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Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning

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Abstract

Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: external mood induction (positive vs. neutral emotions) and emotional design induction (positive vs. neutral emotions). A computer-based lesson on the topic of immunization was used as multimedia learning material. Results indicate that applying emotional design principles to learning materials can induce positive emotions and that positive emotions in multimedia-based learning facilitate cognitive processes and learning. Controlling for the germane load of the materials, the internal induction of positive emotions through design of the materials increased comprehension and transfer, whereas the external induction of positive emotions through mood induction enhanced transfer but not comprehension. Positive emotions induced through mood induction significantly increased the amount of learners' reported mental effort, whereas positive emotional design reduced the perceived difficulty of the learning task. Positive emotions increased motivation, satisfaction, and perception toward the materials. Mediation analyses suggest that the effect of positive emotions induced externally was mediated by both motivation and mental effort but found no mediators for emotion induced via emotional design, suggesting that positive emotional design has a more direct impact on learning than externally induced emotions. The study suggests that emotions should be considered an important factor in the design of multimedia learning materials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... How to design video lectures to arouse learners' positive emotions, and will such positive emotions affect learning? Prior research has mostly focused on the question of how to design learning materials to foster affective processing in multimedia instruction (Um et al., 2012;Shangguan et al., 2019). In recent years, advances in computer technology and intelligent tutoring systems have enabled instructional designers to embed an animated pedagogical agent in computer-based learning environments. ...
... During the past 10 years, research examining the influence of emotional design on multimedia learning has proliferated. Emotional design refers to the way of redesigning learning environments with the goal to increase learners' positive emotions and motivation to enhance learning performance (Um et al., 2012;Mayer and Estrella, 2014;Beege et al., 2020;Cheng et al., 2020;Wang X. et al., 2020). Emotional design includes two ways (Plass and Schwartz, 2014;Plass and Kaplan, 2016): One involves the emotional design of online learning materials and the other is the emotional design of interactive features in multimedia learning environments (e.g., the emotional stances of PAs). ...
... Applying emotional design principles to learning materials pioneered first by Um et al. (2012). In their study, undergraduates were asked to learn a computer-based lesson covering the topic "how immunization works." ...
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The goal of the present study is to explore whether the affective states (happy or neutral) of a pedagogical agent (PA) in an online multimedia lesson yields different learning processes and outcomes, and whether the effects of affective PAs depend on the learners' emotion regulation strategies and their prior knowledge. In three experiments, undergraduates were asked to view a narrated animation about synaptic transmission that included either a happy PA (smiling expression and enthusiastic voice) or a neutral PA (neutral expression and calm voice) and subsequently took emotions, motivation, cognitive outcomes tests. Across three experiments, the happy PA group reported more positive emotions (ds = 0.70, 0.46, and 0.60) and higher level of motivation (ds = 0.76, 0.49, and 0.51) than the neutral PA group. Moreover, the happy PA prompted higher germane load (d = 0.41) than a neutral PA in Experiment 3. However, adding a happy PA to the screen did not improve learning performance. In addition, in Experiment 2, learners' usage of emotion regulation strategies moderated the effectiveness of affective PA on positive emotions in learners. Specifically, happy PAs increased the positive emotions of students who used expressive suppression strategy (d = 0.99) but not those who used cognitive reappraisal strategy (d = 0.13). In Experiment 3, the effectiveness of affective PAs was not moderated by learners' prior knowledge. Results support the cognitive affective theory of learning with media (CATLM) that students are happier and more motivated when they learn from happy PAs than from neutral PAs.
... Cognitive load theory (CLT) is a framework for creating and investigating cognitive processing and instructional design (Paas et al., 2003;Um et al., 2012). ...
... intrinsic load, extraneous load, and germane load (Paas et al., 2003;Um et al., 2012). ...
... Germane cognitive load relates to a learner's effort to comprehend learning materials that produce changes to long term memory caused by the task and mental construction of schemas, assimilation, and manipulation using concepts from cognitive theory (Deegan, 2015;Paas et al., 2003;Um et al., 2012). Costley and Lange (2017) described germane load as "how well the students understand content delivered to them (Ayres, 2006)" (p. ...
Thesis
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This qualitative study examines an asynchronous online course from a private university utilizing a template model for all online courses to provide students with consistent navigation and course structure throughout their degree program. The asynchronous online courses are purposely created using three criteria of quality course design: navigation is intuitive, information is chunked, and instructions are written clearly. A two-part usability test was conducted with three internal and three external participants. The two-part usability test focused on course navigation and examined the signaling, segmenting, and coherence principles applied to course content page layouts. Transcripts from the usability tests and observational field notes were coded through an iterative process in Nvivo. Through emic and etic coding, seven main categories were identified: user experience, cognitive load, multimedia learning principles, page design and layout attributes, course navigational attributes, course attributes and information, and participant navigational behavior. The findings for first-day navigation, general navigational behaviors, and perceptions of design elements used to implement the signaling, segmenting, and coherence principle are discussed. Course design recommendations for creating a positive usability experience and suggestions for future research are provided.
... A new research field assumes that distinct design manipulations (emotional design) influence learners' affectivemotivational state (e.g., positive emotions in general, situational interest, intrinsic motivation, and enjoyment) and thereby foster learning (Um et al., 2012). Emotional design is characterized by human-like features, round shapes, and appealing colors. ...
... Emotional design is characterized by human-like features, round shapes, and appealing colors. Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of emotional design on learning, affective state, and mental effort (Um et al., 2012;Plass et al., 2014;Park et al., 2015;Plass and Kaplan, 2016;Uzun and Yıldırım, 2018). Some findings support the assumption that emotional design evokes emotions and enhances learning (Um et al., 2012;Mayer and Estrella, 2014;Brom et al., 2018;Tien et al., 2018;Wong and Adesope, 2020), while other findings showed that emotional design did not impact emotions and learning (Park et al., 2015;Münchow and Bannert, 2019;Stárková et al., 2019). ...
... Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of emotional design on learning, affective state, and mental effort (Um et al., 2012;Plass et al., 2014;Park et al., 2015;Plass and Kaplan, 2016;Uzun and Yıldırım, 2018). Some findings support the assumption that emotional design evokes emotions and enhances learning (Um et al., 2012;Mayer and Estrella, 2014;Brom et al., 2018;Tien et al., 2018;Wong and Adesope, 2020), while other findings showed that emotional design did not impact emotions and learning (Park et al., 2015;Münchow and Bannert, 2019;Stárková et al., 2019). Overall, the meta-analysis by Brom et al. (2018) showed that emotional design improves retention, comprehension, and transfer. ...
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A concept map is a powerful method that promotes meaningful learning and is highly recommended for use in biology classes. According to multimedia research, the effectiveness of concept maps could be improved by incorporating pictorial elements. Apart from using realistic images, a new field of research claims that specific design manipulations, including human-like features with appealing colors ( emotional design ), influence learners’ affective state and improve learning. A positive affective state is assumed to evoke emotions and provoke deeper cognitive processing, which increases the cognitive resources available for a task. We conducted two experiments with a total of N = 249 junior high school students, comparing the effect of concept maps with emotional design illustrations (emotional design), with non-emotional design illustrations (neutral design), and without illustrations (control design). Experiment 1 examined the influence of these designs on students’ perceived affective state , perceived cognitive load (extraneous, intrinsic, and germane load) , perceived task difficulty , and learning performance ( n = 202), experiment 2 focused on the perceived affective state of the students ( n = 47). We found that emotional design led to a significant decrease in perceived task difficulty , but we neither found an effect on learning performance nor the positive affective state . Learning with pictorial concept maps (in emotional or neutral design) reduced the negative affect compared to learning with control concept maps. Other than expected, the neutral design led to reduced perceived extraneous and intrinsic cognitive load . Consequently, in terms of learning, emotional design in concept maps did not hamper learning but did not foster it either.
... Contrariwise, negative affect can signal that particular needs or goals are yet to be accomplished, thereby decreasing the amount of cognitive resources available for learning and impeding creativity (Isen et al., 1987) and learning performance (Pekrun & Linnenbrink-Garcia, 2012). Moreover, within the multimedia learning context, positive affect can increase intrinsic motivation, leading to enhanced learning performance (Moreno & Mayer, 2007;Plass et al., 2014;Um et al., 2012). ...
... Accordingly, anthropomorphism refers to adding facial features and expressions to visual elements in multimedia learning materials that are otherwise regarded as nonanthropomorphic. For instance, the seminal paper on emotional design imprinted anthropomorphic features such as eyes and mouths into graphical pictures depicting T-cells, B-cells, and antigens (Um et al., 2012). ...
... As used in prior studies (Park et al., 2015;Plass et al., 2014;Um et al., 2012); the positive affect scale (PAS) from the PANAS scale (Watson et al., 1988) measured the level of positive emotion experienced by the learners in the present experiment. The survey asked learners to report the degree to which they experienced ten types of positive feelings, using a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very slightly or not at all) to 5 (very much). ...
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Emotional design refers to imbuing a multimedia learning environment with design attributes that promote learners’ positive affect and motivation to enhance learning. One such feature is anthropomorphism, in which human-like attributes are infused into learning elements in a multimedia learning environment. This study examines the affective, motivational, and cognitive effects of incorporating cute and funny human-like images and dialogues into learning objects depicting malware, bots, and servers in an animation conveying a lesson on how a distributed denial-of-service attack occurs. A between-subjects online experiment was conducted in which undergraduates from a large Asian university (n = 70) engaged with either the anthropomorphized or non-anthropomorphized multimedia lesson. The findings partially supported the anthropomorphism effects on learners’ affective-motivational states insofar as the anthropomorphized multimedia lesson evoked a significantly greater change of positive affect but did not differently affect intrinsic motivation and learning outcome than the non-anthropomorphized version. Concerning cognitive load, anthropomorphism led to significantly lower perceived difficulty regarding the learning topic (intrinsic load), which conforms with most emotional design findings. There was a marginal trend in which learners engaged longer with the anthropomorphized than the non-anthropomorphized multimedia lesson. This study offers insights on anthropomorphism in multimedia learning that extends to cultural factors unique to Asian learners and information technology subject domain. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed through the lens of cognitive-affective theory of learning with media, integrated cognitive affective model of learning with multimedia, and cognitive load theory. Future directions concerning anthropomorphism research in the multimedia learning context are addressed in this paper.
... The present study also builds on the emerging research base on what has been called emotional design, i.e., examining the role of instructional design features that convey emotion (Loderer et al., 2020;Mayer, 2020b;Pawar et al., 2019;Plass & Kaplan, 2016). In a set of groundbreaking studies, Plass et al. (2014) and Um et al. (2012) added emotional design components into a computer-based lesson on immunization in order to understand how learners react. In both studies, students learned better when the characters in the lesson were more emotionally appealing, i.e., displayed in warm colors (rather than gray) and with rounded faces and bodies (rather than square ones). ...
