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Abstract

attempts to integrate the literature on such [unacknowledged] losses in order to explore the phenomenon of disenfranchised grief / the very nature of this type of grief exacerbates the problems of grief, but the usual sources of support may not be available or helpful society as a whole may not perceive that the loss of a past relationship could or should cause any reaction / the loss itself is not socially defined as significant / characteristics of the bereaved in effect disenfranchise their grief / mentally disabled / right to mourn / interpersonal, psychological, social, physiological [variables] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Unfortunately, the profound sense of anguish one feels after losing their pet is often invalidated, unrecognized, or unsupported by others (Kemp et al., 2016;Meyers, 2002), as the loss of an animal is commonly seen as less significant than the loss of a human, and thus, undeserving of mourning when they are gone. Doka (1989; refers to this stifling of the grieving process as disenfranchised grief. Despite a growing body of literature detailing the experience of pet loss (see Kemp et al., 2016, for a review of qualitative studies), few, if any, scholars have explored how this type of loss is communicatively disenfranchised and subsequently managed. ...
... At a cultural level, their findings suggest that pet loss is not yet fully seen as a socially acceptable reason for grief. Indeed, many individuals lamenting over the loss of their pet experience disenfranchised grief, a phenomenon conceptualized by Doka (1989) as "grief that persons experience when they incur a loss that is not or cannot be openly acknowledged, publicly mourned, or socially supported" (p. 4). ...
... In his original volume, Doka (1989) offered three ways in which grief becomes disenfranchised: (1) the relationship is not recognized, (2) the loss is not acknowledged, and (3) the griever is excluded. His second anthology, Disenfranchised Grief: New Directions, Challenges, and Strategies for Practice, introduces two additional categories of disenfranchisement: (4) the circumstances of the death are stigmatized and (5) the way an individual grieves is invalidated (Doka, 2002). ...
Chapter
It’s a painful reality for many pet owners that at some point there will come a time when they must grieve the loss of their animal companion. In fact, the death of a pet is perhaps one of the most common sources of stress that families experience, occurring almost two times more frequently than stress associated with children leaving home. However the profound sense of anguish one feels after losing their pet is often invalidated, unrecognized, or unsupported by others. Doka (2002) refers to this stifling of the grieving process as disenfranchised grief, where individuals are sometimes shamed, dismissed, or discouraged from experiencing/expressing grief. Despite a growing body of literature detailing the experience of pet loss, few scholars have explored how this type of loss is communicatively disenfranchised and managed. Thus, the current chapter surveys scholarship on human-pet relationships and disenfranchised grief in order to develop a research agenda for communication scholars interested in studying disenfranchised grief, pet loss, or the intersection of these topics.
... Boss's (2010:137) description of the concept of 'ambiguous loss'-'when a loved one is physically present, but psychologically absent'-is apposite when considering the mandatory separation of a baby from its mother. Examples of disenfranchisement given by Doka (1999) include those where the loss is not recognised or validated, especially in the public domain. Drawing on Doka's (1999) concepts, Broadhurst and Mason (2017) suggested that women separated from their babies may work through their grief by becoming pregnant again in order to find comfort. ...
... Examples of disenfranchisement given by Doka (1999) include those where the loss is not recognised or validated, especially in the public domain. Drawing on Doka's (1999) concepts, Broadhurst and Mason (2017) suggested that women separated from their babies may work through their grief by becoming pregnant again in order to find comfort. This article builds on Lovell's notions of bereavement through stillbirth, drawing upon Boss's concepts of ambiguous loss and considers how an imprisoned mother may experience loss and grief through compulsory separation of her baby. ...
... The following discussion expands upon the themes of disenfranchised grief (Doka, 1999;Thompson & Doka, 2017), the notion of ambiguous loss (Boss, 2010) and concepts of loss framed within Lovell's (1983) research into experiences of stillbirth. It is unsurprising to find prison a place of multiple loss such as losing autonomy and lack of basic provisions (Abbott et al., 2020;Crewe et al., 2017;Morash et al., 2020). ...
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There is growing evidence to show increased mental ill health in women compulsorily separated from their babies at birth (Cantwell et al., MBRRACE-UK, 2018:56). For imprisoned women, the risk of self-harm and suicide may be exacerbated. This article draws on in-depth interviews with a sample of 28 imprisoned pregnant women/new mothers, 10 prison staff and observations to discuss the experience of separation from or anticipation of separation of women from their babies. Oakley (Signs, 4:607–631, 1980) reflected on the transition to motherhood with reference to the sociology of loss of identity. Women who have been compulsorily separated from their babies experience subjugated loss out of place with societal norms. The experiences of compulsory separation, in relation to concepts of disenfranchised grief, resonate with Lovell's (Social Science & Medicine, 17:755–761, 1983) research into the altered identities of mothers when loss occurs through late miscarriage or stillbirth. Additionally, this type of complex loss also denies a woman her identity as a ‘mother’. This article offers a fresh sociological perspective on the ways loss and grief are experienced by women facing separation from their babies in prison, drawing on concepts of uncertainty, loss and disenfranchised grief.
... Within grief studies, this question hinges on what sort of loss is the most painful, losing a child, a partner, a parent, and the list continues. "Disenfranchised grief" (Doka, 1989; has received increased attention in the last decades, and with that, the losses that are seldom acknowledged as losses; same-sex partner in parts of the world where homosexuality is not socially accepted; colleagues, pets, etc. These struggles are necessary, and as argued in Chapter 2, the very the question of the human partly hinges on the question of what goes as a grievable life. ...
... In Doka (1999), disenfranchised grief is defined as 'grief experienced by those who incur a loss, that is not, or cannot be, openly acknowledged, publicly mourned or socially supported' ( p. 37). Disenfranchisement has, in due course, become a multifaceted concept involving both non-recognised relationships (e.g., homosexual relationships), losses seen as unworthy of grieving (e.g., perinatal loss, abortions, etc.), grievers that due to age or mental disabilities are looked upon as 'unable to grieve' or extraordinary circumstances surrounding the death (e.g., suicides, AIDS), and certain ways of grieving (e.g., lack of strong affective response) (Doka, 1989;Doka, 2002). Even though disenfranchised grief cannot be counted as a framework on the same level as continuing bonds, meaning and narrative construction, the two-track model and post-traumatic growth, it plays an important part in several of the studies and is likewise interesting in a sociocultural perspective. ...
Thesis
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PhD Dissertation
... Danin nielemä suru ja huuto (kuva 3) viestivätkin itsemurhan asemasta tabuluonteisena kuolemana, johon liittyvää surua ja suremista voidaan myös elokuvamaailman ulkopuolella kuvata oikeuttamattomaksi tai epäoikeutetuksi Kenneth J. Dokan "disenfranchised grief" käsitteen mukaan (Doka 1999). Tällaisessa surussa on kyse sellaisesta surun kohteesta, jota yhteisö ei tunnista, tai suremisesta, jonka julkista ilmaisua rajoitetaan ja johon surija ei saa yhteisöltä tukea. ...
... Dokan artikkelissa itsemurha on yksi oikeuttamattoman surun lähteistä siihen liitetyn pahan kuoleman leiman tähden muiden oikeuttamattomien surujen kuten sateenkaarileskeyden (ks. myös Alasuutari 2020) tai lemmikkien tai julkisuuden hahmojen suremisen ohella (Doka 1999). ...
