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Seeing virtues in faults: Negativity and the transformation of interpersonal narratives in close relationships

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Abstract

It is proposed that individuals develop story-like representations of their romantic partners that quell feelings of doubt engendered by their partners' faults. In Study 1, dating individuals were induced to depict their partners as rarely initiating disagreements over joint interests. Such conflict avoidance was then turned into a fault. In scaled questionnaires and open-ended narratives, low-conflict individuals then constructed images of conflict-engaging partners. These results suggest that storytelling depends on considerable flexibility in construal as low-conflict Ss possessed little evidence of conflict in their relationships. Study 2 further examined the construal processes underlying people's ability to transform the meaning of negativity in their stories (e.g., seeing virtues in faults). Paradoxically, positive representations of a partner may exist, not in spite of a partner's faults, but because of these imperfections. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... A study conducted by Murray SL, Holmes JG & Griffin DW [11] found that when asked to evaluate the interpersonal attributes of oneself and one's romantic partner, romantic partners rated one another more favourably than they rated themselves. This study also observed that greater levels of idealization correlated with greater levels of relationship satisfaction and self-esteem. ...
... c) Do men and women have different perceptions of an ideal friend? By using friends' self-impressions as "reality" baselines, this study will investigate whether friends project their self-images and ideals onto one another, thus seeing one another differently, even more positively, than their friends see themselves [11]. Individuals' perceptions of their friends' attributes should mirror their friends' self-perceptions to the extent that they both reflect a shared social reality, for which this study has accounted. ...
... If idiosyncratic construal indeed plays a preeminent role in shaping friends' images of one another, we expect such realities may diverge and individuals may perceive their friends distinctly from how their friends see themselves. Such convergences of perception are reflected in the green and orange shaded areas of ( Figure 1) [11]. ...
... Romantic relationships satisfy a variety of critical needs (e.g., belongingness, financial, health, self-regulation; Baumeister & Leary, 1995;Fitzsimons, Finkel, & vanDellen, 2015;Robles, Slatcher, Trombello, & McGinn, 2014) and are typically highly valued at a societal level (Aron & Aron, 1996;Depaulo & Morris, 2005;Finkel, Hui, Carswell, & Larson, 2014). For these reasons, people are typically highly motivated to perceive and report positive evaluations of their romantic relationships (see Murray, 1999) and, as noted, tend to exhibit a positive bias when explicitly evaluating their relationships on average (Gagné & Lydon, 2001;Karney & Frye, 2002;Murray, 1999;Murray & Holmes, 1993, 1994Murray, This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. ...
... 4 Holmes, & Griffin, 1996;Neff & Karney, 2003; for reviews, see Fletcher & Kerr, 2010;Gagné & Lydon, 2004;Karney et al., 2001). For example, evidence suggests that people tend to downplay their partner's faults and make benevolent interpretations of their partner's undesirable behaviors (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;Murray & Holmes, 1993, 1994Neff & Karney, 2003). In one particularly compelling example of motivations to view relationship partners positively, Murray and colleagues (1996) demonstrated that people tend to evaluate their partners even more positively than their partners evaluated themselves, even though self-evaluations are themselves positively biased (see Alicke & Govorun, 2005). ...
... But perspectives on cognitive consistency and motivated reasoning suggest people's insights into such feelings may be obscured by their goals, desires, and existing propositional beliefs (see Ditto & Lopez, 1992;Gawronski & Bodenhausen, 2006;Gawronski & Strack, 2004;Kunda, 1990). Indeed, the desire to view a partner in a positive light is ubiquitous (Murray, 1999) and a robust body of work suggests relationship evaluations are positively biased (Gagné & Lydon, 2001;Karney & Frye, 2002;Murray, 1999;Murray & Holmes, 1993, 1994Murray et al., 1996;Neff & Karney, 2003; for reviews, see Fletcher & Kerr, 2010;Gagné & Lydon, 2004;Karney et al., 2001). The current work suggests that motivational forces lead people's deliberative evaluations away from their automatic feelings, but also that stress, which is known to minimize cognitive capacity devoted to relationship evaluation (Buck & Neff, 2012;Neff & Karney, 2009), can minimize this ability. ...
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Do people realize the evaluative feelings that are spontaneously activated by their partner? If so, do they use those evaluations when judging their romantic relationships? To answer these questions, we investigated the association between automatic partner attitudes and judgments of relationship satisfaction in 7 studies. Study 1 was a meta analysis of 86 correlations that revealed a very weak association between implicitly and explicitly assessed relationship evaluations, and Studies 2a–2c revealed that people failed to accurately report their automatic partner attitudes even when specifically asked to do so. Consistent with the idea that such inaccuracy emerged in part because motivational factors led people to override their automatic attitudes, Studies 3 and 4 demonstrated that automatic partner attitudes better aligned with relationship judgments when people were incentivized with money (Study 3) and had dissolved their relationship (Study 4). Nevertheless, consistent with the idea that overriding automatic attitudes requires the opportunity to deliberate, Studies 4 and 5 demonstrated that automatic partner attitudes better aligned with relationship judgments when people experienced more stress at the daily level (Study 4) and yearly for two years (Study 5). In Study 5, the interaction between stress and automatic attitudes emerged controlling indicators of negativity and was further moderated by relationship enhancing motivations among wives. These studies (a) help explain why automatic partner attitudes predict self-reported relationship satisfaction over time and (b) provide support for theories of social cognition suggesting that people have access to implicitly assessed attitudes that is obscured by motivations and opportunities to deliberate.
... TMT members may come to identify with narcissistic CEOs because narcissists are more likely to take audacious actions that make them celebrities to the public (Gerstner et al., 2013;Zhu & Chen, 2015a). They not only admire the narcissistic CEO's actions and vision (Fanelli et al., 2009) and the pubic acclaim he or she receives (Hayward et al., 2004), they internalize the media's narratives about the CEO's abilities and importance (Hayward et al., 2004) and use them to "excuse" the narcissistic CEO's less savory behaviors and intense self-focus (Murray & Holmes, 1993;Murray, Holmes, & Griffin, 1996), as well as their strategic risk-taking. For example, senior executives at Apple routinely excused Steve Jobs's abusive treatment of employees who displeased him, and other evidence of his self-absorption, as side effects of his genius (Isaacson, 2013). ...
... While it is beyond the scope of our paper to reconcile the ontological and epistemological differences between these two perspectives (Jost & Kruglanski, 2002), we pave the way for a more comprehensive understanding of narcissism in the executive suite by focusing on how narcissistic CEOs play an active role in creating their contexts, and elaborating on the mediating processes that occur. These processes are aided by the media, the TMT, the board of directors, and other stakeholders through a gamut of status quo justifications (Jost, Banaji, & Nosek, 2004) such as positive idealizations (Murray et al., 1996), finding virtues in faults (Murray & Holmes, 1993), expecting delayed benefits (Graffin, Wade, Porac, & McNamee, 2008) and other forms of compliance (Rusbult & Martz, 1995). In doing so, we highlight the importance of social approval assets such as status and celebrity to narcissistic CEOs, and their role in how narcissistic CEOs shape their professional worlds. ...
Article
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We explore how narcissistic CEOs address two powerful and conflicting needs: the need for acclaim and the need to dominate others. We argue that narcissistic CEOs address their need for acclaim by pursuing celebrity in the media and affiliating with high-status board members, and they address their need to dominate others by employing lower-status, younger, and less experienced top management team members who will be more deferential to and dependent on them. They manage each group differently through the use of different rewards, punishments, and influence tactics. We extend prior theory on CEO narcissism by exploring the mediating constructs that can link CEO narcissism and firm performance, offer a greater understanding of corporate governance by exploring how CEO personality traits influence governance structures, and demonstrate how a CEO’s personality characteristics can affect the acquisition of social approval assets.
