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How executive coaching can change leader behavior and improve meeting effectiveness: An exploratory study

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Abstract

Business meetings are the focus of extensive executive time and effort. Research has shown that poor leadership during meetings results in negative outcomes; however, few studies have explored effective leader behaviors during team meetings. From “expert leader” observations, the author hypothesized that more effective meeting leaders ask questions, summarize, and test for consensus more frequently, and they disagree, attack, and give information less frequently. Executive behaviors were observed and tallied into these categories during team meetings before and after executive coaching. Three cases illustrate how coaching was done using these measures of meeting leadership behaviors. After coaching, study participants (20 men, 1 woman) exhibited significant behavioral changes. Implications for practice include the utility of new methodological tools and the efficacy of coaching on meeting leadership effectiveness. Research seems warranted on the measures themselves and on team and organizational outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... These range from giving negative feedback or evalu-atIOns. (Luthans & Lockwood, 1984;Perkins, 2009) to disagreeing and Opposmg (Crockett, 1955), or even to attacking (Perkins, 2009). Positive and . ...
... These range from giving negative feedback or evalu-atIOns. (Luthans & Lockwood, 1984;Perkins, 2009) to disagreeing and Opposmg (Crockett, 1955), or even to attacking (Perkins, 2009). Positive and . ...
... Researchers apply event sampling whenever the focus is on the frequency and point of time of specific behaviors during a task or interaction. As an example, Kunzle and colleagues (2010) sampled how often members from different professional backgrounds in anesthesia teams show problem-solving behaviors and compared their frequencies across different stages of the task (see Bienefeld & Grote, 2014;Perkins, 2009 for further examples). State sampling provides not only information on when and how often certain behaviors OCcurred, but also with regard to the duration of behaviors by recording the beginning and end of each behavior (Altmann, 1974). ...
... Meetings are an important part of organizational life and used for a wide array of purposes (Cohen, Rogelberg, Allen, & Luong, 2011). They are labor intensive and require the commitment of resources (Perkins, 2009). Overall, each hour spent in a meeting means less time for actual productive work (Leach, Rogelberg, Warr, & Burnfield, 2009). ...
... Thus, meetings are often perceived as inefficient (Romano Jr. & Nunamaker Jr., 2001). However, meetings remain a rarely studied facet of organizational behavior (Perkins, 2009;Rogelberg, Leach, Warr, & Burnfield, 2006). As a result, questions remain about the factors that influence meeting effectiveness. ...
... Facilitation of the meeting process has been argued to be a key factor to increase the effectiveness of teams' goal-directed actions and their productivity (Bauer & von der Reith, 2002;Kamp, 1999;Zaccaro, Rittman, & Marks, 2001). When led by an expert meeting leader, meetings follow common, consistent patterns (Perkins, 2009) and participants feel more motivated and competent after well-run meetings (Bixler, 1991). A common strategy to achieve high meeting quality is thus to appoint a meeting leader tasked with overseeing the meeting process, controlling the flow of information, and encouraging contributions from all team members (Niederman & Volkema, 1999;Schwarz, 2012). ...
Article
Which factors contribute to effective meetings? The interaction among participants plays a key role. Interaction is a relational, interdependent process that constitutes social structure. Applying a network perspective to meeting interactions allows us to take account of the social structure. The aim of this study was to use social network analysis to distinguish functional and dysfunctional interaction structures and gain insight into the facilitation of meetings by analyzing antecedents and consequences of functional interaction structures. Data were based on a field study in which 51 regular meetings were videotaped and coded with act4teams. Analyses revealed that compared with dysfunctional networks, functional interaction is less centralized and has a positive effect on team performance. Social similarity has a crucial effect on functional interaction because participants significantly interact with others who are similar in personal initiative and self-efficacy. Our results provide important information about how to assist the interaction process and promote team success.
... Most meetings have one or more of the following purposes: supervision and performance management, communication, problem solving, and project management and product generation (Perkins, 2009). These meetings may occur on different schedules with varying numbers of attendees. ...
... Communication meetings that occur prior to a decision allow the leader to gather information from multiple stakeholders to inform the decision (Perkins, 2009). Discussions about topics that are controversial or emotional (e.g., organizational change, upcoming changes in services) are generally handled in person with a carefully planned delivery of the message. ...
... Meetings are often used to engage in problem solving (Perkins, 2009). The problem may be a chronic inefficiency or an acute emergency. ...
Article
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Behavior analysts spend a great deal of time in meetings regardless of their specific professional role (e.g., academic, practice, administration), so effective meeting skills are important. Meetings can serve a variety of important purposes if they are planned and led well. However, many people are not explicitly taught how to plan or lead meetings effectively. The purpose of this paper is to describe the common purposes of meetings and to provide recommendations and tools for planning and leading effective meetings.
... The effectiveness of a leader could include the facilitator probing for attendees' opinions, summarizing the group's perspectives in an accurate and fair manner, and moving the discussion forward. When meetings have a clear and effective facilitator, meetings in both schools and organizations result in increased meeting satisfaction and increased quality of meeting outcomes (Cohen et al., 2011;Leach et al., 2009), while poor leadership is associated with negative meeting outcomes (Morgeson, DeRue, & Karam, 2010;Perkins, 2009), including participant dissatisfaction with the meetings. Effective leader behaviors include asking questions, summarizing, and testing for consensus (Perkins, 2009). ...
... When meetings have a clear and effective facilitator, meetings in both schools and organizations result in increased meeting satisfaction and increased quality of meeting outcomes (Cohen et al., 2011;Leach et al., 2009), while poor leadership is associated with negative meeting outcomes (Morgeson, DeRue, & Karam, 2010;Perkins, 2009), including participant dissatisfaction with the meetings. Effective leader behaviors include asking questions, summarizing, and testing for consensus (Perkins, 2009). In addition, the facilitator can support a positive social climate, encourage team self-management, provide resources, monitor the team, manage team boundaries, and challenge the team (Morgeson et al., 2010). ...