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Tässä artikkelissa tarkastelen itsemurhan tabuluonteisuuteen ja omaehtoiseen kuolemaan kohdistuvaan biovaltaan liittyviä kysymyksiä Ari Asterin Midsommar – loputon yö -folk-kauhuelokuvassa (2019). Keskityn yhtäältä itsemurhaan tabuluonteisena kuolemana, joka on samanaikaisesti näkymätön ja ylenpalttisen näkyvä, vaiettu ja pornoistunut. Toisaalta keskityn itsemurhan määrittelyyn tarkastelemalla elokuvan esittämää kulttuurista törmäyspistettä, jossa erilaisten selitysmallien alle asettuvat omaehtoiset kuolemat asetetaan vastakkain. Näitä tabua ja biovaltaa koskettavia pohdintoja yhdistää kysymys vallasta ja siitä, miten ja millaisista näkökulmista itsemurhaa on mahdollista kuvata elokuvissa vallitsevien lainalaisuuksien ja sensibiliteettien puitteissa.
... Crime victims' families experience grief due to victimization of their loved one (Beck, Blackwell, Leonard, & Mears, 2002;King, 2004), feelings of retribution (Burns, 2006;King, 2006;Radelet & Borg, 2000), engage in self-blame (Asaro, 2001), face financial burden, increased risk for mental disorders (Amick-McMullan, Kilpatrick, & Resnick, 1991;Asaro, 2001;Zinzow, Rheingold, Hawkins, Saunders, & Kilpatrick, 2009), pressure to act according to the ideal scheme of a victim's family King, 2006), stressful court proceedings (Armour, 2002;Burns, 2006;King, , 2004, distress due to media "trials" (Armour, 2002;Bandes, 2000;Goodwin, 1997) and the need to attain closure (Armour, 2002;Asaro, 2001;Sharp, 2005). Families of defendants report similar yet distinct experiences including initial shock (Beck et al., 2002;Sharp, 2005), anticipatory and disenfranchised grief (Doka, 1989;Jones & Beck, 2007;Sharp, 2005;Vandiver, 1998), financial burden (Beck et al., 2002;Sharp, 2005), negative media attention (Eschholz, Reed, Beck, & Leonard, 2003), increased risk for mental disorders (Beck et al., 2002;Eschholz et al., 2003;King & Norgard, 1999;Sharp, 2016), distressful court proceedings, isolation, and stigma (Beck et al., 2002;King, 2004;King & Norgard, 1999;Sharp, 2005). Apart from the families of defendants and victims, others who interact with the defendant such as lawyers, executioners, and prison guards are also negatively affected. ...
... The defendant's family faces "anticipatory grief," i.e., grief in anticipation of losing their loved one to execution (Vandiver, 1998). Another characteristic of the grief of a defendant's family is that unlike a victim's family their concerns are invalidated by the society (Doka, 1989;Jones & Beck, 2007). Researchers Jones and Beck (2007) examined this concept of "disenfranchised grief" through interviews of 26 families of death row inmates. ...
Book
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This book offers a broad overview of public attitudes to the death penalty in India. It examines in detail the progress made by international organizations worldwide in their efforts to abolish the death penalty and provides statistics from various countries that have already abolished it. The book focuses on four main aspects: the excessive cost and poor use of funds; wrongful executions of innocent people; the death penalty’s failure as an efficient deterrent; and the alternative sentence of life imprisonment without parole. In closing, the book analyses the current debates on capital punishment around the globe and in the Indian context. Based on public opinion surveys, the book is essential reading for all those interested in India, its government, criminal justice system, and policies on the death penalty and human rights.
... Previous research involving grandmothers found that the loss of a grandchild in pregnancy was an overwhelming experience, with grandmothers identifying this loss as ambiguous, compounded by the grief they felt for their child's suffering. Grandmothers' grief was also disenfranchised (Doka, 1999(Doka, , 2002Gilrane-McGarry & O'Grady, 2012), with little formal recognition and limited support options. While this previous work provided evidence regarding grandmothers' experiences of pregnancy loss, it did not capture grandfathers' experiences. ...
... Grandfathers expressed a range of grieving styles, and hence these results substantiate that the expression of grief is not singular, uniform or linear, and notably, confirm that grief is not lesser simply because the coping strategies employed are less emotion-based than other styles. By validating and accommodating all grieving styles, the risks associated with disenfranchised grief, such as isolation, physical and mental health difficulties, and complicated grief, can be reduced (Doka, 2002). Applying the DPM to the grieving and support behaviors described by grandfathers can help support workers provide appropriate support for grieving grandfathers, regardless of grieving style. ...
Article
Pregnancy loss and neonatal death are recognized as distressing experiences for parents and other family members. However, no research has specifically addressed the experiences of grandfathers. This study aimed to understand grandfathers’ grief experiences, and to identify supports they provide, receive, and desire following the loss of a grandchild in pregnancy or the neonatal period. Semi-structured interviews with 10 Australian grandfathers were analyzed, applying principles of thematic analysis. Three themes related to grief and three themes related to support were identified. Findings indicated that grandfathers expressed grief in a range of ways, and emotional expressiveness did not reflect the extent of their grief. Grandfathers typically provided extensive support to their child and family; however, few supports were available to help grandfathers. Recognition and validation of grandfathers’ grief, early access to information, and guidance to a variety of supports including written materials, peer and professional support, is required.
... • Unresolved grief-a delayed or prolonged grief reaction, associated with clinical symptomology such as depression and sleeplessness (Zisook, & DeVaul, 1983). • Disenfranchised grief-grief that is unacknowledged or invalidated by social norms, and therefore cannot be openly acknowledged or socially supported (Doka, 1999). ...
... Disenfranchised grief, otherwise known as hidden sorrow, refers to grief that is unacknowledged or invalidated by social norms, and therefore cannot be openly acknowledged or socially supported (Doka, 1999). For example, if the deceased had not followed proscribed Covid-19 quarantine laws, the emotional impact of the death may be invalidated by the wider community due to intertwined anger and/or blame. ...
Article
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Counselling and Hypnotherapy: Together for (almost) the first time The purpose of this article is to explore how hypnotherapy can be utilised in counselling practice. The literature discusses the advantages of using hypnotherapy techniques for multiple issues often treated in counselling. This literature review will provide counsellors and other therapists with information on the various ways hypnotherapy can aid client issues when integrated into counselling and psychotherapy practices. The aim is to have counsellors and psychotherapists better informed on the uses of hypnotherapy and consider if learning and using hypnotherapy within their practice may further aid their therapy work. The article explores how the counselling therapist could consider integrating hypnotherapy within their therapy practice. Hypnotherapy boasts swiftness of change in the manner a person thinks, feels, and behaves. This paper will provide insight for counsellors and psychotherapists in relation to the use of hypnotherapy as a possible addition to their practice.
... For example, previous research suggests exercise can reduce negative emotion and elevate selfesteem (Abraham et al., 2016;Khalsa & Gould, 2012;Khalsa, 2013;Riley, 2004;Steinberg & Sykes, 1985). Creative activities (Bat-Or & & Garti, 2019;Doka, 1989;2008;Stroebe & Schut, 1999), spiritual and religious practices were found to be beneficial for processing disenfranchised grief (Doka, 1989;2008;Stroebe & Schut, 1999); and spiritual and religious practices (Feigelman et al., 2019;Khalsa & Gould, 2012;Khalsa, 2013;Maltby et al., 2008;Muñoz, 2015) were considered beneficial coping mechanisms. ...
