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The relationship between self-actualization and boredom proneness

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Abstract

Investigated the relationship between measures of self-actualization and boredom proneness with 154 undergraduates who completed the Short Index of Self-Actualization (A. Jones and R. Crandall; see record 1987-12318-001) and the Boredom Proneness scale (R. Farmer and N. D. Sundberg; see record 1986-23428-001). Total scores were significantly negatively related, supporting the contention that individuals with high levels of self-actualization possess lower levels of boredom proneness. Implications for psychological counseling, work performance, and education are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Taken together, individuals with autonomy need dissatisfaction in the real world cannot voluntarily make choices and engage in activities congruent with their authentic interests [18]. Thus, they are prone to having low intrinsic motivation and exhibit low psychological involvement, which may increase the tendency to experience boredom [21,45,46]. Furthermore, bored individuals are more likely to play mobile games as a compensator of boredom [15]. ...
... According to self-determination theory [18], adolescents with autonomy need dissatisfaction have few opportunities to volitionally make choices and self-organize actions in daily life. Thus, they may have to participate in activities with little intrinsic motivation, which increases a tendency to experience boredom [29,45]. For instance, they may execute what others compel them to do, such as participating in extracurricular courses that are arranged by their parents. ...
Article
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Psychological needs dissatisfaction has been identified as hindering adaptive development, in which autonomy need dissatisfaction, as one core component, may be associated with adolescents’ maladaptive online behaviors. Sporadic research has examined the association between autonomy need dissatisfaction and problematic mobile phone use (PMPU). Boredom proneness and mobile phone gaming were suggested to be linked to this association. This study aimed to examine the mediating effects of boredom proneness and mobile phone gaming in the association between autonomy need dissatisfaction and PMPU. A total of 358 secondary school students completed questionnaires at three waves; autonomy need dissatisfaction was measured in time 1 (T1); boredom proneness and mobile phone gaming were measured one year later (time 2, T2); PMPU was measured two years later (time 3, T3). The structural equation model results showed that T1 autonomy need dissatisfaction not only directly predicted T3 PMPU, but also exerted effects via the mediating role of T2 boredom proneness and the chain mediating role of T2 boredom proneness and T2 mobile phone gaming. These findings reveal the unique role of specific psychological need in engaging PMPU, which provides support to targeted interventions, such that promoting autonomy need satisfaction may be an instrumental procedure to prevent adolescents from addiction-like online behaviors.
... However, null or even reversed findings on gender differences in boredom have also been reported. For example, McLeod and Vodanovich (1991) and Watt and Ewing (1996) reported no differences between males and females in boredom proneness. Seib and Vodanovich (1998) even reported that males were less likely to experience boredom than females, which may have been due to their inability to self-generate participation. ...
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Gender plays an important role in various aspects of second language acquisition, including lexicon learning. Many studies have suggested that compared to males, females are less likely to experience boredom, one of the frequently experienced deactivating negative emotions that may impair language learning. However, the contribution of boredom to gender-related differences in lexicon learning remains unclear. To address this question, here we conducted two experiments with a large sample of over 1,000 college students to explore the relationships between gender differences in boredom and lexicon learning. In Experiment 1, a cohort of 527 participants (238 males) completed the trait and state boredom scales as well as a novel lexicon learning task without awareness of the testing process. In Experiment 2, an independent cohort of 506 participants (228 males) completed the same novel lexicon learning task with prior knowledge of the testing procedure. Results from both experiments consistently showed significant differences between female and male participants in the rate of forgetting words and the state boredom scores, with female participants performing better than male participants. Furthermore, differences in state boredom scores partially explained differences in the rate of forgetting words between female and male participants. These findings demonstrate a novel contribution of state boredom to gender differences in lexicon learning, which provides new insights into better language-learning ability in females.
... Although there is no clear definition of boredom agreed in the literature, it is accepted that boredom is associated with important social, psychological, and physical health problems (Lin & Westgate, 2021). Similarly, previous research has associated boredom with depression and anxiety (Sommers & Vodanovich, 2000), burnout (Abubakar et al., 2021), job dissatisfaction (Kass et al., 2001), life satisfaction (Farmer & Sundberg, 1986), self-actualization (McLeod & Vodanovich, 1991), and lowered levels of life meaning (Weinstein et al., 1995). ...