... First, people can idiosyncratically interpret the transgression in ways that enables them to maintain a positive view towards the leader-follower relationship. For example, Murray and Holmes (1993) found that ostensibly negative behavior (e.g., adversarial and judgmental) can be interpreted as positive behavior (e.g., willingness to be a straight talker and confront important issues), and that this flexible reinterpretation can help to maintain relationship perceptions over time. That said, the relabelling of transgressions is likely to be psychologically taxing, and in the case of serious offenses may not be always possible without appearing misguided (Maio & Thomas, 2007). ...
... In other words, the transgression is acknowledged but offset by desirable characteristics. Murray and Holmes (1993) provide examples of such integrative thinking in their research on close relationships. Couples were asked to write O. Epitropaki, et al. ...
Article
A growing body of literature has focused on transgressions in the workplace and more recently, with respect to leader-follower relationships. Despite the important implications of leader and follower transgressions and relationship repair for work outcomes, there has not been a systematic review that examines the broad spectrum of leader and follower transgressions and most importantly adopts a dynamic relational process perspective. We view transgressions as key events in leader-follower relationships that trigger re-evaluation of the relationship, relationship repair processes and influence work outcomes. The purpose of this review is threefold. First, to provide a state-of-the-science review of the growing literature. Second, to offer a critical analysis of leader and follower transgressions in terms of conceptualization, methodological issues and theoretical underpinnings. Third, to outline a research agenda addressing leader-follower transgressions, relationship repair processes and outcomes based on relationship science.
... Of course, the current article is not the first to consider the narratives pertaining to experiences from within the romantic domain (see, e.g., Buehlman et al., 1992;Doohan et al., 2010;Frost, 2013;Holmberg et al., 2004;Koenig et al., 2010;Murray & Holmes, 1993, 1999. Previous efforts situated at the nexus of narrative and the romantic domain, however, have typically focused on couples' storied constructions of their current romantic relationships. ...
... These researchers noted that the degree of marital bond exhibited while couples described their relationships (which was indexed on the basis of features such as the level of affection/fondness shown toward one's partner) served as a positive predictor of marital satisfaction (see also Buehlman et al., 1992). Researchers have also examined non-co-constructed narratives about romantic partners and/or current romantic relationships (e.g., Frost, 2013;Murray & Holmes, 1993, 1999. ...
Article
Narrative identity is an internal and evolving story about the self. Individual differences in narrative identity have been found to correspond with several important constructs (e.g., well-being, health behaviors). Here, we examined the nature and correlates of participants’ love life narrative identities. In Study 1, participants provided autobiographical narratives from their love lives and rated their personality traits and authenticity within the romantic domain. In Study 2, participants again provided narratives from their love lives and completed measures assessing their attachment tendencies and relationship contingent self-esteem. Narratives were coded for agency, communion, redemptive imagery, contaminated imagery, affective tone, and integrative complexity. Across our studies, the communion and positive tone in participants’ love life narratives was associated with certain traits, authenticity, attachment tendencies, and relationship contingent self-esteem. These results suggest that love life narrative identity represents a promising construct in the study of functioning within the romantic domain.
... There is a long-standing recognition that love distorts how one perceives the love object. Lovers see the ones they love in idealized fashion, ignoring or overlooking flaws while exaggerating good traits (e.g., Conley, Roesch, Peplau, & Gold, 2009;Murray & Holmes, 1993;Murray, Holmes, & Griffin, 1996a, 1996b. Lovers regard their love objects as far more wonderful than do disinterested, objective observers (Barelds, Dijkstra, Koudenburg, & Swami, 2011) or even friends (Murray, Holmes, Dolderman, & Griffin, 2000). ...
... We also bring to light the role that relational maturity plays in the fracture repair process. In general, relationships are strengthened when the recall of past positive events outweighs the recall of past negative events (Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Finkenauer, & Vohs, 2001;Beuhlmann et al., 1992;Murray & Holmes, 1993). This emphasis of "good" over "bad" events provides the context for interpreting a specific fracture. ...
... Similarly, evaluations may be initially unstable because they are influenced by the (somewhat random) flow of early conversations and events; friends and acquaintances should have had more opportunities to assess the fit between stable features of the perceiver and the target. Furthermore, people often feel motivated to defend established relationships against the sense that partners are less-than-ideal (Gagne & Lydon, 2004;Murray & Holmes, 1993). But, they should be more willing to deliberate carefully about whether partners are a good match as they consider whether to spend time with one potential partner rather than another before making any official commitments. ...
Article
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There are massive literatures on initial attraction and established relationships. But few studies capture early relationship development: the interstitial period in which people experience rising and falling romantic interest for partners who could—but often do not—become sexual or dating partners. In this study, 208 single participants reported on 1,065 potential romantic partners across 7,179 data points over 7 months. In stage 1, we used random forests (a type of machine learning) to estimate how well different classes of variables (e.g., individual differences vs. target-specific constructs) predicted participants’ romantic interest in these potential partners. We also tested (and found only modest support for) the perceiver × target moderation account of compatibility: the meta-theoretical perspective that some types of perceivers experience greater romantic interest for some types of targets. In stage 2, we used multilevel modeling to depict predictors retained by the random-forests models; robust (positive) main effects emerged for many variables, including sociosexuality, sex drive, perceptions of the partner’s positive attributes (e.g., attractive and exciting), attachment features (e.g., proximity seeking), and perceived interest. Finally, we found no support for ideal partner preference-matching effects on romantic interest. The discussion highlights the need for new models to explain the origin of romantic compatibility.
... This may be achieved both through observations of their partner's behavior (e.g., observing whether their actions are consistent with their promises) and, if necessary, through motivated reinterpretation of their partner's questionable behavior (Holmes & Rempel, 1989). Once trust, interdependence, and commitment are achieved, data that are inconsistent with the perception that a partner is trustworthy (and by extension, unlikely to engage in HIV risk behaviors) may be ignored or reinterpreted (Murray & Holmes, 1993), thus reducing perceived HIV vulnerability. To a great extent, these processes of increasing interdependence and investment may underlie the negative attitudes, negative perceived social norms, and perceptions of low vulnerability to HIV that often occur within committed relationships; these are discussed in detail in the present section. ...
Article
Background: Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to be the group most heavily impacted by HIV in the United States. Substantial evidence indicates that up to two-thirds of new HIV infections occur in the context of a main partnership. Couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) has been shown to be a promising and effective strategy for increasing HIV prevention uptake among male couples; however, YMSM who are new to relationships may not have yet developed the efficacy, negotiation, and communication skills to navigate HIV testing in their relationship and communicate around developing a prevention plan. Objective: This study aims to develop and test a relationship skills-focused HIV prevention intervention for YMSM and their partners. The intervention consists of two telehealth-delivered sessions: the first focuses on relationship skills and the second consists of CHTC and prevention planning. Both sessions are attended by both members of the dyad. Methods: This protocol describes the development of the proposed intervention (We Prevent) and pilot test to examine its feasibility and preliminary efficacy. The intervention will include two motivational interviewing-based sessions: session one is a relationship skills-building session, focused on techniques to explore and build communication skills in a relationship, to help YMSM develop and enhance necessary skills for their current and future relationships; the second session is a CHTC session with YMSM and their partners, to help them develop an HIV prevention plan. Through qualitative data collection and a one-arm pilot with YMSM, we will develop and refine a developmentally appropriate relationship skills session as an addition to the current CHTC intervention. We will then conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), comparing the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of the adapted two-session telehealth intervention for YMSM versus a control group receiving one session only-a CHTC session delivered via telehealth. Results: The We Prevent intervention is designed to increase uptake of HIV prevention, shown through self-reported reductions in condomless sex and increases in knowledge and uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis. In addition, the intervention is designed to increase HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. STI incidence is examined as a secondary outcome. A cost-input analysis will examine the costs associated with intervention delivery to inform future scale-up of the intervention. Conclusions: Drawing on theory and existing CHTC protocols delivered with video-based counseling, this proposed intervention affords the opportunity to empower YMSM with the skills necessary to communicate with their partners and protect themselves from HIV in their current and future relationships. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03551938; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03551938 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/73omJCz1a). International registered report identifier (irrid): RR1-10.2196/10370.
