were Pacific Island and 94 were Asian. At the beginning of the year, the teachers completed a survey related to their expectations for their students' achievement in reading and, at the end of the year, they judged the reading levels their students had actually achieved. The survey data were compared with running record data. Teachers' expectations for students in reading were significantly higher than actual achievement for all ethnic groups other than Maori. Maori students' achievement was similar to that of the other groups at the beginning of the year but, by the end of the year, they had made the least gains of all groups. Sustaining expectation effects are one explanation for Maori students' limited progress. For Pacific Island, Asian and New Zealand European students, positive self-fulfilling prophecies may be operating. Future research could investigate the learning opportunities provided to these ethnic groups and the relationship of these to teachers' expectations.
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The issue of this article is whether success in secondary school of Frisian students differs from students from the rest of the Netherlands and whether this can be explained by differences in prior achievement and/or differences in other student characteristics. Multilevel-analyses were applied to examine differences in educational position, attainment and exam grades (GPA) of 5,301 students with at highest a recommendation for the pre-vocational track. These students were monitored for five years, while also background information was gathered about their socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity, achievement motivation, parents' aspirations and home language. The results showed that the educational position of Frisians is lower and that this is due to lower prior achievement. We found no difference in attainment, so initial differences in achievement maintain. The GPA's of Frisian students are higher, which is partly explained by the stronger placement of Frisians to a lower educational track. The second issue was whether multilingualism of students raises the achievement level, but convincing evidence for this was not found.
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Good discusses the types of teacher expectation effects evi denced in the classroom. Particular attention is focused on the research that addresses teachers' expectations for and interac tions with individuals believed to be of high or low potential. Good presents a model for use in understanding the dynamics of expectation communication in the classroom and highlights numerous studies relating teacher expectations with student behavior. The differential treatment of students by teachers is described by the author, with special attention given to how teachers express low expectations. The article concludes with a description of future research directions.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of research on accuracy, error, bias, and self-fulfilling prophecies. It also reviews a research showing that teacher expectations predict student achievement—mainly because they are accurate, although they do lead to small self-fulfilling prophecies and biases. The conditions under which self-fulfilling prophecies might be considerably more powerful are embarked. The results of new research showing that teacher expectancy effects are more powerful among girls, students from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds or African–Americans are also addressed. Some evidence of bias show differences in teacher's perceptions of students from the differing groups corresponded well to actual differences among those same groups of students. The chapter also analyzes ways to distinguish among self fulfilling prophecies, perceptual biases, and accuracy, and examines processes underlying expectancy-related phenomena—discoveries have some relevance and applicability to many other relationships beyond teachers and students. Conceptual model of relationships between teacher perceptions and student achievement and some evidence regarding the role of stereotypes in naturally occurring person perception is also explained in the chapter.
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The size and stability of gender, ethnic and socio‐economic differences in students’ educational achievement are examined over a 9 year period. Both absolute differences in cognitive attainment and relative differences in progress are considered. The study, which is part of a follow up of an age cohort originally included in the ‘School Matters’ research, utilises multilevel modelling techniques. Attainment in reading and mathematics is reported at primary school (Year 3 and 5), secondary transfer (Year 6) and in the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) (Year 11). Whilst differences in achievement related to gender and socio‐economic factors remained consistent and generally increased over time, greater change was found in patterns of ethnic differences. Possible explanations for the findings are discussed, particularly in relation to the debate concerning performance assessment and equity. The importance of adequate control for socio‐economic background in the analysis of ethnic differences is noted.
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Reviews the literature on self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations and concludes that a minority of teachers have major expectation effects on their students' achievement. However, such effects are minimal for most teachers because their expectations are generally accurate and open to corrective feedback. It is difficult to predict the effects of teachers' expectations, even with knowledge of their accuracy and the degree of rigidity with which they are held. Expectations interact with beliefs about learning and instruction to determine teacher behavior; similar expectations may lead to different behavior. Students will also differ in their interpretation of and response to teacher behavior; similar behavior may produce different student outcomes. (106 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)