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"Why Did You Hurt Me?" Victim's Interpersonal Betrayal Attribution and Trust Implications

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Abstract

In this paper, I propose an attribution-based typology of betrayal. Specifically, incidental betrayal occurs when the trustee (perpetrator) violates the pivotal trust expectations of the trustor (victim) in the course of pursuing other goals; intentional betrayal occurs when the goal of the perpetrator is to violate the critical trust expectations of the victim in order to cause harm to him or her. Incidental betrayal is further categorized into egoistic betrayal and ideological betrayal, whereas intentional betrayal is further categorized into personalistic betrayal and reciprocal betrayal. In addition, I explicate how these various types of betrayal differentially affect the victim’s perception of the perpetrator’s trustworthiness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... The greater the perceived inequity, the more distress customers feel, and the more effort they will expend to restore balance (Lapidus and Pinkerton, 1995;Wallin Andreassen, 2000). Such inequities can lead to customer perceptions of betrayal, or the view that a relational party has knowingly violated relationship norms and caused harma violation of relationship trust (Grégoire et al., 2009;Obeidat et al., 2017;Chan, 2009). ...
... Intent contributes to the complexity in determining the severity of a relationship slight (Grégoire et al., 2009;Chan, 2009). In this case, a communal customer feels that another external party has received better treatment, which he or she feels entitled, and jealousy arises from the perceived unfairness. ...
... Because betrayal is tied to the relationship, the concept has been used to investigate slights that arise through perceptions of unfairness in treatment, disregard for individual needs and opportunistic violations of trust (Grégoire and Fisher, 2008;Chan, 2009;Elangovan and Shapiro, 1998). If customers feel that resources are distributed inequitably (preferential treatment), the development of jealousy can lead to perceptions of betrayal linked to intentional norm violations by the relationship partner. ...
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Purpose This paper aims to identify the ways that customers respond to customer-to-customer comparisons that may drive loyal customers to engage in undesirable behaviors. The research examines the role that jealousy and envy play in restoring equity through revenge-seeking intentions. Design/methodology/approach The study uses survey research methodology. The measurement model is validated using CFA, and hypotheses are tested using structural equation modeling. The mediated relationships are calculated using the bootstrap method, and moderated mediation is calculated by creating estimands to test the effects. Findings Customers who feel either jealousy or envy may engage in revenge-seeking behaviors, such as vindictive complaining and negative electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). Customers who perceive that a firm is unfairly favoring other customers develop feelings of jealousy and betrayal, and this tendency is strengthened when the customer has a high level of prior trust. Customers typically develop envy when their attention and perceptions of inequity center on another customer, rather than on the firm’s actions and anger drives this effect. Practical implications Customers can pursue revenge-seeking actions when unfair actions influence the formation of envy and jealousy through the development of perceived betrayal. Companies can focus on the comparisons that customers make to address revenge-seeking and better manage online relationships preemptively. Originality/value The paths that customers take to revenge through jealousy and envy are conceptualized in a communal relationship setting and further developed. Further distinctions of jealousy and envy are made, and the role of prior trust in enhancing revenge-seeking is found.
... It is important to recognize, however, that although major violations may intuitively appear to be the most likely to cause significant harm, minor but consistent violations are cumulative and, over time, are likely to be as harmful as major violations (Reina and Reina 2015). Chan (2009) substitutes the word betrayal as a synonym for violation, and these terms will be used interchangeably in this chapter. Chan asserts that psychological contract violations can be regarded as organizational betrayals given the breach of trust, voluntary nature, and potential for harm. ...
... A violation may appear to be isolated but, when the lens is widened, it becomes apparent that the incident is part of broader organizational practices. Chan (2009) describes organizational egoistic betrayal-that is, when the self-interests of the organization are consistently placed above that of employees. In some situations, egoistic betrayal may occur when an administrative decision is made that impacts the overall university, or entire programs or departments. ...
... A pertinent question on which to reflect is whether the wrongdoer is willing to engage in reparative actions, such as apology, restitution, expression of remorse, and/or renegotiation of values (Chan 2009). On the organizational level, this involves a willingness to develop or change organizational policies and practices or to develop new prevention or intervention programs. ...
