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The effects of an intensive research experience on the career of talented undergraduates

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Abstract

22 undergraduates participating in an intensive research program worked 40+ hrs/wk and on a 1-to-1 basis with a researcher developing and executing a research study, analyzing data, and preparing a report. On a follow-up telephone survey, Ss in the research program reported a greater change in research skills, greater research productivity, and stronger interest in research as a career choice than 21 undergraduate controls. Experimental Ss also were accepted at and attended graduate programs rated higher in research productivity than controls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... The merits of having undergraduate students participate in this kind of work have been stressed by a number of scholars (Bauer & Bennett, 2003;Craney, McKay, Mazzeo, Prigodich, & Groot, 2011;Davis, Mahatmya, Garner, & Jones, 2015;Harrison, Dunn, & Coombe, 2006;Hathaway, Nagda, & Gregerman, 2002;Hu, Kuh, & Li, 2008;Kremer & Bringle, 1990;Nagda, Gregerman, Jonides, von Hippel, & Lerner, 1998;Seymour, Hunter, Laursen, & DeAntoni, 2004). For example, undergraduate research has been called a high-impact practice that helps students to enhance their persistence (Kuh, 2008;Nagda et al., 1998), develop their interest in graduate school (Hathaway et al., 2002;Kremer & Bringle, 1990), improve their research skills (Bauer & Bennett, 2003), improve retention (Nagda et al., 1998), and encourage professional and self development (Lopatto, 2006;Seymour et al., 2004). ...
... The merits of having undergraduate students participate in this kind of work have been stressed by a number of scholars (Bauer & Bennett, 2003;Craney, McKay, Mazzeo, Prigodich, & Groot, 2011;Davis, Mahatmya, Garner, & Jones, 2015;Harrison, Dunn, & Coombe, 2006;Hathaway, Nagda, & Gregerman, 2002;Hu, Kuh, & Li, 2008;Kremer & Bringle, 1990;Nagda, Gregerman, Jonides, von Hippel, & Lerner, 1998;Seymour, Hunter, Laursen, & DeAntoni, 2004). For example, undergraduate research has been called a high-impact practice that helps students to enhance their persistence (Kuh, 2008;Nagda et al., 1998), develop their interest in graduate school (Hathaway et al., 2002;Kremer & Bringle, 1990), improve their research skills (Bauer & Bennett, 2003), improve retention (Nagda et al., 1998), and encourage professional and self development (Lopatto, 2006;Seymour et al., 2004). Undergraduates who conduct research acquire skills and have experiences that can assist them in their chosen career areas and these help them to gain confidence, think like researchers, and develop problemsolving skills (Folk, 2016;Seymour et al., 2004). ...
Article
This paper describes a class project that engaged undergraduate students as researchers to learn about the concepts and practices involved in conducting and sharing research regarding hospitality and tourism. The class project focused on helping students learn how to conduct qualitative research, specifically interviews, and to understand the tourism-related aspirations, behaviors, and future travel intentions of their peers. Results of the project were shared with community partners involved in tourism promotion in the local area, as a service learning project. In this paper, the project is described and implications for teaching, research, and service are offered. Suggested practices for working with students as researchers are also provided.
... 21 A large body of literature has demonstrated the benefits of student participation in undergraduate research (UR). [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] Pervasive changes in student behavior required in the future STEM workforce include the ability to think independently, formulate one's own ideas, become more intrinsically motivated to learn, and become a more active learner. There is no absolute consensus on how UR influences career choices, 22,26,31 but the chance to conduct independent research is often cited as the compelling experience that launches a scientific career. ...
... [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] Pervasive changes in student behavior required in the future STEM workforce include the ability to think independently, formulate one's own ideas, become more intrinsically motivated to learn, and become a more active learner. There is no absolute consensus on how UR influences career choices, 22,26,31 but the chance to conduct independent research is often cited as the compelling experience that launches a scientific career. 21, 32 "Introduce the scientific process to students early" is also one of the changes advocated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science's (AAAS) Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education. ...
Conference Paper
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Creating Opportunities for Students in Science (COMPASS) Scholarship Program at UNC Pembroke (UNCP) – an S-STEM National Science Foundation award – was designed to improve STEM retention at UNC Pembroke and to contribute to the national need for more STEM professionals from diverse backgrounds. At UNCP, some challenges to recruitment and retention in STEM disciplines that have been cited by students include: poor preparation, being intimidated by difficult material, lack of understanding of career opportunities in STEM, and financial need. The COMPASS program is contributing to alleviate barriers and improve STEM experiences for talented Biology, Biotechnology, Environmental Science, and Chemistry undergraduates with demonstrated financial need, via a combination of financial support, research experiences, internships, professional development, tutoring, and mentoring. These four majors make up most of the STEM undergraduates (about 83%) at UNCP. Therefore, concentrating in these disciplines makes the program more cohesive, with virtually all activities being of interest to all students. It is also a more effective way for Biology and Chemistry faculty to mentor the students.
... [1][2][3][4] There is now the realization that undergraduate students conducting extracurricular scientific research improved their critical thinking and creativity, and has been going on in the West for several decades. [5][6][7][8] In China, undergraduate research has also attracted increasing attention and the driving force has come from medical students and universities. Every medical school in China has a national-, provincial-or university-initiated innovation program, which support and encourage undergraduate students to participate in scientific activities. ...
... There are already many reports that undergraduate students would benefit from participating in scientific research within a research group and under the supervision of a faculty member. 3,4,7,8,10 However, this does not mean that there are no objections about this issue. 11,12 These criticisms may be partly attributed to the nature of the scientific research activity being offered. ...
Article
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The benefits and long‐term effects of extracurricular scientific research on undergraduate students in many countries have been intensively investigated, but it remains obscure for Chinese medical students. In this study, we investigated the outcome of 60 medical students who have participated in extracurricular scientific research at Jinan University Medical School over a period of 7 years (2011–2018). The results revealed that these students have contributed to 31 biomedical science articles in reputable academic journals, as first‐ or co‐authors. Furthermore, they also independently procured various funding based on their research achievements, and smaller awards for achievements in conferences and competitions. Assessment of the grade point average score of these students revealed that conducting extracurricular scientific research did not affect their routine medical study and exam grades (P>0.05). The students benefited from participating in extracurricular research, by acquiring the ability to think scientifically and enhancing their communication skills. In addition, the medical students were motivated to enlist for postgraduate studies so that they could further embark in scientific research. In sum, Chinese medical students are capable of participating in scientific research and make a significant contribution to science.
... The most commonly identified motivations for instructors were working with particular students, graduate school preparation, fulfilling program requirements, working with someone with shared interests, and enhancing one's research program. Other studies have found similar motivations, in terms of helping students reach their career goals (Kremer & Bringle, 1990;Kinkel & Henke, 2006;Lopatto, 2007) and to support the instructor's research program (Millspaugh & Millenbah, 2004). Instructors were less motivated by encouragement from their university (Zydney et al., 2002). ...