... For example, previous research suggests exercise can reduce negative emotion and elevate selfesteem (Abraham et al., 2016;Khalsa & Gould, 2012;Khalsa, 2013;Riley, 2004;Steinberg & Sykes, 1985). Creative activities (Bat-Or & & Garti, 2019;Doka, 1989;2008;Stroebe & Schut, 1999), spiritual and religious practices were found to be beneficial for processing disenfranchised grief (Doka, 1989;2008;Stroebe & Schut, 1999); and spiritual and religious practices (Feigelman et al., 2019;Khalsa & Gould, 2012;Khalsa, 2013;Maltby et al., 2008;Muñoz, 2015) were considered beneficial coping mechanisms. ...
Article
Aim: To understand the experiences and perceived impact on the wellbeing of individuals attending a suicide bereavement social support group. Design: A qualitative study guided by a realist evaluation framework. Methods: Data were collected from May-July 2020 using online semistructured individual interviews with participants (N = 6), from the North West of England recruited from a suicide bereavement support group's social media. Data were analysed using thematic analysis informed by the realist framework. Results: Effective social support includes the prioritisation of building meaningful connections with like-minded individuals, providing a safe space for authentic self-expression aiding personal relationship maintenance. Contextual factors included: Societal and cultural stigma of suicide, self-stigma and gender norms. Mechanisms influencing support seeking include: Not wanting to burden loved ones due to judgement, and a lack of understanding. Impact: Policymakers can reduce demand on healthcare systems by developing tailored support groups to suit individual needs.
... When grief must not happen at all, it is disenfranchised grief (Doka, 1999). Doka (1999) explains how this may be rooted in the disenfranchising of the griever, the relationship between the griever and who/what has been lost, in the type or expression of grief, or in the type of death. ...
... When grief must not happen at all, it is disenfranchised grief (Doka, 1999). Doka (1999) explains how this may be rooted in the disenfranchising of the griever, the relationship between the griever and who/what has been lost, in the type or expression of grief, or in the type of death. In our experience, this disenfranchisement feels tight, confining, and wrong. ...
Article
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COVID-19 has saturated many spaces in loss and grief. Higher education has been saturated too, despite ongoing institutional demands that educators mitigate and manage the grief away. Such demands expose the colonial and carceral logics that operate in much of so-called higher education, logics that may often create what we call 'transcarceral grief'. Inspired by abolitionist activist scholarship, we understand transcarceral grief as an involuntary response to the surveillance, compliance, discipline, and punishment practices (or carceral logics) that have made education a site of restriction and confinement. Such a lens demonstrates how dangerous many of the 'must-do's' of grief and pedagogy can be and changes how we understand our own pandemic pedagogy. Thus, in this piece, we draw on scholarship, activism, theory, and narrated experiences to identify and work against transcarcerality while teaching/learning with grief in our Canadian and American institutions. Rather than mitigating, managing or recovering from grief, we offer a grief-facing praxis that has the potential to disrupt and reform how we metabolize grief in higher education. Further, we posit that our anti-transcarceral grief pedagogy has the potential to move us closer to the life-affirming space that we crave more than ever both in and out of the classroom.
... A lack of recognition of the impacts of grief in the months following bereavement disenfranchised students' grief (Seah & Wilson, 2011). Disenfranchised grief occurs when a person's loss is not publicly acknowledged, or socially supported, making it difficult for students to seek support (Doka, 1989;Varga, 2015). On the other hand, students were relieved to receive immediate and clear direction from staff and faculty acknowledging the need to take time off and needing extensions on assignments (Bouldin, 2019;Dorney, 2016). ...
Article
Bereavement is commonly experienced by students in higher education and is associated with negative health and academic consequences. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify how grief affects students in higher education and the types of support they seek and/or find beneficial. A search of Health Collection, Medline, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science, Taylor and Francis online, ProQuest, and Open Grey resulted in 30 articles that met inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis resulted in 11 themes focused on the university experience following bereavement (six themes) and supports following bereavement (five themes). Our review highlights how grief symptoms can have a negative impact on bereaved students' academic and social experiences. These difficulties are exacerbated by barriers to accessing grief supports, and unhelpful responses from staff and peers. Students' grief is often disenfranchised and so students learn to avoid grief related emotions, communications, and support-seeking.
... Ambiguous loss, for the children hoped for but never conceived, is associated with feeling frozen in grief, lack of support, and lack of recognition and rituals of grief. In the context of surviving a "concurring crisis" [44] of a complicated pregnancy or postpartum cardiac event this ambiguous and invisible loss may not be recognised by others including healthcare professionals and women may feel unable to talk about it [45]. The mental health impact of ambiguous loss may thus be complicated by disenfranchised grief in which a person experiences a significant loss and the resultant grief "is not openly acknowledged, socially validated, or publicly mourned" [46 p224] which exacerbates their suffering. ...
Article
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Introduction: Cardiac disease affects an estimated 1%-4% of all pregnancies and is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of data on the healthcare experiences of affected women to inform health service delivery and person-centred care. This study sought to explore and understand the healthcare experiences of women with cardiac disease in pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with women who had cardiac disease in pregnancy or the first 12 months postpartum. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Participants were 25 women with pre-existing or newly diagnosed acquired, genetic and congenital cardiac disease. Analysis of the interviews highlighted the discrepancy between care aspirations and experiences. The participants had a wide range of cardiac diseases and timing of diagnoses, but had similar healthcare experiences of being dismissed, not receiving the information they required, lack of continuity of care and clinical guidelines and of feeling out of place within a healthcare system that did not accommodate their combined needs as a mother and a cardiac patient. Conclusion: This study identified a lack of person-centred care and responsiveness of the healthcare system in providing fit-for-purpose healthcare for women with complex disease who are pregnant or new mothers. In particular, cardiac and maternity care providers have an opportunity to listen to women who are the experts on their emergent healthcare needs, contributing to development of the knowledge base on the healthcare experiences of having cardiac disease in pregnancy and postpartum. Patient or public contribution: Public and patient input into the value and design of the study was gained through NSW Heart Foundation forums, including the Heart Foundation's women's patient group.
... Past research with grandparents who experienced the loss of a grandchild due to miscarriage, stillbirth or medically indicated termination of pregnancy (hereafter 'pregnancy loss'), six months to five years previously, identified that grandparents experience significant distress Lockton et al., 2021). Specifically, these studies found that pregnancy loss is an ambiguous, compounded, disenfranchized loss, characteristics that in other research on grief have been associated with difficulties adjusting to loss (Cacciatore et al., 2008;Doka, 1999;Obst & Due, 2019). ...