... These behaviors highlight an important dual role for facilitators: to encourage group participation, while also focusing and moving along the discussion. These behaviors are aligned with best practices for meeting leaders in research from other fields such as management and business (Morgeson et al., 2010;Perkins, 2009). Some leadership-related items loaded onto other factors: for instance, "The team leader used active listening when team members participated" loaded onto the Interpersonal Perception factor. ...
Article
School-based teams are a core method for stakeholder collaboration and coordination. Although school teams are responsible for making numerous decisions, a limited number of measures exist to support the evaluation of these meetings, none of which span the full range of hypothesized meeting quality variables (e.g., meeting structure, use of data). In response, an instrument was developed and evaluated for measuring perceptions of team meetings by school-based personnel. After expert content validation and cognitive pretesting took place, 277 respondents completed the 46-item measure in its entirety. Respondents were mostly female (n = 164, 59%) and taught general education (n = 111, 40%). Results from an Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested that, contrary to the hypothesized model, respondents completed the measure in a manner that suggested a three-factor solution consisting of Goals and Data, Facilitator Effectiveness, and Interpersonal Perception. A smaller set of broader constructs may be more appropriate for future instrumentation.
... For example, Ianiro, Schermuly and Kauffeld [47] used video recordings of the first coaching sessions to measure the affiliation and dominance behaviour of the coach and client. In another study, Perkins [48] observed the meetings of coaching clients in order to assess changes in meeting behaviours after implementation of a coaching intervention. The majority of studies had some aspect of self-report to assess the outcomes of the coaching intervention, although 20 of those studies only used self-report measures to assess the effectiveness of coaching. ...
... In addition, the following outcomes have been examined by a single study: firm growth [39], effectiveness of business improvement plan implementation [69] and meeting behaviours [48]. Although the majority of the results related to these variables were positive and significant as a result of coaching, the limited exploration makes any conclusions impractical. ...
... Coachee. Three studies [42,44,48] have investigated coachee demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Blackman and Moscardo [42] found no significant differences for gender, sector of employment, marital status, whether or not the coachee had children, or length of time in their current position. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The primary aim of this paper is to conduct a thorough and systematic review of the empirical and practitioner research on executive, leadership and business coaching to assess the current empirical evidence for the effectiveness of coaching and the mechanisms underlying it. Background: Organisations are increasingly using business coaching as an intervention to improve the productivity and performance of their senior personnel. A consequence of this increased application is the demand for empirical data to understand the process by which it operates and its demonstrable efficacy in achieving pre-set goals. Method: This paper is a systematic review of the academic and practitioner literature pertaining to the effectiveness of business and executive coaching as a developmental intervention for organisations. It focuses on published articles, conference papers and theses that cover business, leadership or executive coaching within organisations over the last 10 years. Conclusions: The main findings show that coaching is an effective tool that benefits organisations and a number of underlying facets contribute to this effectiveness. However, there is deficiency and scope for further investigation in key aspects of the academic research and we identify several areas that need further research and practitioner attention. .
... Meetings are an important part of organizational life and used for a wide array of purposes (Cohen, Rogelberg, Allen, & Luong, 2011). They are labor intensive and require the commitment of resources (Perkins, 2009). Overall, each hour spent in a meeting means less time for actual productive work (Leach, Rogelberg, Warr, & Burnfield, 2009). ...
... Thus, meetings are often perceived as inefficient (Romano Jr. & Nunamaker Jr., 2001). However, meetings remain a rarely studied facet of organizational behavior (Perkins, 2009;Rogelberg, Leach, Warr, & Burnfield, 2006). As a result, questions remain about the factors that influence meeting effectiveness. ...
... Facilitation of the meeting process has been argued to be a key factor to increase the effectiveness of teams' goal-directed actions and their productivity (Bauer & von der Reith, 2002;Kamp, 1999;Zaccaro, Rittman, & Marks, 2001). When led by an expert meeting leader, meetings follow common, consistent patterns (Perkins, 2009) and participants feel more motivated and competent after well-run meetings (Bixler, 1991). A common strategy to achieve high meeting quality is thus to appoint a meeting leader tasked with overseeing the meeting process, controlling the flow of information, and encouraging contributions from all team members (Niederman & Volkema, 1999;Schwarz, 2012). ...
Article
This study extends meeting research by applying social network analysis to meeting leaders' behavior in actual, videotaped meetings (N = 46) and examining the position of meeting leaders in the meeting network. Analyses reveal that meeting leaders are key players in meetings taking on the roles of central actor, broker, and elicitor. The role of central actor is linked to the number of planned actions during the meeting whereas the role of elicitor is associated with participants' satisfaction with the meeting leader and team productivity after the meeting. Our study highlights the different roles meeting leaders need to juggle to run meetings effectively.
... As for organizational resources, meetings consume substantial time on the part of the people leading and attending them, which translates into a significant expense for companies. Even with the associated costs, business leaders still consider meetings the best approach to handle various business needs (Perkins, 2009). Meetings have taken ahold in the business world but academic research has failed to keep up with the trend. ...
... It not only focuses on people's ability to catch emotions but also on their ability to transmit emotions to others (Cheng et al., 2012). Meeting leaders are in a unique position to transmit emotions given their command over a group of multiple individuals (Perkins, 2009). Research has investigated types of emotional contagion and how to categorize individuals based on it. ...
Article
Meetings are a frequent occurrence in today’s work environment and yet they remain understudied empirically. This study focused on better understanding the relationship between hierarchical distance in meetings and emotional labor. More specifically, we investigated the direct effect of surface acting and deep acting on hierarchical distance, respectively, using social-comparison theory and norms of professionalism as our theoretical framework. In addition, we explored whether an individual-difference variable, susceptibility to emotional contagion, moderates these relationships. Utilizing a panel of full-time working adults from various industries who attend meetings regularly, we found that hierarchical distance is positively related to surface acting, but no conditional effect was found. However, emotional contagion was shown to moderate the relationship between hierarchical distance and deep acting such that the relationship was positive for high emotional contagion but negative for low emotional contagion. Conclusions concerning the implications for research and practice of consulting psychology are drawn.
