Article

Associative encoding and retrieval: Weak and strong cues

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Reports data from 3 experiments in support of the encoding specificity hypothesis of retrieval: the effectiveness of retrieval cues depends upon the specific format of encoding of the to-be-remembered (TBR) words at the time of their storage, regardless of how strongly the cues are associated with the TBR words in other situations. In the critical experimental conditions, TBR words were studied in presence of weakly associated cue words. 180 female undergraduates served as Ss. Recall of the TBR words in the presence of these cues was greatly facilitated in comparison with noncued recall; recall of the TBR words in presence of their strongest normative associates, which had not been seen at input, did not differ from noncued recall. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Indeed, it seems an intuitive contradiction for a participant to recall a word that they could not recognize, because of the assumption that if a memory representation is sufficiently strong to be recalled, surely it is sufficient to be recognized as well. Yet, in forced-recall-recognition procedures, where participants must produce words in response to cues and then recognize those items as either "old" (studied) or "new" (i.e., a guess), participants reliably recall studied words that they then cannot recognize as "old" Angel, Fay, Bouazzaoui, Baudouin, & Isingrini, 2010;Angel, Fay, Bouazzaoui, Granjon, & Isingrini, 2009;Muter, 1978;Thomson & Tulving, 1970;Tulving & Osler, 1968;Tulving & Thomson, 1973). This unusual phenomenon is termed recognition failure of recallable words. 1 For recognition failures to occur, participants must first produce a correct word and then they must fail to recognize it. ...
... Accounts of recognition failure, such as encoding specificity accounts, have generally focused on the act of recognition, and the processes that underlie the recognition failure. These accounts focus on why recalled words cannot be recognized, and on how the semantic interpretation of words at study and test could cause recognition processes to fail (Thomson & Tulving, 1970;Tulving & Osler, 1968;Tulving & Thomson, 1973). For example, an encoding specificity account suggests that if the word GENERAL was encoded at study in the context of "military," a participant might imagine an army general commanding troops and may thus not recognize GENERAL at test if it is presented in the context of the cue "specific." ...
... Accounts like the encoding specificity account suggest a mechanism through which recognition can fail for recalled words, but these accounts do not elucidate the processes that underlie the actual recall and generation of these items in the first place. Hence, no account has yet been put forward to explain why recognition failures are often produced at a level above what would be expected by freeassociation norms Angel et al., 2009;Thomson & Tulving, 1970;Tulving & Osler, 1968;Tulving & Thomson, 1973). ...
Article
When people can successfully recall a studied word, they should be able to recognize it as having been studied. In cued-recall paradigms, however, participants sometimes correctly recall words in the presence of strong semantic cues but then fail to recognize those words as actually having been studied. Although the conditions necessary to produce this unusual effect are known, the underlying neural correlates have not been investigated. Across five experiments, involving both behavioral and electrophysiological methods (EEG), we investigated the cognitive and neural processes that underlie recognition failures. Experiments 1 and 2 showed behaviorally that assuming that recalled items can be recognized in cued-recall paradigms is a flawed assumption, because recognition failures occur in the presence of cues, regardless of whether those failures are measured. With event-related potentials (ERPs), Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that successfully recalled words that are recognized are driven by recollection at recall and then by a combination of recollection and familiarity at ensuing recognition. In contrast, recognition failures did not show that memory signature and may instead be driven by semantic priming at recall and followed at recognition stages by negative-going ERP effects consistent with implicit processes, such as repetition fluency. These results demonstrate that recall – long-characterized as predominantly reflecting recollection-based processing in episodic memory – may at times also be served by a confluence of implicit cognitive processes.
... There is a long history of studies on how lexical cues function in memory retrieval (e.g., [40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]). A general finding of these studies is that the presence of a word that is semantically or phonologically related to the to-be-recalled item facilitates the retrieval of the encoded memory traces (e.g., [41,42,48,49]). ...
... A general finding of these studies is that the presence of a word that is semantically or phonologically related to the to-be-recalled item facilitates the retrieval of the encoded memory traces (e.g., [41,42,48,49]). The lexical cue is particularly effective when it occurs in both encoding and retrieval processes (e.g., [46,50]). These findings are consistent with models of cued recognition/recall in that the features that are shared between a cue and a test item can be employed to facilitate the selection of output during memory retrieval (e.g., [51]). ...
... Therefore, the facilitation effect of lexical overlap on sentence recall implied that speakers made use of the repeated lexical item to help them retrieve the representations with which it associated. This lexical cueing effect on sentence structure retrieval converges with previous findings of lexical cueing effects on lexical retrieval (e.g., [46,50]) and retrieval of sentential information (e.g., [45,47]). Importantly, these findings provide an important constraint for theoretical accounts of structural priming. ...
Article
Full-text available
Speakers' memory of sentence structure can persist and modulate the syntactic choices of subsequent utterances (i.e., structural priming). Much research on structural priming posited a multifactorial account by which an implicit learning process and a process related to explicit memory jointly contribute to the priming effect. Here, we tested two predictions from that account: (1) that lexical repetition facilitates the retrieval of sentence structures from memory; (2) that priming is partly driven by a short-term explicit memory mechanism with limited resources. In two pairs of structural priming and sentence structure memory experiments, we examined the effects of structural priming and its modulation by lexical repetition as a function of cognitive load in native Dutch speakers. Cognitive load was manipulated by interspersing the prime and target trials with easy or difficult mathematical problems. Lexical repetition boosted both structural priming (Experiments 1a-2a) and memory for sentence structure (Experiments 1b-2b) and did so with a comparable magnitude. In Experiment 1, there were no load effects, but in Experiment 2, with a stronger manipulation of load, both the priming and memory effects were reduced with a larger cognitive load. The findings support an explicit memory mechanism in structural priming that is cue-dependent and attention-demanding, consistent with a multifactorial account of structural priming.
... As the synopses were present at learning, but not at test, this mismatching of synopses conditions could have produced the low recognition. Rather than supporting elaborative processing models, the results for synopses seem to support encoding specificity, such that matching conditions at presentation and test (i.e., absence of headline synopses) enhanced cognitive processing, whereas mismatching conditions across presentation and test inhibited cognitive processing [13][14][15]. The literature on encoding specificity generally suggests that congruent conditions across presentation and test produce the best retrieval, and the literature that generalizes the principle to different stimuli and conditions is fairly extensive [16][17][18][19]. ...
... The results of the current study provide some support for Tulving and Thomson's (1973) claim that encoding specificity pertains to "all known phenomena of episodic memory and retrieval" [13]. The results of the current study replicate a large body of work on encoding specificity showing superior retrieval for matching conditions across presentation and test across a variety of manipulations [13,18,[20][21][22][25][26][27][28][29]. ...
... The results of the current study provide some support for Tulving and Thomson's (1973) claim that encoding specificity pertains to "all known phenomena of episodic memory and retrieval" [13]. The results of the current study replicate a large body of work on encoding specificity showing superior retrieval for matching conditions across presentation and test across a variety of manipulations [13,18,[20][21][22][25][26][27][28][29]. These results also extend the results of Ray and Reingold (2003) who demonstrated persistent encoding specificity across different retention intervals as well [29]. ...
... As the synopses were present at learning, but not at test, this mismatching of synopses conditions could have produced the low recognition. Rather than supporting elaborative processing models, the results for synopses seem to support encoding specificity, such that matching conditions at presentation and test (i.e., absence of headline synopses) enhanced cognitive processing, whereas mismatching conditions across presentation and test inhibited cognitive processing [13][14][15]. The literature on encoding specificity generally suggests that congruent conditions across presentation and test produce the best retrieval, and the literature that generalizes the principle to different stimuli and conditions is fairly extensive [16][17][18][19]. ...
... The results of the current study provide some support for Tulving and Thomson's (1973) claim that encoding specificity pertains to "all known phenomena of episodic memory and retrieval" [13]. The results of the current study replicate a large body of work on encoding specificity showing superior retrieval for matching conditions across presentation and test across a variety of manipulations [13,18,[20][21][22][25][26][27][28][29]. ...