... Evidence already exists of the pandemic's adverse impact on mental health and emotional well-being (J unior et al., 2020). The consequences that these altered, limited funeral practices will have on mental health, well-being, and bereavement outcomes, including reactions such as disenfranchised grief (Doka, 1989) and complicated grief (Shear, 2015), are not yet fully understood. In light of the known importance of grieving and funeral rituals, their ongoing absence prevents people from having a "chance to say a final goodbye" (J unior et al., 2020), and subsequently may have serious impacts on the mental health of those experiencing loss (Canadian Press, 2020;J unior et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic and physical distancing limitations have had a profound impact on funeral practices and associated grieving processes. The purpose of the present scoping review is to summarize the existing literature on the emerging use of virtual funerals. Five medical databases, five social science databases, and five grey literature databases were searched, identifying 1,351 titles and abstracts, of which 62 met inclusion criteria. Four themes, each with various subthemes emerged: (a) Impact of virtual funerals on coping with death; (b) Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the funeral industry; (c) Benefits and disadvantages of virtual funerals; and (d) Future implications for health and social work practitioners. Virtual funerals are an evolving resource for individuals, families, and communities to mourn in response to the interruptions to traditional grieving practices due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
... A study by Swanson et al. [10] identified that women with partners who were unwilling to talk about their loss are most at risk of prolonged depression. This failure by society and loved ones to validate the loss results in what Doka [11] terms Such emotional experiences can sometimes have a negative impact. It is important to be aware that these activities may be more difficult for some students than others. ...
... The literature reports a number of risk factors associated with poor outcome in bereavement (Parkes 1990). These are summarized in Table 2.4 (Doka, 1989). ...
Thesis
p>Evidence from studies conducted in North America and Australia suggest that bereavement increases the risk of mental and physical health problems although in the United Kingdom the extent of this problem remains largely unknown. In the community the District Nurse Service plays a pivotal role in the provision of palliative care, however, little is known about nurses' views on bereavement support or their actual involvement. This thesis presents three studies that report bereavement from the primary care perspective in the United Kingdom. The first study describes a prospective exploratory case study which was conducted with 13 bereaved people, who were recruited through primary care practitioners and funeral directors, to measure the impact of bereavement on aspects of mental health. The second study reports a postal survey which aimed to ascertain the current practice and perceived role in supporting bereaved people from a representative sample of district nurses in the central southern coastal area of Britain. This achieved an overall response rate of 62% (323) following two reminders. The results of the postal survey led to the third study which reports a series of in depth audio-taped interviews with 22 district nurses. Using a qualitative methodology this explored in greater depth the perceived role, beliefs, value and motives of district nurses in bereavement support. The results suggest that greater clarification of the future role of the District Nurse Service in bereavement support is warranted. District nurses require better training and awareness of bereavement issues at pre and post registration and to improve their awareness of available bereavement support at both a local and national level. District nurses would be suited to a role in the assessment and referral of bereaved people to other services, although a specialist bereavement role does not appear to be welcomed by most district nurses. In the final chapter I critically explore and reflect on the difficulties experienced while attempting to perfonn research with bereaved people and provide evidence to suggest that my research has been affected by a fundamental shift in society'S view of bereaved people which may explain many of the difficulties experienced.</p
... While grieving partners may find understanding within the service dog community who recognize the strength and meaning of the unique relationship, they often encounter challenges in talking about the loss of their dog with family members, work colleagues, and friends (Chur-Hansen, 2010). This places these individuals at increased risk for experiencing disenfranchised griefa loss that involves limited social recognition and a lack of ritualized support (PhD, 1999). Furthermore, when considering that service dog partners typically lose several dogs over the course of their lives, the magnitude of this type of loss has the potential to grow exponentially over the years (Wenthold & Savage, 2007;Yamamoto & Hart, 2019). ...
Article
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This study was designed to better understand how service dog partners experience the loss of their service dog. An anonymous survey was distributed to service dog partners who had lost a dog within the last five years. One-way ANOVAs were used to assess loss differences (retirement vs. death) on scores for Centrality of Events Scale, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, Social Constraints Measure, and Self-Compassion Scale. Linear regression was conducted on the total bereavement score to determine the impact of the above assessment measures. We found higher grief scores for those whose service dog died compared to those whose dog retired. Perceptions of social constraints and feelings related to the centrality of the event were predictors of overall grief for those who lost a dog due to retirement; centrality of event feelings predicted grief level for those experiencing a death. Findings suggest a need for grief support for service dog partners.
... Women who terminated a pregnancy in adolescence are seldom exposed to cultural rituals related to death that could afford them a reprieve from their grief. The stigma related to the termination of pregnancy causes many of these women not to openly acknowledge their loss but rather grieve in silence, thereby forsaking public mourning and subsequent social support (Doka 2009). ...
Article
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Background: Culture plays a vital role in resolving grief in African communities. However, women who terminate a pregnancy in adolescence are typically not exposed to cultural rituals that could ease their grief. Objectives: The purpose of this article is to explore the interaction of culture and grief amongst women who terminated a pregnancy in adolescence. Method: A qualitative exploratory study was undertaken using a narrative approach. Unstructured interviews were conducted to solicit narratives from 11 women who terminated a pregnancy in adolescence. Results: Data were analysed through narrative, thematic data analysis. Three themes emerged from the findings: delayed post-traumatic growth, low body esteem and an alteration in the development of maternal identity. Conclusion: The study intended to explore the interaction of culture and grief amongst women who terminated a pregnancy in adolescence. The researcher determined that women who had not honoured their culture because of the secrecy surrounding the termination of pregnancy had delayed healing and an altered self-image.
... The impact of what Morriss has described as 'haunted motherhood' (2018) has been shown to be long-lasting . The experience of birth mothers has been conceptualised as a form of 'disenfranchised grief' (Doka, 1999) in the literature (Geddes, 2021;Nolte et al., 2019). Women who lose care of their children to the state live with a very deep-seated pain, and some experience this as unbearable. ...
... This is the so-called "disenfranchised grief." Doka (2009) writes about this type of mourning which cannot be mentioned: mourning the loss of a lover, mourning loss from a sexually transmitted disease (AIDS for a long time) and mourning pregnancy loss. ...
ABSTRACT The termination of pregnancy, whether spontaneous or voluntary, involves an intense emotional impact on both the woman and her partner which alters their emotional world. The high percentage of women who suffer a perinatal loss, and the emotional repercussions it entails in both the short and long term, make it necessary to rethink the work of the specialties which attend the perinatal population (psychology, pediatrics, gynecology, obstetrics, psychiatry …) to acknowledge the importance of a frequent yet particularly silenced grieving process. In this article focus will be placed on the perinatal losses which occur during gestation, a mourning process which ebbs and flows, which has its own symptomatology and one which also requires its own bespoke attention, training, and therapeutic listening. From reflection and clinical practice, relevant aspects which occur during this therapeutic process will be addressed. This professional accompaniment, which is necessary yet scarce, aims to enable the woman and her partner to sufficiently work through their grief, alleviate the current symptomatology and, in the case of a subsequent pregnancy, reduce the risk of emotional imbalance in the mother, her partner and the future baby, which can lead to perinatal depression in the parents or emotional development problems in the baby.
... In this population, emotional pain is related both to the loss itself and to levels of identification with and perception of the pain of the deceased. Sometimes the pain of a suicide loss cannot be openly acknowledged, publicly mourned, or socially supported, and as such is part of the disenfranchised grief described by Doka (1999). ...
Article
Objective: To investigate the link between empathy, perceived social support, and depressive and grieving symptoms in suicide survivors. Methods: Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and the Social Support section of the Interpersonal Questionnaire were collected from 265 survivors. Relations were tested via multivariate regression models. Results: Lower Perspective Taking (PT) was related with higher levels of BDI score, and higher Personal Distress (PD) was associated with higher BDI, ICG, and PGD scores. Higher levels of Social Support were related with higher BDI and ICG (but not PGD) scores. Conclusion: Empathic PD and PT, and perceived social support are differently associated with depression and grief-related symptoms. Empathy-focused psychotherapies and empowerment of social support may reduce symptoms in suicide survivors.