... • Action research (see Reason & Bradbury, 2001) as a deeper exploration of coaching practice and of new actions within the coaching relationship (see de Haan, 2016, for a book brimming with research articles on coaching based on action-research methodology). • Field research, often a form of participatory research in practice-for example, research via evaluation forms, Q-sort techniques, and one-to-one or panel interviews (see Perkins, 2009). • Descriptive research into coaching interventions and coaching situations, as reflected in numerous manuals but also more rigorous studies (see, e.g., Graf, 2012). ...
... Researchers get close to the existing coaching practice and interview participants while they are still in process. Sometimes the researcher plays a dual role, that is, including that of coach (e.g., in Perkins, 2009). There is a degree of overlap with action research; it has been described as "second-or third-person action research" (see Reason & Bradbury, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
There is substantial evidence that qualitative research in executive coaching has come of age in the previous decade. Two large research programs have yielded consistent and quantifiable results, and a range of case studies, field studies and process research is inspiring newer quantitative-research designs. This study contains a first rigorous, systematic review of this qualitative-research base with preliminary conclusions in terms of what this body of work might be telling us. Comprehensive data gathering and screening categorized 101 publications (peer-reviewed articles, book chapters and dissertations) containing original qualitative research into workplace and executive coaching. This seemed a sufficiently large number of original publications to analyze and then synthesize in terms of its comprehensive findings. Three research questions were formulated in terms of what the qualitative research may offer over and above standard quantitative outcome research, and they are systematically answered with the help of an interpretative synthesis of the findings in the four domains. The qualitative research body of workplace and executive coaching seems to warrant the following tentative findings. Success criteria seem to be coachee-related: the development of trust in, acceptance of and commitment to coaching, and the coachee’s respect for the coaching contract. Another success criterion for both coaches and coachees seems to be the ability for both to achieve agreement on tasks and goals, and a deep level of shared psychological understanding and new insight.
... De Hann and Duckworth (2013) summarized the outcome research on executive coaching and cited studies where the clients of executive coaches reported productivity gains and increased leadership effectiveness (Bowles, Cunningham, De La Rosa & Picano, 2007;Thach, 2002;Perkins, 2009). Other studies on outcome research for executive coaching showed increased self-efficacy in goal-setting, more belief in self, increased ratings on feedback from direct reports, and the ability to ask superiors for improvements (Bower 2012;De Hann, Duckworth, Birch & Jones, 2013). ...
... Although the findings of this study were inconclusive, the outcome research on executive coaching substantiated its value for increased leadership effectiveness and productivity gains (Bowles, Cunningham, De La Rosa, Picano, 2007;De Hann & Duckworth, 2013;Thach, 2002;Perkins, 2009). Other studies on outcome research for executive coaching showed increased self-efficacy in goal-setting, more belief in self, increased ratings on feedback from direct reports, and the ability to ask superiors for improvements (Evers, Brouwers & Tomic, 2006;De Hann, Duckworth, Brich & Jones, 2013). ...
... Among these techniques, the coaching technique is highly positioned, a training tool that includes topics such as leadership, professional development and solving performance problems, involving personality traits and personal experience. Knowing tools, forming groups of leaders and teachers capable of acting in a changing environment, preparing to face the solution of contingencies in companies and offering them knowledge and training within working groups ( Baron and Morin, 2009;Biswas-Diener, 2009;Elston and Boniwell, 2011;Fischer and Beimers, 2009;Haan and Duckwoth, 2012;Kombarakaran et al., 2008;Perkins, 2009;Styhre and Josephson, 2007). ...
... The characterization of the agricultural organizations using coaching located in rural areas of Navarra and Castilla- León (45.4%) confirms its potential contribution to rural development. The coaching training tool that includes leadership, solves performance problems, forms groups of leaders and teachers capable of acting in the changing rural environment, prepares to face the solution of contingencies of the rural areas could undoubtedly help the development of rural areas ( Baron and Morin, 2009;Biswas-Diener, 2009;Elston and Boniwell, 2011;Fischer and Beimers, 2009;Haan and Duckwoth, 2012;Kombarakaran et al., 2008;Perkins, 2009;Styhre and Josephson, 2007). ...
Conference Paper
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Agricultural organizations are faced with continuous processes of change: economic openness, national and international competition between companies, adaptation to new business management models-Corporate Social Responsibility-, changing markets and the need to comply with regulations and certifications. This has led to the generation of a great demand for knowledge, preparation and motivation of the people who work in the organizations and in the agribusiness environment. Organizations are obliged to seek strategies or business techniques that allow them to guarantee survival and increase their levels of competitiveness. Among these techniques the coaching technique is highly positioned. The objective of the research was to analyze the use of coaching in the agricultural value chain as a tool to contribute to rural development. The study analyzed 50 coaching companies in Spain, from which qualitative and quantitative data of agricultural and rural coaching were taken. Moreover, a sample of 22 coached agribusinesses in Spain was characterized in order to obtain a profile of the coaching in the agricultural value chain. Frequency, contingency and significance analysis were used to characterize the performance of coaching in the agricultural value chain. The results show that a business attitude among coaching is needed while the use of a combination of coaching tools could improve the agricultural value chain and rural development. It is necessary to promote the coaching techniques among the agricultural value chain, especially at the first stages of the chain, in order to increase the agricultural businesses competitiveness and to contribute to the rural development.
... al., 2010;Odermatt, Konig, & Kleinman 2017) focusing on meetings have been conducted but these tend to focus on either participant satisfaction or meeting effectiveness (Nixon & Littlepage, 1992;Hinkin & Tracey, 1998;Leach, et. al., 2009;Perkins, 2009;Allen, Lehmann-Willenbrock, & Landowski, 2014). Thus far, no study has broached on the issue of respect for the meeting decisions made. ...
... Al., 2010;Odermatt, Konig, and Kleinman 2017) or meeting effectiveness (Nixon and Littlepage, 1992;Hinkin and Tracey, 1998;Hinkin and Tracey, 2003;Leach, et. al., 2009;Perkins, 2009;Allen, LehmannWillenbrock, and Landowski, 2014), no study had touched on respect to meeting decisions. From this point of view, the current study had investigated the impact of the human factor at pre-meetings and during the meetings on the respect to meeting decisions to address this research gap. ...