Article
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North American universities are encouraged to increase opportunities for undergraduate research experiences (UREs). To this end, many universities offer directed studies courses (DSCs) which are 1-2 semester long courses involving one-on-one instruction, with a focus on student-led independent research. Building on the understanding of dynamics generally related to UREs, this paper seeks to compare the motivations, benefits, and barriers specifically related to DSCs from student, instructor, and administrator perspectives. Based on a set of qualitative focus group discussions at a small undergraduate liberal arts institution, we present the similarities and differences in these perspectives and recommend a set of best practices for DSCs. All three groups reported motivations for engaging in a DSC that addressed working with a particular student or instructor, assistance with graduate school preparation, and meeting program requirements. In terms of perceived benefits of DSCs, both students and instructors indicated the mentoring relationship and practical outcomes arising from DSCs. Students recognized the benefits of developing research skills, but stressed the motivation and benefit of independent learning more than was found in other studies. Instructors focused on benefits of research engagement and relationship building. The major challenges to participating in DSCs were workload and time (all groups), unprepared students and lack of guidelines (instructors and administrators), and the oral presentation requirement and lack of information about DSCs (students). Based on these results, we suggest increased clarity in DSC expectations, consistent standards of quality, and promoting research processes common to the DSC’s home discipline. Les universités nord-américaines sont encouragées à augmenter les possibilités d’offrir des expériences de recherche au premier cycle (ERPM). À cette fin, un grand nombre d’universités offrent des cours d’études dirigées (CÉD) de 1 ou 2 trimestres qui impliquent un enseignement individuel où l’accent est mis sur la recherche indépendante menée par l’étudiant. Cet article est basé sur la compréhension de la dynamique généralement liée aux ERPM et tente de comparer les motivations, les avantages et les obstacles spécifiquement liées aux CÉD du point de vue des étudiants, des instructeurs et des administrateurs. Cette étude, basée sur un ensemble qualitatif de discussions de groupes dans une petite université d’arts libéraux de premier cycle, présente les similarités et les différences entre ces points de vue et recommande un ensemble de meilleures pratiques pour les CÉD. Les trois groupes ont rapporté que la motivation pour s’engager dans des CÉD impliquait le travail avec un étudiant ou un instructeur particulier, l’aide pour la préparation à l’entrée au deuxième cycle et le fait de répondre aux exigences des programmes. En ce qui concerne les avantages des CÉD, tant les étudiants que les instructeurs ont indiqué qu’ils avaient bénéficié de la relation de mentorat et des résultats pratiques des CÉD. Les étudiants ont reconnu qu’il y avait des avantages à développer des compétences en recherche, mais ils ont souligné que la motivation et les avantages de l’apprentissage indépendant étaient supérieurs que dans le cas des autres types d’études. Les instructeurs ont insisté sur les avantages de l’engagement en recherche et sur l’établissement de relations. Les défis principaux rencontrés quand on participe à des CÉD étaient la charge de travail et le temps (tous les groupes), les étudiants non préparés et l’absence de lignes directrices (instructeurs et administrateurs), ainsi que l’exigence d’une présentation orale et l’absence d’information sur les CÉD (étudiants). En fonction de ces résultats, nous suggérons une meilleure clarification de ce que l’on attend des CÉD, des normes de qualité constantes et la promotion des processus de recherche communs à l’établissement d’enseignement dans la discipline en question.
... The influence of undergraduate research on career choice is a subject of substantial interest but little consensus; it appears to depend strongly on the student group under study. Although our research has demonstrated that UR participation serves principally to confirm or clarify preexisting career and educational goals (Seymour et al., 2004;Hunter et al., 2007), other studies have reported that participation in UR increases the likelihood that students will increase baccalaureate graduation rates (Kim, Rhoades, & Woodard, 2003), and increase the likelihood that students will pursue graduate school (Bauer & Bennett, 2003;Kremer & Bringle, 1990;Russell, 2005), particularly for minority students (Alexander, Foertsch, & Daffinrud, 1998;Barlow & Villarejo, 2004;Hathaway, Nagda, & Gregerman, 2002). ...
... An important goal for liberal arts science education is to provide students with research opportunities that will position them competitively for admission to graduate school (Kardash, 2000;Kremmer & Bringle, 1990). Although laboratory courses are more prevalent at Research I universities than at undergraduate-focused institutions (Messer, Griggs, & Jackson, 2000), smaller schools often are able to provide comparable experiences in many areas of psychology. ...
Article
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This article describes the feasibility of implementing a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) laboratory course at an undergraduate-focused institution without internal scanning facilities. I discuss how to incorporate specific functional brain imaging topics into lectures, how to design and implement laboratory sessions that allow students to analyze existing fMRI data sets, and how to incorporate empirical research projects involving novel fMRI data collection into the course through collaborations with researchers at larger institutions. This type of course is possible at virtually any institution and provides an excellent opportunity for advanced undergraduate students to gain first-hand research experience in cognitive neuroscience.
... There is also support in the literature for positive outcomes for undergraduate research in the social sciences and humanities (Kremer & Bringle, 1990;Ishiyama, 2002;Landrum & Nelson, 2002;Bauer & Bennett, 2003;Kuh, 2008). Stephens & Thumma (2005) limitations of what the library could offer and gave me the confidence to ask questions and uncover hidden answers on my own" (p. ...
Article
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A literature review of user preferences, research habits and needs, and citation studies are used to argue that deaccession of print titles in the humanities and social sciences in academic libraries should occur in a conservative fashion as libraries transition to greater digital holdings. The issue of retention of translations is given special emphasis. The centrality of engaged research for undergraduate education makes the retention, at present, of both a rich print and digital collection necessary as the distinction between a collection geared toward faculty research and one for undergraduate research becomes less important.
... Engaging students in faculty-led research is a key strategy for retaining students in the STEM pipeline (Lopatto, 2004). Participation in research is associated with higher rates of retention, especially of underrepresented students (Nagda, Gregerman, Jonides, von Hippel, & Lerner, 1998) and greater intention to pursue graduate education ( Hathaway et al., 2002;Kremer & Bringle, 1990). Perhaps most important, undergraduate participation in research is associated with increased interest in careers in STEM fields (Fitzsimmons, Carlson, Kerpelman, & Stoner, 1990;Lopatto, 2004;Zydney, Bennett, Shahid, & Bauer, 2002). ...
Article
Background Encouraging student involvement in undergraduate research may be a way institutions can foster pursuit of research as a career. This article examines how engineering students' interests combine with perceived faculty encouragement to influence their plans for involvement in undergraduate and professional research.Purpose/HypothesisIndividuals orient differently to people and things in their environments. We examine how thing and person orientations affect undergraduates' interest in engineering research. We hypothesize that thing orientation will be directly related to interest in an engineering research career, but that person orientation will have an indirect effect through student perceptions of faculty encouragement and student intentions to participate in undergraduate research. Design/Method Engineering undergraduates from a research-intensive university provided data about their interests in things and people, perceptions of faculty encouragement to participate in research, and intentions to pursue undergraduate research and research careers. Results Thing orientation directly predicts research career intentions in engineering. Person orientation has an indirect effect on career interests through greater perceptions of faculty encouragement to participate in undergraduate research. Perceptions of encouragement translate into greater intentions to participate in undergraduate research and then greater interest in pursuing a research career. Conclusions Both thing and person orientations influence the plans and intentions of engineering students. Perceived faculty encouragement and participation in undergraduate research are important predictors of students' interest in pursuing a research career.
... The benefits for undergraduate students may seem a bit more obvious, but they are nonetheless important to promote within research-based disciplines. A growing number of articles address the potential benefits for undergraduates who are involved in research and expand on the students' gains (Bauer and Bennett 2003, Hathaway et al. 2002, Hunter et al. 2007, Kardash 2000, Kremer and Bringle 1990, Rauckhorst et al. 2001, Russell et al. 2007). Drawing mainly from evidenced claims reviewed and supplemented in Lopatto (2003a) and Seymour et al. (2004), the benefits for undergraduates include: ...