The study addresses the modulating effects of the impact of boredom and travel motivation on travel intention; additionally, the resulting model includes the impact of this intention and the fear of COVID-19 on the willingness to pay (WTP) more to benefit from additional safety measures at the destination. Furthermore, the moderating role of fear of COVID-19 was also tested as well as the mediating role of travel motivation in the model. Overall, 549 valid data were collected from potential tourists who live in Turkey and Russia. In the light of the findings of the study, the boredom was found to have a positive and significant effect on the travel motivation and intention. On the other hand, WTP is positively affected by travel intention and fear of COVID-19. Moreover, it was revealed that while the fear of COVID-19 had a moderating role, the travel motivation had a mediating role. The empirical results provide theoretical and practical implications for tourism managers for the development of safety measures in tourism services and the design of effective actions to restore tourism.
... The measure has been utilized with emerging adult samples and appears to be reliable and valid for use in college populations (Dahlen et al., 2004(Dahlen et al., , 2005Farmer & Sundberg, 1986;Seib & Vodanovich, 1999;Sommers & Vodanovich, 2000;Watt & Blanchard, 1994;Watt & Vodanovich, 1999). Upon initial development, the items were true-false; however, various studies have successfully 24 employed a 7-point Likert scale in order to increase variability (Dahlen et al., 2004(Dahlen et al., , 2005McLeod & Vodanovich, 1991;Rupp & Vodanovich, 1997;Vodanovich & Kass, 1990;Watt & Blanchard, 1994). Respondents rate each item using a 7-point Likert scale where response options range from 1 ("highly disagree") to 7 ("highly agree"). ...
Research
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Prior research indicates that a number of dark personality traits (e.g., psychopathy and sadism) positively predict the perpetration of cyber aggression among emerging adults (e.g., Goodboy & Martin, 2015; Craker & March, 2016; Nocera & Dahlen, 2018); however, few studies have utilized psychometrically sound measures of cyber aggression developed for use with this population. Additionally, some traits that are theoretically relevant to cyber aggression (Koban, Stein, Eckhardt, & Ohler, 2018; Slonje & Smith, 2008; Varjas, Talley, Meyers, Parris, & Cutts, 2010) and have been useful predictors of other forms of aggression have received insufficient attention in the cyber aggression literature (e.g., trait aggressiveness, boredom proneness). In addition, the possible role of moral disengagement (i.e., a way for people who behave in conflict with their moral values to avoid guilt or shame; Renati, Berrone, & Zanetti, 2012) as a potential mediator of the relationships of various personality traits to cyber aggression perpetration has not received sufficient attention. In the present study, we recruited 404 emerging adult (age 18-29) volunteers living in the United States through Amazon’s MTurk. Workers completed an online survey assessing their use of electronic communication, psychopathic and sadistic personality traits, trait aggressiveness, boredom proneness, moral disengagement, and cyber aggression perpetration. Structural equation modeling tested whether psychopathic traits, sadistic traits, trait aggressiveness, and boredom proneness predicted cyber aggression perpetration and moral disengagement partially mediated these relationships. Sadism, anger, and moral disengagement predicted cyber aggression, and moral disengagement partially mediated the relationships between sadism and cyber aggression perpetration.
Book
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This book focuses on the dynamic relationships among individual difference (ID) variables (i.e., willingness to communicate, motivation, language anxiety and boredom) in learning English as a foreign language in the virtual world Second Life. The theoretical part provides an overview of selected issues related to the four ID factors in question (e.g., definitions, models, sources, types, empirical investigations). The empirical part reports the findings of a research project which aimed to examine the changing nature of WTC, motivation, boredom and language anxiety experienced by six English majors during their visits to the said virtual world, the main contributors to the changes in the levels of the constructs under investigation, as well as their relationships. The book closes with the discussion of directions for further research as well as pedagogical implications.