... The results of the current study provide some support for Tulving and Thomson's (1973) claim that encoding specificity pertains to "all known phenomena of episodic memory and retrieval" [13]. The results of the current study replicate a large body of work on encoding specificity showing superior retrieval for matching conditions across presentation and test across a variety of manipulations [13,18,[20][21][22][25][26][27][28][29]. These results also extend the results of Ray and Reingold (2003) who demonstrated persistent encoding specificity across different retention intervals as well [29]. ...
... Memory researchers have long known that context matters for retrieval. Contextual cues are often implemented to help individuals recall seemingly-forgotten details in episodic memory (encoding specificity principle; Thomson & Tulving, 1970), including to facilitate eyewitness recall during investigative interviews (context reinstatement; Geiselman, Fisher, MacKinnon, & Holland, 1986). It has been hypothesised that these cues work because the retrieval of a memory is dependent upon the way it was stored, and an item in episodic memory is, by nature, nested within our experience of the relevant event (Polyn, Norman, & Kahana, 2009;Tulving & Thomson, 1973). ...
... Second, we randomised pairing of faces so that likeness between the faces (i.e., age, impression of personality, etc.) could not provide clues to correct answers. Following cued recognition and the encoding specificity principles (Thomson & Tulving, 1970), we expected in both experiments to see hit rates increase when a correct cue was presented compared with either an incorrect cue or no cue at all. However, this was not the case. ...
... It is interesting to note that the failure to increase hit rates arose in an experiment when face context was isolated from the possibility of placement context and intuitive impressions of couples belonging together. The encoding specificity principle asserts that contextual information is more important than semantic information in cuing (Thomson & Tulving, 1970); If contextual cuing is useful for face recognition, randomised groupings of faces should not theoretically reduce the effect of correct cuing as long as the faces are encoded as context. Therefore, we would expect to still see increased hit rates as a result of correct cuing, and reduced hit rates as a result of incorrect cuing. ...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of multiple faces during a crime may provide a naturally-occurring contextual cue to support eyewitness recognition for those faces later. Across two experiments, we sought to investigate mechanisms underlying previously-reported cued recognition effects, and to determine whether such effects extended to encoding conditions involving more than two faces. Participants studied sets of individual faces, pairs of faces, or groups of four faces. At test, participants in the single-face condition were tested only on those individual faces without cues. Participants in the two and four-face conditions were tested using no cues, correct cues (a face previously studied with the target test face), or incorrect cues (a never-before-seen face). In Experiment 2, associative encoding was promoted by a rating task. Neither hit rates nor false-alarm rates were significantly affected by cue type or face encoding condition in Experiment 1, but cuing of any kind (correct or incorrect) in Experiment 2 appeared to provide a protective buffer to reduce false-alarm rates through a less liberal response bias. Results provide some evidence that cued recognition techniques could be useful to reduce false recognition, but only when associative encoding is strong.
... The possibility that our interactions with the environment participates in the feeling of pastness is supported by the early work of Thomson and Tulving (1970) and Tulving and Thompson (1973) who established that when we process an item we integrate in the same construct not only various information related to the stimulus (i.e., perceptual features, meaning, etc.), but also those related to the context in which the item is processed (Mandler, 1980(Mandler, , 1981Smith, 1994). If this is correct, we can consider that the features of our interactions with our environment, in particular those associated with our gestures, is part of this construct. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the field of memory, it is now admitted that an experience of memory is not only the consequence of the activation of a precise content, but also results from an inference associated with the transfer of the manner in which the process was carried out (i.e., fluency) in addition to the transfer of the process itself. The aim of this work was to show that experience of memory is also associated with the fluency that is due to the transfer of a processing carried out in our past interactions with our environment, independently the fluency associated with the stimulus in progress. First, participants performed a perceptual discrimination task (geometric shapes: circle or square) that involves a fluent or a non-fluent gesture to respond. Motor fluency vs. non-fluency was implicitly associated with the colour of the geometric shapes. Second, participants had to perform a classical memory recognition task. During the recognition phase, items appeared either with the colour associated with motor fluency or with the colour associated with motor non-fluency. We used a Go–NoGo task to avoid having a confused factor (response space). Results show that items were better recognised with a colour associated with motor fluency than with a colour associated with non-motor fluency. These findings support the idea that an experience of memory is also associated with the transfer of the motor feeling of fluency linked to our past interactions with the environment.
... Dieser Abschnitt präsentiert erste Ergebnisse der Pilotstudie anhand der phoneti- Thomson & Tulving (1970) eingeführte Encoding Spe-cificity Principle, dem zufolge sog. retrieval cues genutzt werden, um Erinnerungen, z. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In der gegenwärtigen fremdsprachendidaktischen Diskussion nimmt die Frage nach Chancen und Herausforderungen, die mit der Nutzung digitaler Tools verbunden sind, großen Raum ein. Verstärkt wird dies nicht zuletzt dadurch, dass Lehrkräfte spätestens seit den durch die Corona-Pandemie bedingten Schulschließungen im März 2020 schlicht und einfach gezwungen waren, sich mit dieser Thematik auseinanderzusetzen. Der Beitrag fokussiert die Schulfremdsprache Französisch und nimmt dabei insbesondere den Erwerb der Prosodie in den Blick. Ziel ist es, exemplarisch aufzuzeigen, wie deutsch-türkische Französischlernende durch die Verwendung digitaler Tools und im Rahmen eines autonomen Lernprozesses hinsichtlich der Produktion von Intonationskonturen im Französischen als Fremdsprache unterstützt werden können. Ausgangspunkt hierfür ist der Befund, dass die Herkunftssprache Türkisch (im Gegensatz zum Deutschen) mit dem Französischen gewisse segmentale und prosodische Merkmale teilt, die für den Erwerb der zielsprachlichen Lautung jedoch kaum nutzbar gemacht werden. Um bei bilingualen Französischlernenden vermehrt positiven Transfer aus der Herkunftssprache Türkisch in die Fremdsprache zu fördern, wurde ein Modul mit sieben Lerneinheiten zum Prosodie-Erwerb entwickelt und mit sieben deutsch-türkischen Französischlernenden im Alter von 15-17 Jahren erprobt. Mit dem Ziel, eventuelle Auswirkungen des Lernmoduls auf die Sprachproduktion der Lernenden in der Fremdsprache sowie auf deren Motivation, Französisch zu lernen, zu erfassen, wurden mit allen Versuchspersonen vor und nach der Durchführung Sprachaufnahmen gemacht und ein semi-fokussiertes Interview geführt.
... Although revision is an avenue for increasing note quantity (Luo et al., 2016), its benefit depends on learners recalling and adding missing lecture ideas to their notes when revising. As discussed by Luo et al. (2016), lecture ideas recorded in learners' notes can serve as retrieval cues (Thomson & Tulving, 1970;Tulving & Osler, 1968) during revision to prompt recall of lecture ideas that went unrecorded during the lecture. However, prior research suggests that two factors might affect how well lecture notes serve as retrieval cues during revision: note completeness and note-taking medium. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many college students believe that typing lecture notes on computers produces better notes and higher achievement than handwritten lecture notes on paper. The few studies investigating computer versus longhand note taking yielded mixed note-taking and achievement findings. The present study investigated computer versus longhand note taking but permitted note takers to revise or recopy notes during pauses interspersed throughout the lecture. Moreover, the present study analyzed notes recorded while a lecture was ongoing and following revision pauses to determine if lecture ideas and images were recorded completely or partially. Findings did not support the belief that computers aid note taking and achievement and, instead, favored longhand note taking and revision. Computer and longhand note takers recorded a comparable number of complete and partial ideas in notes while the lecture was ongoing, but longhand note takers recorded more lecture images. Among note revisers, longhand note takers added three-times-as-many complete ideas to their notes during revision as computer note takers—an important finding because note completeness predicted achievement. Achievement results showed that longhand note takers who revised notes scored more than half a letter grade higher on a lecture posttest than computer note takers who revised notes. Present findings suggest that college instructors should provide students with revision pauses to improve note taking and achievement and encourage students to record and revise notes using the longhand method. Finally, regarding the computer versus longhand note-taking debate, the need to investigate further the interplay between note-taking medium and lesson material is discussed.