... Avoiding these conversations has also been a trigger for new issues to arise, such as a "profound sense of loss of control" that is associated with not being informed and perpetuated uncertainties about the future (Beale et al., 2005, p. 3629). This aligns with literature emerging from the psychosocial field regarding disenfranchised grief, or a form of grief that arises by those who experience a loss but cannot openly acknowledge, publicly mourn, or receive social supports for that loss (Corr, 1999;Doka, 1999). As a result, it is possible to presume that for some young people who are left out of conversations pertaining to the end of their life, the grief associated with their possible loss of life may be coupled with grief from not being able to talk about this loss in meaningful ways with many individuals. ...
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In pediatric settings, the concept of hope is frequently positioned as a fundamental aspect of care and at odds with the possibility and proximity of death. This arguably fosters silence about death and dying in childhood despite evidence indicating the benefits of open communication at the end of life. In this paper, we describe the unspeakable nature of death and dying in childhood, including its conceptual and clinical causes and dimensions, its persistence, and the associated challenges for children and youth facing critical illnesses, their families, and society. We explore how the tension between hope and death can be reframed and apply our analysis to the context of medical assistance in dying for mature minors in Canada. Considering the lack of related literature, this paper offers initial reflections to form a framework for the unspeakable nature of death and dying in childhood and to advance the crucial need for research.
... Historically, individuals with developmental disability have been excluded from rituals related to death and dying (Friedman, 1998;Friedman & Helm, 2010). Research has also found that surrogates, healthcare providers, and agency staff to people with developmental disabilities can experience disenfranchised grief, especially when the profoundness of the relationship and subsequent loss are not acknowledged (Doka, 1999;Perkins & van Heumen, 2018). In this study, Susan was memorialized during a family-organized funeral service and an agencyorganized tribute ceremony. ...
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Greater attention is being paid to issues surrounding end-of-life care for aging adults with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the end-of-life experiences of two aging adults with developmental disabilities and life-limiting serious illnesses who received care in settings in the United States. Using a comparative case study design, data from three sources (records, staff, surrogates) were collected sequentially and triangulated via within and cross-case analyses. Although the setting and design limit the generalizability of these findings, the feasibility of delivering high quality care to adults with developmental disabilities as they age and experience terminal illnesses is supported. Insights are presented regarding how nurses can address barriers by adapting policies and practices to accommodate the distinct needs that arise as people with developmental disabilities age, become seriously ill, and reach life’s end.
... DRDs (Drug-Related Deaths) are deaths that occur due to the intake of narcotics, or a result of violence, suicide, or infectious disease (Titlestad et al., 2019). These losses are often very abrupt, and the positioning of drug dependence as a criminal activity within many sociocultural contexts can result in a disenfranchized grief that is not socially sanctioned, openly acknowledged, or met with social sympathy (Doka, 1999;Feigelman et al., 2020). Many families struggle to find meaning in such loss as outcomes including stigmatization, guilt, self-blame, and a lack of support from family and peers compound their sense of disenfranchisement (da Silva et al., 2007;Lambert et al., 2021;Neimeyer, 2006). ...
Article
This paper explores the experience of posttraumatic growth in families who have lost a family member to a drug-related death. Seven family units (17 participants) were interviewed, and interviews were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Analyses revealed themes that reflected positive adaptation and growth, including (a) reframing the loss, (b) open dialogue and social support, and (c) reclamation of purpose. Themes are presented in this paper for their pertinence in understanding how best to negotiate adaptation through complicated grief. The paper concludes that posttraumatic growth can occur once families begin a process of acceptance and receive support through the journey.
... The fourth theme that emerged was disenfranchised grief. Literature suggests that the experience of relinquishment is a unique sorrow and Doka (1989) described it as disenfranchised grief. And it was common among all the participants. ...
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The literature suggests long-term consequences and lack of support for birthmothers following relinquishment of their child for adoption (Memarnia in Listening to the experience of birth mothers whose children have been taken into care or adopted, 2014). But there was not any work done to study in-depth experiences of birthmothers after giving away their child in Pakistan. So, the purpose of the present study was to explore the experiences of mothers who relinquished their child for adoption. As the present study was intended to explore lived experiences of a particular group, the phenomenological research design was used to conduct this qualitative study. An interview protocol was devised to explore the experiences of birthmothers. The sample was comprised of five birthmothers who relinquished their child for adoption and fulfilled the criteria. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the birthmothers, and all the interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed before analysis. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to interpret the transcripts of interviews. Further, data verification was done through peer scrutiny, by debriefing sessions with the supervisor, and enriches the description of the phenomenon. Four main themes were emerged: Reasons to Relinquish, Psychological Distress, Coping Strategies, and Disenfranchised Grief. The study present that the experience of relinquishment has a negative impact on birthmother and highlights the need for proper measures to regulate the process of adoption and involvement of psychologists during the process of adoption. Moreover, it stresses the need for acknowledgment of the experience and psychological services for birthmothers who relinquish their child.
... Losing a close family member/friend to a DRD can have consequences both for the individual and for society. Factors that may complicate the bereavement process include the strain of lifestyle risks associated with severe drug use prior to the death, a lack of social support, disenfranchised grief, and stigma before and after the death (Christiansen et al., 2020;Doka, 1999;Feigelman et al., 2011;Lambert et al., 2021;Løberg et al., 2019;Titlestad et al., 2021). In addition to personal suffering, there are also financial and societal ramifications arising from loss of health. ...
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This study aims to broaden our knowledge of how professionals in municipal health and welfare relate to bereaved persons during the acute phase of a drug-related death. A reflexive thematic analysis was applied to six focus group interviews with 27 first responding personnel in Norway. The article describes the complexity and simultaneousness of the professional response. Three main themes were identified: (a) establishing contact, (b) diverse, supportive assistance, and (c) a complex helping context. The analysis showed that experiences from previous encounters and the deceased’s illicit drug use affected many of the professionals’ assessments, and implied an evaluation of the bereaved as not in need of emergency services or psychosocial follow-up. Professionals should be trained to understand drug-related death as a sudden and unnatural death, and to initiate immediate psychosocial crisis intervention. There is a need for further research on the perspective of professionals in the health and welfare services on the drivers and barriers to support (bereaved persons) during the acute phase.
... In the context of grief, women experiencing EPL may encounter disenfranchised grief defined as the loss of a loved one not publicly mourned or acknowledged due to a lack of social recognition (Doka 1989, Barat et al 2020. Women who experience EPL are left without publicly grieving their loss (Kersting & Wagner 2012). ...
