ArticlePDF Available

A Precognitive Dream Study with a Single Subject

Authors:

Abstract

Conducted an 8-night dream study with Malcolm Bessant, an English "sensitive" with a history of apparent spontaneous precognition, as S. Standard electrophysiological techniques were used to detect REM sleep. Once the S's dreams had been collected and the postsleep interviews terminated, the target, a keyword, was randomly selected and embedded with physical props in a multisensory environment around the word which S then experienced. 3 outside judges rated the correspondences between each dream protocol and the target. There were 5 direct hits (p = .00018). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... By "well-controlled," we mean the following: (a) Participants were asked to attempt to dream about a target they would see the next day (i.e., images, staged multisensory experiences, or video clips); (b) a random-number generator was used to select one target from a pool of at least four available targets (e.g., a video clip of a birthday party) and only that one target was later shown to the dreamer; (c) on each trial the experimenters selected the target only after dream reporting was complete and submitted to the experimenters, and before the experimenters read the dream reports; (d) independent judges naïve to the identity of the actual target judged the similarity between dream content and the target; (e) judges' responses were considered final. Researchers reported significant results using binomial statistics (␣ ϭ 0.05, two-tailed tests) in three out of four of these studies (Krippner, Honorton, & Ullman, 1972;Krippner, Ullman, & Honorton, 1971;Watt, 2014). The fourth study (Watt, Wiseman, & Vuillaume, 2015) did not show statistically significant results but the effect was in the predicted direction (ES ϭ 0.11; N ϭ 20 with one trial per person). 1 Four other peer-reviewed experiments deserve consideration (Luke, 2002;Luke & Zychowicz, 2014;Luke, Zychowicz, Richterova, Tjurina, & Polonnikova, 2012;Sherwood, Roe, Simmons, & Biles, 2002), although they do not fit our methodological constraints. ...
... The experimenters then sent a website link to this one video clip to the dreamer. The two earlier dream precognition studies were similarly well controlled, but those studies used only one dreamer who performed multiple trials (Krippner et al., 1972;Krippner, Ullman, & Honorton, 1971). ...
... To better assess whether dreams can reveal veridical information about truly unpredictable future events, what is needed are repeated studies performed across multiple laboratories. Those studies should ideally use the same controlled groupstudy methods employed by with larger sample sizes and controls for selfselection bias, or with controlled singleparticipant methods (see Krippner et al., 1972;Krippner, Ullman, & Honorton, 1971). ...
Article
Full-text available
Prospection, the act of attempting to foresee one’s future, is generally assumed to be based on conscious and nonconscious inferences from past experiences and anticipation of future possibilities. Most scientists consider the idea that prospection may also involve influences from the future to be flatly impossible due to violation of common sense or constraints based on one or more physical laws. We present several classes of empirical evidence challenging this common assumption. If this line of evidence can be successfully and independently replicated using preregistered designs and analyses, then the consequences for the interpretation of experimental results from any empirical domain would be profound.
... Other strategies have focused on providing more naturalistic targets than playing or Zener cards. These efforts include theatrical dramatizations of situations related to the targets (Cassoli & Marabini, 1954), the use of multisensory aids to telepathic transmission (Krippner, Ullman, & Honorton, 1971), the use of pictures (Braud & Braud, 1973), the use of geographical locations in remote-viewing tests (Dunne & Bisaha, 1979), and the use of emotions as targets (Schouten, 1980). The reawakening of interest in freeresponse tests that started in the 1960s and continues to this day has brought us closer to naturalistic situations (Storm, Tressoldi, & Di Risio, 2010). ...
Book
Full-text available
Single case studies have a long tradition in the field of parapsychology and anomalistics research. Naturally, thorough case studies do not usually provide hard evidence for the existence of paranormal effects. However, they demonstrate the dynamics of occurrence of such extraordinary phenomena and experiences in the living world. This volume is intended to give an overview of the methodological peculiarities of anomalistic field research. On the basis of historical and current case studies, certain specific psychosocial dynamics and problems in this interesting and challenging field of research are presented and discussed. This book contains 15 chapters written by different authors on the subject of single case studies. Although the focus is on poltergeist cases, other fields of anomalistics are also addressed, such as the UFO topic, or allegedly photographic anomalies.