... The final-and most educationally important step-is that the emotional tone of the instructor affects the learning outcome, that is, the learner builds a better understanding of the material with a positive instructor than with a negative instructor. This statement reflects a tobe-tested research hypothesis rather than an established fact, but is consistent with much of the research base on emotional design (Mayer & Estrella, 2014;Mayer, 2020a;Plass & Kalyuga, 2019;Plass & Kaplan, 2016;Plass et al., 2014;Um et al., 2012). ...
... Designing lessons with positive emotion applies to computer-based learning from instructional video, because even in a video lecture, the emotional tone of the instructor affects learning processes and outcomes. Displaying positive emotion in video lectures can be seen as a form of emotional design (Loderer et al., 2020;Mayer & Estrella, 2014;Mayer, 2020b;Plass & Kaplan, 2016;Plass et al., 2014;Um et al., 2012). ...
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The positivity principle states that people learn better from instructors who display positive emotions rather than negative emotions. In two experiments, students viewed a short video lecture on a statistics topic in which an instructor stood next to a series of slides as she lectured and then they took either an immediate test (Experiment 1) or a delayed test (Experiment 2). In a between-subjects design, students saw an instructor who used her voice, body movement, gesture, facial expression, and eye gaze to display one of four emotions while lecturing: happy (positive/active), content (positive/passive), frustrated (negative/active), or bored (negative/passive). First, learners were able to recognize the emotional tone of the instructor in an instructional video lecture, particularly by more strongly rating a positive instructor as displaying positive emotions and a negative instructor as displaying negative emotions (in Experiments 1 and 2). Second, concerning building a social connection during learning, learners rated a positive instructor as more likely to facilitate learning, more credible, and more engaging than a negative instructor (in Experiments 1 and 2). Third, concerning cognitive engagement during learning, learners reported paying more attention during learning for a positive instructor than a negative instructor (in Experiments 1 and 2). Finally, concerning learning outcome, learners who had a positive instructor scored higher than learners who had a negative instructor on a delayed posttest (Experiment 2) but not an immediate posttest (Experiment 1). Overall, there is evidence for the positivity principle and the cognitive-affective model of e-learning from which it is derived.
... It included fill-in-the-blank questions (e.g., the hardest mineral found in nature is ____), true or false questions (e.g., sand is a kind of rock), and picture recognition questions (the pictures included in this section can be found in Supplementary Materials), with a total of 18 points; the higher the score, the better the knowledge retention. The transfer test was designed to test students' understanding of the content and its application to the knowledge [22]. The answers to the questions could not be found directly from the video materials. ...
... We found no significant difference in motivation and satisfaction between the two groups, which is contrary to a previous study. It was confirmed that students' enjoyment of learning positively correlated with their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation [22], whereas correlations for boredom with motivation were negative. The lack of significant difference in motivation between both groups is attributable to the way emotions were induced. ...
... We found a significant difference between the two groups in the transfer test, and the experimental group performed better in the transfer test, which is consistent with a previous study. Um et al. [22] showed that external induction of positive emotions did not enhance retention but did improve transfer. Moreover, Politis and Houtz [39] also found that participants who in the positive emotion condition were significantly more fluent when solving creative problem than those who watched the neutral video. ...
Article
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Emotions exist widely in the entire process of learning and affect students’ motivation as well as academic performance. In multimedia learning, academics usually focus on the impact of teachers’ emotions or the emotional design of multimedia learning materials on students’ emotions and learning results. Few studies have investigated how to enhance learning by regulating students’ pre-learning emotions. This study focused on whether playing funny videos before learning could promote students’ positive emotions to enhance their motivation, satisfaction, and learning outcomes. We randomly divided 81 elementary school students into two groups: experimental group and control group. While the experimental group watched funny video clips, the control group watched neutral video clips before starting the video learning. The experimental group had more positive pre-learning emotions than the control group. After the course, the emotion of the experimental group declined while that of the control group enhanced. However, positive pre-learning emotions still promoted students’ understanding and transfer of learning materials. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between the two groups in learning motivation, satisfaction, and retention tests. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the causes of the experimental results and discussed the insights for teaching.
... So far, however, ARCS has mainly been applied in e-learning environments (Zander & Heidig, 2019). Multimedia learning theories involving motivational aspects are the Cognitive-Affective Social Theory of Learning with Multimedia (CASTLM; Beege, 2019;Stiller et al., 2020) and Emotional Design (Um et al., 2012;Heidig et al., 2015;Plass & Kalyuga, 2019;Stark et al., 2018;Endres et al., 2020). CASTLM expanded Mayer's (2014b) CTML (cf. ...
... Consequently, both multimedia learning theories are relevant theoretical contributions for this thesis. Both empirical work (Um et al., 2012;Plass et al., 2013;Mayer & Estrella, 2014;Park et al., 2015;Heidig et al., 2015;Knörzer et al., 2016;Endres et al., 2020) and a recent meta-study (Wong & Adesope, 2020) have revealed positive effects of visually appealing design parameters on learners' situational interest, retention, transfer, comprehension, intrinsic motivation, mental effort, and liking of the learning materials, as well as reducing the perceived difficulty of the learning tasks. Empirical evidence examining emotional design effects and theoretical models, such as ARCS helps in understanding which image characteristics may promote attention, motivation, and learning. ...
... The present thesis employs a summative within-subject study design. Therefore, the sample size of 58 is considered adequate, which is supported by empirical evidence (Um et al., 2012;Eitel et al., 2013;Bojko, 2014;Eitel, 2016;Knörzer et al., 2016;Oberfoell & Correia, 2016;Zander et al., 2017;Schneider et al., 2018;Arndt et al., 2019;Seufert, 2019;Stárková & Brom, 2019). The sample size is also adequate regarding the applied statistical method, given that a prerequisite for conducting a factor analysis is the availability of approximately triple as many data sets (58) compared to the identified variables (20) (Backhaus et al., 2015(Backhaus et al., , 2016. ...
Thesis
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This cumulative doctoral thesis, consisting of three papers and the present contextualizing paper, investigates which paramters of Geography textbook visuals (photos, graphics, maps) affect learners’ visual attention and visual information selection when completing tasks. It aims to identify relevant parameters of learning-effective and motivating images in Geography textbooks. The theoretical framework is based on a structured, multidisciplinary literature review. Theories and empirical evidence from Geography (Education), Design, Educational Psychology, and Media Studies were used to develop a theoretical model of ‘well-designed’ Geography textbook images that includes six usability qualities, namely usefulness, interest, aesthetics, orientation, helpfulness, and comprehensibility (paper 1). These usability parameters were confirmed by factor analysis (paper 2). The developed theoretical model served to examine the image usability of Geography textbook visuals and their associated potential to support geographical knowledge construction. An eye-tracking study (papers 2 & 3) and follow-up questionnaire built on the theoretical model investigated how learners visually interact with photos, graphics, and maps depicted in Geography textbooks while processing learning tasks and how factors like learners’ interest, usability, and task settings affect this process. The sample consisted of 58 lower secondary school students (14–17 years, grades 9–10)–the primary users of such textbooks–and used three original unaltered textbook spreads from three different secondary school Geography textbooks on three different topics (earthquake, rainforest, agriculture) as stimuli. A factor analysis identified four factors relevant to learners’ information selection and visual attention and to discontinuous text during task processing, namely usability, text preference, image preference, and individual interest in the topic earthquake. Usability explained the largest proportion of variance and was thus interpreted as most relevant, while individual interest in Geography-related topics and preferred media played a smaller role (paper 2). Overall, the study confirms the importance of textbook visuals and the crucial role of image parameters for the construction of geographic knowledge. Participants who integrated relevant images in task completion were more successful than those who skipped them (paper 3). The questionnaire evaluation revealed that learners consider photos, graphics and maps to be relevant for their knowledge construction using Geography textbooks. However, participants prioritized their visual attention to continous and discontinous text according to perceived usability. Thus, usability is a critical factor in whether learners pay visual attention to textbook illustrations since usability determines whether learners pay attention to a resource. Therefore, textbook images must be accessible, relevant, and useful in order to be beneficial. Consequently, well-designed Geography textbook images can shape geographical knowledge construction. However, the study revealed that the pedagogical, design and content-related integration of picture and continuous text information in current Geography textbooks has room for improvement and that participants faced several difficulties using images to complete tasks. The insights from this study may help researchers, Geography teachers, and textbook authors to develop concepts and strategies that target learning challenges with Geography textbook images and support knowledge construction through visuals.
... It has already been proven that the use of different learning design features impacts learners' emotions and cognitive load (Um et al., 2012;Mayer and Estrella, 2014;Plass et al., 2014Plass et al., , 2020Park et al., 2015). In our previous study (Liu et al., 2021), we tested the effectiveness of color coding on the learning of computer programming students who were learning from video lectures. ...
... The emotional design hypothesis suggests that learning material with color effects is a positive emotional design, while grayscale material has a neutral emotional design. Positive emotion design can reduce cognitive load (Um et al., 2012;Plass et al., 2014;Park et al., 2015). Figure 4 illustrates that the participants who watched the color-coded learning material had lower entropy than those who watched the grayscale learning material. ...
... This study provides further explanation for our previous research (Liu et al., 2021). The color-coded design as a positive emotion design increased germane cognitive load and learning motivation (Um et al., 2012). In addition, learning is compromised when an individual's emotional diversity and emotional experience intensity are below optimal levels (Pekrun, 2006;Pekrun and Stephens, 2010). ...
Article
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We aimed to investigate the relationship between emotional activity and cognitive load during multimedia learning from an emotion dynamics perspective using electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Using a between-subjects design, 42 university students were randomly assigned to two video lecture conditions (color-coded vs. grayscale). While the participants watched the assigned video, their EEG signals were recorded. After processing the EEG signals, we employed the correlation-based feature selector (CFS) method to identify emotion-related subject-independent features. We then put these features into the Isomap model to obtain a one-dimensional trajectory of emotional changes. Next, we used the zero-crossing rate (ZCR) as the quantitative characterization of emotional changes ZCREC. Meanwhile, we extracted cognitive load-related features to analyze the degree of cognitive load (CLI). We employed a linear regression fitting method to study the relationship between ZCREC and CLI. We conducted this study from two perspectives. One is the frequency domain method (wavelet feature), and the other is the non-linear dynamic method (entropy features). The results indicate that emotional activity is negatively associated with cognitive load. These findings have practical implications for designing video lectures for multimedia learning. Learning material should reduce learners’ cognitive load to keep their emotional experience at optimal levels to enhance learning.