... It is important to recognize, however, that although major violations may intuitively appear to be the most likely to cause significant harm, minor but consistent violations are cumulative and, over time, are likely to be as harmful as major violations (Reina and Reina 2015). Chan (2009) substitutes the word betrayal as a synonym for violation, and these terms will be used interchangeably in this chapter. Chan asserts that psychological contract violations can be regarded as organizational betrayals given the breach of trust, voluntary nature, and potential for harm. ...
... A violation may appear to be isolated but, when the lens is widened, it becomes apparent that the incident is part of broader organizational practices. Chan (2009) describes organizational egoistic betrayal-that is, when the self-interests of the organization are consistently placed above that of employees. In some situations, egoistic betrayal may occur when an administrative decision is made that impacts the overall university, or entire programs or departments. ...
... A pertinent question on which to reflect is whether the wrongdoer is willing to engage in reparative actions, such as apology, restitution, expression of remorse, and/or renegotiation of values (Chan 2009). On the organizational level, this involves a willingness to develop or change organizational policies and practices or to develop new prevention or intervention programs. ...
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The purpose of this sourcebook is to explore teaching and emotion in higher education.
... It is important to recognize, however, that although major violations may intuitively appear to be the most likely to cause significant harm, minor but consistent violations are cumulative and, over time, are likely to be as harmful as major violations (Reina and Reina 2015). Chan (2009) substitutes the word betrayal as a synonym for violation, and these terms will be used interchangeably in this chapter. Chan asserts that psychological contract violations can be regarded as organizational betrayals given the breach of trust, voluntary nature, and potential for harm. ...
... A pertinent question on which to reflect is whether the wrongdoer is willing to engage in reparative actions, such as apology, restitution, expression of remorse, and/or renegotiation of values (Chan 2009). On the organizational level, this involves a willingness to develop or change organizational policies and practices or to develop new prevention or intervention programs. ...
... If there is a willingness to engage in reparative action on the part of the wrongdoer, however, there is not an obligation on the victim' s part to agree to engage in the process of repair. Chan (2009) offers some helpful guidance when processing the likelihood of rebuilding trust and determining your willingness to engage in the repair process. Specifically, it is crucial to reflect on the history of the betrayal or violation and, based on that history, to selfassess the scale and extent of the betrayal, including the negative impact and the harm caused, and the sincerity of the wrongdoer' s efforts to engage in repair. ...
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This chapter explores the institutional context of higher education and its impact on faculty and professional staff's well-being, functioning, and emotions. Suggestions for dealing with academic workplace violations or betrayals are offered.
... Reina and Reina (2015) explored trust and betrayal in the workplace and presented a betrayal continuum. Chan (2009) presented an interpersonal betrayal model that proposed two types of betrayal: "incidental and intentional betrayal" (p. 271). ...
... The next big wave of interpersonal betrayal can involve incidental or intentional betrayal. Chan (2009), in depicting her interpersonal betrayal model, described incidental betrayal as occurring as trust is violated by the betrayer when the betrayed's trust expectations are ignored or not considered. Such incidental betrayal is seen as either egoistic or ideological. ...
... Such incidental betrayal is seen as either egoistic or ideological. Egoistic betrayal occurs when the betrayer has self-interests as the goal, and ideological betrayal occurs when the betrayed person is not considered due to other values or goals of the betrayer (Chan, 2009). In intentional betrayal, the goal is to "violate the critical trust expectations of [the other person] in order to cause harm" (p. ...
Article
The author in this article explores theoretical perspectives on the humanbecoming ethical tenet of betrayal. Perspectives on betrayal include betrayal as a breach of promise, a betrayal continuum, betrayal as incidental and intentional, betrayal as moral injury, betrayal trauma, and the humanbecoming perspective of betrayal linked to feeling disappointed.
... In addition to emotional consequences (such as anger), trust betrayals typically elicit cognitive responses, including an attributional analysis of the situation (Chan, 2009;Wong and Weiner, 1981). The term attribution was introduced by Heider (1958) to describe his observations that people spontaneously generate causal explanations of their own and others' behaviors. ...
