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Abstract

REPORTS VARIOUS STUDIES CONCERNING THE USE OF HYPNOSIS AND HALLUCINATORY DRUGS AND CREATIVITY. PSYCHOTHERAPY, ACADEMIC PROFICIENCY, SUSCEPTIBILITY, AND TIME DISTORTIONS ARE TREATED IN RELATION TO HYPNOTIC MANIPULATION OF CREATIVITY. STUDIES CONCERNING AND PERSONAL OPINIONS OF USERS OF MESCALINE, PSILOCYBIN, AND LSD ARE CITED INDICATING A FEELING OF GREATER SENSITIVITY TO CREATIVITY AFTER USE. AS BOTH DRUGS AND HYPNOSIS ALTER THE STATE OF THE CONSCIOUS, THEY MAY FOSTER CREATIVE ACTIVITY SINCE IT IS BASICALLY PREVERBAL AND UNCONSCIOUS IN ORIGIN, AND MAY ALLOW TRANSCENDENCE OF INHIBITORY SOCIETAL CONDITIONING. (35 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
http://jhp.sagepub.com/
Journal of Humanistic Psychology
http://jhp.sagepub.com/content/8/1/49
The online version of this article can be found at:
DOI: 10.1177/002216786800800105
1968 8: 49Journal of Humanistic Psychology
Stanley Krippner
The Psychedelic State, The Hypnotic Trance, And the Creative Act
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THE
PSYCHEDELIC
STATE,
THE
HYPNOTIC
TRANCE,
AND
THE
CREATIVE
ACT
STANLEY
KRIPPNER
Mairnonides
Medical
Center
SERGEI
RACHMANINOFF,
the
gifted
Russian
conductor,
pianist,
and
composer,
plunged
into
morbid
brooding
at
the
age
of
21
because
of
the
unfavorable
reception
accorded
his
first
piano
concerto.
No
amount
of
success
as
a
conductor
or
pianist
could
revive
his
morale.
Extremes
of
emotion
were
characteristic
of
Russian
composers
and
depression
was
especially
fashionable
at
the
turn
of
the
century,
but
Rachman-
inoff's
misery
was
so
relentless
that
his
friends
became
alarmed.
They
eventually
persuaded
him
to
visit
Dr.
Nikolai
Dahl,
who
specialized
in
hypnotic
treatments.
During
their
first
session
together,
the
spare,
gothic
Rachmaninoff
recoiled
in
distaste
as
he
eased
his
slender
frame
into
the
doctor's
chair.
Following
some
preliminary
instructions,
Dahl
repeated
-
over
and
over
-
such
statements
as,
"You
will
begin
to
write
another
concerto;
you
will
work
with
great
facility."
Rachmaninoff
continued
in
treat-
ment
for
three
months,
visiting
Dr.
Dahl
daily
for
half-hour
sessions.
In
this
instance,
hypnotic
suggestion
was
remarkably
effective.
Rachmaninoff's
gloom
evaporated
and
he
began
composing
again,
working
with
speed
and
inspiration.
Musical
ideas
flowed
from
his
pen,
were
expanded,
and
became
unforgettable
melodies.
The
finished
work,
Rachmaninoff's
Concerto
Number
Two
in
C
minor
for
Piano
and
Orchestra,
was
first
performed
in
1901
by
the
Moscow
Philhar-
monic.
Rachmaninoff
openly
acknowledged
his
debt
to
Dr.
Dahl
and
dedicated
the
concerto
to
him;
the
composition
was
a
critical
success
and
is
still
a
favorite
with
concert
audiences.
Psychedelic
("mind-manifesting")
drugs
have
also
been
used
for
creative
purposes.
In
1966,
Navy
Captain
John
Busby
reported
using
LSD
to
solve
an
elusive
problem
in
pattern
recognition
while
develop-
ing
equipment
for
a
Navy
research
project.
He
stated,
"With
LSD,
the
normal
limiting
mechanisms
of
the
brain
are
released
and
entirely
new
patterns
of
perception
emerge"
(Life,
March
25,
1965).
In
1965,
psychiatrist
Humphry
Osmond
and
architect
Kyo
Izumi
announced
that
they
had
utilized
psychedelic
drugs
in
the
designing
of
a
mental
hospital.
Izumi
took
LSD
during
visits
to
traditionally-
designed
mental
hospitals
to
determine
their
effect
upon
persons
in
altered
conscious
states.
He
found
the
long
corridors
and
pale
colors
*
This
article
is
adapted
from
a
chapter
of
a
book
of
readings
on
altered
con-
scious
states
edited
by
Charles
T.
Tart
which
will
be
published
by
John
Wiley
&
Sons
late
in
1968.
49
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frightening
and
bizarre.
The
result
of
the
Osmond-Izumi
collabora-
tion
was
a
decentralized
series
of
unimposing
buildings
with
pleasant
colors
and
no
corridors;
Izumi
recalled
that
under
LSD
the
corridor
nad
"seemed
infinite,
and
it
seemed
as
if
I
would
never
get
to
the
end
of
it"
(Izumi,
1968;
Progressive
Architecture,
August,
1966).
Altered
states
of
consciousness,
such
as
those
induced
by
hypnosis
and
psychedelic
chemicals,
may
assist
in
fostering
the
creative
act
because
creativity
is
basically
preverbal
and
unconscious
in
origin.
Torrance
(1962)
has
recognized
the
preverbal
origins
of
creativity,
defining
it
as
the
process
of
sensing
gaps
or
missing
elements,
forming
ideas
or
hypotheses
about
them,
testing
the
hypotheses,
and
communi-
cating
the
results.
Freud
(1938)
has
associated
curiosity
with
uncon-
scious
drives,
noting
that
"in
the
case
of
a
creative
mind
.
.
.
the
intellect
has
withdrawn
its
watchers
from
the
gate,
and
ideas
rush
pell-mell.
.
.
."
Vinacke
(1952)
has
stressed
the
necessity
of
intel-
lectual
freedom
for
creation
to
occur;
to
him,
"there
must
be
.
.
.
an
ability
to
reorganize
experience
with
relative
independence
of
external
restraints."
Hypnosis
appears
to
focus
consciousness
so
intensely
that
sub-
threshold
stimuli
are
perceived;
in
fact,
hypnosis
is
frequently
defined
in
terms
of
a
heightened
responsiveness
to
suggestion.
Psychedelic
substances
(e.g.,
LSD,
psilocybin,
mescaline,
marijuana,
peyote)
seem
to
affect
consciousness
in
such
a
way
that
the
nervous
system
is
flooded
with
external
and
internal
stimuli
(Masters
&
Houston,
1968).
It
may
be
that
both
hypnosis
and
the
psychedelics
can
assist
break-
throughs