Article
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This article serves as a short 'best practices' aimed at graduate students for advising undergraduates, specifically within the disciplines of ecology and evolution. It offers documented research on undergraduate research experiences, and the most effective mentoring strategies for success across Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines, as well as practical methods for how to enact these strategies. Most importantly, this work serves particularly to highlight issues undergraduates may encounter in conducting research specifically in ecology and evolution, and what graduate student mentors can do to help students overcome these challenges.
... Numerous calls for reform in undergraduate biology education emphasize the value of undergraduate research (e.g., American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2011). These calls are based on a growing body of research documenting how students benefit from research experiences (Kremer and Bringle, 1990;Kardash, 2000;Rauckhorst et al., 2001;Hathaway et al., 2002;Bauer and Bennett, 2003;Lopatto, 2004Lopatto, , 2007Lopatto, , 2010Seymour et al., 2004;Hunter et al., 2007;Russell et al., 2007;Laursen et al., 2010;Thiry and Laursen, 2011). Undergraduates report cognitive gains, such as learning to think and work like a scientist; affective gains, such as finding research enjoyable and exciting; and behavioral outcomes, such as intentions to pursue further education or careers in science. ...
Article
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A growing body of research documents the positive outcomes of research experiences for undergraduates, including increased persistence in science. Study of undergraduate lab learning experiences has demonstrated that the design of the experience influences the extent to which students report ownership of the project and that project ownership is one of the psychosocial factors involved in student retention in the sciences. To date, methods for measuring project ownership have not been suitable for the collection of larger data sets. The current study aims to rectify this by developing, presenting, and evaluating a new instrument for measuring project ownership. Eighteen scaled items were generated based on prior research and theory related to project ownership and combined with 30 items shown to measure respondents' emotions about an experience, resulting in the Project Ownership survey (POS). The POS was analyzed to determine its dimensionality, reliability, and validity. The POS had a coefficient alpha of 0.92 and thus has high internal consistency. Known-groups validity was analyzed through the ability of the instrument to differentiate between students who studied in traditional versus research-based laboratory courses. The POS scales as differentiated between the groups and findings paralleled previous results in relation to the characteristics of project ownership.
... Engaging students in faculty-led research is a key strategy for retaining students in the STEM pipeline (Lopatto, 2004). Participation in research is associated with higher rates of retention, especially of underrepresented students (Nagda, Gregerman, Jonides, von Hippel, & Lerner, 1998), and greater intention to pursue graduate education (Hathaway et al., 2002; Kremer & Bringle, 1990). Perhaps most important, undergraduate participation in research is associated with increased interest in careers in STEM fields (Fitzsimmons, Carlson, Kerpelman, & Stoner, 1990; Lopatto, 2004; Zydney, Bennett, Shahid, & Bauer, 2002). ...
... Our own institution has approximately 200 psychology majors, and our participant pool is intended to support the research of faculty as well as undergraduate students conducting research for their advanced courses. While the benefits of undergraduate research are well documented (Elrod, Husic, & Kinzie, 2010;Kremer & Bringle, 1990;Lei & Chuang, 2009;Russell, Hancock, & McCullough, 2007;Seymour, Hunter, Laursen, & DeAntoni, 2004;Thieman, Clary, Olson, Dauner, & Ring, 2009;Willison, 2012), recruiting research participants is a substantial obstacle. Due to the nature of class projects, researchers have only a short window of time to collect data and must compete with one another to find willing volunteers. ...
Article
Data collection can be a frustrating experience for student researchers due to difficulty in scheduling appointments with participants. To increase the efficiency of research project data collection, we organized a Research Participation Night in which volunteers were incentivized to participate in as many experiments as time allowed. By offering course credit, pizza, and other prizes, we attracted 95 participants who completed over 250 experimental sessions, accounting for 35% of the experimental sessions completed during that semester. We have outlined here how to organize such an event, which is particularly suitable for collecting data for a variety of relatively short experiments. It is highly recommended for student researchers struggling to recruit research participants in a short period of time.
... These research projects help students develop quantitative skills that are not often achieved in the traditional classroom setting [7]. Students who are involved in undergraduate research gain self-confidence [5,11] are more likely to complete their undergraduate education [10,12] and are more likely to go onto graduate school compared to students who did not have a research experience [1,4,6,12,16,19]. Furthermore, various intellectual gains result from undergraduate research, including critical thinking and problem solving [8,9,13,15,17,20]. ...
Article
The math biology program at UNCG has been running since 2006 when we first received the funding from NSF. Every year, we provided integrated research projects at the interface of biology and mathematics to eight UNCG undergraduate students who worked in interdisciplinary teams. Up to date, our project resulted in 32 peer-reviewed publications and over 200 presentations; this demonstrates the extent to which undergraduate research can produce genuine scientific advancement. Moreover, our program also prepared UNCG students for rigorous interdisciplinary graduate studies and career opportunities and set them on a path toward productive careers as twenty-one century scientists and educators. We hope our experience will motivate and encourage others to pursue similar efforts.
... Specifically, working with an external faculty mentor during the summer has positive impacts on students' levels of interest in, preparedness for, and actual pursuit of graduate study and professional careers in the sciences (Foertsch et al., 1997;Alexander et al., 2000;Schowen, 2002;Frantz et al., 2006;Gum et al., 2007). Additionally, summer research programs greatly improve students' research skills, knowledge, and research productivity (Kremer and Bringle, 1990;Kardash, 2000;Burnley et al., 2002;Zydney et al., 2002;Lopatto, 2004;Seymour et al., 2004;Gum et al., 2007;Butler et al., 2008). Overall, doing research in the summer is an intensive, enjoyable, and beneficial learning experience for most students (Alexander et al., 2000). ...
Article
In 2014, the National Institutes of Health invested $31 million in 10 primary institutions across the United States through the Building Undergraduate Infrastructure Leading to Diversity (BUILD) program; one requirement of BUILD is sending undergraduate trainees from those primary institutions to partner institutions for research experiences. Mechanisms like BUILD are designed to broaden research opportunities for students, especially those from underrepresented backgrounds. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined faculty willingness to mentor undergraduates from other institutions through structured training programs. Survey data from 536 faculty members at 13 institutions were collected in Fall 2013 and analyzed using multiple statistical techniques. Results show that faculty who valued the opportunity to increase diversity in the academy and those who believed that mentoring undergraduates benefited their own research expressed greater willingness to serve as research mentors to visiting undergraduates, and faculty who perceived that they did not have the ability to accommodate additional students expressed less willingness to do so. Most respondents viewed student and faculty incentives as motivating factors in their willingness to mentor, but their perspectives on different types of incentives varied based on faculty career stage, discipline, and research funding status. Results have important implications for designing multi-institutional undergraduate research training programs.
... In a massive study examining undergraduates from many institutions, Russell (2008) found that participating in research leads to increased knowledge of how to conduct research, greater interest in graduate school, increased confidence in abilities to succeed in graduate school, and finally, greater awareness of career options in research fields. Kremer and Bringle (1990) compared students who had participated in research with students who had not on a number of skills. They found that the students who participated in research were better at performing literature reviews, running statistical analyses, and had better writing skills compared to the students who did not participate. ...