... The perceived severity of a trust betrayal seems to depend to a large extent on how the victim attributes the betrayal. Chan's (2009) attribution-based typology of betrayals differentiates between intentional betrayals (when the goal of the perpetrator is to harm the victim or is "out-to-get" the victim) and incidental betrayals (the perpetrator violates trust in the course of pursuing other goals, but not because of a desire to harm the victim). Intentional betrayals typically affect the perpetrator's trustworthiness more strongly and make trust repair more difficult. ...
... To summarize, our attribution model suggests that OT should promote the use of nonpersonalistic attributions in response to the anger elicited by trust betrayals. These nonpersonalistic attributions, in turn, should be associated with greater subsequent trust, whereas personalistic attributions should predict less subsequent trust (Chan, 2009;Kramer, 1998;Morris and Moberg, 1994). The present study is an attempt to enlighten the cognitive processes behind OT-induced trust. ...
... According to some authors (8) , one important characteristic would be that distrust only emerges where trust has previously existed, so that it is a product of betrayal. Betrayal is the rupture of expected trust in a relation, it is a voluntary act by the person one trusts and intends to damage the person who is trusting (9) . Consequently, probably, a scale is produced that increased the interpersonal distance between the stakeholders (10) . ...
... The dimensions of trustworthiness can be defi ned as follows (5,9) : the capacity dimension has been defi ned as a group of skills and competences that allow a person to exert infl uence within a specifi c domain. In this specifi c domain (some technical area for example), the trustworthy person can be highly competent for good management; in a different area (interpersonal communication for example), his/her capacity can be limited and (s)he may not be trustworthy in that domain. ...
... Given that distrust is closely related with betrayal, however, heads' behaviors that refl ect lack of capacity would not be considered betrayals, given that the trusted person does not intentionally aim for damage (9) . ...
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Investigations show that distrust towards head figures has a particularly negative effect on organizational dynamics. Because of this, the main types of behavior associated with distrust in nursing professionals with leadership duties have been identified, examining which aspect of reliability is most frequently related to distrust. Based on an analysis of 61 critical incidents, selected from 90 hospital employees, the most frequently mentioned behavior types related to distrust were "Public Abuse", "Not giving permission for time off for a special occasion" and especially an erosion of trustworthiness in the leader's integrity dimension. The implications of these findings are discussed, so that nursing professionals can avoid the development of distrust in interpersonal relationships and damage to the appropriate functioning of health services.
... With peers who have CBT, the repair process can be a one-shot talk with proper use of repair tactics, but with peers who have RT the repair process resembles more a negotiation process (Gelfand et al., 2006). The repair process can be combined with renegotiation of values in order to redefine common interests and restore value congruency (Chan, 2009). It is difficult to categorize these repair tactics as either social accounts or behaviors, as during renegotiation of values both elements play a role. ...
... This repair tactic admits responsibility for an action, acknowledges the harm made, and provides emotional support to the trustor. Thus, relationship recommitment can be reaffirmed (Chan, 2009;Finkel, Rusbult, Kumashiro, & Hannon, 2002). Extensive involvement can vary between invoking the relationship, reaffirming the relationship, and discussing the impact of negative issue on the relationship (Aune et al., 1998). ...
Article
This study aims to answer the question how previous trust experiences contextualize trust repair efforts. The concepts of calculus-based and relational trust are utilized to show the influence of the kind of trust on trust repair tactics, specifically apologies. We focus on a neglected referent of trust, that is trust between peers, and elucidate apology and its complements that might be effective between peers. We propose that the effectiveness of apologies and its specific complements depend not only on trust breach but also on the type of trust prior to a breach. Specifically, we claim that when apology is complemented with compensation or external attributions, these tactics repair trust more effectively in calculus-based trust. But, when apology is complemented with empathy, acknowledgment of violated norms, and extensive involvement, these tactics can effectively repair trust in relational trust. The paper aims to contribute to our understanding of apologies and the effectiveness of it under different conditions.