... Therefore, research on emotional design aims to artificially evoke positive emotions in learners through the provision of emotional design features. Building on the pioneering work of Um et al. [72], the features color [e.g., 54,72] and facial anthropomorphisms in non-human graphical elements [e.g., 54,64] have been widely investigated [7,78]. In fact, two recent meta-analyses revealed significant effects of emotional designscompared to neutral designs (i.e., colorless; no facial anthropomorphisms) -on intrinsic motivation, liking/enjoyment, positive affect, and on learning performance [7,78]. ...
... Therefore, research on emotional design aims to artificially evoke positive emotions in learners through the provision of emotional design features. Building on the pioneering work of Um et al. [72], the features color [e.g., 54,72] and facial anthropomorphisms in non-human graphical elements [e.g., 54,64] have been widely investigated [7,78]. In fact, two recent meta-analyses revealed significant effects of emotional designscompared to neutral designs (i.e., colorless; no facial anthropomorphisms) -on intrinsic motivation, liking/enjoyment, positive affect, and on learning performance [7,78]. ...
Article
Interest in science topics is an important prerequisite for science learning and achievement. Here, as part of a field experiment, we studied whether teenagers’ interest and learning of physics topics would be influenced by the aesthetics of a multimedia learning app. More specifically, we investigated with the example of learning about energy (types of power plants) how different interface designs of a multimedia learning app would influence aesthetic experience, interest, and learning outcome. In our study Swiss high school students (N = 108) were assigned to one of two conditions (i.e., game-style vs. industrial-style) differing in various aesthetic features. Results indicate that high-quality interfaces support learning and expressive aesthetic design features additionally foster interest in order to engage with the topic. Moreover, our findings on aesthetic experience suggest that deep perceptual processes, such as emotion and cognitive stimulation induced by interfaces, further impact interest and learning. Thus, our study gives implications for the design of interest-generating and learning-supporting science apps for teenagers and emphasizes the significance to consider aesthetic experience in future research.
... Experimentar emociones positivas durante el proceso de aprendizaje puede mejorar los resultados de los estudiantes, ya sea directamente o a través de otras variables como el interés y la motivación (Pekrun et al., 2011;Um et al., 2012). Las emociones positivas pueden ser inducidas a través de la calidad del diseño del material de aprendizaje, considerando la estética, la composición, el color y el sonido (Um et al., 2012). ...
... Experimentar emociones positivas durante el proceso de aprendizaje puede mejorar los resultados de los estudiantes, ya sea directamente o a través de otras variables como el interés y la motivación (Pekrun et al., 2011;Um et al., 2012). Las emociones positivas pueden ser inducidas a través de la calidad del diseño del material de aprendizaje, considerando la estética, la composición, el color y el sonido (Um et al., 2012). La combinación de un estado emocional positivo y un entorno de aprendizaje bien diseñado influencian los movimientos oculares de los alumnos e inducen a mejores resultados de aprendizaje (Park et al., 2015). ...
... Experimentar emociones positivas durante el proceso de aprendizaje puede mejorar los resultados de los estudiantes, ya sea directamente o a través de otras variables como el interés y la motivación (Pekrun et al., 2011;Um et al., 2012). Las emociones positivas pueden ser inducidas a través de la calidad del diseño del material de aprendizaje, considerando la estética, la composición, el color y el sonido (Um et al., 2012). ...
... Experimentar emociones positivas durante el proceso de aprendizaje puede mejorar los resultados de los estudiantes, ya sea directamente o a través de otras variables como el interés y la motivación (Pekrun et al., 2011;Um et al., 2012). Las emociones positivas pueden ser inducidas a través de la calidad del diseño del material de aprendizaje, considerando la estética, la composición, el color y el sonido (Um et al., 2012). La combinación de un estado emocional positivo y un entorno de aprendizaje bien diseñado influencian los movimientos oculares de los alumnos e inducen a mejores resultados de aprendizaje (Park et al., 2015). ...
... Experimentar emociones positivas durante el proceso de aprendizaje puede mejorar los resultados de los estudiantes, ya sea directamente o a través de otras variables como el interés y la motivación (Pekrun et al., 2011;Um et al., 2012). Las emociones positivas pueden ser inducidas a través de la calidad del diseño del material de aprendizaje, considerando la estética, la composición, el color y el sonido (Um et al., 2012). ...
... Experimentar emociones positivas durante el proceso de aprendizaje puede mejorar los resultados de los estudiantes, ya sea directamente o a través de otras variables como el interés y la motivación (Pekrun et al., 2011;Um et al., 2012). Las emociones positivas pueden ser inducidas a través de la calidad del diseño del material de aprendizaje, considerando la estética, la composición, el color y el sonido (Um et al., 2012). La combinación de un estado emocional positivo y un entorno de aprendizaje bien diseñado influencian los movimientos oculares de los alumnos e inducen a mejores resultados de aprendizaje (Park et al., 2015). ...
... Experimentar emociones positivas durante el proceso de aprendizaje puede mejorar los resultados de los estudiantes, ya sea directamente o a través de otras variables como el interés y la motivación (Pekrun et al., 2011;Um et al., 2012). Las emociones positivas pueden ser inducidas a través de la calidad del diseño del material de aprendizaje, considerando la estética, la composición, el color y el sonido (Um et al., 2012). ...
... Experimentar emociones positivas durante el proceso de aprendizaje puede mejorar los resultados de los estudiantes, ya sea directamente o a través de otras variables como el interés y la motivación (Pekrun et al., 2011;Um et al., 2012). Las emociones positivas pueden ser inducidas a través de la calidad del diseño del material de aprendizaje, considerando la estética, la composición, el color y el sonido (Um et al., 2012). La combinación de un estado emocional positivo y un entorno de aprendizaje bien diseñado influencian los movimientos oculares de los alumnos e inducen a mejores resultados de aprendizaje (Park et al., 2015). ...
... Experimentar emociones positivas durante el proceso de aprendizaje puede mejorar los resultados de los estudiantes, ya sea directamente o a través de otras variables como el interés y la motivación (Pekrun et al., 2011;Um et al., 2012). Las emociones positivas pueden ser inducidas a través de la calidad del diseño del material de aprendizaje, considerando la estética, la composición, el color y el sonido (Um et al., 2012). ...
... Experimentar emociones positivas durante el proceso de aprendizaje puede mejorar los resultados de los estudiantes, ya sea directamente o a través de otras variables como el interés y la motivación (Pekrun et al., 2011;Um et al., 2012). Las emociones positivas pueden ser inducidas a través de la calidad del diseño del material de aprendizaje, considerando la estética, la composición, el color y el sonido (Um et al., 2012). La combinación de un estado emocional positivo y un entorno de aprendizaje bien diseñado influencian los movimientos oculares de los alumnos e inducen a mejores resultados de aprendizaje (Park et al., 2015). ...
... Parmi les émotions primaires, la joie est un marqueur de la confiance (Bewsell, 2012) et le dégoût est un marqueur fort de la méfiance (Kugler et al., 2020). Les émotions, en raison de leur importance pour le caractère adaptatif des êtres humains et de leur présence dans un grand nombre de situations, sont essentielles dans le processus d'apprentissage (Um et al., 2012). En effet, ces auteurs mettent en avant la possibilité que les émotions positives aient un effet positif sur l'apprentissage -voir aussi (Pekrun et al., 2002). ...
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RÉSUMÉ • Dans cette étude, nous nous sommes intéressés à l'impact de la confiance et de l'émotion sur une situation d'apprentissage médiatisé par ordinateur. À travers une version modifiée du « Jeu de la Confiance », nous avons comparé deux types d'environnement (Confiant vs Méfiant) afin de déterminer si les processus de décision mis en oeuvre tiennent compte de cette variable contextuelle ou dépendent uniquement du niveau initial de confiance des participants, habituellement désigné sous les termes de confiance généralisée (CG). Des données de nature différente ont été collectées durant la réalisation de la tâche. La confrontation de ces différentes données permet de révéler l'importance de la qualité intrinsèque de l'environnement en matière de confiance et seulement un effet secondaire de la CG. Ces résultats ouvrent ainsi la voie à des recherches futures qui devront creuser le lien entre confiance et émotion. MOTS-CLÉS • Apprentissage, confiance, émotion, prise de décision. ABSTRACT • In this study, we examine the impact of trust and emotion on a computer-mediated learning situation. Through a modified version of the « Trust Game », we compared two types of environment (Trustful vs Distrustful) in order to determine whether the decision-making processes vary as a function of this contextual factor or depend on the individuals' initial trust level solely. Several measures were collected while participants were performing the task. Overall, this study highlights the importance of the intrinsic quality of the environment in terms of trust and only a minor effect of individuals' initial trust level. Thus, these results provide promising lines for future research with the need to deepen our understanding of the link between trust and emotion. KEYWORDS • Learning, trust, emotion, decision-making.
... A mudança repentina do ensino presencial para o remoto, junto à própria pandemia, influencia o estado emocional dos alunos (Tyng, Amin, Saad & Malik, 2017). Essas emoções são processos psiconeurais capazes de modular ações e respostas a estímulos externos, regulando e modulando diversos aspectos da cognição (Dolcos, Iordan & Dolcos, 2011;Jung, Wranke, Hamburger & Knauff, 2014;Okon-Singer, Hendler, Pessoa & Shakman, 2015;Phelps, 2004;Schupp et al., 2007;Um et al., 2012;Vuilleumier, 2005). Tanto as emoções quanto a cognição são necessários à sobrevivência humana, sendo processos e sistemas separados que estão intimamente integrados (Tyng et al., 2017). ...
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No ano de 2020, iniciou-se uma emergência de saúde pública mundial. A fim de frear a transmissão do SARS CoV-2, foram aplicadas medidas de distanciamento social, que reduziram o contato interpessoal e deflagraram mudanças profundas em comportamentos relacionados à interação social. Os sistemas educacionais ao redor do mundo têm se adaptado a esta nova realidade, adotando protocolos emergenciais caracterizados, em grande parte, pela substituição das atividades presenciais pelas virtuais. O objetivo deste artigo é dialogar sobre os impactos do distanciamento social no ensino superior através de uma abordagem neurofisiológica, conectando estresse, empatia e o contexto histórico do ensino emergencial quando comparado ao Ensino à Distância, além das ferramentas à nossa disposição e as complexidades do ambiente virtual. Os professores devem estar conscientes do impacto do estresse e do uso de ferramentas digitais e de ensino à distância na formação dos estudantes, buscando formas responsáveis de passar por este momento histórico e estratégias para lidar eficientemente com os desafios no ensino evocados pela pandemia.