Article
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Undergraduate research participant pools play an essential role in facilitating research, and many universities rely on them for participant recruitment. There is an abundance of information about those who do elect to participate in research through these recruitment systems but very little about those who do not. The present study examines both undergraduate research pool participants and nonparticipants, and the objective is to explore how they differ in their views. A sample of 483 Canadian undergraduate students (n = 442 participants and n = 41 nonparticipants) completed measures of their impressions of participation, their perceived enjoyment, and their knowledge gained from participating in research and asked to compare this with their impressions of attending class and taking exams. Factorial analysis of variance and χ² results found support for both similarities and differences between both groups. Overall, the results suggest that nonparticipants do not have a good understanding of what is involved in participating in research activities and view it is a potentially aversive or negative experience.
... Of co-curricular activities, studies have suggested that involving students in undergraduate research promotes their subsequent pursuit of advanced study in STEM fields (Kremer & Bringle, 1990;Lopatto, 2004;Strayhorn, 2010). Because undergraduate research experiences promote research knowledge and skills (Lopatto, 2007;Seymour, Hunter, Laursen, & DeAntoni, 2004), research self-efficacy (Adekokun, Bessenbacher, Parker, Kirkham, & Burgess, 2013), satisfaction with engineering (Bauer & Bennett, 2003;Seymour et al., 2004), and networking and interaction with faculty members (Astin & Astin, 1992;Kardash, 2000), policy makers and educators believe that these experiences help students prepare for graduate education (Boylan, 2009). ...
Article
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\textbf{Background.}$ Increasing human resources in engineering is a key concern for the United States. While some research has considered pathways to doctoral study, there is not yet clear empirical evidence on the role of undergraduate experiences in motivating engineering undergraduates to continue to graduate school, both in engineering programs and more broadly. $\textbf{Purpose/hypothesis.}$ We investigate three influences on engineering undergraduates’ decision to enter graduate school: (1) mathematics ability, (2) self-assessments of engineering skills, and (3) co-curricular experiences. $\textbf{Design/method.}$ Using data from 1,119 engineering postgraduates, we developed a hierarchical multinomial logistic model (HMLM) to analyze the relationship between prior characteristics and their observed graduate-school enrollment behavior. $\textbf{Results.}$ Mathematic ability, participation in undergraduate research, and self-assessed teamwork skills are all significant positive predictors of enrollment in an engineering graduate program, although self-assessed leadership skills are a negative predictor. For enrollment in a graduate school program outside of engineering, non-engineering community service or volunteer work was a significant predictor, but none of the self-assessed skills were predictors. $\textbf{Conclusions.}$ Our findings support past research emphasizing academic preparedness in STEMfield progression, further corroborating the claim that K–12 math education is a key policy lever. Our findings also indicate distinctive patterns between engineering and non-engineering graduate study in relation to self-assessed skills and co-curricular experiences. This should promote research on which types of preparation during college are needed for different career paths, to develop both teamwork and leadership within the industry.
... 14 Studies also have shown that students involved in undergraduate research gain self-confidence; 15 are more likely to complete their degrees; 16 and are more likely to go on to graduate school than students who did not have an undergraduate research experience. 17 In an examination of undergraduate research experiences at four liberal arts institutions, Elaine Seymour et al. corroborated a variety of benefits reported in earlier anecdotal reports and smaller studies, as well as shed further light on many of those findings. Benefits fell into seven categories: (1) personal and professional gains; (2) "thinking and working like a scientist"; (3) gains in skills; (4) clarification, confirmation, and refinement of career/ education paths; (5) enhanced career/ graduate school preparation; (6) changes in attitudes toward learning and working as a researcher; and (7) other benefits. ...
Article
Mentored undergraduate research is an emergent pedagogy in higher education. It differs fundamentally from course-related student research and is largely independent of the curriculum. Academic libraries should engage formally with the undergraduate research community. To do so, librarians will need to think and work beyond traditional models of library service, most notably in information literacy programs. The intent of this article is to raise awareness about opportunities for library involvement with undergraduate researchers and programs. Lessons from one university, including a formal partnership between a library and an undergraduate research center, suggest some general strategies that academic libraries might explore.
... For students from traditionally underrepresented groups, the benefits may be even greater when compared to students from majority groups 11 . For underrepresented students, deep engagement in undergraduate research with a faculty mentor is positively correlated with improvement in student grades, retention rates, persistence to graduation, and motivation to pursue graduate school [18][19][20] . ...
Conference Paper
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For the past several years, institutions of higher education have devoted resources towards increasing the number and diversity of engineering graduates by addressing the retention problem in the first two years of college. One of the strategies commonly employed in improving undergraduate STEM education is providing students access to research experiences. There are many studies documenting the benefits of research opportunities for undergraduate students including increased student engagement in their education, enhanced research and laboratory skills, improved academic performance, increased student self-efficacy, and increased understanding and interest for their discipline. These studies also show that early and multiple exposures to undergraduate research experiences offer the greatest benefit. However, a recent extensive study of Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) programs shows that the vast majority of these research experiences are provided to junior and senior students. Developing successful research programs is particularly challenging in community colleges, most of which do not have on-going research programs. This paper is a description of how a small engineering transfer program at a Hispanic-Serving community college in California developed a three-tier research internship program suitable for community college students at different stages of their academic careers. The first part of the program is a two-week Winter Research Scholars Program held during the winter break for students in the beginning stages of their studies. The second part is a ten-week Summer Group Research Internship Program for sophomore students who have no previous research experience and have at least one more year of courses to complete at the community college before transfer. The Summer Individual Research Internship Program is a ten-week program for rising junior students who have completed all the required lower-division courses for transfer to a four-year university and are transferring in the fall semester following their participation in the program. The paper will highlight the development of partnerships with neighboring universities and research institutions, the results and lessons learned from the pilot implementation of the two summer internship programs, and future plans to improve the programs and maximize their impact in enhancing the academic success of community college engineering students and strengthening community college engineering transfer programs.
... Numerous calls for reform in undergraduate biology education have emphasized the value of undergraduate research (e.g., American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2011). These calls are based on a growing body of research that documents how students benefit from research experiences (Kremer and Bringle, 1990;Kardash, 2000;Rauckhorst et al., 2001;Hathaway et al., 2002;Bauer and Bennett, 2003;Lopatto, 2004Lopatto, , 2007Lopatto and Tobias, 2010;Seymour et al., 2004;Hunter et al., 2007;Russell et al., 2007;Laursen et al., 2010;Thiry and Laursen, 2011). Undergraduates who participate in research internships (also called research apprenticeships, undergraduate research experiences, or research experiences for undergraduates [REUs]) report positive outcomes, such as learning to think like a scientist, finding research exciting, and intending to pursue graduate education or careers in science (Kardash, 2000;Laursen et al., 2010;Lopatto and Tobias, 2010). ...
Article
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The Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Network (CUREnet) was initiated in 2012 with funding from the National Science Foundation program for Research Coordination Networks in Undergraduate Biology Education. CUREnet aims to address topics, problems, and opportunities inherent to integrating research experiences into undergraduate courses. During CUREnet meetings and discussions, it became apparent that there is need for a clear definition of what constitutes a CURE and systematic exploration of what makes CUREs meaningful in terms of student learning. Thus, we assembled a small working group of people with expertise in CURE instruction and assessment to: 1) draft an operational definition of a CURE, with the aim of defining what makes a laboratory course or project a "research experience"; 2) summarize research on CUREs, as well as findings from studies of undergraduate research internships that would be useful for thinking about how students are influenced by participating in CUREs; and 3) identify areas of greatest need with respect to CURE assessment, and directions for future research on and evaluation of CUREs. This report summarizes the outcomes and recommendations of this meeting.