Article
Full-text available
Meetings play a very important role in organizations as it is through meetings that issues are resolved, decisions are made, and voices are heard. During meetings, people need to interact and exchange views before coming to a certain decision. Therefore, it is important for those organizing and attending meetings to be able to show respect to each other and so respect the decision outcomes. This study investigates the parameters for members of an organization to respect the decisions made in meetings. It gathers information from previous studies to be used to create the dimensions that helped to develop the questionnaire. The theoretical background applied encompass the Islamic theory of mutual consultations. The research setting is based on education institutions located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq while the attendees of the meetings comprise 200 participants from private education institutions of Gulen Movement in the region. Their responses were analyzed through the IBM SPSS and IBM AMOS Software. Results showed that mutual consultation in Islam is divided into three periods as pre-meeting, in-meeting, and post meeting and it was observed that pre-meeting procedures (intention and competence) directly effect in-meeting procedures (patience, responsibility, and coherence) and consequently in-meeting procedures have direct impact on the post-meeting procedures (respect to meeting decisions). Further, pre-meeting and in-meeting procedures explained 63.5 percent of overall variance on respect to meeting decisions. This study contributes to the practical and theoretical knowledge of meetings literature whereby practitioners can use the outcome to design better meetings which are also respected by the attendees.
... The main effects of executive coaching are displayed in the form of leadership skills, over the ability to manage complex situations within the organization, as well as over the relationship with subordinates, which is optimized (Bowles et al. 2007;Diedrich 1996;Hall et al. 1999;Perkins 2009). By definition, the target of coaching is learning and behavioral change in the case of the client (manager or leader); therefore, it is not at all surprising that most studies report a positive relation between coaching and behavioral change (Levenson 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Managerial coaching is currently seen as an effective leadership practice facilitating learning process of the employees for performing better and being more effective in organizations. This article builds on recent research on the importance of the managerial coaching by empirically investigating the effects of a cognitive-behavioral coaching programme over mid-level managers. Due to the similarities between managerial coaching behaviors and transformational leadership behaviors, we have adopted the transformational leadership model as theoretical framework for evaluating management behaviors. The study used a pre-posttest approach to test the effects of the coaching program especially designed for 23 mid-level managers having as responsibility the supervision of production teams in a multinational organization. The major aims of the program consisted of: developing managerial coaching skills, assertive communication skills, motivation of subordinates. Overall, the analysis of results elicited an increase of scores in the leadership behavior dimensions measured by multifactor leadership questionnaire that are part of the managerial coaching skills. Besides, the effectiveness perceived as an indicator of performance was significantly higher upon completion of the coaching program. Findings suggest that coaching, as a professional development method, has great potential to contribute to the managerial behaviors that facilitate development at subordinate level, as they are captured by some transformational and transactional scales. Such knowledge can be informative for practitioners as well in developing effective managers and leaders and understanding and managing employee attitudes and behaviors in organizations.
... Moreover, meeting satisfaction can be promoted by adopting best practices for meeting management, such as using an agenda, sticking to that agenda, limiting the time spent in the meeting, and considering calling fewer meetings in general (Cohen et al., 2011). Additionally, managerial training on specific meeting facilitation skills such as appropriate planning of a meeting, proper agenda usage, active listening, and constructive conflict resolution may be useful (Tracy & Dimock, 2004;Perkins, 2009). Finally, team members themselves can facilitate productive meetings in order to promote meeting satisfaction (Lehmann-Willenbrock, Allen, & Kauffeld, 2013) and benefit from the positive boost for their empowerment. ...
... The problem-solving process is similar whether engaged by individuals or teams of professionals. At the simplest level, people engaged in problem solving collect and analyze information, identify strengths and problems, and make changes based on what the information tells them; and, doing it well often involves the systematic focus and perspective, precision, and persistence of an engineer (Anderson, 1994;Bergan & Kratochwill, 1990;Bradford, 1976;Deno, 2005;Lencioni, 2004;Mackin, 2007;Perkins, 2009;Tobia & Becker, 1990). 2. The problem-solving process is universally applicable and unbounded by conventions or traditions of general and special education. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although there is a strong legislative base and perceived efficacy for multidisciplinary team decision making, limited evidence supports its effectiveness or consistency of implementation in practice. In recent research, we used the Decision Observation, Recording, and Analysis (DORA) tool to document activities and adult behaviors during positive behavior support team meetings. In this study, we revised the DORA to provide evidence of the extent to which the solutions that teams developed were implemented with fidelity and associated with improvements in student behavior. Using trained observers, we documented decision making at 18 meetings in 10 schools where team members discussed a total of 44 problems. We found that scores on the Decision Observation, Recording, and Analysis–II (DORA-II) were acceptable indicators for documenting problem solving during team meetings and that they provided technically adequate information on the extent to which teams were assessing whether they had implemented a solution and whether the solution made a difference for students. We believe the revised assessment tool has value in studying team-based problem solving, and we discuss our findings as a base for a well-reasoned research agenda for moving the process forward as evidence-based practice.
... This method would be especially important when research is inconclusive, diminutive, scant, or non-existent (Creswell, 2009). Although researchers have studied collaborative leadership (Perkins, 2009;Simo & Bies, 2007;Wise, 2002), no research exists about collaborative leadership within AETs in South Carolina. A quantitative method was not appropriate for the study because the purpose was not to identify causal relationships but to recognize factors that serve as barriers to and facilitators of collaborative leadership in the alcohol enforcement teams. ...
Thesis
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In 2007 South Carolina funded 15 regional coordinators to work with local law enforcement agencies and alcohol and drug commissions to create 16 community alcohol enforcement teams to improve enforcement of underage drinking laws. Previous researchers have suggested that collaborative leadership is needed for effective teams, yet little is known about the factors that serve as barriers to and facilitators of, collaborative leadership in alcohol enforcement teams. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of coordinators involved in leading the alcohol enforcement teams in South Carolina. The theoretical framework used was Cameron, Quinn, DeGraff, and Thankor’s conceptualization of the competing values framework. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 alcohol team coordinators. These data were inductively coded and then subjected to a modified Van Manen and Vagle analysis. Key findings indicate strong support for the idea that existence of positive community relationships and supportive champions from community partners were crucial to building and maintaining successful teams. These findings were consistent with the theoretical framework. Recommendations include implementing leadership and collaboration training for the coordinators and team members. These findings have implications for positive social change by increasing awareness among policy makers about collaborative leadership factors, which in turn could lead to policies that generate more effectual teams, improve enforcement of underage drinking laws, and consequently, result in safer communities.