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Background: Early pregnancy loss can be a distressing time when women may encounter negative psychological experiences. Expectant management of early pregnancy loss can lead to negative psychological outcomes which require treatment. Research question: What are the psychological impacts of expectant management for women experiencing early pregnancy loss and the approaches to support maternal wellbeing? Search methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in December 2020 to assess the psychological impact of expectant management of early pregnancy loss and approaches that support maternal wellbeing. A search of CINAHL, PsycInfo, ASSIA, PubMed and MEDLINE returned 12,360 studies; 36 studies were eligible for full-text screening after duplicate removal and title and abstract screening. Five eligible studies for review were included (two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and three qualitative studies) and are reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Results: A total of 326 participants, aged 18-45 years, who received treatment for early pregnancy loss were sampled across all included studies. Findings are presented under three themes: the impact of expectant management on psychological wellbeing; the provision of care and the provision of information. Expectant management is associated with a longer duration of bleeding and delayed return to daily activities. Women who undergo expectant management for early pregnancy loss can experience higher rates of anxiety and depression. The provision of quality information to those undergoing expectant management may help to reduce fears and anxieties about treatment. Conclusion: Women who opt for expectant management may encounter negative psychological impacts during and after intervention. Without support and essential follow up, the mental wellbeing of this population may be at risk of deterioration. Health care professionals caring for women experiencing early pregnancy loss should ensure comprehensive enquiry is made about the mental wellbeing of women who have undergone expectant management and offer follow-up appointments to monitor for deterioration.
... A further challenge is living in a society in which pet loss is not considered a real loss (Cordaro, 2012;Redmalm, 2015). This often results in grief that is referred to as disenfranchized (Doka, 1999). Accordingly, bereaved owners are expected to resolve their bereavement process quickly and adapt without serious troubles in daily life. ...
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This study examined the psychometric properties of the Turkish form of the Pet Bereavement Questionnaire (PBQ). Bereaved people (N = 688) completed the PBQ, Grief and Meaning Reconstruction Inventory, and Traumatic Grief Inventory. Although the factor structure is consistent with the original, the Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated that two items should be included in a different factor. The analyses revealed good internal consistency, split-half reliability, and concurrent validity. Subscales produced meaningful correlations with loss-related variables. The psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the PBQ indicate the measure is highly suited to measuring the symptoms of pet loss.
... Ambiguous loss, for the children hoped for but never conceived, is associated with feeling frozen in grief, lack of support, and lack of recognition and rituals of grief. In the context of surviving a "concurring crisis" [45] of a complicated pregnancy or postpartum cardiac event this ambiguous and invisible loss may not be recognised by others including healthcare professionals and women may feel unable to talk about it [46]. The mental health impact of ambiguous loss may thus be complicated by disenfranchised grief in which a person experiences a significant loss and the resultant grief "is not openly acknowledged, socially validated, or publicly mourned" ( [47]; p224) which exacerbates their suffering. ...
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Background Women with cardiac disease in pregnancy and the first year postpartum often face uncertainty about their condition and the trajectory of their recovery. Cardiac disease is a leading cause of serious maternal morbidity and mortality, and the prevalence is increasing. Affected women are at risk of worsening cardiac disease, chronic illness, mental illness and trauma. This compounded risk may lead to significant and long-term negative outcomes. The aim of this study is to correct the lack of visibility and information on the experiences of women with cardiac disease in pregnancy and the first year postpartum. Methods A qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews with twenty-five women who had acquired, congenital or genetic cardiac disease during pregnancy or the first year postpartum. Data were analysed and interpreted using a thematic analysis framework. Results Analysis of the interviews produced three major themes: 1) Ground zero: index events and their emotional and psychological impact, 2) Self-perception, identity and worthiness, and 3) On the road alone; isolation and connection. There was a narrative consistency across the interviews despite the women being diverse in age, cardiac diagnosis and cardiac health status, parity and timing of diagnosis. The thread prevailing over the temporal and clinical differences was one of distress, biographical disruption, identity, isolation, a necessitated re-imagining of their lives, and the process of multi-layered healing. Conclusion Acknowledging and understanding the breadth, complexity and depth of women’s experiences is fundamental to improving outcomes. Our findings provide unique insights into women’s experiences and challenges across a spectrum of diseases. Most women did not report an isolated trauma or distressing event, rather there was a layering and persistence of psychological distress necessitating enhanced assessment, management and continuity of care beyond the routine 6-week postpartum check. Further research is required to understand long-term outcomes and to refine the findings for specific disease cohorts to be able to respond effectively.
... All societies have set norms or grieving rules-that specify who, when, where, how, how long, and for whom one should grieve. Even the grief over a relationship that is not socially recognized excludes the griever or denied its public display (Doka, 1999). ...
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ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT The scientific study of loss, grief, bereavement, and mourning has transformed over the years. Long-held views and popular notions are discarded with fresh research evidence. The belief that grieving is necessarily associated with depression and requires working through by grief work is now discredited. The presence or absence of grief is no longer viewed as pathological. The stages and phases of grief are rejected. Multiple trajectories are believed to be at play in these experiences. With the advent of COVID-19, the topic has gathered relevance, particularly for children. This theme-focused review throws light on the meaning, types, measurement, historical and contemporary narratives on the subject before delving into the developmental aspects by age and stages, early identification, and fostering coping competencies in children. A long-neglected or tabooed area of research, this paper seeks to bust common myths and serve as an invite for prospective researchers to undertake more empirical work to augment grief literature for children in this needed area of work.
... Adverse consequences of stillbirth have also been noted for the surviving older children or subsequent children (Cacciatore, 2010;Erlandsson et al., 2010;Frøen et al., 2011) and grandparents (Kelley & Trinidad, 2012). Often the invisibility of perinatal loss and ensuing denial of the social existence of the baby Cacciatore, 2010), leads to bereaved parents experiencing disenfranchized grief especially if their loss is not, or cannot, be publicly mourned (Carolan & Wright, 2017;Doka, 1999). ...
Article
Bereavement photography has been recognized as an important tool to create memories and as a support service for parents experiencing perinatal loss. This paper explores the impact of volunteering on posttraumatic growth among photographers working with parents impacted by stillbirth. Using a mixed-methods design, 141 Australian and New Zealand volunteer bereavement photographers were recruited. Higher number of losses experienced by photographers were correlated with a higher level of posttraumatic growth. Volunteering was associated with an enhanced understanding of loss, increased empathy for bereaved parents, developing effective coping skills and a renewed appreciation of photography. Implications of the findings are discussed.
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The palliative chaplains’ role inevitably places them in continual exposure to acute grief and multiple losses, similarly to other healthcare professionals. This experience of professional-related grief has often been ignored and can be described as disenfranchised grief. However, there are different underlying dimensions within this understanding of disenfranchised grief, as experienced by hospital palliative chaplains, which are distinguishable from the grief experiences of their non-chaplain colleagues in the multidisciplinary team. These disparities are often overlooked by the chaplains themselves as well as by their host institution and their care recipients. These cumulative and recurrent experiences of unacknowledged and unattended grief acutely impact the chaplains’ practice on an ongoing basis. In this paper, I explore and expand on the concept of disenfranchised grief as related specifically to the experience of hospital palliative chaplains. I illustrate that the existing framework for understanding professional disenfranchised grief is insufficient to encapsulate the myriad of influences pertinent to the chaplains’ experience in the hospital setting. I analyse and elucidate on these facets of professional disenfranchised grief pertinent to the idiosyncratic nature of the chaplains’ practice.