... Furthermore, these studies are limited in that they typically ignore research outside of formal URE programs (Nagda et al. 1998); rely on retrospective accounts of undergraduate experiences (Hathaway et al. 2002); and fail to measure longer-term outcomes, such as scientific-degree attainment, matriculation into a scientific graduate program, or postgraduation scientific workforce participation of URE participants, compared with those of an adequate control group (Nagda et al. 1998, Hathaway et al. 2002, Eagan et al. 2013). In addition, previous studies have not fully demonstrated the salient features of UREs that might enhance these outcomes, although preliminary evidence hints at the importance of the duration (number of semesters or summers in research) and intensity (number of hours of research per week; Kremer andBringle 1990, Carter F et al. 2009) of these experiences. A quantitative investigation of the long-term benefits of UREs, as well as of the key features of UREs, is crucial to establishing their efficacy and maximizing the potential impact of these resource-intensive experiences and is in full alignment with the conclusions of the recent National Academy report that calls for studies that improve the evidence base about the processes and effects of undergraduate research experiences. ...
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New data highlight the importance of undergraduate research experiences (UREs) for keeping underrepresented science students on the pathway to a scientific career. We used a large-scale, 10-year, longitudinal, multi-institutional, propensity-score-matched research design to compare the academic performance and persistence in science of students who participated in URE(s) with those of similar students who had no research experience. Our results showed that students who completed 10 or more hours of cocurricular, faculty-mentored research per week across two or more academic semesters or summers were significantly more likely to graduate with a science-related bachelor's degree, to be accepted into a science-related graduate training program, and to be training for or working in the scientific workforce 6 years after graduation. Importantly, the findings show that just having a URE was not enough to influence persistence in science; it required a commitment of 10 or more hours per week over two or more semesters of faculty-mentored research.
... We chose to examine self-efficacy because of its power to predict actual performance among students (10-12). We chose to measure self-reported project ownership because of prior demonstrated positive outcomes associated with independent research experiences for undergraduates (9,(13)(14)(15). Finally, we provided students with an opportunity to describe in open-ended responses their perceptions of the value of each laboratory experience, and we performed qualitative analyses on these responses. ...
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Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are a type of laboratory learning environment associated with a science course, in which undergraduates participate in novel research. According to Auchincloss et al. (CBE Life Sci Educ 2104; 13:29–40), CUREs are distinct from other laboratory learning environments because they possess five core design components, and while national calls to improve STEM education have led to an increase in CURE programs nationally, less work has specifically focused on which core components are critical to achieving desired student outcomes. Here we use a backward elimination experimental design to test the importance of two CURE components for a population of non-biology majors: the experience of discovery and the production of data broadly relevant to the scientific or local community. We found nonsignificant impacts of either laboratory component on students’ academic performance, science self-efficacy, sense of project ownership, and perceived value of the laboratory experience. Our results challenge the assumption that all core components of CUREs are essential to achieve positive student outcomes when applied at scale.
... Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) programs are widely promoted as an effective educational tool for enhancing the undergraduate experience 8,9 with multiple benefits 10 , the most instrumental of which is an increased interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers 11,12 . REU fosters increased persistence in the pursuit of an undergraduate degree 13 ; increased interest in pursuing graduate education 14,15 ; and gains in skills by REU alumni over comparison groups (conducting research, acquiring information, and speaking effectively) 16 . REU helps develop career pathways for underrepresented students by increasing minority retention 13 and the number of minority students pursuing graduate degrees 17 . ...
... Considering these challenges, it is not surprising that in existing studies of undergraduate research outcomes in the humanities, arts, and social sciences, the observations are often based on student experiences in programs with centralized assessment and specific diversity and career objectives such as the McNair Research Scholars or Mellon Mays Undergraduate Fellows programs (Nnadozie, Ishiyama, and Chon 2001;Prenovitz et al. 2016). In other instances, the knowledge comes largely from studies of relatively small programs or a small number of students, often limited to a particular program or department, or where the research structure more closely mirrors traditional STEM experiences (e.g. , Hartmann 1990;Kremer and Bringle 1990;Ishiyama 2002;Landrum and Nelsen ASSESSMENT 2002;Rand 2016). Even where humanities, arts, and social science research opportunities are addressed as a part of cross-disciplinary data sets (e.g., Craney et al. 2011;Lopatto 2006), the observations are often drawn from specialized summer programs or laboratory-like settings. ...
Article
This article assesses outcomes among students who pursued faculty-mentored research in those fields and concurrently participated in programs administered through UCLA’s Undergraduate Research Center for the Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences. Compared to a quasi-control group of nonresearch students, the research students reported statistically significant better outcomes on average in attaining several of the skills sought by today’s employers.
... Mogk and Tomovic reported that partaking in undergraduate research opportunities is considered an effective educational tool which enhances the overall undergraduate experience [22], [23]. Such tool has proven to increase the pursuit of STEM degrees and graduate education for every ethnic group [24], [25], [26]. Bauer and Bennett further reported that participating in research venues improves skills such as speaking effectively, carrying out research assignments, and acquiring and interpreting data [27]. ...
Conference Paper
In this study, a new model for attracting, advancing, and advocating for the participation of underrepresented minorities in research venues is proposed with the intention of fostering academic inclusion, development, and post-graduation mentorship. It involves developing and nurturing a disposition from faculty by proactively identifying students via classroom interaction, performance, and academic aptitude and extending a personal invitation to collaborate on the research team. Current research opportunities for engineering undergraduates at tier-one institutions are obtained by students' incentive to communicate with faculty members via email or office hours. Despite the available opportunities, only a limited number of students are selected to participate due to the finite space and a degree of competency within a group. As for underrepresented minorities, such as Latino and African American students, these types of venues may seem inaccessible since a large number are first-generation college students who encounter supplementary challenges due to their cultural background, lack of proper academic guidance, and other institutional-based factors. These challenges oftentimes hinder their exposure, access, and participation to such academic resources that are necessary components for securing employment post-graduation or establishing fundamental research knowledge for graduate school. In the process of performing research, the faculty member serves as a mentor by providing extensive technical guidance and offer emotional support to strengthen academic development while simultaneously advocating post-graduation career venues. Primary results of the proposed model indicate increased levels of underrepresented minority student interest and motivation to engage in research as evidenced by the testimonies of current members. These emerging findings attest to the importance of faculty members’ desire to outreach directly with the students and establishing culturally responsive pathways for engaging minority students in research opportunities. Thus, students attract employers associated in the realm of research interest or attend graduate school post-graduation.
... Experiential learning, when paired with undergraduate research, has significant benefits, though not all the benefits are easily measured (Crow 2015). Nonetheless, prior work has shown that students who are involved in research: (1) gain self-confidence (Ferrari and Jason 1996, Campbell and Skoog 2004, Houlden et al. 2004), (2) are more likely to complete their education (Nagda et al. 1998, Ishiyama 2001), and(3) are more likely to go on to graduate school (Kremer and Bringle 1990, Chandra et al. 1998, Foertsche et al. 2000, Ishiyama 2001) compared with students who did not have a research experience (Hakim 1998, Kardash 2000, Hathaway et al. 2002, Ishiyama 2002, Seymour et al. 2003, Lopatto 2004. ...