... The activation of security regulation goals may have implications for cognitive functioning. Goals shape all aspects of information processing, including attention (Dijksterhuis and Aarts 2010;Moskowitz 2002), interpretation (Kunda 1990;Murray and Holmes 1993), and memory (Lemay and Neal 2013;Sanitioso et al. 1990;Strachman and Gable 2006). When people develop goals to regulate their partner's security, they may become particularly attuned to information relevant to this goal, readily detect information that is relevant to this goal, and better remember information relevant to this goal. ...
Article
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Security in relationship partners’ positive regard promotes high-quality close relationships, and insecurity in partners’ regard undermines relationship quality. Hence, people may be motivated to dispel their close partners’ insecurity. The current research used an experimental-causal-chain design to test a novel model of the interpersonal regulation of relationship partners’ security. Manipulated perceptions of relationship partners’ insecurity increased the activation of security regulation goals (i.e., goals to improve partners’ security and dispel their insecurity) and selective attention to threat-relevant information (Study 1). In turn, manipulated security regulation goals increased the expression of positive regard for relationship partners, particularly in negatively evaluated and important domains (Study 2). In turn, manipulated expression of positive regard increased partners’ relationship security and satisfaction, particularly when partners had chronic doubts about the extent to which they were valued (Study 3). These studies provide compelling causal evidence for a relationship-protective response to detection of partner insecurity; people try to dispel the relationship threat posed by an insecure partner by adopting security regulation goals, which motivate expressions of positive regard that increase partner security.
... Finally, participants in the control condition who wrote about sexism were excluded. Second, participants were asked to rate the article on five dimensions (i.e., intuitiveness, reasonableness, believability, persuasiveness, and significance) on a 9-point scale from 1 (not at all) to 9 (extremely) (Murray and Holmes 1993). These items were combined to form a measure of article credibility (α = .84). ...
Article
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Based on research suggesting that alcohol consumption can be used as a means of coping with negative affect (Cooper et al. 1995), the current study examines sexism as a factor in college women’s alcohol consumption. Despite being more prevalent than hostile sexism, benevolent sexism is often viewed as less sexist (Oswald et al. 2018) and having a less aversive impact on women (Bosson et al. 2010). To increase understanding of the negative effects of both hostile and benevolent sexism, the current study experimentally manipulated sexism during a lab session and measured 176 U.S. college women’s actual alcohol consumption that evening. As predicted, college women who experienced either the hostile or the benevolent sexism condition reported consuming a greater number of alcoholic drinks, and those in the hostile sexism condition were more likely to meet the binge drinking threshold than participants in the control condition. This pattern suggests the importance of examining the unique effects of benevolent sexism in addition to hostile sexism because both may influence women’s behavior even in important health domains. Given the many negative consequences associated with alcohol consumption, our results provide evidence for education on healthy coping mechanisms and interventions to reduce both hostile and benevolent sexism.
... favorable) feedback (Baumeister & Cairns, 1992;Sedikides & Green, 2000, Experiment 3), thus hindering its registration. Also, selective selfmemory partly originates at retrieval, as demonstrated by experiments on differential recall patterns of desirable versus undesirable traits (Sanitioso et al., 1990), satisfying versus unsatisfying relationships (Murray & Holmes, 1993), and health-boosting versus control habits (Ross, McFarland, & Fletcher, 1981). Lastly, selective self-memory partly originates in retention. ...
... Much like assumed similarity, people may rely on a bias like social desirability when they have limited information, suggesting that if motives are less visible, friends may be more likely to project positive characteristics onto one another. Nevertheless, people view close others with high levels of social desirability even when a person's true characteristics, including flaws, are clearly visible, arguably because of motivational processes to view the other positively (e.g., Murray & Holmes, 1993). Thus, if viewing another person positively is driven more by motivational than informational processes, this tendency may be independent of how visible the characteristics are. ...
Article
Accurately perceiving others’ personalities helps people to successfully navigate their social relationships. However, it is not yet clear whether people can accurately perceive one aspect of people’s personalities that may be especially important to understand: motivations. Using the fundamental social motives framework, we examined the extent to which people accurately perceived a friend’s motivations (vs. big five traits) and how this was related to friendship quality. A sample of friend dyads completed both self- and friend-assessments of the big five traits and the fundamental motives, and rated friendship quality. Perceivers accurately detected their friend’s unique, self-reported ordering of motives (i.e., distinctive accuracy), though to a lesser extent than traits. However, accuracy for motives and traits was positively associated with greater friendship quality to a similar extent. Importantly, these associations emerged above and beyond tendencies to view others highly normatively, as socially desirable, and as similar to the self.
... We also bring to light the role that relational maturity plays in the fracture repair process. In general, relationships are strengthened when the recall of past positive events outweighs the recall of past negative events (Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Finkenauer, & Vohs, 2001;Beuhlmann et al., 1992;Murray & Holmes, 1993). This emphasis of "good" over "bad" events provides the context for interpreting a specific fracture. ...
... People who are secure and satisfied in their relationships tend to engage in processes that boost positive feelings, while those who are insecure and in dissatisfied relationships tend to engage in patterns that maintain distress levels (Holtzworth-Munroe & Jacobson, 1985;Murray & Holmes, 1993). Notably, some research suggests that the link between relationship-enhancing behaviors and relationship satisfaction is reciprocal. ...
Article
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The present research examines how the subjective time of relational memories is linked to present relationship satisfaction. We tested the hypothesis that satisfied (but not dissatisfied) partners would keep happy relational events subjectively close in time and relegate transgressions to the subjectively distant past (regardless of when those events actually occurred). We found support for our predictions in the context of romantic relationships (Study 1) and with any type of close other (e.g., friends, family members; Study 2). To better understand the implications of the subjective distancing pattern among highly satisfied versus dissatisfied partners, we examined the role of perceptions of event importance. We found that highly satisfied partners’ adaptive pattern of distancing mediates their tendency to ascribe continued importance to past relationship glories, while dismissing earlier relational disappointments as unimportant (Study 2). We then examined the causal impact of subjective time on importance and on subsequent relationship satisfaction by manipulating both event valence and perceptions of subjective distance (Study 3). People were more satisfied when happy relational events felt close and unhappy ones felt distant. This work sheds light on a reciprocal process whereby highly satisfied partners navigate the temporal landscape of their relational histories by retaining and valuing happy memories and by discarding the relevance of painful ones, which then maintains or boosts subsequent relationship satisfaction.
... These three items were reverse scored to make higher scores more negative and were combined to form a measure Downloaded by [Hannah Hamilton] at 11:30 26 July 2016 of expected reactions (α = .84). Next, participants rated the content of the article on five dimensions (intuitiveness, reasonableness, believability, persuasiveness, and significance) on a 9-point scale (1 = not at all, 9 = extremely; Murray & Holmes, 1993). These items were combined to form a measure of article credibility (α = .86). ...
Article
The current study examined how implicit and explicit self-esteem and time spent drinking with friends influence college student drinking after a friendship threat manipulation. Poisson regression analyses revealed that students with low implicit self-esteem showed a greater increase in alcohol consumption when drinking with friends after experiencing a friendship threat than in the control condition. These effects were not found among students with high implicit self-esteem. A similar, but weaker, pattern emerged when testing the independent effects of explicit self-esteem. We suggest that low self-esteem students are drinking because they lack the self-resources to deal with unmet belongingness needs. These findings suggest that low implicit self-esteem may be a risk factor for college student drinking.
... 24,25 In terms of positive framing, those lower in attachment anxiety may experience an easier post-deployment transition, driven by an ability to frame conf icts in a way that minimizes, or buf ers, the negative impact on a relationship, given that conf icts are perceived as less threatening. 23,40 T is study also identif ed one mechanism to explain why attachment anxiety is related to lower-quality postdeployment partner interactions: namely, beliefs that original expectations about the reunion have not been met. 19,22 T ose higher in attachment anxiety might experience more unpleasant partner interactions as a result of overly optimistic beliefs about their partner and their relationship post-deployment, tied to needs for reassurance and validation and reliance on partners for ...