... Emotion was found to be related to attention and engagement (Ballenghein, Megalakaki, & Baccino, 2019;Meinhardt & Pekrun, 2003;Yiend, Barnicot, Williams, & Fox, 2018), perception (Pourtois, Schettino, & Vuilleumier, 2013), reward motivation (Padmala, Sambuco, & Pessoa, 2019), and memory (Schweizer et al., 2019). Recent evidence showed that emotion also plays a role in learning, such as learning in academic settings (Mayer, 2019), and multimedia learning (Um, Plass, Hayward, & Homer, 2012). To expand our knowledge on the role of emotion in experimental settings and learning intervention, this study examined the relationship between emotion and learning outcome in a large-scale, e-learning intervention study in educational settings. ...
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This registered study aimed at testing the role of emotion in the intervention effect of an experimental intervention study in academic settings. Previous analyses of the National Study of the Learning Mindset (Yeager et al., 2019) showed that in a randomized controlled trial, high school students who were given the growth mindset intervention had, on average higher GPA than did students in the control condition. Previous analyses also showed that school achievement levels moderated the intervention effect. This study applied a sentence-level text analysis strategy to detect participants' attentional focus in five emotional dimensions (valence, arousal, dominance/control, approach-avoidant, and uncertainty) across three writing prompts students wrote during the intervention. Linear mixed models were conducted to test if emotional dimension scores computed using the text analysis predicted a higher intervention effect (i.e., higher post-intervention GPA given pre-intervention GPA). The moderating role of school achievement levels was also examined. The results of this study have implications on the possibility of applying text analysis strategies on open-ended questions in interventions or experimental studies to examine the role of the emotion-attentional focus of participants during intervention or experimental studies on the intervention or experimental outcomes, especially those that are conducted in academic settings.
... An emotional connection to the course material is also accomplished through the use of a variety of teaching tools encouraging a high level of interaction. Positive emotions can enhance learning through improved motivation and satisfaction while reducing the perceived difficulty of the material (Um, Plass, Hayward, & Homer, 2012). When the pandemic worsened and university courses went online, the sudden shift created student anxiety, and the related concerns became apparent in the new virtual classroom. ...
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Sense of place (SOP) postulates that individuals develop bonds and connections with their physical environment. Higher education students develop an SOP with their peers, professors, classrooms, and campus. However, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, in-person classes have been replaced with remote learning. Faculty and students have been forced to adapt to online instruction by implementing video conferences and email. Adapting to their changing environment and creating a new comfortable SOP can be a challenge given that remote learning requires the utilization of technology. Equally important with technology is the sense of community and humanism that faculty must create to make remote learning fruitful. The COVID-19 pandemic required faculty to create an SOP that can be developed and adjusted during times of crisis and virtual learning. While the faculty focused on maintaining connections in the virtual classroom, students used technology to create social networks. Online learning requires a place for community and socialization to ensure student attachments and values are supported to maintain motivation and feelings of self-efficacy. Creating a classroom SOP requires faculty to use symbolism to reflect the outside world and keep students immersed in the digital environment. The COVID-19 pandemic offers faculty time to better understand SOP in higher education and how it can enhance learning for students.
... More specifically, if students know how to tap into positive emotions, are capable of experiencing flow, proficient in cultivating positive relationships, engaging in activities bigger than themselves, and identifying clear goals, they can learn better and, therefore, be academically successful. More specifically, positive emotions broaden the scope of attention [17], induce efficiency in decision making, affect cognition, and increase learning outcomes [35]. In general, researches have shown that students with positive well-being are more likely to perform better and complete their studies [11,39]. ...
... Finally, SR tool development can take an emotional-design approach because positive emotional design can influence learning (Mayer & Estrella, 2014;Miller, 2011;Um et al., 2012). The process of citation screening is a learning process in which reviewers update their knowledge about the research topic and try to make an accurate decision. ...
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Systematic reviews are widely used in evidence‐based medicine. Conducting a systematic review requires intensive mental efforts, especially during the study screening process. This challenge has motivated the development of intelligent software. This study examined and compared the performance, workload, and user experience of two systematic review tools – Colandr with Artificial Intelligence (AI) features and Covidence without AI features by conducting a mixed‐method usability study. The results showed that reviewers had higher precision in citation screening using Colandr than using Covidence. However, the user experience with Colandr was not optimal due to problems in its user interface design. Therefore, we suggest that the design and development of AI‐enabled SR software emphasize the usability of the interface and apply user‐centered design principles.
... At present, very little is known about motivational processes in retrieval practice (Kang & Pashler, 2014), besides the fact that learners often underestimate benefits of retrieval and prefer other study strategies (Bjork et al., 2013;Karpicke & Roediger, 2008). However, the emotional design of learning materials (Plass & Kaplan, 2016), for example, the choice of colors and shapes, can elevate learners' affective-motivational state and enhance learning (e.g., Mayer & Estrella, 2014;Um et al., 2012; for overviews, see Brom et al., 2018;Plass & Kaplan, 2016). Adding images to learning materials has been shown to induce more positive mood, higher alertness, higher satisfaction, and reduce the perceived difficulty of the learning materials (e.g., Lenzner et al., 2013;Sung & Mayer, 2012). ...
... In "emotional design", "emotions" are the individual's judgments about the world. These judgments refer to the reactions and interactions that the individual produces when stimulated [15,21,38,51,[53][54][55]70]. In 2004, Norman [51] presented the theory of emotional design, thinking that how to stimulate positive and negative emotions when interacting with the design is very important. ...
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With the advancement of technology and the spread of the COVID19 epidemic, learning can no longer only be done through face-to-face teaching. Numerous digital learning materials have appeared in large numbers, changing people’s learning mode. In the era of information explosion, how to capture the learners’ attention to teaching videos and improve learning effectiveness is the common goal of every designer of e-leaning teaching content. Previous researches focused on the analysis of learning effectiveness and satisfaction. Instructional designers only provided design elements with high learning effectiveness or high satisfaction, and lacked in-depth analysis of the learners’ perspectives. The opinions of these e-learning users are often the key to the success of online teaching videos. Therefore, this study aims at the design elements that will be used in the teaching film. The operation mode of the piano mechanism will be employed as the content of the teaching film. Based on eight elements including arrow cueing, dynamic arrow cueing, spreading-color cueing, contrary to cueing, font style, color application, anthropomorphic, and audiovisual complementarity, we use Refined Kano Model to analyze learners’ needs of categorization of each element, and discover learners’ expectations for teaching videos. In addition, this study also conducts in-depth data analysis through decision trees algorithm, and stratification analyses using different variables (such as design expertise, using frequency, and usage experience, etc.) to find out the key design factors that affect learners’ learning. Depending on the learner’s background, the use of e-learning experience, using frequency, and the length of the learning video, our results could provide for reference when designing teaching videos. Instructional designers can better understand how to effectively use design elements, so that the teaching videos can achieve the best learning effect.
... Numerous studies have thus referred to affective computing or affective modeling (Makransky and Lilleholt, 2018;Yadegaridehkordi et al., 2019). Positive affect enhances teaching motivation, beliefs, technology adoption, and class performance and is also related to specific cognitive processes, such as information processing, communication processes, negotiation processes, decision management, classification tasks, and creative activity settings (Um et al., 2012), while negative affect acts in the opposite way. Positive affect makes individuals select effective information fragments from their long-term memory and combine them with previous knowledge (Mayer and Estrella, 2014). ...
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Preservice teachers' preparedness, perception, and affect toward certain technology systems influence the student acquisition of science knowledge, process skills, teaching innovation, and willingness to use technology in their classroom. The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' affective responses to a virtual reality-enabled scientific experiment (VaSE) system. Fifty-one preservice teachers majoring in educational technology participated in the study. They were divided into two groups, and their reactions were measured separately on two occasions. The first occasion used a standard system following the principle of Donald Norman's affective design model (ADM). The VaSE system was then revised with a strict version of ADM before the participants' reactions were measured for a second time. The positive and negative affect scale (PANAS) was utilized for affective state evaluation. Semi-structured interviews that focused on affective experiences were organized using an ADM framework and conducted immediately after the participants used VaSE. The results indicated that the positive affect experienced by the preservice teachers was significantly enhanced, and the negative affect was significantly weakened. Academic level, gender, and prior experience were important random effect factors that impacted the affective experience. It was also revealed that participants were more likely to be affected by immersion and interactivity in terms of enhancing positive affect and were more likely to be affected by behavioral layer elements in terms of weakening negative affect. A conclusion has been drawn to provide theoretical and practical suggestions for training preservice teachers in ways that improve their ability to integrate technology into the classroom.
... In the educational field, emotional design has also left a positive impact. Due to recent studies, educational environments can be designed according to emotional design so that they can evoke positive feelings, which leads to better learning (Eunjoon et al. 2012). ...
Article
This research investigates differences in visual form perception of products in individualist and collectivist societies to help designers and market analysts design products according to their users’ formal preferences. This study was conducted in two phases. First, five visual form types were selected out of 500 samples by design expertise for the test: geometric, organic, complex, simple, and symbolic forms. Second, three groups of American (highly individualist), German (individualist), and Iranian (collectivist) were selected based on their cultural dimensions. We developed Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) with the emotions to focus solely on limiting emotions. Since the emotions were in two opposite spectrums, four emotions were considered as positive and the next four emotions as negative. ANOVA was conducted for normally distributed data and Kruskal–Wallis test for non-normal data. The results of this research showed that people with different cultural dimensions have different reactions, feelings, and preferences to products with different formal features. While individualists embrace geometric, simple, and symbolic forms, collectivists prefer organic forms most. The complex form is rejected by all three groups. This research extends our knowledge about cultural differences and provides a very critical tool for designers to design their products according to their users’ emotions.
... That is, tasks with game elements can be perceived as less effortful or less strenuous than tasks without game elements present [3]. This argument relies on the assumption that cognitive resource allocation is flexible and can be influenced by ones motivational and emotional state [62,65,79]. This potential link between subjective experience of effort and emotions might further suggest that subjective effort might also be reflected in users' facial or even bodily features during task execution. ...