... Attributions can be counterintuitively irrational such that trustors infer trustworthiness from the vulnerabilities arising from dependence on the trustee (Weber et al., 2004) or judgements of facial characteristics (criminality: Klatt et al., 2016;integrity: Weber et al., 2004). There are several wellstudied attributional biases (fundamental attribution error; self-serving bias; actor-observer asymmetry) that are relevant to understanding how people judge other people's intentionality, sincerity and cooperativeness in dysfunctional trust situations (Chan, 2009;Malle & Knobe, 1997;Reeder et al., 2004;Tomlinson & Mayer, 2009). ...
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This paper offers an integrative review of the concept of dysfunctional trust from a trust and bias research perspective. Trust and cognitive/social biases are isomorphically related concepts in their functions as reducers of cognitive effort and facilitators/inhibitors of action. In the case of dysfunctional trust and distrust, bias perspectives contribute theoretically to a framework for the study of the ‘errors’ in decision-making that lead to dysfunctional outcomes of trusting. By reviewing biases and their role in generating trust and the converse, the biasing role of trust within a trust antecedent framework, the review integrates the conceptual linkages between research on bias and heuristics and research on trust, providing a basis for further research and practical applications in educational, business, political, and media domains. The paper makes recommendations for research and practical applications to mitigate the impacts of misinformation, bias in decision-making and dysfunctional trust. Attending to cognitive and other biases in situations involving trust promises to support greater informational resilience by raising metacognitive awareness of bias and trust in human decision-making.
... 14 VAN MONSJOU, STRUTHERS, FERGUS, AND MUISE is typically relegated to the specific relationship (Chan, 2009), or type of relationship that victims had with transgressors (Lee & Selart, 2015). In this study, participants experienced diminished trust with regard to all social interactions and relationships. ...
... One noteworthy finding was that victims do not consider the factor power imbalance. This may be due either to their internalization of an acceptance that they are relatively defenseless, with less power than their peers, or to problems of psychosocial adjustment that they present, and which lead them to legitimate and rationalize the aggression they receive, and find justification for the behavior of the aggressors without the need to attribute any superiority to them (Chan, 2009;Felix, Furlong, & Austin, 2009;Frisen, Johnson, & Persson, 2007). For example, teenagers with poor self-esteem and a maladapted image of themselves may think that it is normal for others to abuse them because they are not as attractive, outgoing, or fun to be with as their peers. ...
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The criteria that researchers use to classify aggressive behaviour as bullying are 'repetition', 'power imbalance', and 'intent to hurt'. However, studies that have analyzed adolescents' perceptions of bullying find that most adolescents do not simultaneously consider these three criteria. This paper examines adolescents' perceptions of bullying and of the different forms it takes, and whether these perceptions vary according to the teen's role of victim, aggressor, or witness in a bullying situation. The data acquisition instrument was a questionnaire applied to a sample of 2295 teenagers. The results show that none of these three groups considered the criterion of repetition to be important to define bullying. A further conclusion was that both aggressors and witnesses used the criteria of 'power imbalance' and 'intent to hurt' to identify a situation of bullying, although the aggressors placed especial emphasis on the superiority of power over the victim, while the witnesses emphasized the intent to hurt the victim. One noteworthy finding was that victims do not consider the factor 'power imbalance'. The factor that determined their perceptions was the 'intent to hurt'. Finally, some modes of bullying were seen as forms of typical teen social interactions, and the perception depended significantly on the adolescent's role as aggressor, victim, or witness.
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Although betrayal is a common phenomenon in inter-organizational cross-border relationships, the pertinent literature has remained relatively silent as regards its examination. However, the effects of betrayal are both long-lasting and destructive, and therefore an in-depth investigation of the factors that are driving it, as well as its performance outcomes, is considered necessary. Using a sample of 262 exporters, we confirm that betrayal in their relationships with foreign buyers is significantly and positively affected by relational uncertainty, opportunism, inter-partner incompatibility, relational distance, and conflict. The harmful effect of most of these factors on betrayal becomes stronger in the case of high foreign environmental uncertainty and high foreign market dynamism. The importer’s betrayal actions are in turn responsible for reducing relational performance. In fact, this negative association between importer’s betrayal and relational performance is more evident in relationships characterized by low dependence levels and low degrees of tolerance by the exporter.
