Diagnostic Drawing Series and dissociative disorders: A Dutch study.

Centrum voor Intensieve Behandeling, Psycho-Medisch Centrum Parnassia, The Hague, The Netherlands
The Arts in Psychotherapy (Impact Factor: 0.58). 01/2002; 29(4):221-230. DOI: 10.1016/S0197-4556(02)00171-5


Addressed 3 research questions: (1) What is the inter-rater reliability of 3 different raters, both when rating the graphic characteristics and when placing patients within a graphic profile? (2) How well does the placement, by the raters, of patients within a graphic profile compare to the clinical diagnosis and the conclusions from Structured Clinic Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders? and (3) Does an analysis of the relationship between the graphic characteristics, as they are found in the graphic profile of patients with dissociative disorders, provide any indications that the graphic profile could form a basis for the development of an actuarial decision-making process for the Diagnostic Drawing Series. 17 patients with dissociative identity disorder and 12 patients with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified were the subjects. The inter-rater reliability is this study was unsatisfactory. Accuracy in the rating of the graphic characteristics seems to be too heavily dependent on experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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    ABSTRACT: Art-based assessment instruments are used by many art therapists to: determine a client’s level of functioning; formulate treatment objectives; assess a client’s strengths; gain a deeper understanding of a client’s presenting problems; and evaluate client progress. To ensure the appropriate use of drawing tests, evaluation of instrument validity and reliability is imperative. Thirty-five published and unpublished quantitative studies related to art therapy assessments and rating instruments were systematically analyzed. The tools examined in the analysis are: A Favorite Kind of Day (AFKOD); the Bird’s Nest Drawing (BND); the Bridge Drawing; the Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS), the Child Diagnostic Drawing Series (CDDS); and the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT). Rating instruments are also investigated, including the Descriptive Assessment of Psychiatric Art (DAPA), the DDS Rating Guide and Drawing Analysis Form (DAF), and the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS). Descriptive results and synthesis outcomes reveal that art therapists are still in a nascent stage of understanding assessments and rating instruments, that flaws in the art therapy assessment and rating instrument literature research are numerous, and that much work has yet to be done. The null hypothesis, that homogeneity exists among the study variables identified in art therapy assessment and rating instrument literature, was rejected. Variability of the concurrent validity and inter-rater reliability meta-analyses results indicates that the field of art therapy has not yet produced sufficient research in the area of assessments and rating instruments to determine whether art therapy assessments can provide enough information about clients or measure the process of change that a client may experience in therapy. Based on a review of the literature, it was determined that the most effective approach to assessment incorporates objective measures such as standardized assessment procedures (formalized assessment tools and rating manuals; portfolio evaluation; behavioral checklists), as well as subjective approaches such as the client’s interpretation of his or her artwork. Due to the inconclusive results of the present study, it is recommended that researchers continue to explore both objective and subjective approaches to assessment.
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    ABSTRACT: In the past 20 years, the study of dissociation has flourished partly because of the research on the links between traumatic events and dissociation. Epidemiological studies have shown that dissociative symptoms and disorders are not uncommon. The nonspecialist in this area needs a guide to the extensive literature on the evaluation of dissociation across the lifespan to choose the most appropriate form of evaluation. The authors provide summaries of various types of assessment for dissociation in infants, children, teens, and adults. The techniques they review include structured interviews, specialized questionnaires, and scales on more general instruments, along with their psychometric properties. A good evaluation of dissociation can guide diagnosis, help focus treatment, and provide a measure of treatment efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Psychotherapy Theory Research & Practice
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    ABSTRACT: This paper continues the debate about the merits of formal versus informal art therapy assessments. The author enumerates specific problems with projective drawings and makes suggestions to correct those problems. She contends that art therapists should study these problems carefully and learn from the mistakes of previous investigators. She maintains that art therapists can and must develop their own art-based assessments that meet the psychometric requirements of reliability and validity.
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