... Context-dependent memory refers to the improvement in memory performance when the contexts (information aside from the focal, target information) of encoding and retrieval match (Tulving, 1974; for overviews, see e.g., Isarida and Isarida, 2014;Smith, 1994;Smith and Vela, 2001). The presence/re-representation of the encoding context at test helps to remember by providing a set of cues at retrieval (Thomson and Tulving, 1970;Tulving and Thompson, 1973). ...
Article
Full-text available
Context-dependent episodic memory is typically investigated using tasks in which retrieval occurs either in the reinstated context of encoding or in a completely new context. A fundamental question of episodic memory models is the level of detail in episodic memory representations containing contextual information about the encoded event. The present study examined whether memory is affected when the contexts of encoding and retrieval are highly similar but not exactly the same. At encoding, participants saw unique object images presented on the background of unique context scene images. On a surprise recognition test, the objects were either old or visually similar to ones seen at encoding (lure stimuli). The objects were presented on either the old or a lure context image; the lure context image was visually similar to the corresponding object's encoding context. Context reinstatement increased the hit rate for the old objects, but also increased the false alarm for the lure objects. This latter finding indicates that the presence of the encoding context at test does not always aid recognition memory decisions. These results suggest that slight visual differences between the contexts of encoding and retrieval matter, as context reinstatement leads to a tendency to respond Old even in case of small differences in the old and lure contexts.
... In general, strong associates of targets might be expected to be more effective cues for target recall than mediators related to the original cues. However, studies testing the encoding specificity principle (Thomson & Tulving, 1970) have found that weak associates can be more effective than strong associates. If testing activates associates of targets, then new cues strongly related to targets should be more effective cues for target recall following testing than restudy. ...
Article
Memory for paired-associate words is facilitated by interim testing relative to restudy. According to the mediator effectiveness hypothesis, the benefit of retrieval practice is a consequence of the activation of a mediator word linking the cue and target. Evidence for the activation of cue-related mediators stems from the finding that mediators are more effective at prompting recall of target words than are words not associated with the original cue, a pattern that is larger following testing than restudy. The benefit of testing for the unstudied cues at the final test is referred to as transfer of test-enhanced learning. One goal of the current study was to examine whether the activation of mediators leads to the recall of targets indirectly via the original cues in a process known as backward chaining. We indexed backward chaining with the probability of incorrectly recalling a trial-specific original cue in place of a target. The second goal was to explore whether testing would yield a transfer effect for cues associated with target words. In four experiments, following an initial study of weakly related word pairs (e.g., Mother–CHILD), participants either restudied the pairs or attempted to recall the target given the original cue (e.g., Mother). On a final cued-recall test, participants were presented with unstudied cues that were related to either the original cue (semantic mediators, e.g., Father) or the target (target-related cues, e.g., Baby). The type of new cue presented on the final test was varied either between subjects (Experiment 1) or mixed within a list (Experiments 2, 3, and 4). Mixing mediators and target-related cues reduced the transfer of test-enhanced learning and increased the likelihood of recalling the original cues when shown a mediator. These results challenge the assumptions of the mediator effectiveness hypothesis.
... It has been found when word pairs were used instead of objects [52], when the rooms were separated by transparent "glass" walls allowing participants to preview the next location [54], when recall was tested as opposed to recognition [55], and for both younger and older adults [56]. Furthermore, the effect does not appear to be simply due to context-dependent memory which would suggest that returning to the location where information was initially learned would improve recall [e.g., 57,58], as memory was affected even when individuals were tested in the original room of encoding [51]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Misinformation regarding the cause of an event often continues to influence an individual’s event-related reasoning, even after they have received a retraction. This is known as the continued influence effect (CIE). Dominant theoretical models of the CIE have suggested the effect arises primarily from failures to retrieve the correction. However, recent research has implicated information integration and memory updating processes in the CIE. As a behavioural test of integration, we applied an event segmentation approach to the CIE paradigm. Event segmentation theory suggests that incoming information is parsed into distinct events separated by event boundaries, which can have implications for memory. As such, when an individual encodes an event report that contains a retraction, the presence of event boundaries should impair retraction integration and memory updating, resulting in an enhanced CIE. Experiments 1 and 2 employed spatial event segmentation boundaries in an attempt to manipulate the ease with which a retraction can be integrated into a participant’s mental event model. While Experiment 1 showed no impact of an event boundary, Experiment 2 yielded evidence that an event boundary resulted in a reduced CIE. To the extent that this finding reflects enhanced retrieval of the retraction relative to the misinformation, it is more in line with retrieval accounts of the CIE.
... Seminal research on memory indicates that enhancing the quality of encoding cues can improve later retrieval of the studied information (Craik & Tulving, 1975;Fisher & Craik, 1977;Thomson & Tulving, 1970). Indeed, increasing the meaningfulness and distinctiveness of a stranger has been shown to enhance various types of memory. ...
Article
Full-text available
Are there effective mechanisms that can be used to remember someone's name? The production effect is a phenomenon that exemplifies memory's robust benefit for studied words or phrases that have been spoken out loud, as opposed to only hearing or seeing them. However, this robust effect has not yet been identified for face-name pairings. The present study seeks to examine the boundary conditions of the production effect in face-name pairings by incorporating the additional cue of valenced adjectives. Participants were presented with facial images and a sentence stating the name and a description of the individual. Sentences were learned in one of four ways: saying the sentence out loud, reading it silently, reading it while hearing it, or only listening to the sentence presented while viewing the face. Memory for the face, name, and adjective combinations were tested using various types of cues: face only (Experiment 1a), or face and name or adjective (Experiment 1b & Experiment 2). Results replicate the lack of a production effect for face-name memory, and instead support a reverse effect for such stimuli. These findings indicate the unique processing of faces and highlight boundary conditions of the production effect.
... The encoding specificity principle is a fundamental learning principle which has stood the test of time, helping to explain why learning is enhanced when the cognitive processes during study (i.e., encoding) are similar to those which are required during the actual competition or test phase (i.e., retrieval; Thomson & Tulving, 1970;Tulving & Thomson, 1973). Designing practice to maximize transfer is heavily embedded within a cognitive processing account of learning. ...
Article
Full-text available
The challenge-point framework as a model for thinking about motor learning was first proposed in 2004. Although it has been well-cited, surprisingly this framework has not made its way into much of the applied sport science literature. One of the reasons for this omission is that the original framework had not been encapsulated into a paper accessible for sports practitioners. The framework had mostly a theoretical focus, providing a mechanistic summary of motor learning research. Our aims in this paper were to explain and elaborate on the challenge point framework to present an applied framework guiding practice design. We connect the framework to other theories that involve predictive coding, where information is attended when it disconfirms current predictions, providing a strong signal for learning. We also consider how two new dimensions (learners’ motivation and practice specificity) need to be considered when designing practice settings. By moving around the different dimensions of functional difficulty, motivation, and specificity, coaches can optimize practice to achieve different learning goals. Specifically, we present three general “types” of practice: practice to learn, to transfer to competition, and to maintain current skills. Practical examples are given to illustrate how this framework can inform coach practice.