Article
Users' emotional engagement in a task is important for performance and motivation. Non-intrusive, computerized process measures of engagement have the potential to provide fine-grained access to underlying affective states and processes. Thus, the current work brings together subjective measures (questionnaires) and objective process measures (facial expressions and head movements) of emotions to examine users' emotional engagement with respect to the absence or presence of game-elements. In particular, we randomly assigned 156 adult participants to either a spatial working memory task with or without game elements present, while their faces and head movements were recorded with a webcam during task execution. Positive and negative emotions were assessed before the task and twice during task execution using conventional questionnaires. We additionally examined whether perceived subjective effort, assumed to inherit a substantial affective component, manifests at a bodily expressive level alongside positive and negative emotions. Importantly, we explored the relationship between subjective and objective measures of emotions across the two tasks versions. We found a series of action units and head movements associated with the subjective experience of emotions as well as to subjective effort. Impacted by game elements, these associations often fit intuitively or lined up with findings from literature. As did a linear increase of blink (action unit 45) intensity relate to participants performing the task without game elements, presumably indicating disengagement in the more tedious task variant. On other occasions, associations between subjective and objective measures seemed indiscriminative or even contraindicated. Additionally, facial and bodily reactions and the resulting subjective-objective correspondences were rather consistent within, but not between the two task versions. Our work therefore both gains detailed access to automated emotion recognition and promotes its feasibility within research of game elements while highlighting the individuality and context dependency of emotional expressions.
... Although emotions associated to colors are highly individual depending on one's preferences and experiences (Kaya and Epps, 2004), general statements on emotions related to particular colors can be made. Overall, warm colors, as those used in the game Moss (Polyarc, 2018), elicit arousal and excitement but are also perceived as inviting (Bellizi and Hite, 1992;Um et al., 2012;Kennedy, 2014;Edge, 2018). Yellow induces joy and optimistic expectations (Valdez and Mehrabian, 1994;Kennedy, 2014). ...
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Virtual environments (VEs) can evoke and support emotions, as experienced when playing emotionally arousing games. We theoretically approach the design of fear and joy evoking VEs based on a literature review of empirical studies on virtual and real environments as well as video games’ reviews and content analyses. We define the design space and identify central design elements that evoke specific positive and negative emotions. Based on that, we derive and present guidelines for emotion-inducing VE design with respect to design themes, colors and textures, and lighting configurations. To validate our guidelines in two user studies, we 1) expose participants to 360° videos of VEs designed following the individual guidelines and 2) immerse them in a neutral, positive and negative emotion-inducing VEs combining all respective guidelines in Virtual Reality. The results support our theoretically derived guidelines by revealing significant differences in terms of fear and joy induction.
... Positive emotions can stimulate social and emotional well-being and personal growth (Um et al., 2012). Human-centred approaches can employ participatory design and ABMs to inspire and guide participants to reflect on their own lives, here with the aim of stimulating alternative strategies and ideas for their futures (Friedland & Yamauchi, 2011). ...
Chapter
This chapter draws on two workshops carried out with a group of Anangu Aboriginal artists and the Fibrespace Incorporated textile artist group in South Australia. The two workshops are part of a two-year project titled ‘Women Living on the Edges of the World’, which is also informally known as ‘Margin to Margin’ (2016–2017). The role of art, storytelling and narrative practice as a means for local empowerment is discussed in this chapter, here by focusing on the front end of social design processes, when artistic and social design methods are used to familiarise the participants, designers, artists or artist-researchers with one another.
... A welldesigned app can elicit positive emotions and arouse curiosity in the child (Wang et al., 2017). Emotional design research has identified ways in which good design properties can promote positive emotions (Norman, 2004;Plass et al., 2014;Um et al., 2012) in users. These design features (Grevisse et al., 2017) may stimulate positive emotional responses such as pleasure, enjoyment (Tuch et al., 2010), and excitement (Chang et al., 2012) as well increase their interest (Heidig et al., 2015) to continue interacting with the app. ...
... For example, according to CVT, the optimal level of challenges and scaffolding in HoloLAB Champions may promote a higher perceived control and value of learning chemistry, and, consequently, induce more positive achievement emotions (e.g., enjoyment) and less negative achievement emotions (e.g., boredom). Thus, game design and instructional design, particularly emotional design, aim to trigger more positive emotions and less negative emotions (Loderer et al., 2020;Plass et al., , 2019, such as using happy expression, warm color, and round shape rather than sad and neutral expression, cold color, and square shape (Park et al., 2015;Plass et al., 2014Plass et al., , 2019Plass & Kaplan, 2015;Um et al., 2012). ...
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Game‐based learning (GBL) may address the unique characteristics of a single subject such as chemistry. Previous systematic reviews on the effects of GBL have yielded contradictory results concerning cognitive and motivational outcomes. This meta‐analysis aims to: (a) estimate the overall effect size of GBL in chemistry education on cognitive, motivational, and emotional outcomes compared with non‐GBL (i.e., media comparison); (b) examine possible moderators of the effects; and (c) identify the more effective game design and instructional design features (i.e., value‐added comparison). We screened 842 articles and included 34 studies. This study is the first GBL meta‐analysis that employed a three‐level random‐effects model for the overall effects. Moderator analysis used a mixed‐effects meta‐regression model. Results from the media comparison suggest chemistry GBL was more effective for cognition (g = 0.70, k = 30, N = 4155), retention (g = 0.59, k = 20, N = 2860), and motivation (g = 0.35, k = 7, N = 974) than non‐GBL and the substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 86%) for cognitive outcomes. No study reported emotional outcomes, and studies considering value‐added comparisons of GBL with versus without specific design features (k = 3) were too few to perform a meta‐analysis. Moderator analyses implied that except for publication source and sample size, no other moderator was related to effect sizes. There may be the small‐study effects, particularly publication bias. Although we conclude that GBL enhances chemistry learning more than non‐GBL, the results also make clear that additional high‐quality value‐added research is needed to identify design guidelines that may further improve chemistry GBL. More GBL meta‐analyses on subjects other than chemistry are also needed. As the first GBL meta‐analysis that emphasizes emotion, we call for more research on emotion and on relationships between cognition, motivation, and emotion in GBL.
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This study examined the impacts of adding emotional design features to a multimedia lesson (color alone, anthropomorphism alone, or color & anthropomorphism together) on college students’ affective processes (measured by ratings of experienced emotion during learning), cognitive processes (measured by eye-tracking metrics), and learning outcomes (measured by retention and transfer test scores). One-hundred students were randomly assigned to watch a short multimedia lesson in one of four conditions: no emotional design, colorful emotional design, anthropomorphism emotional design, and colorful and anthropomorphism emotional design. The study results showed that compared to the no emotional design group, the colorful and anthropomorphism emotional design group showed the higher positive emotion rating (d = .726), the shortest time to first fixation on an emotional design area ( d = - .877), the longest fixation duration on emotional design areas ( d = .640), and the best transfer test score ( d = .679). In contrast, the anthropomorphism emotional design group outperformed the no emotional design group only on rating of positive emotion, and the colorful emotional design group outperformed the no emotional design group only on transfer test score. The results show that two emotional design features are more effective than one in multimedia lessons. A structural equation model indicated that positive emotion (tapping affective processing) and fixation duration (tapping cognitive processing) mediated the pathway from emotional design to learning performance. These results partially support the Cognitive-Affective Model of E-Learning.
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When analyzing learning, focus has traditionally been on the teacher, but has in the recent decades slightly moved toward the learner. This is also reflected when supporting systems, both computer-based and more practical equipment, has been introduced. Seeing learning as an integration of both an internal psychological process of acquisition and elaboration, and an external interaction process between the learner and the rest of the learning environment though, we see the necessity of expanding the vision and taking on a more holistic view to include the whole learning environment. Specially, when introducing an AI (artificial intelligence) system for adapting the learning process to an individual learner through machine learning, this AI system should take into account both the learner and the other agents and artifacts being part of this extended learning system. This paper outlines some lessons learned in a process of developing an electronic textbook adapting to a single learner through machine learning, to the process of extracting input from and providing feedback both to the learner, the teacher, the learning institution, and the learning resources provider based on a XAI (explainable artificial intelligence) system while also taking into account characteristics with respect to the learner's peers.
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Evidence suggests that learning sentiments are inextricably related to cognitive processing, and the exploration of the relationship remains to be an important research topic. This study collected discourse data from 40 college students in online collaborative learning activities. Epistemic network analysis (ENA) was employed to explore the connection between learning sentiments and cognitive processing and compare the ENA network characteristics of the higher- and lower-engagement groups. The results indicated that there was a joint connection between understand-analyze-neutral, and insightful sentiments had more association with neutral sentiments and understanding. Besides, distinctions existed between higher- and lower-engagement groups with respect to the association between learning sentiments and cognitive processing. The higher-engagement group had stronger associations around positive and confused sentiments, while the lower-engagement group had stronger associations around off-topic discussion. The findings of this research may serve as a reference for designing and implementing collaborative learning activities to increase cognitive levels.
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The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of an immersive virtual reality (IVR) science simulation on learning in a higher educational setting, and to assess whether using self-explanation has benefits for knowledge gain. A sample of 79 undergraduate biology students (40 females, 37 males, 2 non-binary) learned about next-generation sequencing using an IVR simulation that lasted approximately 45 minutes. Students were randomly assigned to one of two instructional conditions: self-explanation (n = 41) or control (n = 38). The self-explanation group engaged in a 10 minute written self-explanation task after the IVR biology lesson, while the control group rested. The results revealed that the IVR simulation led to a significant increase in knowledge from the pre- to post-test (ßPosterior = 3.29). There were no differences between the self-explanation and control groups on knowledge gain, procedural, or conceptual transfer. Finally, the results indicate that the self-explanation group reported significantly higher intrinsic cognitive load (ßPosterior= 0.35), and extraneous cognitive load (ßPosterior= 0.37), and significantly lower germane load (ßPosterior= -0.38) than the control group. The results suggest that the IVR lesson was effective for learning, but adding a written self-explanation task did not increase learning after a long IVR lesson.
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This paper introduces a system that enable the collection of relevant data related to the emotional behavior and attention of both student and professor during exams. It exploits facial coding techniques to enable the collection of a large amount of data from the automatic analysis of students and professors faces using video analysis, advanced techniques for gaze tracking based on deep Learning, and technologies and the principles related to the Affective Computing branch derived from the research of Paul Ekman. It provides tools that facilitates the interpretation of the collected data by means of a dashboard. A preliminary experiment has been carried out to investigate whether such a system may help in assessing the evaluation setting and support reflection on the evaluation processes in the light of the different situations, so as to improve the adoption of inclusive approaches. Results suggest that information provided by the proposed system can be helpful in assessing the setting and the evaluation process.
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Nowadays, education is challenged to change its paradigms and to adapt to new online environments and tools. In this context, the role of teachers remains essential in finding relevant contents for developing strong competences, monitoring and evaluating the learning process. Furthermore, it is vital for online education to meet students’ basic psychological needs, such as connecting to others or having the feeling of competence in mastering their learning and becoming self-regulated learners.