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The i‐NATURE (Indigenous iNtegration of Aquatic sciences and Traditional Ecological Knowledge for Undergraduate culturally Responsive Education) is a culturally relevant, project‐, and place‐based curriculum that included extensive applied research experience contextualized for specific Indigenous communities. The program developed a model for incorporating Traditional Ecological Knowledge into STEM undergraduate education which included direct participation of several Indigenous communities in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. After implementation of the i‐NATURE model, we tested whether the inclusive pedagogical strategies used in our intervention improved retention and learning outcomes for the students who participated in the i‐NATURE program. We report a highly significant difference in annual retention and mean course grade point average in the Environmental Science and Studies Programs pre‐ and post‐implementation of the i‐NATURE curriculum. We also report an increase in student interest in pursuing STEM careers and the impacts of the i‐NATURE curricula on two undergraduate participants. This study indicates that academic and research experiences in STEM higher education programming, that incorporates cultural relevant ways of knowing and is reflective of Indigenous community values, can improve student success outcomes and garner interest in pursuing STEM careers.
... Educators recognize that undergraduate research motivates students to apply to graduate school -ethnic minorities and women groups in engineering must become an integral part of such a technical workforce. Research experience for undergraduates (REU) fosters the pursuit of an undergraduate degree 25 ; increased interest in pursuing graduate education 26,27 ; and gains in skills by REU alumni over comparison groups (in conducting research, acquiring information, and speaking effectively) 28 . REUs develop career pathways, increasing minority retention 25 and the pursuit of graduate degrees 29 . ...
... This highlights a potential knowledge gap in students' understanding of research methodologies and analytical and/or biochemical measurements related to the field of nutritional toxicology. Exposure of undergraduate students to laboratory research has been shown to increase their confidence in working independently and problem solving (Harrison, Dunbar, Ratmansky, Boyd, & Lopatto, 2011), while simultaneously gaining practical lab skills (Kremmer & Bringle, 1990;Kardash, 2000;Seymour, 2004) and their scientific knowledge in the form of understanding of experimental procedures and methodologies (Ryder, Leach & Driver, 1999). However, with larger class sizes, research opportunities can be limited (Hunter, 2007), and a lack of inquiry-based lab programing that parallels traditional lecturing appears to create a gap in students' understanding of research study design, data analysis (Yu & Kuo, 2017) and effective communication of experimental results (Indorf, Weremijewicz, Janos, & Gaines, 2019). ...
Article
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In a fourth year undergraduate nutritional toxicology course that included an instructional emphasis on scientific literature critique activities and assessments, we determined the change in students’ (n=144) scientific literacy (SL) skills. The change in students’ perceived and practical SL skills were determined by the completion of two surveys, administered at the start and end of the semester. Additionally, we conducted a follow-up SL survey at the end of the subsequent academic semester (i.e., four months later) to determine if students retained any improvements in their SL skills. Over the semester, students showed improvements in their perceived capabilities of all SL skill parameters assessed (P<0.05); however, the most significant gains were apparent in the areas of i) knowledge application (specifically identifying novel problems or research questions and using new information to address unfamiliar problems or knowledge gaps), and ii) knowledge translation and communication (translating complex information from the scientific literature into clear and understandable terms). There was no change in students TOSLS score between the start and end of the semester (P>0.05). In the follow-up SL survey students showed further improvements in their perceptions of the SL skills for 7 or the 10 parameters assessed compared to the end of the previous semester (P<0.05), however, there remained no change in their practical SL skills assessed using TOSLS. Collectively, these data demonstrate that students’ perceptions of their SL capabilities may not align with their practical capabilities.
... Not all faculty members, regardless of institution type, have interest, support, or encouragement for engaging in this type of teaching (Davis & Jacobsen, 2014;Jones & Davis, 2014). However, it is clear from previous research that undergraduate students who work with a mentor are more successful in and out of the classroom than their peers who do not engage in research (Crowe, M., 2008;Fechheimer et al., 2011;Gregerman et al., 1998;Ishiyama, 2002;Kremer & Bringle, 1990;Lopatto, 2004Lopatto, , 2010. Our case study of a selective group of undergraduate researchers has documented not only how the UR mentoring relationship develops as a relationship, but also how it influences the development of the student as a researcher. ...
Article
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Undergraduate research has been documented as yielding valuable student learning outcomes. While the outcomes have been extensively investigated, the development and characteristics of the relationship with the research mentor has received less attention. To better understand how participating in undergraduate research yields substantial benefits to students, we need to elucidate the relationship between students and their research mentors. Using survey and focus group data from a select group of undergraduate researchers at one research university, we investigated the origins of undergraduate research mentoring relationships, the development of those relationships over time, and how the characteristics of the mentoring relationship yielded a shift in identity among the undergraduates. In this case study we found that the meaningful relationships developed between students and their mentors contributed to student development in the form of increased confidence and perceived competency. This competency led to changed expectations of self in the professional sphere, a deeper sense of belonging, and changed expectations for post-graduation.
... Multiple calls have been made to provide early exposure of undergraduate students to research experiences in order to increase retention in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields (1)(2)(3). Research experiences for undergraduates have been tied to various benefits for students, such as increased interest in research careers and improved research-related skills (4)(5)(6)(7)(8). Traditionally, undergraduate research experiences have been through apprenticed work in a research laboratory either during the academic year or over the summers. ...
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Calls for early exposure of all undergraduates to research have led to the increased use and study of course-based research experiences (CREs). CREs have been shown to increase measures of persistence in the sciences, such as science identity, scientific self-efficacy, project ownership, scientific community values, and networking. However, implementing CREs can be challenging and resource-intensive. These barriers may be partly mitigated by the use of short-term CRE modules rather than semester- or year-long projects. One study has shown that a CRE module captures some of the known benefits of CREs as measured by the Persistence in the Sciences (PITS) survey. Here, we used this same survey to assess outcomes for introductory biology students who completed a semester of modular CREs based on faculty research at an R1 university. The results indicated levels of self-efficacy, science community values, and science identity similar to those previously reported for students in the Science Education Alliance-Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science (SEA-PHAGES) full-semester CRE. Scores for project ownership (content) were between previously reported traditional lab and CRE scores, while project ownership (emotion) and networking were similar to those of traditional labs. Our results suggest that modular CREs can lead to significant gains in student affect measures that have been linked to persistence in the sciences in other studies. Although gains were not as great in all measures as with a semester-long CRE, implementation of modular CREs may be more feasible and offers the added benefits of exposing students to diverse research fields and lab techniques.
... A large body of evidence reveals the importance of authentic research experiences for undergraduate education (Kremer and Bringle, 1990;Alexander et al., 1998;Nagda et al., 1998;Zydney et al., 2002;Lopatto, 2004;Russell and Weaver, 2011;Russell, 2005;Kuh, 2008;Laursen et al., 2010;Cartrette and Melroe-Lehrman, 2012), and national calls to reform science education have recommended the incorporation of more research experiences into undergraduate curricula (President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2012). Unfortunately, traditional mentored research is often inaccessible to many undergraduate students, particularly those who attend institutions without significant research infrastructure, such as community colleges (e.g., Goedhart and McLaughlin, 2015). ...
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Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are an effective way to expose large numbers of students to authentic research, yet most laboratory courses still use traditional "cookbook" methods. While barriers to using CUREs have been captured postimplementation, little is known about the decision mindset before implementation or what features of CURE design may mitigate perceived barriers. Perception of an innovation (such as a CURE) influences the likelihood of its adoption, and diffusion of innovations theory posits that the decision to adopt is largely influenced by five perceived features of an innovation: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability, and trialability. We conducted interviews with instructors considering using the Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment (PARE) project to assess their perceptions of CUREs and motivations for using PARE. Instructors viewed CUREs as having relative advantages over traditional methods; however, CUREs were also viewed as complex, with instructors citing multiple barriers. Instructors were motivated to use PARE because of its potential scientific impact and compatibility with their courses' structures and resources. Instructors perceived PARE to have few barriers to implementation compared with other CUREs. Designing CUREs that address common instructor barriers and drivers could increase the rate of diffusion of CUREs.