Book
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The book focuses on boredom, a construct that has been explored in educational psychology but has received only scant attention from second language acquisition researchers. Although recent years have seen a growing interest in positive emotions in second or foreign language learning and teaching, negative emotions are always present in the classroom and they deserve to be investigated in their own right. The theoretical part provides an overview of the construct of boredom (e.g., definitions, types, empirical studies in the L2 classroom). The empirical part reports the findings of an empirical study which aimed to examine the changes in the levels of boredom experienced by a group of English majors in English classes and identify the factors accounting for such changes. The book closes with a discussion of directions for further research as well as some pedagogic implications.
Thesis
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[PL] W przeprowadzonej pracy badanymi pojęciami są nudzenie się, potrzeba autonomii oraz percepcja piękna. Każdy z tych konstruktów ma silne podłoże filozoficzne, które pozwala na lepsze zrozumienie zjawisk. Tak więc, potrzeba autonomii jest jedną z kluczowych cech przynależnych człowieczeństwu, lenistwo będące postawą zamykającą osobę na dobro okazuje się stanem pokrewnym do nudzenia się, a piękno może być doświadczaną ekscytacją. Skonstruowano badanie, gdzie uczestnic z grupy kontrolnej byli zwyczajnie zapraszani do wzięcia udziału w pracy, natomiast w grupie eksperymentalnej każdy z nich dostał obietnicę nagrody w wysokości 20zł, którą otrzymywał na początku badania. Grupą badawczą byli studenci zamieszkujący miasto wojewódzkie. Pierwsze zadanie polegało na wypełnieniu kwestionariuszy. Następnie osoby oceniały dwie serie fotografii, pomiędzy którymi wykonywali długie i monotonne zadanie, polegające na obserwowaniu animacji z kulką i wciskaniu jednego klawisza. Jedynym celem tego zadania było znudzenie uczestnika badania. Wyniki potwierdziły przytaczane definicje nudzenia się – osoby zgłosiły znaczny wzrost wrogości, zmęczenia i smutku, spadek pozytywnego afektu oraz przyspieszały udzielanie odpowiedzi. Tak zaobserwowane zachowanie zostało zinterpretowane jako sprzeczne z przyjętą teorią doświadczenia i percepcji piękna. Nagradzanie pieniężne, mające osłabić motywację autonomiczną, nie przyniosło znaczących efektów.........[ENG] The study is focused on a state of boredom, need of autonomy and beauty perception. Each concept has a significant philosophical origin which enables understanding them in an appropriate way.Thus, need of autonomy is one of the key features that are our due as humans, laziness, which makes one closed for goodness, transpires as a state related to the state of boredom, beauty perception turns out to be a complex emotion of excitment. The study was made in which two groups was separated. In a control group people were only invited to take part in the study. In experimental one, a promise of 20zl reward appeared. All participants were students living in a provincial city. The first task was to fill out questionnaires. Then, subjects rated two parts of photos between which they had to complete long and monotonous task. It was based on observing a simple animation and pressing the key. The only aim was to get participants bored. The obtained results confirm the adopted theory of boredom: subjects began to feel more hostile, tired and sad. Moreover, their level of positive mood decreased. The observed accelerated response is interpreted as a behaviour conflicted with the basis of beauty perception and its excitment. There were no significant changes resulting from cash reward aim of which was to decrease the autonomous motivation.
Article
This review and synthesis of relevant literature considers the nature of boredom and boredom proneness in general terms before focusing on how the academic boredom experienced by undergraduates at university is sufficiently different from other known types to warrant a unique and important field of study. Derived from within the literature itself, academic boredom is commonly presented as a largely negative and deactivating achievement-related emotion known to impact usually adversely on student engagement and performance. Tracing traditional as well as contemporary views from within psychology, which has tended to dominate the field, findings that remain largely quantitative and highly statistical in nature are exemplified alongside the more exploratory but mixed-methods and educational work recently conducted in the UK. A comparison of the questionnaire-based self-report instruments frequently used in data collection is also included. Rooted largely within Control-Value Theory, the implications associated with academic boredom are far from trivial, particularly with respect to understanding sites and triggers, how students respond and cope and how the overall quality of the student experience might be improved. Limitations in the work undertaken to date draw attention to opportunities for further educational and interdisciplinary research.
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