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This chapter highlights a strategic faculty development effort to address equity issues when a university campus pivoted to emergency remote instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors describe the development of an online faculty development summer program, ‘Alt-Instruction', targeted to help all campus faculty make the rapid pivot to remote learning, while keeping student equity issues front and center. This COVID-19 program was not designed haphazardly but rather based on years of designing and offering educational development that 1) assumed the necessity for collocating instructional technology support with teaching resources, 2) considered teaching from a student-centered perspective, and 3) anticipated the need to carefully model best practices for faculty. The 2020 Alt-Instruction program, which close to 1,000 faculty participated in, used a highly structured approach to educational development, including the employment of online resources and modeling templates. These contributed to a relatively fast, if unprecedented, campus migration to remote learning.
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In recent years, the digital picture book has been an increasingly important reading and writing medium for children. Research on the effects of digital picture books on learning has produced mixed results. As a potential tool, some researchers found that such books could foster and scaffold for developing emergent literacy in the early childhood education. However, some still have the skeptical attitude toward integrating the technology in picture books. This survey reviews techniques and emotional design that have been applied in picture books. We also compared and discussed different types of picture books.
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Background With the rapid popularization of e‐learning, how to improve online learning has aroused widespread concern. A human‐like pedagogical agent (PA) that displays eye gaze and gestures, is often added to online multimedia lessons to increase social connection and improve learning in e‐learning environments. However, there has been a debate about how PAs affect learning processes and learning outcomes. Objectives Social agency theory holds that learners can build a social connection with PAs, which affects learning processes and outcomes. This study seeks to reveal how PAs influence learning by exploring the influence of PAs on learning outcomes and brain activity during learning. Methods College students viewed a multimedia lesson on the process of chemical synaptic transmission either with or without an embodied PA on the left side of the screen that pointed to the graphic as she lectured. During learning students' brain cortical activity was measured by a functional near‐infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system, and after learning students completed learning outcomes post‐tests. Results and Conclusions Consistent with social agency theory, students learning with a PA performed better on learning outcome tests and showed greater brain activity in the social areas of the brain during learning based on fNIRS measures. Implications By using fNIRS technology, this study provides preliminary new support for the idea that learners engage in social processing during online learning with an embodied PA that leads to improved learning outcomes.
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The COVID-19 pandemic created a natural experiment in which everyone taught and learned online regardless of preference and without the usual months of preparation. The new online participants along with economic, physical and mental health concerns lead to innovations in teaching. We turned to Carello’s (2020) Principles of Trauma-Informed Teaching and Learning (TITL) and Moore’s (1996) Theory of Transactional Distance (TTD) as paradigms to help us chart a course forward. We explore the principles of TITL through illustrative examples from our blended learning courses and share qualitative insights for teaching in the postpandemic world.
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This paper presents a study about using colors in maps that present information related to the Covid-19 pandemic. A sample was collected from two different governmental websites of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. An analysis framework was developed based on the sample and drew from a literature review about the use of colors and maps in data visualization. The analysis showed that one of the examples collected presents an inconsistent use of colors, which could prompt difficulties in visualizing the data; the other example uses color more consistently, potentially being more effective in communicating information. In addition, the study showed potential for continuity and expansion due to the relevance of information design applied to health information.
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Online learning has become desirable for many students. In the U.S., more than one-third of all enrolled students participate in at least one online course [13]. The most effective online learning environments allow students to work at their own pace, from any location, at any time, and to receive automated feedback. In light of these benefits and the likely protracted impact of the current public health crisis, the trend toward online learning is likely to increase.
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Creativity is an increasingly recognized construct in technology-enhanced learning. However, our understanding of how creativity interacts with the design of online learning environments to affect learning experiences is still limited. For example, do creative students benefit from different learning environment designs than those benefitting their less creative peers? This experimental study (N = 187) explores this question by investigating the visual design of a self-paced online learning environment, specifically the degree of visual structure, in relation to students' creativity. Creativity was measured in different ways, along the lines of vocational/study choice, self-reported personality and behavior, and creative production. Students were randomly assigned to either a visually unstructured (experimental group) or a visually highly structured (control group) learning environment. They reported their preference, impulse for activation, and situational motivation after the learning experience. Results indicate interaction effects consistent with the role of creativity in perception and learning. More specifically, creative students reported more motivation after learning in an unstructured environment, whereas non-creative students reported relatively better learning experiences in the highly structured condition. These results contribute to resolving previous conflicting findings from separated studies, yet some ambiguities remain. Results and implications are discussed, and recommendations for future research are laid out.
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How can international relations professors care for students who are facing structural crisis, if we understand “care” as the duties of providing support, assistance, mutual respect, and tools for navigating and confronting disaster, in the context of their instructional duties? What, if anything, can an introduction to a notoriously bleak discipline offer students besieged by unpredictability and death? This chapter investigates the imperatives of care, flexibility, and improvisation that navigating these layered crises requires. Drawing on my own experience and conversations with students who navigated New York during the pandemic, as well as scholarship on care in the classroom, strategies of instruction in crisis zones, and critical and feminist pedagogy, I argue that generosity, carefully paring back to essential learning goals, and emphasizing what international relations can teach us about cooperation, collaboration, mutual aid, and collective restitution are key strategies for helping students learn in crisis.
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Different explanations of color vision favor different philosophical positions: Computational vision is more compatible with objectivism (the color is in the object), psychophysics and neurophysiology with subjectivism (the color is in the head). Comparative research suggests tbat an explanation of color must be both experientialist (unlike objectivism) and ecological (unlike subjectivism). Computational vision's emphasis on optimally "recovering" prespecified features of the environment (i.e., distal properties, independent of the sensory-motor capacities of the animal) is unsatisfactory. Conceiving of visual perception instead as the visual guidance of activity in an environment that is determined largely by that very activity suggests new directions for research.
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In 4 experiments, students who read expository passages with seductive details (i.e., interesting but irrelevant adjuncts) recalled significantly fewer main ideas and generated significantly fewer problem-solving transfer solutions than those who read passages without seductive details. In Experiments 1, 2, and 3, revising the passage to include either highlighting of the main ideas, a statement of learning objectives, or signaling, respectively, did not reduce the seductive details effect. In Experiment 4, presenting the seductive details at the beginning of the passage exacerbated the seductive details effect, whereas presenting the seductive details at the end of the passage reduced the seductive details effect. The results suggest that seductive details interfere with learning by priming inappropriate schemas around which readers organize the material, rather than by distracting the reader or by disrupting the coherence of the passage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Studied the differential effect on training performance, transfer performance, and cognitive load for 3 computer-based training strategies. The conventional, worked, and completion conditions emphasized, respectively, the solving of conventional problems, the study of worked-out problems, and the completion of partly worked-out problems. The relation between practice-problem type and transfer was expected to be mediated by cognitive load. It was hypothesized that practice with conventional problems would require more time and more effort during training and result in lower and more effort-demanding transfer performance than practice with worked-out or partly worked-out problems. With the exception of time and effort during training, the results supported the hypothesis. The completion strategy and, in particular, the worked strategy proved to be superior to the conventional strategy for attaining transfer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A textbook lesson may be made more interesting by promoting emotional interest through adding entertaining text and illustrations or by promoting cognitive interest through adding signals for structural understanding such as summary illustrations with captions. In Experiment 1, skilled readers who read summary text and illustrations about the process of lightning performed worse on retention of important information and on transfer when entertaining text, illustrations, or both were added. In Experiment 2, skilled readers rated entertaining text and illustrations relatively high in emotional interest and low in cognitive interest and rated summary illustrations and text relatively low in emotional interest and high in cognitive interest. The results suggest benefits of cognitive interest over emotional interest for helping students learn scientific explanations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
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in our discussion of emotion and dysfunction, we have intimated that emotions are instructive about persons because both emotions and the personality are organized around the problem of surviving, getting along, and flourishing over the life course begin by addressing the question of what an emotion is / describe our own [the authors'] recent work directed at illuminating what we see as one of the important issues in emotion theory—the role of cognitive appraisal embed this work in a general model of emotion, which identifies the key variables and processes within a systems framework emphasizing person-environment relationships and cognitive mediation illustrate how emotion theory makes firm contact with a variety of topics currently being pursued across diverse psychological disciplines, especially personality and social psychology the adaptational problem and the evolution of emotion / appraisal theory / personality, society, and biology in emotion (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Two experiments examined the processes by which positive mood influences attitude change under high and low message elaboration conditions. To examine elaboration, Exp 1 included individuals who differed in their need for cognition, and Exp 2 manipulated the relevance of the message. In each study, Ss were exposed to a persuasive communication following a positive or neutral mood induction. In both studies, positive mood produced more positive attitudes toward the advocacy, but positive mood influenced the positivity of Ss' thoughts only under high-elaboration conditions. Path analyses showed that positive mood had a direct effect on attitudes in the low-elaboration conditions but influenced attitudes indirectly by modifying the positivity of thoughts in the high-elaboration conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Cet article esquisse les grandes lignes d'une modélisation de l'influence des émotions sur la formation et la réussite des étudiants. De tels effets ont été abordés empiriquement pour ce qui est de l'anxiété due au testing et de l'état d'esprit positif ou négatif. On peut soutenir que bien d'autres émotions agissent sur la performance. L'élaboration d'hypothèses sur ce genre d'influences présuppose qu'elles doivent être médiatisées a) par des mécanismes cognitifs de stockage, de traitement et de restitution de l'information; par l'impact de l'émotion sur l'attention et b) par les motivations intrinsèques et extrinsèques liées au travail universitaire. On fait l'hypothèse que les effets globaux des émotions dépendent de l'intéraction de différents mécanismes. Les effets nets des émotions positives sont supposés être positifs dans la plupart des cas tandis que les effets bruts des émotions négatives peuvent être ambivalents. Les principales retombées sur la recherche en psychologie appliquée sont décrites. This paper outlines assumptions of a model on how emotions influence students' learning and achievement. Such effects have been studied empirically for test anxiety, and for positive vs. negative mood. It may be assumed, however, that many other emotions exert effects on performance as well. Assumptions on such influences imply that they may be mediated: (1) by cognitive mechanisms of storage and retrieval of information, of processing information, and of emotion's attentional demands; and (2) by motivational mechanisms of intrinsic and extrinsic academic task motivation. The overall effects of emotions are hypothesised to depend on the interplay of different mechanisms. The net effects of positive emotions are assumed to be positive in most cases, whereas overall effects of negative emotions may be ambivalent. General implications for applied psychological research are described.
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A theory is proposed that emotions are cognitively based states which co-ordinate quasi-autonomous processes in the nervous system. Emotions provide a biological solution to certain problems of transition between plans, in systems with multiple goals. Their function is to accomplish and maintain these transitions, and to communicate them to ourselves and others. Transitions occur at significant junctures of plans when the evaluation of success in a plan changes. Complex emotions are derived from a small number of basic emotions and arise at junctures of social plans.