... Research experiences encourage excitement about science and/or science careers [2] and provide students with opportunities to be exposed to alternative careers in science, rather than just the medical professions. Unsurprisingly, student researchers also demonstrate increased interest in research careers in science [11,12,15], especially as measured by matriculation in graduate school [16,17]. In addition, several studies have shown that undergraduate research experience promotes critical thinking, communication skills (oral and written), time management skills, and organizational skills, which are translatable to careers both within and outside STEM [1,13,[18][19][20]. ...
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In Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), undergraduate research experiences provide students with invaluable opportunities to improve scientific skills. However, less is known about its impact on higher-order thinking skills. Therefore, we sought to determine if engagement in undergraduate research would improve academic performance in students engaged in research compared to those that were not. To accomplish this, biology majors were enrolled in courses that taught research methodology and techniques. Results indicated that students who were selected for the research program outperformed their peers in their other classes during the research program, based on t-test statistics. However, these students had also outperformed their peers during the previous fall semester, prior to receiving additional instruction. Furthermore, students who merely applied for inclusion in the program had significantly higher grades than students who did not apply. In addition, writing samples from research and non-research students were significantly different. Taken together, these data suggest that while undergraduate research may indeed enhance a student’s academic performance and interest in science, a student’s personal interest and drive for research may themselves indicate superior academic performance. Further, science departments aiming to offer research early in their curricula may benefit from such a self-selection strategy, especially in cases where there are limited resources available for undergraduate research.
... The benefits of authentic research experiences are well documented (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8), but these experiences are not accessible to the majority of students (9). Course-based research experiences (CREs) carry many of the same benefits as traditional research (10), yet many instructors struggle to implement this type of course (11). ...
Article
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Course-based research experiences (CREs) have been proposed as an inclusive model to expose all students, including those at institutions without a strong research infrastructure, to research at an early stage. Converting an entire semester-long course can be time consuming for instructors and expensive for institutions, so we have developed a short CRE that can be implemented in a variety of life science course types. The Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment (PARE) project uses common microbiology methods and equipment to engage students in nationwide surveillance of environmental soil samples to document the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The project has been implemented at institutions ranging from community colleges to doctoral-granting institutions in 30 states plus Puerto Rico. Programmatic feedback was obtained from instructors over three iterations, and revisions were made based on this feedback. Student learning was measured by pre/post assessment in a subset of institutions. Outcomes indicate that students made significant gains in the project learning goals.
Article
Research is a requisite for most of the undergraduate honors degrees offered by universities worldwide and these undergraduates are expected to submit a dissertation based on their research. Given the new demands of this independent component of learning, it is important to understand the challenges faced by students and the strategies that they employ in successfully navigating the various components of this process. This knowledge is useful to mentors and course developers as it provides insights about the firsthand experience of the students. The present study used a qualitative research design to investigate the research experience of a purposive sample of undergraduates who completed their Bachelor of Arts Honors in English and English Language Teaching in an open and distance university in Sri Lanka in the academic year 2017/2018. The responses from 12 undergraduates in the form of written stories were coded and analyzed thematically. The study revealed areas which need attention by mentors, faculty, and universities, especially those in open and distance contexts, when providing support to novice researchers.
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With the need to increase minority representation in the polar sciences, a team of researchers from a southwestern United States public university developed an innovative field research experience entitled the International Polar Year-Research and Educational Opportunities in Antarctica for Minorities (IPY-ROAM). Supported by a National Science Foundation grant, 28 participants completed a semester-long online course and performed field research in Antarctica within the areas of aquatic ecology, terrestrial biology, physical science, ecotourism, and education. This article reports outcomes that individuals experienced through participation in IPY-ROAM as related to their educational and career aspirations. Two outcome areas explored are the participants' self-reported career competencies and their professional and academic goals. This study examines the benefits, as perceived by students, of performing hands-on research in field-based settings. Data generated from this program may serve as a means to justify further investment in field research programs for students in Antarctica and the Arctic.
Article
The Leadership Alliance is a national academic consortium currently comprising 32 academic institutions including Ivy League and major-research and minority-serving institutions, including Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). For 2 decades these institutions have worked collaboratively to train, mentor, and support underrepresented minority students from undergraduate through advanced graduate training programs. Effectively bridging the research capacity of Ivy League and leading research institutions with minority talent at HBCUs and minority-serving institutions, the Alliance has leveraged its long-standing partnership to develop and implement the Summer Research Early Identification Program (SR-EIP) and the Leadership Alliance National Symposium (LANS), proven programs for diversifying the pipeline of scholars. The objectives of this descriptive study are to demonstrate (a) the impact of these programs on student participants' undergraduate learning experience, and (b) the subsequent academic and career outcomes that occur for program participants. Discussion of the data sources and analysis approaches used in this study follow a description of the SR-EIP/LANS program participants. The outcome data demonstrate that the Alliance has become a nationally established pipeline program that successfully mentors underrepresented students along the entire academic pathway to produce scholars and researchers poised to contribute to a competitive 21st-century workforce.
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Freud's scientific legacy is controversial within contemporary psychology. There are pedagogical benefits to this controversy, however, because instructors can use it to encourage students to critically evaluate Freud's contributions. We describe a course in which students discuss Freud's works from different points in his career, along with available empirical evidence and recent critical commentaries. We present the course readings, writing assignments, examinations, and student evaluations.
Thesis
This study reformulates social cognitive career theory by going beyond the conventional emphasis on self-efficacy to provide new insight into the multiple socio-cognitive motivation predictors of STEM persistence plans among Women of Color (African American and Latina). Building on expectancy-value and role-strain theories, a reformulated socio-cognitive career model (RSCCM) was developed to better understand pivotal motivational factors that empower some Women of Color, despite facing systemic barriers, to persist in their undergraduate STEM majors, pursue Ph.D. degrees and plan STEM research careers. This theory-driven study makes unique contributions to existing higher education literature on college persistence by further clarifying multiple socio-cognitive motivation predictors of STEM persistence plans among Women of Color during the undergraduate-to-graduate studies transition. Based on a larger NIH-NIGMS funded study, multiple regression analyses were conducted on panel survey data from 179 Women of Color who applied to the Summer Research Opportunity Program (SROP) at 14 major universities affiliated with the Big Ten Academic Alliance (BTAA). Guided by the RSCCM, several hypotheses were tested to explore the role of STEM self-efficacy, STEM outcome expectancies, perceived STEM talents, STEM intervention-based appraisals, and perceived barriers and supports on STEM persistence plans. Findings indicate that in addition to self-efficacy, path-goal outcome expectations, strong faculty mentoring and perceived STEM talents were significant predictors of higher STEM persistence plans. Surprisingly, perceived discrimination was associated with higher rather than lower STEM persistence plans, and also moderated the relationship between self-efficacy and STEM persistence plans. The RSCCM and related study findings have important implications for theory, research and practice. First, RSCCM findings have theoretical significance for better understanding the multiple sources of motivation in STEM persistence decisions among Women of Color, especially during advanced stages of career development. Second, findings have important implications for future research to further clarify RSCCM propositions on larger and more diverse samples. Finally, RSCCM findings have policy relevance for informing strengths-based strategies that promote STEM persistence among Women of Color by reinforcing the multiple socio-cognitive motivational strengths that they bring to the BTAA-SROP and other pipeline intervention settings.