Article
LAY SUMMARY The goal of this study was to understand whether spousal attachment is related to the quality of post-deployment interactions and issues of conflict reported by spouses of Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members during a post-deployment reunion. A total of 104 spouses of CAF Regular Force personnel who had recently been reunited with their partners after a deployment were surveyed. Results showed that both attachment anxiety (fear of rejection and abandonment) and attachment avoidance (discomfort with emotional intimacy and closeness) were related to lower-quality post-deployment interactions and the reported frequency of particular conflict issues. Specifically, attachment anxiety was related to more reports of unmet emotional needs, difficulties re-establishing intimacy, finances, and being less likely to describe the conflict in positive terms. The relationship between attachment anxiety and the quality of post-deployment interactions was explained by feeling as though one’s original expectations of the reunion were not met.
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Taking the bad with the good is a necessity of life, and people who readily integrate thoughts of their loved one’s flaws with thoughts of their more positive attributes maintain more stable, satisfying relationships. Borderline personality disorder, however, is often characterized by interpersonal perceptions that fluctuate between extremes of good and bad. We used a timed judgment task to examine information processing about significant others in individuals high in borderline personality features relative to healthy individuals and those high in avoidant personality features. In Study 1, when judging traits of a liked significant other, same-valence facilitation by negative primes (judging negative traits faster than positive traits after a negative prime) was significantly stronger in the borderline features group than the other two groups, and was inversely associated with self-reports of integrated thoughts about significant others. By contrast, same-valence facilitation by positive primes, (judging positive traits faster than negative traits after a positive prime), was significantly stronger in the avoidant features group than the other two groups, and inversely associated with self-esteem. No between-group differences in same-valence facilitation were statistically significant when participants judged traits of disliked significant others, liked foods, and disliked foods. In Study 2, same-valence facilitation by negative primes when judging traits of a liked significant other was significantly associated with less integrated positive/negative thoughts about that person in a 12-day diary. These results identify an implicit information processing pattern relevant to interpersonal difficulties in borderline personality disorder.
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Life scripts represent cultural expectations regarding the events in the prototypical life whereas life stories represent narrative constructions of the events occurring in individuals’ own lives. In Study 1, we generated an outline of the love life script and a list of the self-definitional events individuals tend to associate with their own love lives. Participants were prompted to produce and rate seven important events in the prototypical love life and several significant moments from their own love lives. Building upon these descriptive efforts, in Study 2, we developed self-report measures of perceived and desired love life normality. These characteristics positively predicted the conventionality of autobiographical narratives drawn from participants’ love life stories. Furthermore, perceived normality and desired normality were positively and negatively related to functioning within the romantic domain, respectively. These results underscore the role love life scripts and love life stories play in functioning within the romantic domain.
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We propose that the self, as experienced in the moment, is embedded in interpersonal contexts and thus varies across contexts, in terms of relational selves stored in memory. When representations of significant others and the relationship one has with them are cued and thus automatically activated, the self shifts in how it is experienced and expressed. Research on the relational self, involving both the social-cognitive process of transference and simple priming, demonstrates the ways in which variability in the self arises based on pre-existing memory and specific interpersonal cues, and speaks as well to how the self nonetheless remains phenomenally coherent. We propose that this phenomenal coherence in the self is tied to longstanding, personally meaningful knowledge of self in relation to various significant others, just as variability is defined in part by these prior relationships as activated in context. We propose that the self, as experienced in the moment, is embedded in interpersonal contexts and thus varies across contexts, in terms of relational selves stored in memory. When representations of significant others and the relationship one has with them are cued and thus automatically activated, the self shifts in how it is experienced and expressed. Research on the relational self, involving both the social-cognitive process of transference and simple priming, demonstrates the ways in which variability in the self arises based on pre-existing memory and specific interpersonal cues, and speaks as well to how the self nonetheless remains phenomenally coherent. We propose that this phenomenal coherence in the self is tied to longstanding, personally meaningful knowledge of self in relation to various significant others, just as variability is defined in part by these prior relationships as activated in context.
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People attempting to stop smoking cigarettes (quitters) hold expectations about the extent to which their partner will provide helpful support during a quit attempt. However, these expectations may not align with their perceptions of the helpfulness of the support they receive. We examine expected and received helpful support during a quit attempt. We hypothesized that receiving less helpful support than expected (i.e., creating an expectancy violation) would be associated with the greatest return to smoking. Sixty-two quitters completed a 21-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study. They reported expected support at baseline and support receipt and smoking during the EMA phase. At follow-up, they completed an expelled breath carbon monoxide test. Analyses using polynomial generalized linear models with response surface analysis indicated that smoking outcomes depended on the joint influence of expected and received helpful support. As hypothesized, when quitters expected more helpful support than they received, they were more likely to smoke in the first 24h and the last seven days of the EMA, and they provided higher carbon monoxide readings at follow-up. These results are consistent with an expectancy violation explanation: quitters are more likely to smoke when they perceive their partner has failed to provide support that is as helpful as expected. Given the importance of support for smoking cessation, many researchers have attempted to experimentally increase provision of support. The current findings suggest that partner support interventions might backfire if the quitter is led to expect more helpful support than the partner is able to provide.
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When, why, and how does interpersonal forgiveness occur? These questions have generated a wealth of findings, from which have emerged two broad theoretical perspectives by which to understand the forgiveness process. One perspective suggests that empathy underlies forgiveness, whereas the other suggests that motivated reasoning underlies forgiveness. Of note is that the two models have not been directly tested against one another. This lack of comparison between the models represents an important barrier to a fuller and richer understanding of the nature of forgiveness. The present research addresses this gap. To provide a test of the two perspectives, we first synthesize and link prior research associated with motivated reasoning to advance a more general model of motivated reasoning. This model hypothesizes that relationship closeness leads to a desire to maintain the relationship, this desire leads to motivated reasoning, and this motivation leads to interpersonal forgiveness. We then compare the relative ability of the two perspectives to predict forgiveness when controlling for one another. When estimated simultaneously, the model of motivated interpersonal forgiveness significantly predicts forgiveness, whereas the empathy model does not. The superiority of the model of motivated interpersonal forgiveness replicates across three studies.
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Three studies investigated change-of-meaning processes following decisions to conform or dissent. Study 1 demonstrated that conformity decisions relative to a group standard, but not agreement decisions relative to a purely informational standard, caused changes in Ss' construal of a stimulus story. Studies 2 and 3 extended these findings to a real-world stimulus story (an actual newspaper account of a police shooting incident) and showed that postconformity change-of-meaning effects were maintained over a 1-week test period and in fact increased over time for female Ss. Study 3 also showed that change-of-meaning effects could be captured by open-ended narrative measures as well as by scaled measures of situational construal. Discussion focused on the theoretical and practical implications of postconformity change of meaning.
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Every close relationship has a history, but how people manage their relational past varies and can have important implications in the present. The current research investigated the role of subjective representation of time: how feeling subjectively close (vs. distant) to a past relational transgression (vs. kind act) predicted "kitchen thinking"—the tendency to bring to mind relational past memories in new, unrelated contexts. We explored the role of attachment anxiety as a predictor of subjective time perception and kitchen thinking. We found support for our hypothesis that when negative memories felt subjectively closer relative to positive memories, people were more likely to kitchen think (Studies 1-3). Kitchen thinking, in turn, predicted negative relationship outcomes (Study 4). Further, people high (vs. low) in attachment anxiety were less likely to perceive the timing of their relational memories adaptively, accounting for more kitchen thinking and in turn, maladaptive relational outcomes.