... This result is consistent with previous suggestions that the benefits of rehearsal tend to be most apparent on tests with cues matching those that were originally trained and practiced (i.e., on same probe tests 11,40,41 ). Such findings may reflect a feature of the encoding specificity principle: Because the initial encoding process biases the meaning of the items to the original cue, a different final test probe would be expected to reduce recall probability 23,42 . Indeed, the more strongly that a target is associated with its original cue, the more detrimental the effect of shifting cues should be 43 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Suppression-induced forgetting (SIF) refers to a memory impairment resulting from repeated attempts to stop the retrieval of unwanted memory associates. SIF has become established in the literature through a growing number of reports built upon the Think/No-Think (TNT) paradigm. Not all individuals and not all reported experiments yield reliable forgetting, however. Given the reliance on task instructions to motivate participants to suppress target memories, such inconsistencies in SIF may reasonably owe to differences in compliance or expectations as to whether they will again need to retrieve those items (on, say, a final test). We tested these possibilities on a large (N = 497) sample of TNT participants. In addition to successfully replicating SIF, we found that the magnitude of the effect was significantly and negatively correlated with participants’ reported compliance during the No-Think trials. This pattern held true on both same- and independent-probe measures of forgetting, as well as when the analysis was conditionalized on initial learning. In contrast, test expectancy was not associated with SIF. Supporting previous intuition and more limited post-hoc examinations, this study provides robust evidence that a lack of compliance with No-Think instructions significantly compromises SIF. As such, it suggests that diminished effects in some studies may owe, at least in part, to non-compliance—a factor that should be carefully tracked and/or controlled. Motivated forgetting is possible, provided that one is sufficiently motivated and capable of following the task instructions.
... For example, the phenomenon of encoding specificity links memory effects to the consistency between the context in which information or skills are learned and the context in which this knowledge is recalled (S. M. Smith & Vela, 2001;Thomson & Tulving, 1970;Tulving & Thomson, 1973). The original setting in which information is learned is thought to provide individuals with a wide array of peripheral retrieval cues, thereby increasing the accessibility of these learned concepts among those who stay in the same location. ...
Article
The creation and maintenance of physical territories are behaviors common to many species, including humans. One of the most well-documented outcomes associated with territories is the phenomenon of home advantage, the tendency for residents to prevail disproportionally over intruders during competition. Previous attempts to explain this effect have focused largely on a defense framework: residents, in response to an intruder, experience dominance motivation, which leads to more aggressive behavior. In the current work, I draw on ecological theorizing to develop an alternative account, arguing that differences in perceptual activity necessary for adaptive functioning produces distinct performance outcomes for hosts, relative to visitors. Across four experiments, this proposal is contrasted with the defense account using multiple types of territories (e.g., lab settings, computerized scenes, dormitories) and multiple types of outcomes (e.g., visuospatial ability, visual search, persistence). In Experiment 1, I evaluate a procedure for inducing territoriality after a brief period of time in the laboratory. In Experiment 2, I employ this procedure to evaluate performance on a block design task, measuring visuospatial ability and perspective taking. In Experiment 3, I assess visual search ability across a range of interior scenes designed to simulate resident and visitor status. Finally, in Experiment 4, I employ an ego-depletion paradigm in participants’ dorm rooms and find that residents exhibit greater self-regulatory strength following a depleting task. Taken together, these studies represent initial steps towards moving the study of territorial behavior away from a preoccupation with competitive defense to a broader understanding of the resident-territory relationship.
... An essential requirement of almost all post-secondary courses is mastery of course material, including learning and understanding the concepts taught (Roberts, 2012). As noted above, one of the most agreed-upon findings in cognitive psychology is that memory cues help all individuals retrieve more information than can be recalled spontaneously (for further research on this topic see: Fay et al., 2005;Schmidt et al., 1992;Thomson & Tulving, 1970;Tulving, 1974;Tulving & Thomson, 1971;Watkins & Tulving, 1975). This means that cueing would actually help all students and thus has the potential to provide an unequal benefit to the accommodated student relative to their peers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Memory aids are now frequently provided to elementary and secondary school students to increase their success in achieving provincial curriculum standards. While such an accommodation may meet the immediate goal of improved academic performance it may not be warranted based on an actual long-term memory retrieval impairment and may therefore be inequitable, providing an unfair academic advantage relative to non-disabled students. Furthermore, providing memory aid accommodations inappropriately may rob students of the opportunity to learn effective study and retrieval strategies, leading instead to dependence on an accommodation that may not be continued once they enter post-secondary education. An appropriate accommodation at the post-secondary level of education removes a disability-related barrier (functional impairment) and assists only those facing such barriers; under human rights legislation, accommodations are not implemented to guarantee success, reduce anxiety, or provide unequal access to material. Memory aids improve the retrieval of information from long-term storage for everyone. As such, the current widespread provision of this accommodation prior to post-secondary studies must be evaluated critically, with such supports offered only when justified. A six-step process for determining when memory aids are an appropriate accommodation within the post-secondary setting is provided and discussed.
... This happens for several reasons (Vrij et al., 2018a). First, sketching serves to reinstate context, which itself enhances recall (encoding specificity principle, Tulving, 1970 andThomson, 1973). Second, sketching, a visual output, is more compatible with visually experienced events. ...
Book
Making an Impact on Policing and Crime: Psychological Research, Policy and Practice applies a range of case studies and examples of psychological research by international, leading researchers to tackle real-world issues within the field of crime and policing. Making an Impact on Policing and Crime documents the application of cutting-edge research to real-world policing and explains how psychologists’ insights have been adapted and developed to offer effective solutions across the criminal justice system. The experts featured in this collection cover a range of psychological topics surrounding the field, including the prevention and reduction of sexual offending and reoffending, the use of CCTV and ‘super-recognisers’, forensic questioning of vulnerable witnesses, the accuracy of nonverbal and verbal lie detection interview techniques, psychological ‘drivers’ of political violence, theoretical models of police–community relations, and the social and political significance of urban ‘riots’. This collection is a vital resource for practitioners in policing fields and the court system and professionals working with offenders, as well as students and researchers in related disciplines.
... At test they read and spelled these words again, as well as new, untrained words to test generalisation. As using the same task at encoding and retrieval is known to facilitate retrieval due to the same cues being present at both times (encoding specificity principle; Thomson & Tulving, 1970) we added another task as a stronger test of generalisation. In the phoneme knowledge task participants indicated the sound associated with symbols shown in isolation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that sleep plays a vital role in memory. We tested the impact of total sleep deprivation on adults’ memory for a newly learned writing system and on their ability to generalise this knowledge to read untrained novel words. We trained participants to read fictitious words printed in a novel artificial orthography, while depriving them of sleep the night after learning (Experiment 1) or the night before learning (Experiment 2). Following two nights of recovery sleep, and again 10 days later, participants were tested on trained words and untrained words, and performance was compared to control groups who had not undergone sleep deprivation. Participants showed a high degree of accuracy in learning the trained words and in generalising their knowledge to untrained words. There was little evidence of impact of sleep deprivation on memory or generalisation. These data support emerging theories which suggest sleep-associated memory consolidation can be accelerated or entirely bypassed under certain conditions, and that such conditions also facilitate generalisation.
... Replicating our previous work examining contextual congruency (Overman et al., 2018), this suggests there is increased difficulty involved with retrieval of associative information when contextual congruency is disrupted between study and test. Collectively, our results add to the longstanding literature highlighting the benefits of context reinstatement to memory (DaPolito et al., 1972;Eich, 1985;Godden & Baddeley, 1975;Gruppuso et al., 2007;Hayes et al., 2007;Macken, 2002;Mandler, 1980;McKenzie & Tiberghien, 2004;Murnane et al., 1999;Nixon & Kanak, 1981;Smith, 1979Smith, , 1982Smith, , 1988Thomson, 1972;Thomson & Tulving, 1970) by also identifying the benefits of configural context to associative memory. ...
Article
Disrupting the configural context, or relative organization and orientation of paired stimuli, between encoding and retrieval negatively impacts memory. Using univariate and multivariate fMRI analyses, we examined the effect of retaining and manipulating the configural context on neural mechanisms supporting associative retrieval. Behavioral results showed participants had significantly higher hit rates for recollecting pairs in a contextually congruent, versus incongruent, configuration. In addition, contextual congruency between memory phases was a critical determinant to characterizing both the magnitude and patterns of neural activation within visual and parietal cortices. Regions within visual cortices also exhibited higher correlations between patterns of activity at encoding and retrieval when configural context was congruent across memory phases than incongruent. Collectively, these findings shed light on how manipulating configural context between encoding and retrieval affects associative recognition, with changes in the configural context leading to reductions in information transfer and increases in task difficulty.