... Jones, Woods und Guillaume (2015) zeigen in ihrer Meta-Analyse, dass Coaching positiv auf Affekt sowie Fähigkeiten und Kompetenzen wirkt. Weitere Coaching Studien belegen positive Coachingeffekte auf Wohlbefinden ( Duijts, Kant, van den Brandt & Swaen, 2008), Selbstwirksamkeitserleben ( Leonard-Cross, 2010) und Führungsverhalten ( Perkins, 2009). In dieser Studie werden nachfolgend beschriebene Outcome-Variablen als Wirkungskriterien für ChangeCoaching untersucht. ...
Article
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of executive coaching during organizational change processes on executives' self efficacy, leadership behavior and positive and negative affect, considering the influence of autonomy and management support as moderating boundary conditions. The Job Demands-Resources Model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001) constitutes the theoretical framework of this longitudinal study. Based on a quasi-experimental control group design with three times of measurement 66 middle management executives in different organizations during ongoing change processes (N-EG = 28; N-CG = 38) were examined. The multilevel analysis revealed significant three-way interactions, indicating that executives with high levels of autonomy or high management support benefited from change-coaching. After six month of coaching (EG), they reported higher scores in self-efficacy, change leadership and positive affect as well as lower scores in negative affect, compared to executives without coaching (CG). Based on these findings, recommendations for executives, coaches and human resource developers will be derived to ensure the effectiveness of coaching during organizational change processes.
... The main effects of executive coaching are displayed in the form of leadership skills, over the ability to manage complex situations within the organization, as well as over the relationship with subordinates, which is optimized (Bowles et al. 2007;Diedrich 1996;Hall et al. 1999;Perkins 2009). By definition, the target of coaching is learning and behavioral change in the case of the client (manager or leader); therefore, it is not at all surprising that most studies report a positive relation between coaching and behavioral change (Levenson 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Managerial coaching is currently seen as an effective leadership practice facilitating learning process of the employees for performing better and being more effective in organizations. This article builds on recent research on the importance of the managerial coaching by empirically investigating the effects of a cognitive-behavioral coaching programme over mid-level managers. Due to the similarities between managerial coaching behaviors and transformational leadership behaviors, we have adopted the transformational leadership model as theoretical framework for evaluating management behaviors. The study used a pre-posttest approach to test the effects of the coaching program especially designed for 23 mid-level managers having as responsibility the supervision of production teams in a multinational organization. The major aims of the program consisted of: developing managerial coaching skills, assertive communication skills, motivation of subordinates. Overall, the analysis of results elicited an increase of scores in the leadership behavior dimensions measured by multifactor leadership questionnaire that are part of the managerial coaching skills. Besides, the effectiveness perceived as an indicator of performance was significantly higher upon completion of the coaching program. Findings suggest that coaching, as a professional development method, has great potential to contribute to the managerial behaviors that facilitate development at subordinate level, as they are captured by some transformational and transactional scales. Such knowledge can be informative for practitioners as well in developing effective managers and leaders and understanding and managing employee attitudes and behaviors in organizations.
... De Haan & Duckworth (2012) defined executive coaching as a combination of organization and leadership development; it is based on positive psychology, has a goal orientation, and learning takes place in the cognitive and affective domains. They summarized the outcome research on executive coaching and cited studies where the clients of executive coaches reported productivity gains and increased leadership effectiveness (Bowles, Cunningham, De La Rosa & Picano, 2007;Thach, 2002;Perkins, 2009). Executive coaching utilizes experiential learning, as the leader commits to accomplishing goals and reporting on success; it provides a way for the leader to understand her learning preferences and adapt to a wider range of leader behaviors, including relationship building with followers, peers, and stakeholders (Griffiths & Campbell, 2009;Turesky & Gallagher, 2011). ...
Article
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This paper explores the leadership practices of women engineers licensed in British Columbia, Canada and reports on a quantitative correlational study using the Leadership Practices Inventory to operationalize leadership and explore associations with levels of university education, executive coaching, years of engineering practice, and the location of practice as rural versus urban. The number of women leaders in Canadian corporations continues to increase, while the influence of women engineer leaders is less progressive. Growth in the fields of engineering leadership education, management education, and leadership education offered sufficient evidence to pursue research that furthered the leadership development of women engineers. In university engineering education inclusion of leadership education improved, while attention to leadership development for practicing professional women engineers remains sparse. The participants assessed their leadership practices and a correlational analysis will associate their leadership to levels of education programs, executive coaching, years of professional practices, and location of practice in terms of rural or urban. I conclude with a proposed conceptual framework for learning leadership.
... Moreover, meeting satisfaction can be promoted by adopting best practices for meeting management, such as using an agenda, sticking to that agenda, limiting the time spent in the meeting, and considering calling fewer meetings in general (Cohen et al., 2011). Additionally, managerial training on specific meeting facilitation skills such as appropriate planning of a meeting, proper agenda usage, active listening, and constructive conflict resolution may be useful (Tracy & Dimock, 2004;Perkins, 2009). Finally, team members themselves can facilitate productive meetings in order to promote meeting satisfaction (Lehmann-Willenbrock, Allen, & Kauffeld, 2013) and benefit from the positive boost for their empowerment. ...
... In short, meeting leaders play an essential role in meeting success. Given this understanding, Perkins [44] investigated positive meeting leader qualities and how to elicit them via coaching. ...