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This dissertation describes an effort to test five hypotheses posed by a novel theory of the dynamics of cooperation among autonomous organizations in networks called Government Extended Enterprises (GEEs). The proposed theory holds that cooperation decisions are the result of the interaction of four canonical forces—Sympathy, Trust, Fear and Greed. The research used a computational simulation to examine information sharing decisions in a series of key decision points (KDPs) in three case studies, comprising a total of 185 interactions. Content analysis techniques were used to analyze documentary evidence from a variety of authoritative sources. An open coding process transformed this information into inputs to a custom-built, game theoretic simulation of interactions among boundedly rational actors across 17 KDPs. The simulation, which included a set of random factors, executed 10,000 iterations of the complete scenario within a Stag Hunt game (approximately 1.5 million records). Exploratory data analysis of the output and application of nonparametric statistical processes found that: 1) the output data were not normally distributed; 2) strong support exists for three of the hypotheses (cooperation is positively correlated with actors’ levels of Sympathy and Trust and negatively correlated with actors’ levels of Fear); 3) moderate support exists for the fourth (cooperation is negatively correlated with actors’ levels of Greed); 4) the fifth hypothesis (cooperation is correlated with history of behavior) is not needed to explain observed behavior; and 5) significant interactions exist both among pairs of each force and each force when paired with a fifth variable, decision making strategy. These results will form the basis for: 1) subsequent analyses of additional cases; 2) development of an agent-based simulation using simple behavioral rules; 3) development of training programs for organizational leaders that enable them to recognize how to promote and foster the inter-organizational cooperation required to achieve important public goals; and 4) development of reliable leading indicators of a network’s level of the Boardman-Sauser characteristic “Belonging.”
Article
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Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - The New Psychology of Love - edited by Robert J. Sternberg
Chapter
The maintenance and enhancement of self-esteem has always been identified as a fundamental human impulse. Philosophers, writers, educators and of course psychologists have all emphasized the crucial role played by self-image in motivation, affect and social interactions. The aim of this chapter is to bring these concerns into the realm of economic analysis, and show that this has important implications for how agents process information and make decisions. Conversely, the tools of economic modelling can help shed light on a number of apparently irrational behaviours documented by psychologists.
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People tend to perceive themselves more favourably than others, but the degree to which individuals exhibit this bias may be influenced by cultural upbringing. Korean ( n = 271) and American ( n = 503) participants were asked to evaluate current and future health expectations for themselves and others. Results showed that American participants rated their own future health more positively than others' future health, whereas Korean participants rated their own and others' future health similarly. Given its role in patient health behaviour, implications for creating context-sensitive interventions for future health expectations are discussed.
Article
Although negotiators need to build and sustain high‐quality relationships, relatively little attention has been given to how they might accomplish this. Negotiation researchers have focused largely on the role of trust and trust violations in dealmaking, neglecting the insights that relationship science can offer. In this article, I integrate research from the close relationships and marriage therapy literatures with negotiation research. Based on this integration, I identify three common themes—relationship history, shared meaning, and relationship work—and draw out nine lessons for repair following actions that disrupt a relationship between negotiators. Drawing on these three themes and their associated lessons, I conclude by identifying four guiding principles for developing strong positive relationships. The first principle highlights the importance of acting within a critical window. Using the opening moments of a negotiation to establish positive emotional tone and cognitive interdependence builds a constructive foundation. Reappraising temporary impasses as transformational opportunities and resetting positive affect immediately after a temporary impasse stabilizes relationships and returns them to a positive trajectory. The second principle highlights the role of pauses. Stepping back from the moment of a temporary impasse enables negotiators to neutralize negative emotions, creating the psychological space to positively reappraise the impasse as a transformational opportunity. The third principle draws attention to the benefits of creating a positive skew within relationships, that is, increasing the salience of positive moments in a relationship's history. Finally, the fourth principle draws upon the concept of positivity resonance to highlight the benefits of synchronicity: the alignment of cognitions and emotions in a way that establishes a shared perspective and a shared response to temporary impasses.
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate the effect of commitment and trust on satisfaction and sequential effect of satisfaction on relational outcomes (i.e. performance and governance cost) in a manufacturer–supplier relationship. Authors of this paper explore the relationship quality parameters such as trust, commitment and satisfaction and its effect on improving the performance and reducing the governance cost between the partners, as well as the effect of relationship duration on the antecedents and relational outcomes. Design/methodology/approach Based on the conceptual framework developed by authors, hypotheses were formulated, to test the effect of trust and commitment to performance and governance cost through the mediating effect of satisfaction in the manufacturer–supplier relationship. Data were collected from 196 manufacturers from the western part of India, through a structured questionnaire, and collected quantitative data were analyzed through structural equation modeling. Findings The analysis of the sample of 196 manufacturers suggests a positive relationship between satisfaction and commitment and between satisfaction and trust. The study suggests that increased satisfaction lowers governance cost as well as suggests a positive relationship between satisfaction and performance in a manufacturer–supplier relationship. As a relationship grows in an early stage, relationship performance improves, and as the relationship matures, the relationship performance diminishes. Practical implications Findings suggest that managers in business and industrial markets shall focus on commitment in the relationship rather than just trust that leads to satisfaction. It also suggests that a higher level of satisfaction enhances the performance and reduces the governance cost in a manufacturer–supplier relationship. Originality/value This research makes four contributions: first, it enquires the direct impact of trust and commitment to a manufacturer’s satisfaction; second, it investigates the indirect impact of trust on a manufacturer’s satisfaction through commitment in the relationship; third, it investigates the mediating satisfaction between trust-commitment and relationship outcomes (relationship performance and governance cost); fourth, the research shows the impact of relationship duration regarding the relational outcomes and the dimensions of relationship quality into a short-term and long-term relationship. It also uniquely suggests that the presence of commitment has a catalytic effect on satisfaction. Research offers managerial implication to increase the performance and to reduce the governance cost in the relationship.
Chapter
This edited volume draws together a wide range of exciting developments in the study of marital interaction. A significant feature of the book is its focus, not only on conflict and negative interactions but also on the processes by which couples maintain happy and constructive relationships. The chapters review and integrate the extensive literature in this area, as well as presenting important research findings. The contributors come from the disciplines of communication, social psychology and clinical psychology, and have national and international reputations for their work in this area. The findings reflect developments in theory and methodology, and have important implications for those working to strengthen and repair marital relationships.
Article
Love has been ignored in group analysis for too long. This article describes different forms of love and attachment love styles. Techniques to assess and work with love are introduced. The social unconscious of love and lovesickness must be made conscious to prevent it from becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy. Technologies impact on dating, relationships and love. Groups can help patients address feelings and behaviour arising from these. Love can be curative provided psychotherapists allow loving feelings to emerge in therapy and work with them. Frequently, being in love or unrequited love results in irrational, destructive behaviour, sorrow and disenfranchised grief. Why love can be disappointing is discussed. Since lovesickness may be diagnosed as depression, using the term lovesickness for emotions and behaviour arising from love related difficulties is proposed. This reduces stigma, because lovesickness is normal.
Article
Research on the social consequences of narcissism points to an intriguing paradox: narcissists are socially aversive and destructive to healthy interpersonal relationships; yet, narcissists also have an ability to be socially magnetic and attractive. This raises the question we seek to answer in this paper: Are narcissists socially accepted by coworkers in the workplace, and if so, when? Drawing on the social‐constructionist perspective and power‐dependence theory, we propose that others’ dependency on narcissists plays a critical role in determining narcissists’ social acceptance in the workplace. Results from two time‐lagged independent studies suggest that narcissists with a high level of expertise status experience less ostracism than non‐narcissists, particularly in a group with high group goal interdependence; by contrast, narcissists who are perceived to lack expertise status experience greater ostracism than non‐narcissists, particularly in a group with low group goal interdependence. In Study 2, in addition to ostracism, we also examined social inclusion and popularity of narcissists, and we found that narcissists with high expertise status are more likely to be social included and to become popular, particularly in a group with a high level of group goal interdependence.