... Although recalling information from memory is critical to daily functioning, unconstrained memory searches are difficult, and often we cannot remember something even with great effort. Many studies have shown that providing a 'cue' can greatly improve recall memory (Thomson & Tulving, 1970;Tulving & Osler, 1968;Tulving & Pearlstone, 1966;Tulving & Thomson, 1973;Watkins & Tulving, 1975), and there is ample evidence that additional cues further improve memory retrieval. For example, Rubin and Wallace (1989) demonstrated how words that are unlikely to be freely generated with a single cue are almost certain to be generated given the provision of two intersecting cues (e.g., "a mythical being" and "rhymes with toast" almost always elicited the target response "ghost" when presented together, but not when presented separately). ...
Article
It has long been known that cues can be used to improve performance on memory recall tasks. There is evidence to suggest additional cues provide further benefit, presumably by narrowing the search space. Problems that require integration of two or more cues, alternately referred to as memory intersections or multiply constrained memory problems, could be approached using several strategies, namely serial or parallel consideration of cues. The type of strategy implicated is essential information for the development of theories of memory, yet evidence to date has been inconclusive. Using a novel application of the powerful Systems Factorial Technology (Townsend & Nozawa, 1995) we find strong evidence that participants use two cues in parallel in free recall tasks - a finding that contradicts two recent publications in this area. We then provide evidence from a related recognition task showing that while most participants also use a parallel strategy in that paradigm, a reliable subset of participants used a serial strategy. Our findings suggest a theoretically meaningful distinction between participants strategies in recall and recognition based intersection memory tasks, and also highlight the importance of tightly controlled methodological and analytic frameworks to overcome issues of serial/parallel model mimicry.
... The method is, however, suggested to be better used for the analysis of a large group of participants to capture a better representative structure for the targeted group (e.g., a cohort of general chemistry students). WATs are also suggested to allow insights into the structure and work of the human memory (Petrey, 1977;Thomson & Tulving, 1970). ...
Article
Full-text available
Chemistry is traditionally perceived as difficult to comprehend. Its mastery requires that a variety of concepts be linked to form an organized knowledge system. The connections need to be made not only between the concepts associated with the macroscopic level of the chemistry triplet but also between the submicroscopic and symbolic levels. Many factors influence a learner's success in bridging concepts between these levels. In this study, the aim was to identify and examine the changes in general chemistry students' knowledge structures by utilizing Word Association Tests. Although many studies have examined knowledge structures and aspects of the chemistry triplet, almost none has considered both at the same time. This study highlights the interconnectedness between the chemistry triplet and changing knowledge structures in overall student populations and in high-and low-achieving students. It provides insights on why students fail to understand chemistry and suggests ideas for future research as limiting factors were noted. (Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(6) (2020), em 1850)
... Environmental context refers to incidental information about the environment in which the focal information is processed Smith & Vela, 2001;Roediger, Tekin, & Uner, 2017). Semantic context refers to semantic or verbal features surrounding the item being processed (Light & Carter-Sobell, 1970;Thomson & Tulving, 1970). Furthermore, contexts can be classified into global and local contexts according to the associative generality related to the rate of change of the context (Glenberg, 1979). ...
Article
The present study investigated how video-dependent recognition is influenced by context load (number of items presented per context), the sequence of context presentation (successive or shuffled presentation of short video contexts), and item cue strength (length of study time). In addition, the effects of background photographs selected from still images of the video contexts were also investigated. The present study includes 7 experiments, in which a total of 287 undergraduates intentionally studied a list of unrelated words. After a filled 5-min retention interval, participants received a recognition test. In the same-context condition, the same video as at study was presented at test, whereas in the different-context condition, new videos were presented at test. With a context load of 1 item, a concordant effect and context dependent-recognition discrimination were found in two video experiments and one background-photograph experiment. Successive presentation of 4-s video contexts produced context-dependent effects in hit rate and in d' with a context load of 6 items and study time of 4 seconds per item, and with a context load of 18 items and study time of 1.33 (4/3) seconds per item. In contrast, no effect was found in the false alarm rate in either condition. Nonetheless, when the context load was 18 and the study time was 4 s per item, no effect was found for the hit rate, false alarm rate, or d'. Shuffled presentation of 4-s video contexts produced a concordant effect but no effect for d' with a context load 6 or 18. Between-participants manipulation produced a context-based mirror effect. The present results imply that video context functions mainly as a global environmental context, and sometimes as a local environmental context.
... The paper even anticipated criticisms of that work by others (e.g., Reder et al., 1974), who argued for a semantic interpretation of encoding specificity. Of course, Tulving (1968b) is hardly as well known or well cited (103 citations in 52 years, as we write) as his later paper showing recognition failure of recallable words (5365 citations in 47 years for Tulving and Thomson, 1973), but we argue that the first paper (with other research about the same time with Don Thomson and Tulving, 1970;Tulving and Thomson, 1971) set the stage for the 1973 paper. ...
Article
Endel Tulving has provided unparalleled contributions to the study of human memory. We consider here his contributions to the study recognition memory and celebrate his first article on recognition, a nearly forgotten but (we argue) essential paper from 1968. We next consider his distinction between remembering and knowing, its relation to confidence, and the implications of high levels of false remembering in the DRM paradigm for using phenomenal experiences as measures of memory. We next pivot to newer work, the use of confidence accuracy characteristic plots in analyzing standard recognition memory experiments. We argue they are quite useful in such research, as they are in eyewitness research. For example, we report that even with hundreds of items, high confidence in a response indicates high accuracy, just as it does in one-item eyewitness research. Finally, we argue that amnesia (rapid forgetting) occurs in all people (not just amnesic patients) for some of their experiences. We provide evidence from three experiments revealing that subjects who fail to recognize recently studied items (miss responses) do so with high confidence 15-20% of the time. Such high confidence misses constitute our definition of everyday amnesia that can occur even in college student populations.
... With this mental recontextualization instruction, the aim of the debriefer is to get a better recollection of the scenario [18]. "Try to mentally get back into the situation, to relive that simulation in your head. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several recent literature reviews have been published with the aim to determine how to optimise a debriefing. A main element found in these reviews was the importance of structuring the debriefing. Within the steps usually outlined in the debriefing, the description phase allows participants to describe their recollections and establish a shared mental model of what happened during the simulation. The description phase is used in many debriefing models but how to realise this description remains unclear. We provide an original tool to ensure a highly structured description phase: the “Timeline Debriefing Tool”. The Timeline Debriefing Tool, or TDT, is constructed on visual support such as a whiteboard or a flipchart. It allows for a clear description phase, makes the process more dynamic, promotes exchanges between participants and establishes a clear and shared vision of the simulation in visual support which can be used by the instructor in the analysis phase. Moreover, the timeline allows participants to discover their performance gaps by themselves, thus beginning deeper cognitive processing in the participants’ mind and promoting reflection in the analysis phase.