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Justification: The centers of health are highly vulnerable to the conflicts interpersonal product of the complex and exhausting nature of their work, representing a serious issue for nursing leadership the negatives emotional states of the health employees fruit of distrust with the nursing head. Objective: To identify the main reactions, emotions and behaviour as product of incidents of distrust with nursing head, was proposed. Methodology: 90 health employees were interviewed resulting in 61 critical incidents of distrust. Results: It was found that the emotion frequently mentioned by the workers is generally the anger product of perceiving injustice and the main manifestation is the organizational silence. When restricting their communication with the nursing headquarters. Conclusion: The importance that the nursing headquarters avoid incidents of distrust is discussed, as well as to identify the organizational silence and opt for a participative management.
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Research on moral judgment has been dominated by rationalist models, in which moral judgment is thought to be caused by moral reasoning. The author gives 4 reasons for considering the hypothesis that moral reasoning does not cause moral judgment; rather, moral reasoning is usually a post hoc construction, generated after a judgment has been reached. The social intuitionist model is presented as an alternative to rationalist models. The model is a social model in that it deemphasizes the private reasoning done by individuals and emphasizes instead the importance of social and cultural influences. The model is an intuitionist model in that it states that moral judgment is generally the result of quick, automatic evaluations (intuitions). The model is more consistent than rationalist models with recent findings in social, cultural, evolutionary, and biological psychology, as well as in anthropology and primatology.
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This study examines factors affecting employees' perceptions that their psychological contract has been breached by their organization, and factors affecting whether this perception will cause employees to experience feelings of contract violation. Data were obtained from 147 managers just prior to their beginning of new job (time 1) and 18 months later (time 2). It was found that perceived contract breach at time 2 was more likely when organizational performance and self-reported employee performance were low, the employee had not experienced a formal socialization process, the employee had little interaction with organizational agents prior to hire, the employee had a history of psychological contract breach with former employers, and the employee had many employment alternatives at the time of hire. Furthermore, perceived breach was associated with more intense feelings of violation when employees both attributed the breach to purposeful reneging by the employer and felt unfairly treated in the process. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This chapter describes the naive explanation of human actions, theory of correspondent inferences, personal involvement and correspondence, and the recent research concerning phenomenal causality and the attribution of intentions. The cognitive task of establishing sufficient reason for an action involves processing the available information about, or making assumptions about, the links between stable individual dispositions and observed action. The dispositional attributes are inferred from the effects of action, but not every effect is equally salient in the inference process. The perceiver's fundamental task is to interpret or infer the causal antecedents of action. When a person's actions have certain consequences, it is important for the perceiver to determine whether the person was capable of producing these consequences in response to his intentions. Where an actor fails to produce certain effects that might have been anticipated by the perceiver, there may be ambiguity as to whether the actor did not want to produce the effects, or wanted but was not able to. The attribution of intentions is that actions are informative to the extent that they have emerged out of a context of choice and reflect a selection of one among plural alternatives. However, the distinctiveness of the effects achieved and the extent to which they do not represent stereotypic cultural values, determine the likelihood that information about the actor can be extracted from an action. To say that an inference is correspondent, then, is to say that a disposition is being rather directly reflected in behavior, and that this disposition is unusual in its strength or intensity. In-role behavior is supported by too many reasons to be informative about the actor. However, out-of-role behavior is more informative because the effects of such actions are distinctive and not to be dismissed as culturally desirable.
Article
Examples of violations or betrayals of trust in organizations abound. Despite growing concern in organizations, relatively little theory exists regarding the dynamics of trust violations from the perpetrator's (rather than the victim's) perspective. We adopt the betrayer's perspective in this article and, drawing from multiple literatures, offer a conceptualization of betrayal, differentiating it from deviant and antisocial behaviors in organizations. Next, we propose a:typology of betrayal before focusing on the most common form: opportunistic betrayal. We then develop ct model of its antecedents and moderators and highlight the intrapersonal-; interpersonal-, and organization-level characteristics of the model's components. We end by discussing implications for theory, research, and practice.