... Finally, while precognitive dreaming is the most common precognitive experience, controlled tests of precognitive dreaming have been few and far between (Radin and Mossbridge 2018). Except when a pre-screened skilled participant was used as the dreamer (e.g., Krippner et al. 1971Krippner et al. , 1972, the overall results of precognitive dreaming experiments have been equivocal, probably as a result of most people's ability to connect their dream content to future events even when there is only a very weak relationship between them -giving them the belief that they are skilled at precognitive dreaming. As a result of these caveats about other forms of precognition, it seems that precognitive experiences at the extremes -presentiment (or predictive anticipatory activity) on one hand and precognitive remote viewing on the other -may be the easiest to study in controlled experiments. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The rigorous scientific study of precognition, the human ability to accurately predict future events that are not predictable based on information about the past or from the five senses, spans the last 90 years. This review parcels out different types of precognition, describes the basic principles of precognition research, and discusses the evidence and potential mechanisms for two very different forms of precognition-largely unconscious precognition with short lead times (e.g., presentiment) and largely conscious precognition with longer lead times (e.g., precognitive remote viewing).
... Finally, while precognitive dreaming is the most commonly reported precognitive experience (Rosenberg 2016), controlled tests of precognitive dreaming have been few and far between (Mossbridge & Radin 2018). Except when a pre-screened skilled participant was used as the dreamer (e.g., Krippner et al. 1971Krippner et al. , 1972, the overall results of well-controlled precognitive dreaming experiments have thus far been equivocal. This may be a result of most people's ability to connect their dream content to future events even when there is only a very weak relationship between them, giving them the belief that they are skilled at precognitive dreaming and providing motivation to enroll in precognitive dreaming experiments. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper is very similar to an earlier non-peer reviewed version submitted to Behind and Beyond the Brain: The Mystery of Time 13th Symposium of the Bial Foundation 2022. Highlights: • Precognition is the scientific term for physiology, behavior, perception and cognition that seems to reflect future events that should not be predictable by usual means. • There are many kinds of precognitive phenomena, but two are described in detail: Presentiment (physiological precognition) and precognitive remote viewing (perceptual and cognitive precognition). • Presentiment and precognitive remote viewing have very different characteristics, suggesting they draw from distinct mechanisms. • A physical-time-symmetry (PTS) model may explain presentiment, and a pervasive-universal-consciousness (PUC) model may explain precognitive remote viewing. • Each model has testable elements and is therefore falsifiable.
... This leaves only three more pages for the promised evidence. Finally, the reader is greeted with a nicely illustrated example of the standard procedure of a typical "precognitive dreaming experiment with a single dreamer," followed by mention of results of two statistically significant dream ESP experiments with famed psychic subject Malcomb Bessent (Krippner, Ullman, & Honorton 1971). Words from Bessent's dream transcript ("authority figures") are compared to a description of the target photo ("police arresting people"), which was chosen only after the dream occurred and under double-blind conditions (p. 69). ...