... Whereas the native language is typically learnt in a highly emotional setting (i.e. in attachment to parents and other caregivers), foreign languages are often acquired in formal situations (e.g. in school context). Because our context-dependent 4 memory is shaped by the language we use at the time of memory conception (Marian & Neisser, 2000;Thomson & Tulving, 1970), emotional concepts as well as norms and values are strongly associated with the mother tongue, and may not be as easily accessible in the foreign language (see also Geipel, Hadjichristidis, & Surian, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined whether use of a foreign language affects the manner in which people evaluate a criminal situation. We employed a range of crime scenarios, for which severity judgment scores were obtained. Crimes that were written in a foreign language were systematically evaluated as less severe compared with the same cases described in the native language. We propose that these differences may be due to attenuated emotional processing in a nonnative language. Crucially, this observed variation in severity judgment may also affect magistrates and police interrogators confronted with crime scenarios formulated in a foreign tongue. This in turn would have inevitable consequences for the penalty they will or will not exact on the suspect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Tulving argued that at retrieval of a studied item subjects reinstated mentally the context of the learning situation first instead of retrieving the semantically closest word. If subjects were presented with pairs of words like "train-BLACK", they were more likely to recall the word "BLACK" as studied with the cue "train", rather than to remember having previously studied "BLACK" after cued with the semantic cue "white" [Thomson & Tulving, 1970]. The process of contextualizing the learning situation as vivid, autonoetic, conscious experience of a moment in one's past of studying lists of pairs of words was called by Tulving episodic memory [Tulving, 1983]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter an approach to combine knowledge from computational memory and brain research with information extraction studies for the design of web agents is described. In developing the agent to adapt to users‟ search preferences, a neuro-cognitive model of human episodic memory is employed. Our work relates to other models, yet focuses on more experiential, rather than rational agent knowledge formation. Our studies aim at showing that neuro-realistic models, capable of abstraction of meaningful fragments of knowledge, rather than snapshots of the retrieved web pages, are closer to the human way of interacting with the web and can be used for optimization of agent performance. We have hypothesized that the process of episodic learning in web environment is both navigational and autobiographical at the same time. Navigation focuses on the optimization of the trajectory (the traversed links) to a desired goal for subsequent reuse of the shortest path to reach the same goal. With using the web for educational purposes, for example, the situation is different in terms of the cognitive functions and memorizing strategies that are involved, including their autobiographical elements. We have previously investigated the elements of the search path that have been stored by an agent for subsequent retrieval of the search goal. We have also investigated the nature of the search goal for a learner on the web and the utility of a neuro-cognitive agent for assisting user knowledge search.
... Two basic assumptions underlie the model, first, that recall is not possible without undergoing a recognition stage, and, second that recall cued by unrelated studied words is always mediated by generation of strong associates of the target even if they were not presented in the study list. Thomson and Tulving (1970), on the other hand, provided evidence that weak associates can be more effective cues if they were present at study than strong extralist associates of the targets. For example, train, if paired at study with BLACK was more effective for recall of BLACK than the nonstudied extralist strong associate white. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This course is an attempt to summarise some of the current knowledge of complexity of cognitive processing within the new "natural context" of learning-the computers. Computers are viewed as much more flexible devices for understanding, modeling, guiding and prompting the learner, than it is generally assumed. In order to be efficient educational tools, they have to accommodate both the general and the specific phenomena of learning as revealed by research on human cognition. Interacting with the computer is in essence a process of continuous education where developmental, cultural and cognitive aspects "blend" to create an educational system of mutual understanding and adaptation for the learners to gain confidence in their knowledge about the world and about themselves.
... Because memory performance can benefit from providing conditions that resemble those that were available during encoding (Thomson & Tulving, 1970), it follows that adjusting bodily positions to resemble the encoding state should facilitate retrieval (Dijkstra, Kaschak, & Zwaan, 2007;Dijkstra & Zwaan, 2014). Indeed, participants' autobiographical memory performance tends to profit from retrieval in positions similar to those in which the encoding took place (Dijkstra et al., 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Owing to advances in neuroimaging technology, the past couple of decades have witnessed a surge of research on brain mechanisms that underlie human cognition. Despite the immense development in cognitive neuroscience, the vast majority of neuroimaging experiments examine isolated agents carrying out artificial tasks in sensory and socially deprived environments. Thus, the understanding of the mechanisms of various domains in cognitive neuroscience, including social cognition and episodic memory, is sorely lacking. Here we focus on social and memory research as representatives of cognitive functions and propose that mainstream, lab-based experimental designs in these fields suffer from two fundamental limitations, pertaining to person-dependent and situation-dependent factors. The person-dependent factor addresses the issue of limiting the active role of the participants in lab-based paradigms that may interfere with their sense of agency and embodiment. The situation-dependent factor addresses the issue of the artificial decontextualized environment in most available paradigms. Building on recent findings showing that real-life as opposed to controlled experimental paradigms involve different mechanisms, we argue that adopting a real-life approach may radically change our understanding of brain and behavior. Therefore, we advocate in favor of a paradigm shift toward a nonreductionist approach, exploiting portable technology in semicontrolled environments, to explore behavior in real life.
... Although recalling information from memory is critical to daily functioning, unconstrained memory searches are difficult, and often we cannot remember something even with great effort. Many studies have shown that providing a 'cue' can greatly improve recall memory (Tulving & Pearlstone, 1966;Thomson & Tulving, 1970;Tulving & Osler, 1968;Tulving & Thomson, 1973;Watkins & Tulving, 1975), and there is ample evidence that additional cues further improve memory retrieval. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
It has long been known that cues can be used to improve performance on memory recall tasks. There is evidence to suggest additional cues provide further benefit, presumably by narrowing the search space. Problems that require integration of two or more cues, alternately referred to as memory intersections or multiply constrained memory problems, could be approached using several strategies, namely serial or parallel consideration of cues. The type of strategy implicated is essential information for the development of theories of memory, yet evidence to date has been inconclusive. Using a novel application of the powerful Systems Factorial Technology (Townsend & Nozawa, 1995) we find strong evidence that participants use two cues in parallel in free recall tasks - a finding that contradicts two recent publications in this area. We then provide evidence from a related recognition task showing that while most participants also use a parallel strategy in that paradigm, a reliable subset of participants used a serial strategy. Our findings suggest a theoretically meaningful distinction between participants strategies in recall and recognition based intersection memory tasks, and also highlight the importance of tightly controlled methodological and analytic frameworks to overcome issues of serial/parallel model mimicry.
... Researchers studying human memory have repeatedly demonstrated the impact of retrieval conditions on test performance. Within the realm of cognitive psychology, the principle of encoding specificity (Thomson and Tulving 1970;Tulving 1983) stressed that one's ability to retrieve information is dependent upon the match between the stored engram and the type of retrieval cue utilized. A related concept of transfer-appropriate processing (Morris et al. 1977) effectively broadened this idea to suggest that performance depends on the degree to which processes engaged during retrieval match those engaged during encoding. ...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of human memory have implicated a "parietal memory network" in the recognition of familiar stimuli. However, the automatic vs. top-down nature of information processing within this network is not yet understood. If the network processes stimuli automatically, one can expect repetition-related changes both when familiarity is central to an ongoing task and when it is task-irrelevant. Here, we tested this prediction in a group of 40 human subjects using fMRI. Subjects initially named 100 objects aloud in the scanner. They then repeated the same task with novel Task-general familiarity in parietal cortex 2 and previously-named objects intermixed (where familiarity was not task-relevant) and separately were asked to make old/new recognition decisions in response to pictures of novel and previously-named objects (where familiarity was central to task completion). Accuracy was matched across conditions, and voice reaction times reflected typical behavioral priming effects. Repetition enhancement effects were restricted primarily to parietal cortex-and in particular, the parietal memory network-and were task-general in nature, whereas repetition suppression effects were task-dependent and occurred primarily in frontal and ventral temporal cortex. Task context effects were also present in the parietal memory network and impacted responses to both novel and familiar items. We conclude by discussing implications of these findings with respect to current hypotheses regarding parietal contributions to memory retrieval.
... In their classic experiment, Godden and Baddeley (1975), referring to their particular case of SDM as contextdependent memory, demonstrated that the recall of word lists that scuba divers had learned under water was superior when the divers were again under water than when they were on dry land. The phenomenon has also been demonstrated when acquisition of the to-be-remembered information occurred under the influence of psychoactive drugs such as alcohol (Weingartner et al., 1976) and marihuana (Hill et al., 1973); and essentially the same phenomenon, but under the label of encoding specificity (Thomson and Tulving, 1970;Tulving and Thomson, 1973) was demonstrated by showing that retrieval of items from episodic memory was optimal when the conditions at the time of retrieval, such as context or available cues, were the same as those at the time of encoding. ...