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Introduction The COVID-19 crisis created a lot of problems in people's lives. Different lifestyles, mental health, communication, rituals and traditions, particularly those involved in mourning, have changed drastically. Medical staff faced numerous critically ill patients every day. This greatly distressed the staff, especially the ICU staff. The end result was considerable amounts of mental distress for the medical staff who lost family members to COVID-19 making the distress even more complex. Methods We carried out this qualitative research to study the grief experiences of 12 Iranian ICU staff members at the Rasoul Akram Hospital who had experienced the loss of a family member to the COVID-19 pandemic. We studied the effects of how their own grief experience and how constant exposure to critically ill patients influenced their work with patients. All semi-structured interviews were held in the presence of a faculty member of the psychiatry department of Iran University of Medical Sciences. The interview on the grief experience among ICU staff during the COVID-19 pandemic, consists of 4 issues: Familiarity, Experience during the COVID-19 pandemic, Grieving the loss of a family member and Effects of parallel grief. Results We found five common themes in the result of the experiences of the participants based on content analysis. These consisted of: complex grieving process, new experiences for coping with loss, more empathy for patients, change the meaning of death, and the need for support in work places. Likewise, there were 22 sub themes. Conclusion Paying attention to the details of staff members' life, gender differences, and cultural aspects can give us a better understanding and perception of their grief experiences. This understanding brings out valuable points which can help policy makers pass better laws for the wellbeing of society and people in order to promote leadership in turbulent times.
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How can academics be responsive and orientated to positive changes towards resilience? This chapter provides insight and understanding into using autoethnography and a reflexive practice approach to learn from a difficult emotional experience in response to the unexpected death of a loved one. The chapter considers how reflexive practices can enable learning from difficult emotions in a higher education context. The presentation of narratives and the discussion of findings manifest two primary issues within reflexive practices associated with difficult emotions. First, it exposes the need to provide empirical evidence of the non-linear nature of reflexive practices. Second, it discloses the overlapping parameters within the four key reflexive practices. This chapter presents the potential areas to develop within these parameters that can guide future research to develop a more detailed and in-depth investigation into reflexive learning in relation to difficult emotional experiences.
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Few studies have examined grief in medical students. This study used a multimeth approach to describe how bereavement and CG may impact medical students' educational experience and their perspectives on grief support and training. One hundred three medical students completed an online survey with quantitative and qualitative methods. Seventy-three (71%) students reported experiencing bereavement, of which 12 (18%) screened positive for CG. Medical students who screened positive for CG reported significantly more emotional and behavioral challenges (M = 3.58 [SD = 2.64]) compared to medical students without CG (M = 0.93 [SD = 1.58], p < .001). Qualitative analyses revealed that bereaved and nonbereaved students wanted more grief education and bereavement support from medical institutions. Therefore, it is crucial for medical institutions, to acknowledge that grief and bereavement may impact students' performance due to multifactorial causes.
Article
Based on an ethnographic and mixed-methods research design, the article explores the social and interactive processes of disenfranchisement of perinatal grief through the mechanisms of silence, silencing and self-censorship in encounters between bereaved women and the social milieu. The analysis finds that disenfranchisement results from the constriction of the social space of bereavement along various lines of discourse, cultural values, practice and materiality, that include: the passing of time (expectations of a quick ‘recovery’); competing discourses of loss (simplisticdominant vs. complex-subordinate meaning-making); the biometrics of pregnancy (lower gestational age being equated with less intense grief); gendered ideas of reproduction and feeling rules; asymmetries in social power; social spheres (hospital, home, community, support groups); socio-materialities and performance/ritual; and structural aspects of social and familial organization (gender, age, intergenerational and kin v. non-kin relations). These processes are intimately linked to the complication of grief by undermining support, meaning-making and continuing bonds.
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In this article I address the interrelation between social acceleration and the climate crisis. I more specifically ask how changed social practices in light of social acceleration and the climate crisis are possible by focussing on two aspects: How the incessant social acceleration of contemporary society is both supporting the formation of the underlying problems connected with the climate crisis as well as hindering efficient collective and individual action on the climate crisis. And the unfolding climate crisis is contributing to the development of specific forms of mental malaises that are only worsened due to the acceleration of this crisis. I end by examining how the feeling of anger can be understood as a social motor for changing our social practices and thus serve as a vector of critique against the sources of social acceleration and ultimately of some of the vital components propelling climate change.
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Various claims have been made concerning the role of narrative in grief. In this paper, we emphasize the need for a discerning approach, which acknowledges that narratives of different kinds relate to grief in different ways. We focus specifically on the positive contributions that narrative can make to sustaining, restoring, and revising a sense of who one is. We argue that, although it right to suggest that narratives provide structure and coherence, they also play a complementary role in disrupting established structure and opening up new possibilities. We add that both of these roles point to the importance of interpersonal, social, and cultural factors in shaping the trajectory of grief. We conclude by briefly considering the implications for distinguishing between typical and pathological forms of grief.
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L'articolo affronta le numerose perdite complesse e traumatiche causate dalla pandemia Covid-19. In contrasto con il lavoro su base individuale e focalizzato sui sintomi, un approccio sistemico orientato alla resilienza nelle perdite complesse contestualizza il disagio e mobilita le risorse relazionali per supportare un adattamento positivo. In una cornice di resilienza familiare alle perdite legate alla pandemia, la discussione si concentra sull'importanza dei sistemi di credenze condivise per quanto riguarda (1) i processi di creazione di significato; (2) una prospettiva positiva e piena di speranza orientata all'agire concreto; (3) i valori trascendenti e i fondamenti spirituali per l'ispirazione, la trasformazione e la crescita positiva. Vengono offerte linee guida pratiche per facilitare l'adattamento e la resilienza.
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We are all going to die, but in the words of Freddie Mercury ‘Who Wants to Live Forever?’ We live in a digital era, where social media is a part of the everyday lives of many. Social media platforms were designed for the living; however, they are being used to nurture ongoing relationships with the dead and are increasingly being used to discuss death, dying and grieving. In this digitised world, technology exists which enables us to create avatars allowing us to ‘live forever’ and advise future generations as reanimated digital zombies. The convergence of death-related issues and technology has become a growing and important area of study across many disciplines, including Sociology; Human-Computer Interaction (HCI); Science, Technology and Society (STS); Cyberpsychology; Death Studies; and Psychology. In our digital society, ubiquitous smart technology ensures the dead permeate into the everyday lives of the living; as sometimes they wait patiently in a state of suspension for the swipe of a finger or the click of a mouse to conjure them back into existence. Adopting qualitative methods and a constructivist grounded theory methodology, this study explores the nature and impact of the creation and inheritance of digital afterlives.
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In the previous chapters, we looked at the findings from the first two categories of participants: (1) service providers and (2) digital creators. This chapter starts by looking at the benefits and potential limitations of using Skype to interview participants—specifically bereaved participants. This research began in 2015, long before we could have imagined a global pandemic would force researchers—and many others—to use online video platforms to communicate with others outside our households. Then, through the presentation of qualitative data—and using the voices of DI participants—we begin to understand the complexities involved in the inheritance of digital memories and messages enabled by the Internet and how technology can enrich our relationships with the dead who inhabit our everyday devices. In this chapter, we will look at the findings from the 23 DI participants. In order to give context and clarity to these research findings, I will present an overview of the DI participants, which introduces you to how they are related to the deceased and illustrates the types of digital memory and messages they inherited.