Article
Full-text available
... This leaves only three more pages for the promised evidence. Finally, the reader is greeted with a nicely illustrated example of the standard procedure of a typical "precognitive dreaming experiment with a single dreamer," followed by mention of results of two statistically significant dream ESP experiments with famed psychic subject Malcomb Bessent (Krippner, Ullman, & Honorton 1971). Words from Bessent's dream transcript ("authority figures") are compared to a description of the target photo ("police arresting people"), which was chosen only after the dream occurred and under double-blind conditions (p. 69). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Premonition Code is a warm, thought-provoking, introductory book for non-academic readers who are seeking to understand, explore and even expand their own precognitive experiences. Its strength lies in the rich and moving anecdotal stories told by people from all walks of life, including several scientists, whose accounts of precognitive dreams and waking premonitions will certainly be familiar and comforting to those who have had similar experiences and felt alone, or even questioned their own sanity. The Premonition Code is co-authored by Dr. Julia Mossbridge and Theresa Cheung. Mossbridge holds a doctorate in Communication Sciences and Disorders from Northwestern University and an MA in Neuroscience from the University of California at San Francisco. She is an Associate Professor in Integral and Transpersonal Psychology at the California Institute of Integral Studies and a Research Fellow at the Institute of Noetic Sciences. She is a co-author of Transcendent Mind: Rethinking the Science of Consciousness. Mossbridge has personally had precognitive dreams and other exceptional experiences throughout her life, and has recently begun studying remote viewing. Theresa Cheung holds a Master’s degree in Theology and English from Kings College, Cambridge. She has authored close to a dozen popular books, including metaphysical “encyclopedias” and collections of stories about topics such as life after death, the angelic realm, and visitations from deceased loved ones. While Cheung comes from a long line of psychics and spiritualists, she states within the present book that she only recently became aware that formal research existed on extrasensory perception and precognition. The Premonition Code provides a precursory exploration of mind bending questions such as does the future influence the past? Can the future be changed through will and intent in the present? What actually is time? Why do some aspects of premonitions seem to play out and not others? And what to do if someone has had a dream or vision of an impending disaster or a crime? At the core of the book is the contention that readers should embrace their innate intuitive abilities by choosing to become a “positive precog,” defined as a person who seeks to develop and utilize precognition for the betterment of their own life, and that of others. The authors offer their own “positive precog principles” using the acronym REACH, which stands for: Respect for the unknown, Ethics, Accuracy, Compassion, and Honesty (p. 80).
... Precognitive dreams form large samples of both American and European case collections of extrasensory perceptions (see e.g. Irwin, 1999, chapter 3, for an overview; Krippner et al., 1971, for an example of an empirical study). There have also been enough experimental studies to warrant a meta-analysis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Partiendo de la convención que postula que los pilares de la labor clínica son el análisis personal; la formación teórica y la supervisión; el presente trabajo intentará recorrer una serie de fenómenos que hacen vigente esta convención. Considerar que la labor clínica es lo suficientemente compleja al punto de necesitar de tres sólidos pilares para su sostenimiento requiere reflexionar desde la teoría, la técnica y la clínica misma cuales son las causas que hacen necesarios los pilares mencionados. Así, se intentará recorrer distintos conceptos que nos permitirán adentrarnos en la mirada íntima del analista.
Article
Context: The belief that performing a nonlocal task in darkness plays a facilitating role in remote viewing and other psi-related phenomena is well established in esoteric and traditional beliefs (Grim, 1983; Hallowell, 1942; Lyon, 2012). However, the role of darkness in RV success is unclear beyond these esoteric explanations. Objective: This study explored the differential effect of darkness/light on remote viewing ability alongside the effect of time and their potential interaction. Design: From an initial sample of twenty, seven remote viewers contributed a total of nineteen sessions each (nine light/ten dark) which utilised randomized target selection, free-response descriptions, and ratings by both participants and an independent judge. Results: The usable data gave the edge to dark condition performance; the difference was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference between remote viewer and independent judge raw scores attributed to the target image was identified (t (132) = 4.56, p <.001 (two-tailed) Mdiff = 14.21 [8.05, 20.4]) with a medium effect size (d = 0.40 [0.21, 0.57]). Exploratory post-hoc analyses concerning the numinosity of target images were conducted, to determine if this characteristic was associated with success. For numinosity ratings of target images, a mean difference of 11.24, 95% CI [0.12, 22.3] was shown as significant, with the target images of participant 'hit' sessions containing higher numinosity ratings than unsuccessful 'miss' sessions (t (11.47) = 2.22, p (two-tailed) = .048) with a large effect size (d = 1.02, [0.01, 1.99]). Conclusion: The findings may have implications for the use of participant judgments in future remote viewing research. Furthermore, because there are several advantages to what parapsychologists refer to as "free response" targets as opposed to "forced choice" targets (Honorton, 1975), the findings for target numinosity may have implications for the future selection of target material.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.