Article
Full-text available
In susceptible individuals, overwhelming traumatic stress often results in severe abnormalities of memory processing, manifested either as the uncontrollable emergence of memories (flashbacks) or as an inability to remember events (dissociative amnesia, DA) that are usually, but not necessarily, related to the stressful experience. These memory abnormalities are often the source of debilitating psychopathologies such as anxiety, depression and social dysfunction. The question of why memory for some traumatic experiences is compromised while other comparably traumatic experiences are remembered perfectly well, both within and across individuals, has puzzled clinicians for decades. In this article, we present clinical, cognitive, and neurobiological perspectives on memory research relevant to DA. In particular, we examine the role of state dependent memory (wherein memories are difficult to recall unless the conditions at encoding and recall are similar), and discuss how advances in the neurobiology of state-dependent memory (SDM) gleaned from animal studies might be translated to humans.
... In recent years, the WATs has become common in science education research to identify and map student understanding of science concepts, and the relationship between cognitive structures and disciplinary content knowledge (Nakipoğlu 2008;Schizas et al. 2013). Word associations also allow insights into the structure and work of the human memory (Petrey 1977;Thomson and Tulving 1970). Many related studies have also shown that using WAT is a robust method since it reveals the types and numbers of concepts in the learners' developmental cognitive structures (Bahar and Hansell 2000;Nakipoğlu 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of multiple knowledge representations of physical and chemical changes on the development of primary pre-service teachers’ cognitive structures. The study took place in an introductory general chemistry laboratory course in a four-year teacher education program. Multiple knowledge representations in chemistry refer to the macroscopic (visible), sub-microscopic (invisible), and symbolic (formulas and equations). The study adopted one group pretest-posttest design supported by qualitative data. Forty primary pre-service teachers participated in this study. The results revealed that enabling the primary pre-service teachers to learn multiple representations of physical and chemical changes was effective in developing both groups of pre-service teachers’ cognitive structures, low and high-level understanding of particulate nature of matter, the latter benefitting the most. This finding was instructive because it emphasizes the difficulty that some primary pre-service teachers had on the particulate and symbolic representations of physical and chemical changes. The improvement in primary pre-service teachers’ cognitive structures of physical and chemical change by the use of multiple representations.
... The numerator sðX 1 ; E 1 Þ quantifies the cue-target match, and refers to the how well the retrieval cue matches the item. Cue-target match varies as a function of the number of matching or mismatching features between the two terms (Thomson & Tulving, 1970). The denominator P sðX 1 ; E 1 Þ quantifies cue overload, or the extent to which a retrieval cue is predictive of other items (Earhard, 1967;Watkins & Watkins, 1975). ...
Article
This study contrasted two explanations of the von Restorff effect – distinctive processing and retrieval cue efficacy, which differ in their assumptions about encoding processes. A homonym, kiwi, was used as the critical word and manipulated to either be synonymous with background items, or made an isolate by orienting participants towards its alternate meaning. The orientation was done at either the encoding or retrieval stages. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that even without distinctive processing at encoding, the von Restorff effect could still occur at retrieval in the presence of an effective retrieval cue. Experiments 2 and 3 eliminated the von Restorff effect through equating cue overload between the control and isolation lists. The results support the retrieval cue efficacy account and suggest that it is not necessary to have distinctive processing to obtain the isolation effect.
... Interestingly in the domain of EM too, the context is thought to be crucial in order to explain individuals' memory (maybe even more), and this since the beginning of its current definition (Thomson & Tulving, 1970;Tulving, 1985;Tulving & Thomson, 1973). Today several models are based on the idea that context is crucial to retrieve an item from memory. ...
Article
The SPoARC effect (Spatial Positional Associated Response Codes) has only been observed in working memory (WM) using closed sets. It is interpreted as showing that individuals spatialise to-be-remembered items in a left-to-right fashion, using spatialisation as context. Given that context is crucial for episodic memory (EM), we tested if this effect could be observed in EM by using 15-word lists taken from an open set. After each list, 30 probes were sequentially displayed to test recognition. The left/right-hand key assignment for yes/no answers was varied. No SPoARC effect was observed. However, as all previous SPoARC experiments had used short lists and closed sets, it was not possible to know if this absence of SPoARC was due to the open set feature or the length of the lists. A second experiment was thus run using open sets and short 5-word lists, which do not necessitate EM to be remembered. A SPoARC effect was observed indicating that Experiment 1 result was due to the involvement of supra-span lists and that SPoARC effects do not extend to EM with open sets. Experiment 2 also enabled us to generalise the SPoARC effect to open sets in WM for the first time.
... Problem-based learning also offers a high level of encoding specificity. Encoding specificity, as discovered by Thomson and Tulving,37 is the relation between storage and retrieval of memory. They found that memories are more easily retrieved when the context is the same as when they were stored. ...
Article
Context Athletic training educators are faced with the tasks of assessing learning styles, preparing and delivering content, and assessing student learning. Within content delivery, some educators may subscribe to certain learning theories and teaching strategies. One teaching strategy that holds potential for athletic training education is problem-based learning, which is grounded in cognitive theory and aligns with the way in which athletic training students learn by constructing knowledge based on previous experiences. Objective To describe problem-based learning, the theoretical basis for using problem-based learning in athletic training education, and provide examples of incorporating problem-based learning activities into an evaluation course. Background Problem-based learning was first introduced at McMaster University in an attempt to better transition between what medical students were learning in the classroom and what they were experiencing in their clinical settings. Problem-based learning has been studied and found to be effective in health care education and can be considered by athletic training educators. Description Problem-based learning is a philosophy as well as a teaching strategy that uses problem solving to learn both content and clinical skills. Students work independently and in small groups to acquire knowledge through problem solving. Problem-based learning challenges the idea that students need a reservoir of knowledge before being able to solve a complex problem. Clinical Advantage(s) Based on theory and research in health care education, problem-based learning can be used in athletic training education to improve students' abilities to construct knowledge, to be active learners, to collaborate, and to give them the skills to be lifelong learners. Conclusion(s) Athletic training educators can consider implementing problem-based learning into their curriculums to integrate the learning of content and clinical skills.
Article
Full-text available
Sketching while narrating involves describing an event while sketching on a blank paper (self-generated sketch) or on a printed map. We compared the effects of self-generated sketches and printed maps on information elicitation and lie detection. Participants (N = 211) carried out a mock mission and were instructed to tell the truth or to lie about it in an online interview. In the first phase of the interview, all participants provided a free recall. In the second phase, participants provided another free recall or verbally described the mission while sketching on a blank paper or on a printed map. Truth tellers provided richer accounts than lie tellers. Larger effect sizes emerged for the self-generated sketch condition than for the printed map and free recall conditions. This suggests that self-generated sketches are more effective lie detection tools when information on routes and locations is sought.
Thesis
L’anglais apparaît souvent pour les étudiants en BTS TP et BTS MAV par alternance comme une matière difficile à apprendre. L’étudiant a déjà choisi de continuer ses études. Cependant, suivre une formation dans les travaux publics, suppose aussi de s’investir dans des matières autres que celles en lien direct avec les travaux publics comme l’anglais. La recherche présentée ici a deux points d’origine: la formation professionnelle et la littérature scientifique autour de l’engagement cognitif et l’apprentissage des langues. Ceux-ci ont amenés les questions suivantes: quels facteurs expliquent ce désengagement cognitif en anglais dans un contexte académique? Y-a-t-il une différence entre des 1ères et des 2èmes années du point de vue de l’engagement cognitif et des performances? Est-ce que les facteurs affectant l’engagement cognitif sont les mêmes pour les 1ères et les 2èmes années? Quelle évolution y-a-t-il de la 1ères à la 2èmes année au sein d’un même groupe? Dans ce cadre, cette thèse présente quatre études menées soit sur 95 ou sur 46 apprenants de BTS. Celles-ci ont pour objectif d’étudier l’effet de facteurs affectivo-motivationnels sur l’engagement cognitif et la performance lors d’un BTS Blanc en anglais selon l’année d’étude de deux groupes distincts d’élèves de BTS et d’une année à l’autre chez un même groupe d’élèves en BTS. Les résultats obtenus lors de ces études n’ont néanmoins pas confirmé toutes nos hypothèses. La discussion de ces résultats est organisée autour de six points principaux. Une première partie parle de la mesure de l’engagement cognitif des étudiants. Une seconde partie traite de la limitation qui apparait car l’étude n’est faite que dans une seule école. Une troisième partie se centre sur la traduction des questionnaires et donc de la formulation des items. Une quatrième partie considère la similarité des items représentant les connaissances métacognitives et les stratégies métacognitives de l’engagement cognitif. Une cinquième partie aborde la possibilité d’auto-influence entre les facteurs. Finalement, le fait que les apprenants pourraient répondre aux questionnaires en fonction des attentes ou de ce qui est socialement acceptable sera aussi abordé comme une piste de travail pertinente.
