Visual Argument: Graphic Organizers Are Superior to Outlines in Improving Learning From Text

Article (PDF Available)inJournal of Educational Psychology 87(3):455-467 · September 1995with 2,345 Reads
DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.87.3.455
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Abstract
Most research on graphic organizers (i.e., figural organizations of text information) has failed to simulate actual classroom learning. Typically, studies have used short, poorly organized text, single graphic organizers, and immediate tests measuring only factual knowledge. Also, there is no convincing evidence that graphic organizers are better than outlines. Two experiments were conducted that represented attempts to address these problems in answering the question, "What types of text information do graphic organizers and outlines help college students learn?" Results revealed that when given enough time, students studying graphic organizers learned more hierarchical and coordinate relations, and as a result, they were more successful in applying that knowledge and in writing integrated essays than students studying outlines or text alone. These findings are discussed in terms of efficient indexing through visual argument. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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