Preprint
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Workplace bias creates negative psychological outcomes for employees, permeating the larger organization. Workplace meetings are frequent, making them a key context where bias may occur. Video conferencing (VC) is an increasingly common medium for workplace meetings; we therefore investigated how VC tools contribute to increasing or reducing bias in meetings. Through a semi-structured interview study with 22 professionals, we found that VC features push meeting leaders to exercise control over various meeting parameters, giving leaders an outsized role in affecting bias. We demonstrate this with respect to four core VC features -- user tiles, raise hand, text-based chat, and meeting recording -- and recommend employing at least one of two mechanisms for mitigating bias in VC meetings -- 1) transferring control from meeting leaders to technical systems or other attendees and 2) helping meeting leaders better exercise the control they do wield.
... In the scope of organizational life, few events are as universal or as influential as workplace meetings (Asmuss & Svennevig, 2009;Holmes & Stubbe, 2003;Perkins, 2009). Goals of the workplace meeting often include sharing information with colleagues, discussing problems, and deciding what actions to take moving forward (Leach, Rogelberg, Warr, & Burnfield, 2009). ...
Article
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In the scope of organizational life, few events are as universal or as influential as workplace meetings. In this study, we focused our attention on better understanding the relationship between meetings processes and postmeeting outcomes. More specifically, we investigated the relationship between participation in decision-making (PDM) in meetings and employee engagement, after controlling for the impact of meeting size and other demographic variables. We examined this from a theoretical perspective, providing particular consideration to the underlying basis of social exchange theory and norms of reciprocity at work in this relationship. Using a sample of working adults in the United States who were employees of organizations and attend meetings regularly, we found that PDM in meetings is related to employee engagement, even after controlling for job level, meeting size, tenure, and age. In addition, perceived supervisor support moderates the relationship between PDM in meetings and employee engagement, such that the positive relationship is stronger when perceived supervisor support is high. Further, meeting load also moderates the relationship between PDM in meetings and employee engagement, such that the positive relationship is stronger when meeting load is high. This study is unique in its examination of how characteristics of the meeting setting may influence postmeeting outcomes such as employee engagement. Taken together, the findings suggest that PDM in meetings is associated with employee engagement, under certain conditions that are discussed.
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Woraus unser heutiges Coaching entstanden ist – Was Coaching alles anbietet und wie sich Business-Coaching davon unterscheidet – Chancen von professionellem Coaching für Chefs und wie man sie für sich und sein Unternehmen nutzt – Überblick über Einsatzarten und parallel existierende Beratungsformen – Wirkkraft von Coaching für Führungskräfte.
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Edukologijos doktorantė Šiaulių universiteto Edukologijos fakulteto Edukologijos katedra Vilniaus g. 88, LT-76285 Šiauliai Tel. 8 611 66794 El. paštas: karjerosprojektavimas@gmail.com Straipsnyje atskleidžiamos koučingo metodo taikymo galimybės mokytojų profesinėje veikloje, pateikiamas koučingo sampratos daugialypumas, įvardijamos svarbiausios koučingo specialisto kompetencijos. Nagrinėjamos pagrindinės koučingo metodikos, sąsajos su kitais mokslais. Pateikiami pagrindiniai koučingo principai, metodikos ir technikos. Inovatyvių, modernių metodų netaikymas – dažna mokykloje dirbančių mokytojų problema. Koučingas pedagogikoje siekia tikslų per vidaus potencialo panaudojimo, pažangios plėtros strategijas, orientuotas į rezultatą, kurti ir tobulinti būtinus įgūdžius ir gebėjimus. Kokybiniu tyrimu įvertintos pedagogų žinios apie koučingą ir šio metodo taikymo galimybes pedagogų profesinėje veikloje.
Thesis
Zusammenfassung Change-Prozesse sind in Organisationen allgegenwärtig und stellen hohe Anforderungen an Führungskräfte. Befunde aus der Change-Forschung weisen auf individuelle Stressreaktionen hin, die mit Belastungsfaktoren wie z. B. hohem Arbeitspensum, Zeitdruck sowie widersprüchlichen Erwartungen von beteiligten Akteuren einhergehen (Kriegesmann & Kley, 2014; Sonntag & Nohe, 2014). Um diesen Herausforderungen erfolgreich zu begegnen, wird Coaching als Personalentwicklungsinstrument für Führungskräfte zunehmend eingesetzt (Eichler, 2011). Das Zusammenspiel von Coaching und organisationalen Veränderungsprozessen wurde empirisch bislang kaum untersucht. Hier setzt die vorliegende Dissertation an, indem sie Charakteristika und Wirkungen change-spezifischen Coachings für Führungskräfte im mittleren Management untersucht. Darüber hinaus werden Einflussfaktoren auf die Methodenwahl von Coaches betrachtet. Ziel ist es auch, methodischen Kritikpunkten bisheriger Coaching-Forschung (Möller & Kotte, 2011) durch den Einsatz unterschiedlicher Studiendesigns und optimierter Methoden zu begegnen. Die Ergebnisse sollen Ansatzpunkte für die Verbesserung von Coaching bei Change-Prozessen liefern sowie weiterführende Forschungsfragen aufzeigen. Dabei liegt der Fokus von Studie 1 auf der Erstellung eines konzeptuellen Modells, welches die Merkmale change-spezifischen Coachings aus der Perspektive von Führungskräften und Coaches abbildet. Studie 2 evaluiert Coaching-Wirkungen bei Führungskräften unter Berücksichtigung organisationaler Kontextbedingungen (Autonomie und Managementunterstützung). Der Schwerpunkt von Studie 3 liegt auf der Untersuchung der Methodenwahl von Coaches in Abhängigkeit der kognitiven Change-Bewertung und emotionalen Reaktion des Coachees sowie ihres eigenen positiven Affekts. Ein erstes Anliegen war es, mittels eines explorativen Vorgehens und eines qualitativen Zugangs in Studie 1, die Charakteristika von Change-Coaching-Prozesses aus der Perspektive von Führungskräften und Coaches zu beschreiben. Dazu wurden Experteninterviews mit 18 Coaches, die Erfahrung in change-spezifischen Coaching-Prozessen sammeln konnten, und mit 15 Führungskräften in laufenden Change-Prozessen durchgeführt. Eine inhaltsanalytische Auswertung ermöglichte es, die