This research investigates the role of a widely used, yet under-investigated packaging cue: the paper strip that wraps around books, known as the belly band. Drawing on cue utilization theory, we conducted a pilot study, a laboratory experiment and a field study in two real-life bookshops to analyze the effects of belly bands on consumers' responses, as well as on actual browsing and purchasing behavior. The results suggest that the belly band acts primarily as a visual cue; has a significant effect on actual browsing and purchasing behavior; and stimulates unplanned behaviors, producing a carryover effect on the assortment even if it does not alter the customer's budget.
Article
This study evaluated the effect of sleep in mediating episodic memory performances in a recognition task of visually associated and related elements. It also considered links between memory performances, dreams mentation and emotional salience of items. Two groups of participants were studied, in the wake group they stayed awake on a normal day and in the sleep group they slept at home according to their usual sleep schedule and context. Compared to the wake group, participants in the sleep group performed better in the delayed associative and relational tests. The emotional valence of the images affected the results with no selective group effect. Examination of dream reports suggested that dreams are linked to this memory enhancement. The study demonstrated how new associative and relational links can be created in memory following a full night’s sleep. Keywords: Sleep, memory, dream, relational, associative, emotion
Article
Memory disorders without a direct neural substrate still belong to the riddles in neuroscience. Although they were for a while dissociated from research and clinical arenas, risking becoming forgotten diseases, they sparked novel interests, paralleling the refinements in functional neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Although Endel Tulving has not fully embarked himself on exploring this field, he had published at least one article on functional amnesia (Schacter et al., 1982) and ignited a seminal article on amnesia with mixed etiology (Craver et al., 2014). Most importantly, the research of Endel Tulving has provided the researchers and clinicians in the field of dissociative or functional amnesia with the best framework for superiorly understanding these disorders through the lens of his evolving concept of episodic memory and five long term memory systems classification, which he developed and advanced. Herein we use the classification of long-term memory systems of Endel Tulving as well as his concepts and views on autonoetic consciousness, relationships between memory systems and relationship between episodic memory and emotion to describe six cases of dissociative amnesia that put a challenge for researchers and clinicians due to their atypicality. We then discuss their possible triggering and maintaining mechanisms, pointing to their clinical heterogeneity and multifaceted causally explanatory frameworks.
Article
When retrieval fails, what is the phenomenology of that experience? We explored different states of experience associated with retrieval failures that vary in intensity. Specifically, we examined the difference between not knowing and not remembering and the ways in which these states are described. Naïve and expert participants defined “I don’t know” (DK) and “I don’t remember” (DR). DR was associated with lack of accessibility and forgetting, whereas DK was associated with never having learned the information. To examine whether these states map onto distinct behavioral outcomes, in two experiments, younger and older adult participants were asked general knowledge questions with the option of responding DK or DR after a retrieval failure. On a final multiple-choice test (Exp. 2) or cued recall test following correct answer feedback (Exp. 3), when an initial DK response was given, performance was generally lower than following initial DR responses, suggesting that not remembering reflects a failure in accessibility, whereas not knowing reflects the experience of not having information in the knowledge base. The effect was large and robust across ages and tests.
Article
This paper reviews research and theory on human memory, emphasizing key findings and concepts of importance to marketing and consumer choice. Several implications for promotional decisions are discussed. It is hoped that this review will stimulate further research on, and applications of, memory principles in marketing.
Article
Answering multiple-choice questions improves access to otherwise difficult-to-retrieve knowledge tested by those questions. Here, I examine whether multiple-choice questions can also improve accessibility to related knowledge that is not explicitly tested. In two experiments, participants first answered challenging general knowledge (trivia) multiple-choice questions containing competitive incorrect alternatives and then took a final cued-recall test with those previously tested questions and new related questions for which a previously incorrect answer was the correct answer. In Experiment 1, participants correctly answered related questions more often and faster when they had taken a multiple-choice test than when they had not. In Experiment 2, I showed that the more accurate and faster responses were not simply a result of previous exposure to those alternatives. These findings have practical implications for potential benefits of multiple-choice testing and implications for the processes that occur when individuals answer multiple-choice questions.
Article
The Personal Background Preparation Survey (PBPS) identifies students at risk for academic nonadvancement. Uniquely, the PBPS produces individualized reports making evidence-based risk-specific recommendations prescribing interventions targeting students’ empirically identified risk indicators. At a large southwestern health sciences community college, after baseline PBPS administration among 409 diverse first-semester-fall 2010 students, fall 2011 PBPS administration helped target PBPS-individualized interventions among 618 first-semester-fall 2011 students. Group-oriented Advanced Academic Training (AAT) workshops augmented PBPS-targeted individualized interventions among 1,183 additional first-semester students during fall 2012 and fall 2013. AAT participants practiced a daily self-testing retrieval regimen to reduce PBPS-identified cognitive processing, information-, and time-management risk indicators. Controlling PBPS risk level, underrepresented minority status, and gender as covariates, first-semester student nonadvancement rate decreased from baseline’s 42.3% and PBPS-individualized interventions’ 41.4% to 16.2% and 11.6% postAAT (p < .001), respectively. AAT was designed to reduce primarily higher risk student nonadvancement; yet, retention gains did not differ significantly across risk levels, underrepresented minority students status, and gender.
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated whether odor and background-music dependent recognition is best explained by the outshining account, consisting of the encoding-specificity and the outshining principles. In contrast, the ICE theory posits that recognition of a past episode involves judgment processes based on global activation of the item, the context, and the ensemble information in the probe and memory. Experiments 1 and 2 manipulated odor contexts, and Experiment 3 manipulated background-music context. In the three experiments, a total of 384 undergraduates intentionally studied a list of unrelated words. After a filled 5-min retention interval, participants received a recognition test on paper. In the same-context (SC) condition, the same odor or musical piece was presented during both study and test, whereas in the different-context (DC) condition, different odors or musical pieces were presented at study and test. Context-dependent recognition discrimination was found when the hit rate in the DC condition was low but not when it was high. Furthermore, context-dependent recognition discrimination was found when there was a positive context-dependent effect for the hit rate and a negative effect for the false alarm rate, which is a context-based mirror effect. Failure to find context-dependent recognition discrimination occurred when there was no effect for either the hit rate or the false alarm rate. The least-squares regression lines relating the effect sizes of d′ for the DC hit rate, for the odor and background-music contexts, along with previous data of place context, showed that the effect sizes were inversely proportional to the DC hit rate. The present results are best explained by the outshining account, but not by the ICE theory.
Article
Full-text available
This study aims at axamining the factors that influence retrieval. We examined the effect of decay and interference, in addition to problems in transferring information from short term to long term memory. Levels of processing approach of storage and retrieval was presented. This research analysed also the interaction between encoding and retrieval (changes in verbal and physical context, dependance of retrieval to state and mood, and modifications in mental and physical operations). Finaly we presented models of retrieval; like exhaustive serial scanning model and two-processes model. Keywords: Memory; retrieval; retrieval models.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.