Article
We draw on the sociological theories of the “liability of newness” and the “liability of adolescence” to generate new insights into relationship evolution. First, we show how a new relationship during its “honeymoon” exhibits a unique constellation of two conditions, namely information asymmetry and forbearance. Next, we explain how a relationship evolves along two processes that involve passive learning and decay, respectively. In themselves, these processes will move a relationship towards a long-term “transactional” state and possibly termination, but the processes can also be actively shaped using governance mechanisms of various kinds. The latter, however, requires a nuanced account of types of governance mechanisms and the particular conditions they are intended to induce. We consider how the general mechanisms of (1) incentives and (2) information sharing can be deployed in standardized or customized fashions, respectively. Next, we suggest how different manifestation of governance mechanisms impact a relationship’s underlying evolutionary processes and evolved relationship states. In general, our framework represents a new perspective on relationship evolution; one that involves the purposeful management of initial conditions and their related evolutionary processes.
Article
This work documents a relationship-maintenance strategy that individuals use when they perceive their time with a partner as scarce (vs. abundant): choosing to share extraordinary experiences (i.e., those characterized by uniqueness and superiority; pilot study N = 57). Study 1 first tested this notion in a social media experiment ( N = 35,848 ad impressions on 25,148 adults). Study 2 ( N = 393 adults) suggested that individuals choose extraordinary experiences as a way of sustaining the focal relationship, which leads them to prioritize extraordinariness over other attributes, such as quantity (Study 3: N = 100 adults) and convenience (Study 4: N = 799 adults). Consistent with the relationship-maintenance account, results showed that this prioritization of extraordinary experiences when facing shared time scarcity occurs only when individuals have a strong relationship-maintenance goal (Study 4). Taken together, these studies advance our understanding of the antecedents of experiential choices in close relationships.
Article
The purpose of this paper is two-fold: (1) to provide a philosophical justification for the counterintuitive attitude that Judaism seems to have towards proselytism; and (2) to extend the case so as to create a general argument, applicable to all religions, against many forms of proselytism.
Article
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When, why, and how does interpersonal forgiveness occur? These questions guided recent research that compared the relative abilities of empathy versus motivated reasoning models to account for the influence of relationship closeness on interpersonal forgiveness. Consistent support was provided for the Model of Motivated Interpersonal Forgiveness. This model hypothesizes that, following relationship transgressions, relationship closeness leads to a desire to maintain a relationship. Desire to maintain a relationship leads to motivated reasoning. And motivated reasoning fosters interpersonal forgiveness. The goal of the present research was to examine two concerns that emerged from the initial support for the Model of Motivated Interpersonal Forgiveness. First, were the measures of motivated reasoning and interpersonal forgiveness conflated, thus reducing the potential for empathy to account for interpersonal forgiveness? Second, did the analytic estimation used reduce the power to detect the mediational role of empathy? The present research examined these questions. When motivated reasoning was measured by thought listings (in addition to the original questionnaire items) and when the analytic estimation provided greater power, the Model of Motivated Interpersonal Forgiveness was replicated.
Article
This research is aimed to analyze the main character personality short stories by Roald Dahl as Depicted in her Short Stories. In conducting this research, the researcher applies the qualitative descriptive method. The researcher uses documentation as the technique of collecting data. All the necessary data which related to the research are gathered by doing several steps. The first tep is the researcher selects the short stories by Roald Dahl. The second step is the researcher gathers the literary reference that related to psychological approach. From the analysis the researcher finds that anyone who lives in this world will not be separated from its basic needs, psychological needs, and self fulfillment need. Like food, water, rest, intimate relationships, and achieving one’s full potential. Keywords: Personality, Psychology, Motivation
Chapter
This edited volume draws together a wide range of exciting developments in the study of marital interaction. A significant feature of the book is its focus, not only on conflict and negative interactions but also on the processes by which couples maintain happy and constructive relationships. The chapters review and integrate the extensive literature in this area, as well as presenting important research findings. The contributors come from the disciplines of communication, social psychology and clinical psychology, and have national and international reputations for their work in this area. The findings reflect developments in theory and methodology, and have important implications for those working to strengthen and repair marital relationships.
Article
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This study examined cultural effects on memory for interpersonal transgressions and the relation to self-acceptance. Asian and European American college students each recalled two specific incidents, one in which they hurt or wronged others (perpetrator memory) and one in which others hurt or wronged them (victim memory). Although both Asians and European Americans tended to minimize the harm in the perpetrator memory and maximize the harm in the victim memory, Asians exhibited a greater degree of harm minimization in both types of memories than did European Americans. Furthermore, for the victim memory, harm maximization (i.e., amplifying harms done by others) was negatively associated with self-acceptance for Asians, whereas harm minimization (i.e., downplaying harms done by others) was negatively associated with self-acceptance for European Americans. The culturally divergent implications of self-serving and relationship-serving biases in constructing interpersonal transgression memories are discussed.
Book
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This book brings together scholarship that contributes diverse and new perspectives on childhood amnesia – the scarcity of memories for very early life events. The topics of the studies reported in the book range from memories of infants and young children for recent and distant life events, to mother–child conversations about memories for extended lifetime periods, and to retrospective recollections of early childhood in adolescents and adults. The methodological approaches are diverse and theoretical insights rich. The findings together show that childhood amnesia is a complex and malleable phenomenon and that the waning of childhood amnesia and the development of autobiographical memory are shaped by a variety of interactive social and cognitive factors. https://www.routledge.com/Remembering-and-Forgetting-Early-Childhood-1st-Edition/Wang-Gulgoz/p/book/9780367466305
Article
This study aims to explore a model of customer equity and to examine the moderating effects of relationship age on relation between drivers of customer equity and customer loyalty for chain hotels. Data were collected from 947 guests at five stars of chain hotels which are located in Busan, South Korea and analyzed using structural equation modeling. A developed model endorsed that all three key drivers of customer equity were significant factors to develop customer loyalty in chain hotels and especially guest perceived value equity as the most forceful factor for loyalty development. The guests’ perception on drivers of customer equity for loyalty development shifts over time. Guests with early years of relationship with a chain hotel perceived value equity as the most influential driver for loyalty, those with middle years of relationship considered relationship equity as, and those with mature years of relationship rated brand equity as. This article ends with more of discussions for the implications and directions of future study.
Article
It has been proposed that women’s sexual behaviors and attitudes are more likely to change due to factors such as satisfaction with married life. This suggests a relationship between marital and sexual satisfaction. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to predict sexual satisfaction by the marital satisfaction components. The participants were 235 married women in Isfahan, Iran, that were recruited from kindergartens, parks, and cultural centers through convenience sampling. The data were collected using the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale and the Index of Sexual Satisfaction and regression analysis was used to examine the contributions of marital satisfaction components to sexual satisfaction. The results revealed a significant relationship between marital and sexual satisfaction. Among the subscales of marital satisfaction, the subscales of marital satisfaction and idealistic distortion were predictive of sexual satisfaction. According to the results, it can be concluded that the components of marital satisfaction are correlated with sexual satisfaction and it seems that preparing the ground and providing the necessary training for enhancing marital satisfaction might increase sexual satisfaction in couples.
Chapter
Wann haben Sie sich zuletzt verliebt? Wie häufig hatten Sie schon Liebeskummer? Hand aufs Herz: Über wen haben Sie sich in den vergangenen Wochen am meisten aufgeregt, über Ihren Freund/Ihre Freundin, einen Mitbewohner oder Ihre Eltern? Oder auch einen Dozenten, einen Sporttrainer oder einen Kommilitonen? Ob Liebes-, Arbeits-, Wohnbeziehung – soziale Beziehungen bestimmen unseren Alltag. Denn wir verbringen ihn mit Menschen, mit denen uns, ob gewollt oder nicht gewollt, Beziehungen verbinden: Wir haben Freunde, Verwandte, Vorgesetzte, Partner, manchmal auch Geliebte und zuweilen auch ein paar Feinde. In diesem Kapitel erfahren Sie, was Beziehungen unterschiedlicher Art aus sozialpsychologischer Sicht charakterisiert und welche Bedeutung Beziehungen für unser Wohlbefinden und unsere Gesundheit haben (Abschn. 1.1). Anschließend lesen Sie, welche Faktoren die Aufnahme einer Beziehung wahrscheinlicher machen (Abschn. 1.2). Sie lernen darüber hinaus die sozialpsychologische Sicht auf die Thematik „Liebe“ kennen sowie typische Verläufe von Paarbeziehungen, Forschung zum Umgang mit Krisen in der Partnerschaft und zu Auswirkungen von Trennungen (Abschn. 1.3).