Merkmale zu kategorisieren und drei Coaching-Phasen zuzuordnen. Phase 1 - pre Coaching - umfasst die Aufgaben und Herausforderungen, welche Führungskräfte als Themen in ein Coaching einbringen, sowie u. a. das Selbstverständnis der Coaches in Bezug auf ihre Rolle. Phase 2 - während des Coachings - werden neben den Reaktionen der Führungskräfte und deren Erwartungen, die Methoden welche Coaches anwenden, zugeordnet. Phase 3 - post Coaching - beschreibt organisationale, soziale und persönliche Coaching-Ergebnisse, welche Führungskräfte sich von einem Coaching erwarten und Coaches aus ihrer Erfahrung berichten. Organisationale Coaching-Ergebnisse umfassen beispielsweise die verbesserte Steuerung des Veränderungsprozesses im Sinne eines erfolgreichen Change Management. Unter sozialen Coaching-Ergebnissen werden positive Auswirkungen auf die sozialen Beziehungen verstanden, um Mitarbeiter angemessen und wirkungsvoll durch den Change zu führen. Persönliche Coaching-Ergebnisse beziehen sich auf Verbesserungen des Selbstmanagements, wie z. B. emotionale Bewältigungsstrategien und eine gelingende Work-Life-Balance. Aus diesen Ergebnissen wurde ein konzeptuelles Change-Coaching (C-C) Modell sowie Ansätze für Folgestudien abgeleitet. Studie 2 (Bickerich & Michel, 2016) evaluiert mittels Längsschnittdaten die Wirkung von Coaching bei organisationalen Change-Prozessen auf die berufliche Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung, das Führungsverhalten und den positiven sowie negativen Affekt von Führungskräften. Der Einfluss von Autonomie und Managementunterstützung wird dabei als moderierende Kontextbedingungen untersucht. Das Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001) bildet die theoretische Basis dieser Studie. Es wurde ein quasi-experimentelles Kontrollgruppendesign durchgeführt. Dabei wurden 66 Führungskräfte im mittleren Management während laufender Change-Prozesse in unterschiedlichen Organisationen (NEG = 28; NKG = 38) zu drei Messzeitpunkten befragt. Die Ergebnisse der Multilevel-Analysen zeigen signifikante Dreifach-Interaktionseffekte. Führungskräfte mit Coaching (EG) weisen, im Vergleich zu Führungskräften ohne Coaching (KG), nach sechs Monaten (T3) und bei hoher Autonomie bzw. hoher Managementunterstützung höhere Werte in beruflicher Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung, Führungsverhalten und positivem Affekt sowie niedrigere Werte im negativen Affekt auf. Studie 3 untersucht Einflussfaktoren auf die Methodenwahl von Coaches dahingehend, ob diese von der kognitiven Change-Bewertung und emotionalen Reaktion des Coachees bzw. von ihrem eigenen positiven Affekt abhängt. Mittels einer experimentellen Vignettenstudie wurden 128 Coachs (83 w / 45 m) untersucht, die je ein Set von 4 Coaching-Fallbeschreibungen (aus 16) bearbeiteten. Darin wurden die kognitive Change-Bewertung und emotionale Reaktion des Coachees systematisch variiert. Kognitionen und Emotionen können hierbei im Einklang sein oder im Widerspruch zueinander stehen. Die Coaches wurden aufgefordert, pro dargebotener Fallbeschreibung eine Entscheidung zu treffen, inwiefern sie verbal-, tool-, oder wissensorientierte Coaching-Methoden einsetzen würden. Die Multilevel-Analysen zeigen, dass Coaches sich bei fast allen ambivalenten Vignetten signifikant häufiger für verbalorientierte Methoden entscheiden, als bei widerspruchsfreien Vignetten. Entgegen der Annahme zeigt sich in Bezug auf die Entscheidung für tool- und wissensorientierte Methoden kein Unterschied zwischen den Vignetten. Hoher positiver Affekt des Coaches sagt eine Präferenz für verbalorientierte Methoden unabhängig von der Vignettenkombination vorher. Zudem wird die Methodenwahl dahingehend beeinflusst, dass Coaches mit hohem positivem Affekt weniger wissensorientierte Methoden bei fast allen ambivalenten Vignetten wählen. Ein Effekt für positiven Affekt findet sich bei toolorientierten Methoden nur für die Vignette "negative Kognition – positive Emotion". Die Ergebnisse dieser Dissertation zeigen, dass Coaching während Change-Prozessen ein geeignetes Personalentwicklungsinstrument darstellt, welches sich auf die Schwerpunkte Change Management, Change Leadership und Selbstmanagement von Führungskräften richtet. Weiterhin kann Change-Coaching positive Effekte für Führungskräfte erzielen, wenn der organisationale Kontext für die Umsetzung des Gelernten förderlich ist (im Sinne von Autonomie und Managementunterstützung). Die Arbeit zeigt zudem auf, dass Coaches bei der Methodenwahl sowohl von der kognitiven Change-Bewertung und emotionalen Reaktion des Coachee als auch vom ihrem eigenen positiven Affekt beeinflusst werden können. Basierend auf den Ergebnissen der Studien werden Ansätze für zukünftige Forschung sowie praxisorientierte Handlungsempfehlungen für Führungskräfte, Coaches und Personalentwickler in Organisationen sowie für Coaching-Ausbildungsinstitute abgeleitet. Schlüsselwörter: Coaching – Change Management – Coach – Führungskraft – Qualitative Interviewstudie – Selbstwirksamkeit – Affekt – Autonomie – Managementunterstützung – Längsschnittstudie – Mehrebenenanalyse – Coaching-Methoden – Emotion – Kognition – Vignettenstudie
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Chapter
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Research
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Chapter
There's something about meetings that makes researchers and participants want to change them, control them, order them, and make them predictable. But there is also something about meetings that makes them resist these efforts at change, improvement, order, and predictability. In this chapter I explore the impact of this order-disorder dynamic on the study of meetings and suggest some reasons why investigators have been concerned with ordering meetings and continually troubled by the disorder that meetings may produce. This volume illustrates how our understanding of meetings in the workplace is both broadened and complicated when meetings are conceptualized as communicative events and when the focus is on examining “what happens before, during, and after meetings in the workplace” (see Chapter 1). This approach requires researchers to challfree the dominant urge to order meetings while at the same time emphasizing the importance of understanding the production and value of meeting disorder. I suggest that the order-disorder dynamic may be related to a series of “folk theories” about meetings, as well as the role of individuals in organizations, and I discuss the ways that individual chapters in this volume contest the folk theories that have been so prominent in guiding our research theories.