Article
The antecedents of victim willingness to reconcile a professional relationship following an incident involving a broken promise were examined in terms of offender tactics (i.e., nature of apology, timeliness of reparative act, sincerity) and relationship characteristics (i.e., nature of past relationship, probability of future violation) using a within- and between-subjects policy-capturing design. Relatively speaking, relationship characteristics were as strongly related to willingness to reconcile as offender tactics. Furthermore, we found moderating effects of magnitude of violation on the willingness to reconcile a relationship following a trust violation. In particular, nature of past relationship was weighed more heavily, whereas probability of future violation was weighed less heavily when the magnitude of the violation was greater. Practical implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Article
• As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
While previous research suggests that employees rarely believe organizations keep all of the commitments made to them, only in some cases do employees perceive these unfulfilled commitments as psychological contract violations and make active attempts to “get even” with their employers for the betrayal. This article presents a discrepancy model for understanding when employees will perceive unfulfilled commitments as psychological contract violations and for understanding when employees will respond in a hostile manner to those violations. Among other factors, the sources of employees' expectations, the specific contract elements on which discrepancies occur, and the magnitude and timing of the unfulfilled commitments are all posited as important contributors to perceptions of psychological contract violations. Then, individual differences, organizational practices, and labor market factors are examined as important moderators of how strongly employees respond to perceived psychological contract violations. The article concludes with directions for future theoretical and empirical research on psychological contract violations and employees' reactions to them.
Chapter
Attribution theory is concerned with the attempts of ordinary people to understand the causes and implications of the events they witness. It deals with the “naive psychology” of the “man in the street” as he interprets his own behaviors and the actions of others. For man—in the perspective of attribution theory—is an intuitive psychologist who seeks to explain behavior and draw inferences about actors and their environments. To better understand the perceptions and actions of this intuitive scientist, his methods must be explored. The sources of oversight, error, or bias in his assumptions and procedures may have serious consequences, both for the lay psychologist himself and for the society that he builds and perpetuates. These shortcomings, explored from the vantage point of contemporary attribution theory, are the focus of the chapter. The logical or rational schemata employed by intuitive psychologists and the sources of bias in their attempts at understanding, predicting, and controlling the events that unfold around them are considered. Attributional biases in the psychology of prediction, perseverance of social inferences and social theories, and the intuitive psychologist's illusions and insights are described.
Article
Presents a summary and synthesis of the author's work on attribution theory concerning the mechanisms involved in the process of causal explanations. The attribution theory is related to studies of social perception, self-perception, and psychological epistemology. Two systematic statements of attribution theory are described, discussed, and illustrated with empirical data: the covariation and the configuration concepts. Some problems for attribution theory are considered, including the interplay between preconceptions and new information, simple vs. complex schemata, attribution of covariation among causes, and illusions in attributions. The role of attribution in decision making and behavior is discussed. (56 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the trustor's responsibility‐attributions for a trust violation and the trustee's frequency of prior violations on the subsequent erosion of trust in the relationship. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 120 middle‐senior level managers using a two‐part scenario‐based experimental design to test the impact of attributions and frequency of violations. Respondents' levels of trust and distrust were measured pre‐ and post‐violation as well as forgiving and a range of demographic variables. Findings Results showed that trust eroded (and distrust increased) more when trustors perceived the trustees as not wanting to fulfill the trust‐expectations than when they could not do so. Further, trustors were willing to tolerate a maximum of two violations before trust in the relationship eroded significantly. The results also showed that trustors who were relatively more forgiving were less likely to lose trust in the trustee after a violation, as were younger and less experienced individuals. Research limitations/implications Although scenario‐based experiments assess the cognitive states of the respondents rather than actual behaviors, they serve as a valuable first step. By highlighting the two‐step sequence that may underlie the trust erosion process and emphasizing the importance of using an attributional perspective, the paper invites future research on a range of factors such as patterns of violation, degrees of damage, etc. Collectively, they ought to lead to an integrated model of trust erosion. Practical implications For practicing managers, the results underscore the importance of maintaining trust by constantly meeting expectations. While they may be forgiven for one‐time mistakes in maintaining trust, they cannot be repeated without severely damaging the trust in the relationship. Also, employees need to be convinced that the erring manager or colleague has done his/her very best to prevent the violation. Originality/value This paper addresses an under‐investigated facet of trust research in organizations – erosion of trust – which is especially crucial in light of the growing awareness that most organizational relationships actually start off with high levels of trust rather than low trust. Thus, this study offers insights into maintaining (as opposed to building) trust.