Article
Pascal’s wager has to face the many gods objection. The wager goes wrong when it asks us to chose between Christianity and atheism, as if there are no other options. Some have argued that we’re entitled to dismiss exotic, bizarre, or subjectively unappealing religions from the scope of the wager. But they have provided no satisfying justification for such a radical wager-saving dispensation. This paper fills that dialectical gap. It argues that some agents are blameless or even praiseworthy for ignoring all but one religion as they face the wager. The argument leads us to multiple Pascals: a Jewish one, a Christian one, a Muslim one, and more.
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When people are asked to compare their abilities to those of their peers, they predominantly provide self-serving assessments that appear objectively indefensible. This article proposes that such assessments occur because the meaning of most characteristics is ambiguous, which allows people to use self-serving trail definitions when providing self-evaluations. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that people provide self-serving assessments to the extent that the trait is ambiguous, that is, to the extent that it can describe a wide variety of behaviors. Study 3 more directly implicated ambiguity in these apraisals. As the number of criteria that Ss could use in their evaluations increased, Ss endorsed both positive and negative characteristics as self-descriptive to a greater degree. Study 4 demonstrated that the evidence and criteria that people use in self-evaluations is idiosyncratic. Asking Ss explicitly to list the evidence and criteria they considered before providing self-evaluations did not influence their self-appraisals. However, requiring Ss to evaluate themselves using a list generated by another individual caused them to lower their self-appraisals. Discussion centers on the normative status of these self-serving appraisals, and on potential consequences for social judgment in general.
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Much past mathematical modeling of psychological processes has assumed (a) smooth and continuous change in behavior or cognitions or, if not, (b) simple step functions or thresholds. Many psychological phenomena which are not smooth and continuous, or do not meet the assumptions of simple step functions, seem to demonstrate the properties of the cusp or butterfly catastrophes. Catastrophe models have already been proposed for many psychological phenomena. In this paper catastrophe models are proposed for social behavior, attitude change, and some other related processes. These models synthesize many diverse and sometimes seemingly contradictory findings and suggest some unique hypotheses. The difficulties of testing catastrophe models are discussed and some means for improving empirical tests are suggested. It is concluded that catastrophe models hold promise for theoretical development in social psychology wherever high quality measurement and scaling techniques are available or can be developed.
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The interplay between 3 types of socioemotional behavior (affection, sexual interest, and negativity) and marital satisfaction was studied using data from newly married couples followed over 2 years. Affection and negativity (but not sexual interest) were consistently associated cross-sectionally with marital satisfaction. Longitudinal analyses revealed a gender-differentiated pattern suggesting a more complex relationship between satisfaction and marital behavior than previously shown. Negativity, regardless of whether it was expressed by the husband or the wife, was associated with declines in wives' (but not husbands') satisfaction. Wives of husbands who were relatively negative early in marriage became more negative themselves. Wives who were relatively less satisfied early in marriage (but not husbands) were married to spouses who became more negative with time.
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Subjects furnished autobiographical accounts of being angered (victim narratives) and of angering someone else (perpetrator narratives). The provoking behavior was generally portrayed by the perpetrator as meaningful and comprehensible, whereas the victim tended to depict it as arbitrary, gratuitous, or incomprehensible. Victim accounts portrayed the incident in a long-term context that carried lasting implications, especially of continuing harm, loss, and grievance. Perpetrator accounts tended to cast the incident as a closed, isolated incident that did not have lasting implications. Several findings fit a hypothesis that interpersonal conflicts may arise when a victim initially stifles anger and then finally responds to an accumulated series of provocations, whereas the perpetrator perceives only the single incident and regards the angry response as an unjustified overreaction. Victim and perpetrator roles are associated with different subjective interpretations.
Article
Two studies suggest that the content of people's self-conceptions at a given time may be influenced by the perceived desirability of different attributes. Subjects induced to theorize that a given attribute—extraversion or introversion—was related to academic success came to view themselves as possessing relatively higher degrees of that attribute. We propose that motivation may provoke such changes in temporary self-conceptions by guiding the memory search among the wide array of potentially relevant self-conceptions and leading to the activation of only those self-conceptions that are consistent with the currently desired view of the self.
Article
Research on interactional processes in marriage is reviewed to illustrate how advances in the field of close relationships have created a foundation for progress in the domains of public education, newlywed counseling, and marital therapy. First, the transition from serious dating to marriage is characterized using the concepts of mutual responsiveness and compatibility. Major themes and assumptions underlying approaches to marital therapy are then examined in the light of research on patterns of social exchange, communication and problem solving, interpersonal perception, and interdependence in marriage. It is suggested that findings in these four areas provide a basis for articulating and modifying interventions for marital distress.
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between naturally occurring changes in people's impressions and their recollections of themselves, close others, and their relationship. It was reasoned that (a) reconstructing the past consists primarily of characterizing it as similar to, or different from, the present; (b) people employ implicit theories of personal stability to make this judgment; and (c) when these theories imply stability, people may overestimate the similarity between the past and the present. In an initial session, subjects rated themselves, their dating partner, and their relationship on dimensions that people expect to be stable over time. Two months later, subjects made current evaluations on the same dimensions and recalled their earlier ratings. Subjects whose impressions became more favorable over time recalled more positive evaluations than they had provided originally, and those whose impressions became less favorable recalled more negative evaluations. Finally, subjects recalled their causal attributions for their partner's behavior as being more consistent with their current impressions than was the case. In general, subjects overestimated the similarity between the present and the past.
Article
A basic principle of attachment theory is that early attachment relationships with caregivers provide the prototype for later social relations. Working within an attachment framework, a new 4-group model of characteristic attachment styles in adulthood is proposed. In particular, two forms of adult avoidance of intimacy are differentiated: a fearful style that is characterized by a conscious desire for social contact which is inhibited by fears of its consequences, and a dismissing style that is characterized by a defensive denial of the need or desire for greater social contact. This distinction corresponds to two differing models of the self: people who fearfully avoid intimacy view themselves as undeserving of the love and support of others, and people who dismiss intimacy possess a positive model of the self that minimizes the subjective awareness of distress or social needs. The emotional and interpersonal ramifications of the two proposed styles of adult avoidance are discussed.
Article
The results of the present study show that premarital conflict is a precursor of marital conflict and that, while it does not relate to the feelings that partners report having about one another premaritally, it does predict the extent to which they are satisfied once they have been married about two and a half years. Twenty-one newlyweds provided detailed time-ordered descriptions of their courtships, dividing them into three stages of involvement - casual dating, serious dating, and commitment to marriage. With the events of the courtship fresh in their minds, they were asked to think about the time period of each stage in turn, and to fill out a questionnaire designed to measure: (1) love, (2) ambivalence, (3) conflict and (4) maintenance behaviours (e.g., attempts at problem-solving). Approximately two years later they completed the same scales, as well as a measure of marital satisfaction and adjustment. Premarital conflict was generally the strongest predictor of patterns of marital involvement, but it predicted the subjective feelings of wives better than of husbands. Conflict and maintenance are strongly associated premaritally, but once couples have been married for a while there is no tendency for couples who have high conflict to make greater efforts at problem-solving. The results are discussed in terms of couples' changing attributions regarding the origins of conflict.