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Chapter
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Describes a systems-based approach to executive coaching that attempts to maximize the consideration of contextual factors. The case study of a 44-yr-old male executive illustrates this approach. The author notes that perhaps the greatest danger in coaching individuals from organizations in which there is no ongoing consulting relationship is the possibility that the psychologist may inadvertently participate in scapegoating by an organization or by a boss who is unable or unwilling to look deeply enough at the ways that the environment may be supporting the conditions underlying the individual's seemingly maladaptive response. The more removed the coaching is from the organizational context, the more pains the psychologist must take to ensure that the context is woven into the fabric of the coaching relationship and that the organization be persuaded that it, too, needs to play a role in defining and achieving the desired outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article responds to "Coaching at the Top: Assisting A Chief Executive and His Team ' (M. M. Krajl, 2001 see record 2001-01213-005) by critiquing the article. It extends the discussion by focusing on the desired characteristics of a case study and how a professional literature can be derived from well constructed case studies. Applying these principles to Krajl's article, the author notes some issues concerning the intervention and preceding assessment, including the choice of the term coaching to describe complex and multifaceted interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents a systems-oriented approach to the leadership development of top-level executives. A structured program is described that is designed to have a positive impact at the organizational level through focused work with the individual client. Leadership effectiveness is seen as strongly influenced by the individual's past, personal life, and work environment. Comprehensive information gathered from the client's work life and personal life increases understanding of behaviors that influence performance, and thereby fosters change. Development is perceived from a holistic point of view, with benefits to the organization accruing through increased effectiveness in any areas of the client's life. A case example (of a 40-yr-old male) is given to illustrate how this approach is put into effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Discusses the use of meetings and the available studies of meetings that have been conducted by anthropologists, psychologists, sociologists, political scientists, business administrators, and others. It is argued that researchers have made meetings a tool of analysis, when they should have been the topic of investigation. A framework for a theory of meetings is presented, which sees meetings as rituals, social metaphors, and homeostats as prerequisite to the study of meetings in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Provides consulting psychologists with an overview of an approach to executive coaching that took place over 3 yrs with a troubled leader. An ongoing 360-degree assessment together with numerous "loops" of feedback and developmental counseling sessions served as the baseline for coaching an autocratic and coercive but valued executive. This case study (of a male executive in his mid-forties) explores a process that was iterative and interlaced and that resulted in significantly different and more positive and functional leadership behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The group dynamics Q-sort was used to investigate the effects of leader directiveness in group decision making. Past research on leadership style has consistently implicated directive leaders as a chief cause of defective process and poor outcomes in group decision making. Leader directiveness was decomposed into 2 components: (a) outcome directiveness (i.e., the degree to which a leader advocates a favored solution) and (b) process directiveness (i.e., the degree to which a leader regulates the process by which the group reaches a decision). Process directiveness emerged as a potent predictor of quality of group process and outcomes. Outcome directiveness was associated with a much smaller and less coherent array of group outcomes. These findings suggest that current prescriptive models of decision making overemphasize the potential harmful effects of outcome directiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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M. T. Iaffaldano and P. Muchinsky's (see record 1985-21607-001) meta-analysis suggested that the satisfaction–performance relation constitutes an illusory correlation. Two experiments are reported that investigated whether this illusory correlation may systematically bias performance evaluations when ratee satisfaction levels are known. In Experiment 1, students who were told that an instructor was satisfied rated his performance more favorably than students who were told that he was dissatisfied. In Experiment 2, subjects performed an in-basket task and completed a satisfaction questionnaire prior to evaluating a ratee's performance on a similar in-basket task. Subjects appraised a satisfied ratee more favorably than they appraised a dissatisfied ratee. In addition, subjects provided with bogus feedback indicating that their task satisfaction was high evaluated their own performance more favorably than subjects provided with dissatisfaction feedback. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this article, we review the history of the social scientific study of leadership and the prevailing theories of leadership that enjoy empirical support. We demonstrate that the development of knowledge concerning leadership phenomena has been truly cumulative and that much is currently known about leadership. We identify the contributions of the trait, behavioral, contingency and neocharismatic paradigms and the results of empirical research on prevailing theories. Issues that warrant research in each of the paradigms and theories are described. Ten additional topics for further investigation are discussed and specific recommendations are made with regard to future research on each of these topics.
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Thesis (Ph. D. in Psychology)--University of California, Berkeley, May 1995. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 49-58).
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The five-factor model of personality is a hierarchical organization of personality traits in terms of five basic dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Research using both natural language adjectives and theoretically based personality questionnaires supports the comprehensiveness of the model and its applicability across observers and cultures. This article summarizes the history of the model and its supporting evidence; discusses conceptions of the nature of the factors; and outlines an agenda for theorizing about the origins and operation of the factors. We argue that the model should prove useful both for individual assessment and for the elucidation of a number of topics of interest to personality psychologists.
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Extending B. L. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada's (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N=188) completed an initial survey to identify flourishing mental health and then provided daily reports of experienced positive and negative emotions over 28 days. Results showed that the mean ratio of positive to negative affect was above 2.9 for individuals classified as flourishing and below that threshold for those not flourishing. Together with other evidence, these findings suggest that a set of general mathematical principles may describe the relations between positive affect and human flourishing.
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Previous research has shown that people hold implicit theories or beliefs about relationships between aspects of group process and task accomplishment. These implicit theories, in the presence of evaluative information, affect reports about groups. However, many issues about the impact of implicit theories are unresolved, including whether implicit theories combine differently with positive and negative information and the role of memory in the impact of implicit theories. Two experiments reported here found that (1) implicit theories and negative but not positive information affected people's reports and (2) the operation of implicit theories was unrelated to retrieval processes in memory for facts about an observed group. Implications of the findings for methods of research on groups and for organizational practices involving groups are discussed.
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