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When consumers become fans of celebrities, they can form intense emotional attachments that resemble a kind of love. Although the love felt for celebrities is based on one-sided parasocial relationships, fans nevertheless experience a trauma that they consider to be very real when these illusory relationships end. We explore how fans manage and perform their break-up with a beloved celebrity brand following public allegations of wrongdoing. Building on Giddens’ theorization of loveshock – which encapsulates the disorienting after-effects of falling out of love – we propose the new concept of para-loveshock. Para-loveshock is performed socially and discursively through three fan practices: grief enfranchisement; flagellation; and indignation. Recognizing how fans perform and legitimize their trauma through these practices helps to sensitize managers to the importance of consumer identity work following celebrity transgressions. This has implications for how damage control efforts are planned and how managers engage with fans when responding to celebrity transgression.
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Disenfranchised grief can be defined as a loss that is not openly acknowledged or a mourning process not recognized socially after a loss. One can also self-disenfranchise as suppressing and not allowing oneself to grieve. The current study aims to examine perceived disenfranchisement, self-disenfranchisement and disenfranchisement of others. For this purpose, three hypothetical unacknowledged loss scenarios, which are pet loss, a romantic relationship break-up and having a psychological disorder, were used to compare self and other disenfranchisement as well as to reveal the relationships to attachment and social support. The findings indicate that the three loss scenarios differ in terms of the acknowledgement of loss, grief and social and professional support for self and others. Subsequently, attachment and social support are significantly related to the evaluations of the disenfranchised grief process. Finally, the implications of the findings are discussed.
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Miscarriage often is a traumatic experience with serious mental health implications. Friends and family members are often uncomfortable with and avoid discussing the topic with bereaved individuals, potentially making them feel ostracized (i.e., being ignored and excluded), contributing to their mental health concerns. We investigated the correlation between posttraumatic stress symptoms, perceived ostracism, and recalled grief intensity measures in a sample of cisgender women ( N = 97) who have had a miscarriage. These participants were recruited using Qualtrics’s Panel Recruitment Services. Women’s perceived ostracism correlated positively with posttraumatic stress symptoms and negatively with grief congruence (i.e., the degree to which they felt that their miscarriage process was as satisfactory as possible, given they had to experience it). Perceived ostracism also explained additional variance in posttraumatic stress symptoms when considered alongside grief intensity measures (e.g., congruence).
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Building upon Antze and Lambek (1966), among others, this chapter aims to discuss memory practices in relation to commemorations and memorials in the two post-conflict/post-genocide contexts in Bosnia, i.e. in the RS entity: Prijedor and Srebrenica. After reflecting on personal, methodological, and ethical aspects of the research on which the chapter is based, I discuss how the issue of the missing (presumably dead) has affected memories and identities of local communities and families in Bosnia and in the diaspora. This discussion is followed by the ethnographies of collective burials and commemorations. Unlike the Srebrenica commemoration – taking places at a single site at the Memorial Cemetery Potočari on 11 July – there are several sites of commemoration in and around Prijedor, including both local cemeteries and the former concentration camp sites.
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The National Memorial for Peace and Justice is the first national memorial to Black victims of lynching. Its purpose is to provoke a confrontation with the United States’ racial past, in the hope that truth will lead to racial justice. This article argues that in remembering the dead, the Lynching Memorial also allows and encourages visitors to mourn. During the peak of racial lynchings in the early twentieth century, it could be difficult or even dangerous for the bereaved to publicly mourn Black victims. The National Memorial for Peace and Justice, therefore, provides a delayed opportunity for the Black community to mourn those losses. But it also encourages visitors of other races to mourn too. The memorial facilitates mourning through the visitors’ relationship to the monuments, and the echoing of Black mourning traditions. In publicly mourning for these victims, visitors acknowledge and insist on the grievability of Black lives, something which white supremacy has long sought to deny. This article, therefore, argues for the radical potential for mourning at sites of commemoration as a step towards justice.
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This book is a detailed, wide-ranging study of what it is to experience grief. All of us who care for others and outlive them will grieve. However, despite grief’s ubiquity, what it is to experience grief remains poorly understood. Grief can be bewildering, disorientating, and isolating; everything seems somehow different, in ways that are difficult to comprehend and describe. Why does the world as a whole look distant, strange, and unfamiliar? How can it be true that this has happened when it still seems utterly impossible? Grief thus raises a host of philosophical questions concerning how we experience, think about, and relate to the interpersonal world. By addressing these questions, Matthew Ratcliffe shows how philosophical—and more specifically phenomenological—enquiry can enhance our understanding of grief and vice versa. According to the account developed here, grief is a process that centrally involves experiencing, comprehending, and navigating a pervasive disturbance of one’s experiential world. Its course over time depends on ways of experiencing and relating to other people, both the living and the dead. Ratcliffe also provides us with a broader philosophical perspective for thinking about human emotional experience, one that emphasises dynamic, interpersonally structured, temporally extended processes as opposed to brief episodes.
Article
Doka (1989a, p. 4) defined disenfranchised grief as “the grief that persons experience when they incur a loss that is not or cannot be openly acknowledged, publicly mourned, or socially supported.” He suggested that disenfranchisement can apply to unrecognized relationships, losses, or grievers, as well as to certain types of deaths. This article contends that disenfranchisement in bereavement may have a potentially broader scope than has been hitherto recognized. That claim is defended by exploring further the implications of disenfranchisement and by suggesting ways in which certain understandings or misunderstandings of the dynamic qualities of grief, mourning, and their outcomes may be open to disenfranchisement or may participate in disenfranchisement. The aims of this argument are to enhance the concept of disenfranchised grief in itself and to deepen appreciation of the full range of all that is or can be experienced in bereavement.
Article
Studies of grief and bereavement have long recognized that relationship and attachment to the deceased is a critical determinant of the intensity of grief. Yet most studies only examine the impact of death on the immediate family or close kin. There is often an implicit assumption that such close relationships only exist among spouses or other members of the immediate family.This paper considers the impact of grief on nontraditional relationships. These include extramarital affairs, cohabitation, and homosexual relationships. Utilizing existing literature and case studies, the paper discusses the ways in which the tasks of bereavement can be complicated in nontraditional relationships. While grief may be intensified, resources for resolving grief are often limited. It may not be possible to utilize formal and informal support systems effectively. Religion and rituals may constrain, rather than facilitate, grief work.The paper describes five dimensions that bear upon the resolution of grief in nontraditional relationships. These include affect/meaning, openness-secrecy, acceptance-rejection, opportunity for replacement, and social support. The paper also describes the ways in which such grief might be manifested and offers suggestions for assisting people in recognizing and resolving grief.
Article
In Kenneth Doka's Disenfranchised Grief, papers examined a bellwether of our times, disenfranchised grief. One variety is the grief felt by people with no socially legitimate right to grieve. The increasing prominence of this kind of grief stems from the extra-familial relationships that are coming more and more to constitute our personal lives. The recommendation implicit in most analyses is to enlarge the circle of legitimate grievers. This article explores the latent functions of enfranchising the disenfranchised griever. This issue is a specific case of a more general problem: the allocation of sympathy and support in any person's dying.
Article
Multivariate analysis of variance was used to investigate relationships of age, IQ, sex, and percentage of life institutionalized. These were examined with age perception of self and others and concept of death in 65 mentally retarded adults, aged 17 to 62. A significant multivariate F was obtained for age and a trend toward significance was obtained for IQ. Results suggest the developmental process involved in age perception of others and concept of death is similar in nonmentally retarded children and mentally retarded adults. Age perception of self was less substantially related to factors included in this study. Implications and questions for future exploration are suggested.