Article
A theory of accommodation processes is advanced, and the results of 6 studies are reported. Accommodation refers to the willingness, when a partner has engaged in a potentially destructive act, to inhibit impulses to react destructively and instead react constructively. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that accommodation is lower under conditions of reduced social concern and lower interdependence. Studies 3, 4, and 5 revealed that accommodation is associated with greater satisfaction, commitment, investment size, centrality of relationship, psychological femininity, and partner perspective taking and with poorer quality alternatives. Commitment plays a fairly strong role in mediating willingness to accommodate. Study 6 showed that couple functioning is associated with greater joint and mutual tendencies to inhibit destructive reactions. Study 6 also demonstrated that self-reports of accommodation are related to relevant behavioral measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This work tested the hypothesis that persons who are more committed to their relationships devalue potential alternative partners, especially attractive and threatening alternatives. In Study 1, a longitudinal study, perceived quality of alternatives decreased over time among stayers but increased for leavers. In Study 2, a computer dating service paradigm, more committed persons exhibited greatest devaluation of alternatives under conditions of high threat—when personally evaluating extremely attractive alternative partners. In Study 3, a simulation experiment, the tendency to reject and devalue alternatives was greater under conditions of high commitment. In all three studies, tendencies to devalue were more strongly linked to commitment than to satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
90 undergraduates described their characteristics to a target person who presumably did or did not have some prior information about their personalities. If the transmitted prior information was unfavorable, Ss described themselves in terms consistent with it but appeared to compensate by enhancing their self-descriptions on traits about which the target person did not have prior information. If the information was more favorable, Ss were generally modest and self-deprecating. Ss who were privately exposed to these same personality profiles (and thus were assured that the target person would not have access to the information they contained) showed no evidence of compensatory self-enhancement, which suggests that the effects of receiving a self-evaluation on presenting a self-description depend heavily on whether the evaluation is public (known by the target person) or confidential. Results are dicussed in terms of long-term self-presentational concerns in ongoing human relationships. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Hypothesized that because public evaluative situations are most likely to encourage conditional self-regard, an overevaluation of self-image as a way to compensate for the threat of failure (compensatory self-inflation) is likely to occur if a failure is public but not if it is private. 76 female undergraduates either succeeded or failed on a test of social sensitivity, and the outcome was either known or not known to others. Half of the Ss were subsequently required to evaluate the positive and negative aspects of the test on a social attitudes questionnaire. The favorability of self-image of all the Ss was then assessed. The self-images of Ss who evaluated the test were not affected by the outcome manipulation. Compared with these Ss, among Ss who did not evaluate the test, favorability of self-image was increased after public failure and decreased after private failure. The hypothesis that compensatory self-inflation occurs after public but not private failure was confirmed. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It is hypothesized that people possess implicit theories regarding the inherent consistency of their attributes, as well as a set of principles concerning the conditions that are likely to promote personal change or stability. The nature of these theories is discussed in the context of a study of beliefs about life-span development. It is then suggested that people use their implicit theories of self to construct their personal histories. This formulation is used to interpret the results of a wide-ranging set of studies of memory of personal attributes. It is concluded that implicit theories of stability and change can lead to biases in recall. The extent and practical implications of these biases are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three studies were conducted to examine the correlates of adult attachment. In Study 1, an 18-item scale to measure adult attachment style dimensions was developed based on Hazan and Shaver's (1987) categorical measure. Factor analyses revealed three dimensions underlying this measure: the extent to which an individual is comfortable with closeness, feels he or she can depend on others, and is anxious or fearful about such things as being abandoned or unloved. Study 2 explored the relation between these attachment dimensions and working models of self and others. Attachment dimensions were found to be related to self-esteem, expressiveness, instrumentality, trust in others, beliefs about human nature, and styles of loving. Study 3 explored the role of attachment style dimensions in three aspects of ongoing dating relationships: partner matching on attachment dimensions; similarity between the attachment of one's partner and caregiving style of one's parents; and relationship quality, including communication, trust, and satisfaction. Evidence was obtained for partner matching and for similarity between one's partner and one's parents, particularly for one's opposite-sex parent. Dimensions of attachment style were strongly related to how each partner perceived the relationship, although the dimension of attachment that best predicted quality differed for men and women. For women, the extent to which their partner was comfortable with closeness was the best predictor of relationship quality, whereas the best predictor for men was the extent to which their partner was anxious about being abandoned or unloved.
Article
An account is given of attachment theory as a way of conceptualizing the propensity of human beings to make strong affectional bonds to particular others and of explaining the many forms of emotional distress and personality disturbance, including anxiety, anger, depression and emotional detachment, to which unwilling separation and loss give rise. Though it incorporates much psychoanalytic thinking, many of its principles derive from ethology, cognitive psychology and control theory. It conforms to the ordinary criteria of a scientific discipline. Certain common patterns of personality development, both healthy and pathological, are described in these terms, and also some of the common patterns of parenting that contribute to them.
Article
This article explores the possibility that romantic love is an attachment process--a biosocial process by which affectional bonds are formed between adult lovers, just as affectional bonds are formed earlier in life between human infants and their parents. Key components of attachment theory, developed by Bowlby, Ainsworth, and others to explain the development of affectional bonds in infancy, were translated into terms appropriate to adult romantic love. The translation centered on the three major styles of attachment in infancy--secure, avoidant, and anxious/ambivalent--and on the notion that continuity of relationship style is due in part to mental models (Bowlby's "inner working models") of self and social life. These models, and hence a person's attachment style, are seen as determined in part by childhood relationships with parents. Two questionnaire studies indicated that relative prevalence of the three attachment styles is roughly the same in adulthood as in infancy, the three kinds of adults differ predictably in the way they experience romantic love, and attachment style is related in theoretically meaningful ways to mental models of self and social relationships and to relationship experiences with parents. Implications for theories of romantic love are discussed, as are measurement problems and other issues related to future tests of the attachment perspective.
Article
In this study, we examined when and whether married people engage in attributional activity or form causal attributions to explain their partners' behavior. We used an indirect probe to better approximate naturally occurring cognitive activity. We also examined the content of spouses' causal attributions, using both direct and indirect probes. Spouses were asked about frequent as well as infrequent relationship events, and about partner behaviors that had positive or negative impacts on the recipient. Husbands in unsatisfying relationships reported more attributional thoughts than did happily married husbands, whereas wives in the two groups did not differ. Behaviors having negative impacts elicited more attributional activity than did positive behaviors. Behavioral frequency and impact interacted in ways contrary to predictions. Finally, distressed couples were particularly likely to report distress-maintaining attributions and were particularly unlikely to report relationship-enhancing attributions, compared with their nondistressed counterparts.
Article
Evaluates the major criticisms of the "New Look" in perception. It is shown that the criticisms, including the logical paradox, homunculus, frequency, expectancy-set, and various response bias positions, are conceptually flawed or empirically incomplete. A reformulation of the phenomenon is presented which conceives of the perceptual defense-vigilance effect as a special instance of selectivity in cognitive processing. It is argued that selectivity-and therefore perceptual defense and perceptual vigilance-is a multiprocess complex of phenomena under central regulative control. Selectivity-and consequently defensive selectivity-is brought into play through varied mechanisms at multiple loci of the information-processing sequence. Thus, selectivity is pervasive throughout the cognitive continuum, from input to output, and no single site is likely to provide exhaustive explanation of any substantial selective phenomenon. (4 p ref)
Article
26 couples (mean age 20.3 yrs) planning marriage participated in the initial stage of the study, and 9 of the 21 couples remaining intact during the study completed data (including the Marital Relationship Inventory) at all 3 follow-up points. A correlation coefficient of .59 was obtained, indicating that the more positively premarital couples had rated their communication, the more satisfied they were with their relationship 5½ yrs later. Findings are consistent with the social learning model of marriage hypothesis that communication deficits precede the development of marital distress. (4 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It was postulated that people characteristically defend their beliefs by avoiding exposure to contradictory information Since the person is unmotivated to develop a defense of his belief to the extent that he considers it invulnerable, it was hypothesized that such beliefs are more effectively immunized against persuasion by preexposure to counterarguments Second, since the person is unpracticed in the defense of such beliefs, it was predicted that immunizing pretreatments would lose effectiveness to the extent that they required the person to participate actively in the defense. Finally, an interaction effect was predicted such that the detrimental effect of requiring active participation is greater with the defense involving pre-exposure to the counterarguments than with the supportive defense." The hypotheses were supported. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4GD27M.