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The role that affective states play in learning was investigated from the perspective of a constructivist learning framework. We observed six different affect states (frustration, boredom, flow, confusion, eureka and neutral) that potentially occur during the process of learning introductory computer literacy with AutoTutor, an intelligent tutoring system with tutorial dialogue in natural language. Observational analyses revealed significant relationships between learning and the affective states of boredom, flow and confusion. The positive correlation between confusion and learning is consistent with a model that assumes that cognitive disequilibrium is one precursor to deep learning. The findings that learning correlates negatively with boredom and positively with flow are consistent with predictions from Csikszentmihalyi's analysis of flow experiences.
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At the heart of emotion, mood, and any other emotionally charged event are states experienced as simply feeling good or bad, energized or enervated. These states - called core affect - influence reflexes, perception, cognition, and behavior and are influenced by many causes internal and external, but people have no direct access to these causal connections. Core affect can therefore be experienced as free-floating (mood) or can be attributed to some cause (and thereby begin an emotional episode). These basic processes spawn a broad framework that includes perception of the core-affect-altering properties of stimuli, motives, empathy, emotional meta-experience, and affect versus emotion regulation; it accounts for prototypical emotional episodes, such as fear and anger, as core affect attributed to something plus various nonemotional processes.
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Examined the effect of an experimentally induced mood state on recall of target words embedded in sentences. 160 undergraduates were assigned to 8 conditions in a factorial combination of 2 mood, 2 sentence-type, and 2 retention-interval conditions. The objective was to determine if the induction of a depressed mood would affect output or retrieval from episodic memory. Ss studied a list of either elaborated or base sentences and rated them for complexity in an incidental retention paradigm; this was followed by the induction of a depressed or neutral (control) mood, using a standard and a short form of E. Velten's (1968) mood-induction procedure. Ss were then given an unanticipated cued recall test of the target adjectives. In all tests, Ss showed a reduction in recall owing to the depressed mood, which provided evidence for retrieval effects of the mood state. Elaboration led to superior recall of target items, and there was no effect of delayed recall. Results are discussed within the framework of a resource allocation theory. (15 ref)
Book
Cognitive load theory (CLT) is one of the most important theories in educational psychology, a highly effective guide for the design of multimedia and other learning materials. This edited volume brings together the most prolific researchers from around the world who study various aspects of cognitive load to discuss its current theoretical as well as practical issues. The book is divided into three parts. The first part describes the theoretical foundations and assumptions of CLT, the second discusses the empirical findings about the application of CLT to the design of learning environments, and the third part concludes the book with discussions and suggestions for new directions for future research. It aims to become the standard handbook in CLT for researchers and graduate students in psychology, education, and educational technology.
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The effects of experimentally induced mood states on recall of target words embedded in sentences or alone were examined in three experiments. All experiments focused on the role of a depressed-mood induction on recall and looked at the effects of elaborative encoding, semantic processing, or cognitive effort. The overall effect of the depressed-mood state was to reduce recall in all three situations; however, the opportunity to process information semantically still led to superior recall in the depressed condition. In contrast, the superiority of recall of high-effort items disappeared in the depressed condition, suggesting that subjects may differentially allocate resources when under a depressed-mood state. The results are briefly discussed within the framework of a resource allocation theory. Language: en
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INTRODUCTION The previous chapter outlined the general features of human cognitive architecture relevant to learning. According to this architecture, our schematic knowledge base in long-term memory represents the major critical factor influencing the way we learn new information. In the absence of a relevant knowledge base for a specific situation or task, we apply random search processes to select appropriate actions. Any modifications to our knowledge base for dealing with novel situations occur only under certain restrictive conditions on the amount of such change. Based on these general characteristics of learning within a cognitive load framework, it is possible to formulate general instructional principles that support processes of schema acquisition and enable understanding and learning. This chapter suggests a number of such Cognitive Load Theory (CLT)–generated principles for efficient instruction aimed at acquisition of an organized knowledge base: a direct initial instruction principle, an expertise principle, and a small step-size of change principle. To substantiate these principles, it is necessary first to describe in more detail the concept of schematic knowledge structures and analyze sources of cognitive load that are irrelevant to learning processes. LEARNING AS SCHEMA ACQUISITION Schemas represent knowledge as stable patterns of relationships between elements describing some classes of structures that are abstracted from specific instances and used to categorize such instances. Multiple schemas can be linked together and organized into hierarchical structures.
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In Experiment 1, inexperienced trade apprentices were presented with one of four alternative instructional designs: a diagram with visual text, a diagram with auditory text, a diagram with both visual and auditory text, or the diagram only. An auditory presentation of text proved superior to a visual-only presentation but not when the text was presented in both auditory and visual forms. The diagram-only format was the least intelligible to inexperienced learners. When participants became more experienced in the domain after two specifically designed training sessions, the advantage of a visual diagram-auditory text format disappeared. In Experiment 2, the diagram-only group was compared with the audio-text group after an additional training session. The results were the reverse of those of Experiment 1: The diagram-only group outperformed the audio–text group. Suggestions are made for multimedia instruction that takes learner experience into consideration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
1. Introduction The study of emotion Types of evidence for theories of emotion Some goals for a cognitive theory of emotion 2. Structure of the theory The organisation of emotion types Basic emotions Some implications of the emotions-as-valenced-reactions claim 3. The cognitive psychology of appraisal The appraisal structure Central intensity variables 4. The intensity of emotions Global variables Local variables Variable-values, variable-weights, and emotion thresholds 5. Reactions to events: I. The well-being emotions Loss emotions and fine-grained analyses The fortunes-of-others emotions Self-pity and related states 6. Reactions to events: II. The prospect-based emotions Shock and pleasant surprise Some interrelationships between prospect-based emotions Suspense, resignation, hopelessness, and other related states 7. Reactions to agents The attribution emotions Gratitude, anger, and some other compound emotions 8. Reactions to objects The attraction emotions Fine-grained analyses and emotion sequences 9. The boundaries of the theory Emotion words and cross-cultural issues Emotion experiences and unconscious emotions Coping and the function of emotions Computational tractability.
Article
In 4 experiments, students who read expository passages with seductive details (i.e., interesting but irrelevant adjuncts) recalled significantly fewer main ideas and generated significantly fewer problem-solving transfer solutions than those who read passages without seductive details. In Experiments 1, 2, and 3, revising the passage to include either highlighting of the main ideas, a statement of learning objectives, or signaling, respectively, did not reduce the seductive details effect. In Experiment 4, presenting the seductive details at the beginning of the passage exacerbated the seductive details effect, whereas presenting the seductive details at the end of the passage reduced the seductive details effect. The results suggest that seductive details interfere with learning by priming inappropriate schemas around which readers organize the material, rather than by distracting the reader or by disrupting the coherence of the passage.
Article
Two experiments examined the processes by which positive mood influences attitude change under high and low message elaboration conditions. To examine elaboration, Experiment 1 included individuals who differed in their need for cognition, and Experiment 2 manipulated the relevance of the message. In each study, Ss were exposed to a persuasive communication following a positive or neutral mood induction. In both studies, positive mood produced more positive attitudes toward the advocacy, but positive mood influenced the positivity of Ss' thoughts only under high-elaboration conditions. Path analyses showed that positive mood had a direct effect on attitudes in the low-elaboration conditions but influenced attitudes indirectly by modifying the positivity of thoughts in the high-elaboration conditions.
Article
We describe a brief, convenient, and effective procedure for experimentally inducing mood states in the laboratory that are especially useful in the study of cognition and emotion. The procedure is like that of Velten’s (1968) in that a verbal self-instructional procedure is used to induce a temporary mood state. It differs from Velten’s in that the mood induction items contain current language usage familiar to typical college undergraduates, contain no reference to potential cognitive processing deficits or strategies that may either interfere with or facilitate performance on some criterion cognitive task, contain no reference to suicidal or somatic states, and is briefer than Velten’s procedure in that only 25, rather than 60, items are employed. Validation of the mood induction procedure demonstrated that the induction procedures were effective, as assessed by a depression adjective checklist (DACL), and that the induction of both sad and happy moods produced poorer recall than did a neutral mood control.
Article
This study tested the effects of red and blue in a shopping-related context. Red and blue were selected because of their opposite color properties. Prior color research has shown that red is perceived as negative and tense as well as physically arousing. Blue, on the other hand, has been identified as calm, cool, and positive. Two laboratory experiments were conducted. In both experiments, retail environments were simulated using predominately red or blue colors. Both experiments corroborate the differential effects of red and blue that prior research suggested. Specifically, more positive retail outcomes occurred in blue rather than red environments. More simulated purchases, fewer purchase postponements, and a stronger inclination to shop and browse were found in blue retail environments. The second experiment helps to identify a plausible explanation to color effects. The results indicate that the affective perception of color rather than the arousal dimension of color may be responsible for the outcome. The positive effects of blue and the negative perception of red may have influenced the results. © 1992 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
This study investigated the effects of the nature of music and a concurrent task on measures of task performance and musical preference. Subjects completed 5 laps of a computer motor racing game whilst listening to either arousing or relatively unarousing music in either the presence or absence of a backward-counting task. Both these manipulations affected performance on the game with arousing music and backward-counting leading to slower lap times than relatively unarousing music and the absence of the backward-counting task. Backward-counting led to lower liking for the music than did the absence of this task. These results support the idea that music and the concurrent task competed for a limited processing resource. The results also indicated that liking for the music was positively related to task performance, and in conjunction these findings seem to suggest a direct link between music and the listening context.
Article
Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.
Two studies conducted simultaneously investigated the influence of positive affect on risk taking. Results of the study, which employed an actual measure of subjects' willingness to bet something of value, supported the prediction of an interaction between level of risk and positive affect: subjects who had reason to be feeling elated bet more than control subjects on a low-risk bet, but wagered less than controls on a high-risk bet. At the same time, in contrast, a study involving hypothetical risk-taking showed that in general subjects were more willing to take the chance as probability of success went up; but that elated subjects were more daring than controls on a “long shot.” Differences in hypothetical vs real risk taking were noted, and the complexity (the interaction) of the influence of positive feelings on real risk taking was emphasized. The results were related to other research suggesting an influence of feeling states on cognitive processes and decision making.