Conference Paper
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Cañada College, a Hispanic-Serving community college in California’s Silicon Valley attracts a large number of students from traditionally underrepresented groups in engineering. Although many of these students enter with high levels of interest in engineering, their success and completion rates have been low due to a number of factors including low levels of preparation for college-level work, especially in math; lack of awareness of academic and career options; lack of financial, academic, social and cultural capital needed for success; and lack of self-efficacy (i.e., students do not believe that they can succeed in engineering). To address these barriers to student success, Cañada College developed and implemented a number of programs to keep students engaged and motivated towards achieving their academic goals. Among such programs is the Creating Opportunities for Minorities in Engineering, Technology, and Science (COMETS) program. Funded by a four-year grant from NASA through the Curriculum Improvements Partnership Award for the Integration of Research (CIPAIR) program, COMETS was developed through a collaboration with San Francisco State University – a large, comprehensive, urban university. The program aims to help students develop the skills they need for academic success, as well as provide exposure to the major fields of engineering in order to help solidify their particular areas of interest. Among the strategies developed through COMETS is a summer internship program designed specifically for community college engineering students. During the ten-week internship program, 16 freshmen and sophomore community college students are divided in to four research groups based on their academic interests and academic preparations. Each group consists of four interns, one full-time intern (a student who has completed most of the courses needed for transfer) and three half-time interns, and is supervised by a university faculty adviser and a graduate student mentor. This paper presents the results of four years of implementation of the COMETS internship program, including the outcomes of the research activities of the participants and their perception of their research experiences. The paper will also discuss the impact of the program on strengthening students' identity as engineers and researchers; increasing student interest to further engage in research activities; and enhancing student self-efficacy for successfully transferring to a four-year university, completing a baccalaureate degree in engineering, and pursuing a graduate degree. It will also highlight lessons learned and future plans for the program, as well as best practices that are useful to other institutions in developing similar programs.
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We tracked a sample of primarily Black psychology baccalaureates’ advanced degree enrollments and completions and estimated the association of those outcomes with summer research experience by merging three data sets: (a) summer research program participants, (b) a comparison group of alumni, mostly without summer research, and (c) degree completions from the national Student Tracker (ST) database. Rates of degree completion reported by ST were higher for summer research applicants than for those not applying, but among applicants, rates were similar for those accepted and rejected. Controlling for grade point average (GPA) in a surveyed subsample, participation in summer research was not significantly associated with enrollment in or completion of master’s degrees. Students with higher GPAs were more likely to enroll and complete, and Black students were more likely to enroll.
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This study asks whether criminal justice students are more or less likely to utilize library resources to complete research assignments compared to their peers, and subsequently, whether they perceive the effectiveness of those resources differently. To do so, survey data from nearly 300 students from a mid-sized university in the northeastern United States are analyzed. The results indicate that criminal justice students are not more or less likely to utilize resources from the university library compared to their peers but that criminal justice students feel that services from librarians are less effective than do non-criminal justice students.
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Article Mentored undergraduate research is an emergent pedagogy in higher education. It differs fundamentally from course-related student research and is largely independent of the curriculum. Academic libraries should engage formally with the undergraduate research community. To do so, librarians will need to think and work beyond traditional models of library service, most notably in information literacy programs. The intent of this article is to raise awareness about opportunities for library involvement with undergraduate researchers and programs. Lessons from one university, including a formal partnership between a library and an undergraduate research center, suggest some general strategies that academic libraries might explore.
Conference Paper
As the need for qualified science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates increases, there is an accompanying need for improved undergraduate STEM education. Undergraduate Research Experiences (UREs) have been shown to enhance an undergraduate student's academic experience; however, not all students can participate in or have access to UREs due to schedule constraints during the school year or other commitments in the summer. Our current research project seeks to determine how students develop a researcher identity and transform their epistemic beliefs through UREs. Elements identified to contribute to students' researcher identities and epistemic beliefs will then be translated into strategies that can be incorporated into traditional learning environments. This paper will overview the progress made in the first part of this multi-phase, multi-institution project and preliminary results from the initial surveys.
Article
Background Increasing human resources in engineering is a key concern for the United States. While some research has considered pathways to doctoral study, there is no clear empirical evidence on the role of undergraduate experiences in motivating engineers to continue to graduate school, both in engineering programs and more broadly. Purpose/Hypothesis We investigated three influences on engineers’ decisions to enter graduate school: mathematics proficiency, self‐assessments of engineering skills, and co‐curricular experiences. Design/method Using data from 1,119 engineers, we developed a hierarchical multinomial logistic model to examine engineers’ graduate school enrollment patterns. Results Math proficiency, participation in undergraduate research, and self‐assessed leadership skills are significant positive predictors of attendance in an engineering graduate program, although self‐assessed teamwork skills are a negative predictor. For attendance in a nonengineering graduate school program, math proficiency, nonengineering community volunteer work, and engineering clubs were positive predictors, but none of the self‐assessed skills were significant predictors. Conclusions Our findings support past research that emphasized academic preparedness in mathematics, and further corroborate the claim that K–12 math education is a key policy lever to the engineering pipeline from undergraduate to graduate education. Our findings also indicate differences between engineering and nonengineering graduate study in relation to self‐assessed skills and co‐curricular experiences. Future research is needed on which types of preparation during college are needed for graduate school choice.
Article
Purpose In this tutorial, we describe the initiation and implementation of a recently developed PhD Student–Mediated Mentorship Model (PS-MMM) used within our lab. In a PS-MMM, PhD students mentor graduate and undergraduate students under the direction of a faculty advisor. The model aims to address the PhD shortage by (a) teaching PhD students to be research mentors to facilitate their success in the early career years and (b) encouraging clinical graduate students to transition into and be successful in research doctoral training. As a third objective, we aim to address the research–practice gap by increasing the research experiences available to undergraduate and clinical graduate students through implementation of a PS-MMM. We provide a step-by-step outline and case examples for initiating and scaling up a PS-MMM. Conclusions Implementation of a PS-MMM has led to consistent, positive benefits for mentees and mentors within our lab. The observed benefits, feasibility, and flexibility of our PS-MMM support more widespread use of PS-MMMs within other communication sciences and disorders programs.
Article
This chapter discusses the impact of undergraduate research as a form of engaged student learning. It summarizes the gains reported in post-fellowship assessment essays acquired from students participating in the Auburn University Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program. The chapter also discusses the program's efforts to increase opportunities for students to engage in undergraduate research in the context of challenges faced by public research universities.
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There are several institutions of higher learning in the United States that award degrees in public health to undergraduate students. While these institutions serve as potential pipelines for the public health workforce, it is unclear if the curricula and training students receive from these institutions, really prepare them for the public health workforce or higher education. The questions sometimes asked are whether the programs offered by these institutions exist to provide students with a good understanding of public health issues so they can become good citizens for building a responsible society, or if it is to prepare students for graduate school. Regardless of what the goals are, students in undergraduate public health programs need to be exposed to curricula that adequately prepare them to enter well-defined careers in public health. Thus, institutions of higher learning offering degrees in public health to undergraduate students need to understand the market, assess, and understand the needs of public health agencies, and tailor course curricula to match those needs. Georgia State University established its undergraduate public health program in 2016. Since then, over 200 students have graduated from the program. The purpose of the study was to assess student perception of the role of high impact educational practices such as study abroad, signature experience, and undergraduate research curricula in preparing them for careers in public health.
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