Article
Academic emotions have largely been neglected by educational psychology, with the exception of test anxiety. In 5 qualitative studies, it was found that students experience a rich diversity of emotions in academic settings. Anxiety was reported most often, but overall, positive emotions were described no less frequently than negative emotions. Based on the studies in this article, taxonomies of different academic emotions and a self-report instrument measuring students' enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom (Academic Emotions Questionnaire [AEQ]) were developed. Using the AEQ, assumptions of a cognitive-motivational model of the achievement effects of emotions, and of a control/value theory of their antecedents (Pekrun, 1992b, 2000), were tested in 7 cross-sectional, 3 longitudinal, and 1 diary study using samples of university and school students. Results showed that academic emotions are significantly related to students' motivation, learning strategies, cognitive resources, self-regulation, and academic achievement, as well as to personality and classroom antecedents. The findings indicate that affective research in educational psychology should acknowledge emotional diversity in academic settings by addressing the full range of emotions experienced by students at school and university.
Article
This article discusses the research on the relations between achievement goals and develops a conceptual model based on a review of extant literature. The model distinguishes between moods and emotions and the relative roles of perceived classroom goal structures and personal goals. In this article, it is suggested that the relation between achievement goals and affect is asymmetrical and bidirectional. However, given differences in the conceptualization and measurement of affect, the empirical findings are somewhat inconsistent and difficult to interpret in some studies. Thus, there is a clear need for more research on the dynamics of achievement goals and affect in classroom settings.
Article
Students viewed a computer-generated animation depicting the process of lightning formation (Experiment 1) or the operation of a car's braking system (Experiment 2). In each experiment, students received either concurrent narration describing the major steps (Group AN) or concurrent on-screen text involving the same words and presentation timing (Group AT). Across both experiments, students in Group AN outperformed students in Group AT in recalling the steps in the process on a retention test, in finding named elements in an illustration on a matching test, and in generating correct solutions to problems on a transfer test. Multimedia learners can integrate words and pictures more easily when the words are presented auditorily rather than visually. This split-attention effect is consistent with a dual-processing model of working memory consisting of separate visual and auditory channels.
Article
Learning interest plays an important role in the learning process, determining what to learn, and how to learn the chosen information. Based on the distinction between individual interest and situational interest, studies on seductive augmentation have mainly focused on instances in which students interact with a traditional computer screen interface, not with human-like agents. Consequently, the effects of seductive augmentation in an agent supported learning context where instructional messages are mediated by a pedagogical agent are largely unknown. Therefore the purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of seductive augmentation and agent role on learning interest, achievement, and attitude in pedagogical agent supported learning. 127 college undergraduate students enrolled in “Computer literacy” classes at a large public university were randomly assigned to the treatment groups. A two way MANOVA was performed to find the main effect of seductive graphics and seductive messages on learning interest and attitude. In addition, a two-way ANOVA was conducted to examine the effects of seductive graphics and seductive messages on the number of recalled keywords and comprehension test. To find the effect of specific agent role, the companion agent role condition and instructor agent role condition were compared. The results indicated that the use of seductive graphics and seductive messages was effective to improve learner’s attention to the learning material in terms of learning interest, and also learner’s attitude, especially relevance scores. However, no significant difference was found for the recall test and the comprehension test. The two different agent roles did not make any differences on the three dependent variables. The primary contribution of this study is twofold. First, the results of this study illuminate the concept of learning interest as it concerns seductive augmentation. Second, this study generalized the use of seductive augmentation in a multimedia learning context where a pedagogical agent is present. Further research is needed to examine the effects of seductive augmentation in different subject fields. Also the other aspect of situational interest, cognitive interest, needs to be studied since this study only implemented the concept of emotional interest.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes development of the ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model, a method for improving the motivational appeal of instructional materials. Strategies to identify and solve problems with learning motivation are explained, and two case studies are presented that tested the usefulness of the ARCS model in inservice teacher education programs. (LRW)
Article
Die ursächlichen Wechselbeziehungen, die zwischen den Strukturen des Individuums und denjenigen der überindividuellen Gemeinschaft, zwischen dem unter- und dem übergeordneten Systemganzen bestehen, erfahren von ungemein vielen modernen Soziologen und Völkerpsychologen eine eigenartig einseitige Behandlung. Hatte die alte, atomistische Betrachtungsweise in völliger Verkennung des Wesens organischer Systemganzer den Versuch unternommen, das Wesen der Totalität ausschließlich aus der Summe ihrer Elemente abzuleiten, so schlägt heute das Pendel der wissenschaftlichen „öffentlichen Meinung“ nach der anderen Seite aus. Es wird fast immer nur der Einfluß untersucht, den die Gemeinschaft durch ihren spezifischen Aufbau auf die Persönlichkeitsstruktur des in ihrem Rahmen aufwachsenden Individuums ausübt. Fast niemals wird die Frage nach dem Vorhandensein individuell invarianter, arteigener Strukturen des menschlichen Verhaltens gestellt, die allen menschlichen Sozietäten bestimmte gemeinsame, art-kennzeichnende Züge aufprägen. Es stehen ja auch fast immer nur die Struktur-Unterschiede verschiedener Typen der menschlichen Gemeinschaft im Mittelpunkt der Betrachtung und so gut wie nie die Struktur-Ähnlichkeiten, die sich aus der Invarianz individueller Reaktionsweisen ergeben.
Article
How positive induced mood states affect reasoning was investigated in three experiments. In Experiment 1, consistent with resource allocation theory (H. C. Ellis & P. W. Ashbrook, 1987), both positive and negative mood suppressed performance on a deontic version of Wason's selection task (P. W. Cheng & K. J. Holyoak, 1985)—participants confirmed where they normally falsify. Experiment 2 revealed the same confirmatory responses for participants performing a concurrent distracter task, indicating that induced mood states suppress reasoning by depleting central executive resources. This hypothesis was directly tested in Experiment 3. Participants in a positive, but not in a negative, mood state showed suppressed performance on the Tower of London task (T. Shallice, 1982)—the classical central executive task. The robust positive mood effects and the confirmation effects are discussed in terms of the D. A. Norman and T. Shallice (1986) model of central executive function and recent accounts of selection task performance (L. Cosmides, 1989; K. I. Manktelow & D. E. Over, 1991; M. Oaksford & N. Chater, 1994). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Students viewed a computer-generated animation depicting the process of lightning formation (Experiment 1) or the operation of a car's braking system (Experiment 2). In each experiment, students received either concurrent narration describing the major steps (Group AN) or concurrent on-screen text involving the same words and presentation timing (Group AT). Across both experiments, students in Group AN outperformed students in Group AT in recalling the steps in the process on a retention test, in finding named elements in an illustration on a matching test, and in generating correct solutions to problems on a transfer test. Multimedia learners can integrate words and pictures more easily when the words are presented auditorily rather than visually. This split-attention effect is consistent with a dual-processing model of working memory consisting of separate visual and auditory channels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors tested the recommendation that adding bells and whistles (in the form of background music and/or sounds) would improve the quality of a multimedia instructional message. In 2 studies, students received an animation and concurrent narration intended to explain the formation of lightning (Experiment 1) or the operation of hydraulic braking systems (Experiment 2). For some students, the authors added background music (Group NM), sounds (Group NS), both (Group NSM), or neither (Group N). On tests of retention and transfer, Group NSM performed worse than Group N; groups receiving music performed worse than groups not receiving music; and groups receiving sounds performed worse (only in Experiment 2) than groups not receiving sounds. Results were consistent with the idea that auditory adjuncts can overload the learner's auditory working memory, as predicted by a cognitive theory of multimedia learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Four studies with 256 undergraduates showed that positive affect, induced in any of 3 ways, influenced categorization of either of 2 types of stimuli—words or colors. As reflected by performance on 2 types of tasks (rating and sorting), Ss in whom positive affect had been induced tended to create and use categories more inclusively than did Ss in a control condition. On one task, they tended to group more stimuli together, and on the other task they tended to rate more low-prototypic exemplars of a category as members of the category. Results are interpreted in terms of an influence of affect on cognitive organization or on processes that might influence cognitive organization. It is suggested that borderline effects of negative affect on categorization, obtained in 2 of the studies, might result from normal people's attempts to cope with negative affect. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
give an overview of some of the major aspects of affective states, and their relations with other psychological processes / provide conceptual clarification of the distinctions between the various kinds of affective states [moods, emotion episodes, and emotions] causes and functions of affective phenomena / the structure of affect space / consequents of affective states (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the effect of an experimentally induced mood state on recall of target words embedded in sentences. 160 undergraduates were assigned to 8 conditions in a factorial combination of 2 mood, 2 sentence-type, and 2 retention-interval conditions. The objective was to determine if the induction of a depressed mood would affect output or retrieval from episodic memory. Ss studied a list of either elaborated or base sentences and rated them for complexity in an incidental retention paradigm; this was followed by the induction of a depressed or neutral (control) mood, using a standard and a short form of E. Velten's (1968) mood-induction procedure. Ss were then given an unanticipated cued recall test of the target adjectives. In all tests, Ss showed a reduction in recall owing to the depressed mood, which provided evidence for retrieval effects of the mood state. Elaboration led to superior recall of target items, and there was no effect of delayed recall. Results are discussed within the framework of a resource allocation theory. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Current affect has been described with various dimensions and structures, including J. A. Russell's (1980) circumplex, D. Watson and A. Tellegen's (1985) positive and negative affect, R. E. Thayer's (1989) tense and energetic arousal, and R. J. Larsen and E. Diener's (1992) 8 combinations of pleasantness and activation. These 4 structures each presuppose bipolar dimensions and have been thought of as interchangeable or 45° rotations of one another, but past data were inconsistent. Huge but not perfect overlap among these four structures was found here in 2 studies of self-reported current affect ( Ns = 198 and 217) that controlled for random and systematic errors of measurement. The 4 structures were integrated into a common space defined by 2 bipolar dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this study positive affective states, experienced by users of a one-hour learning program, in a hypermedia learning environment were assessed. It was expected that a positive mood would occur during learning that would be correlated with high training/learning success. Furthermore, the experience of flow was used to indicate whether the challenges and skills were balanced. The results showed that the users of the training program were put into a positive mood. About a quarter of the users experienced flow. Positive moods were associated with higher training success and positive affect was correlated with total knowledge and content knowledge. An association between flow and training success was not observed. The perceived probability of success did not influence learning but a high perceived probability of success was considered as comparably more pleasant than a low perceived probability of success. The results are discussed in the context of self-directed learning.
Article
This study investigated the effects of the nature of music and a concurrent task on measures of task performance and musical preference. Subjects completed 5 laps of a computer motor racing game whilst listening to either arousing or relatively unarousing music in either the presence or absence of a backward-counting task. Both these manipulations affected performance on the game with arousing music and backward-counting leading to slower lap times than relatively unarousing music and the absence of the backward-counting task. Backward-counting led to lower liking for the music than did the absence of this task. These results support the idea that music and the concurrent task competed for a limited processing resource. The results also indicated that liking for the music was positively related to task performance, and in conjunction these findings seem to suggest a direct link between music and the listening context.