Article
This paper examines the theoretical and empirical relationships between employees' trust in their employers and their experiences of psychological contract breach by their employers, using data from a longitudinal field of 125 newly hired managers. Data were collected at three points in time over a two-and-a-half-year period: after the new hires negotiated and accepted an offer of employment; after 18 months on the job; and after 30 months on the job. Results show that the relationship between trust and psychological contract breach is strong and multifaceted. Initial trust in one's employer at time of hire was negatively related to psychological contract breach after 18 months on the job. Further, trust (along with unmet expectations) mediated the relationship between psychological contract breach and employees' subsequent contributions to the firm. Finally, initial trust in one's employer at the time of hire moderated the relationship between psychological contract breach and subsequent trust such that those with high initial trust experienced less decline in trust after a breach than did those with low initial trust.
Article
Scholars in various disciplines have considered the causes, nature, and effects of trust. Prior approaches to studying trust are considered, including characteristics of the trustor, the trustee, and the role of risk. A definition of trust and a model of its antecedents and outcomes are presented, which integrate research from multiple disciplines and differentiate trust from similar constructs. Several research propositions based on the model are presented.
Article
emphasizes the tension between trust—what many consider the sine qua non of the personality factors necessary for mature and mutually satisfying relationships—and violations of trust or what we will call betrayals begin with a review of our approach to personality including our assumptions about the nature of human nature and individual differences / next, we present definitions of trust found in the literature and present conceptual distinctions we believe will facilitate subsequent research and theory in this area / examine research on trust in some detail, including generalized trust and particularly relational trust, that is, trust of specific relational partners / present extant theoretical perspectives on relational trust including developmental approaches, a component model, and the appraisal model / then turn our attention to research on violations of trust—what we call betrayal experiences—in which we highlight our own recent program of research / conclude with a brief overview and discussion of the implications of the trust–betrayal dialectic for understanding the nexus between personality and social life (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The potential explanations of why some observers report organizational wrongdoing, whereas others do not, are considered in this study. Nearly 8,600 randomly selected employees of 15 organizations completed questionnaires concerning whistle-blowing. Archival data and aggregate measures of organizational climate were also used. Discriminant analysis revealed that organization members who had observed alleged wrongdoing were more likely to blow the whistle if they had convincing evidence of wrongdoing, if the wrongdoing was serious, and if it directly affected them. Further, where the organization appeared to be dependent on the wrongdoing and threatened retaliation, whistle-blowers were more likely to report it to someone outside the organization. Implications for management practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Article
Research has provided mixed support for the hypothesis that when an incident results in a more severe outcome, more responsibility will be attributed to a potentially responsible actor. This paper uses the techniques of meta-analysis to examine this literature. The results support the contention that people attribute greater responsibility for the outcome of a negative incident when that outcome is more severe than when the outcome is minor. The direction of this relationship is consistent across methodologies. However, the strength of the correlation varies depending on which type of judgment participants are asked to make. Because many of these variables are tied to legal concepts, the results are discussed in the context of the expectations of the legal system regarding the impact of outcome severity on each variable.
Article
A considerable amount of research has examined trust since our 1995 publication. We revisit some of the critical issues that we addressed and provide clarifications and extensions of the topics of levels of analysis, time, control systems, reciprocity, and measurement. We also recognize recent research in new areas of trust, such as affect, emotion, violation and repair, distrust, international and cross-cultural issues, and context-specific models, and we identify promising avenues for future research.
Article
Men and women were asked to imagine a romantic partner being sexually unfaithful and/or emotionally unfaithful. Three hypotheses regarding gender differences in subjective distress to sexual and emotional infidelity, and in the inferences linking the infidelities were tested. The results indicated that more men than women were distressed by imagining a partner enjoying passionate sexual intercourse with another person, and more women than men were distressed by imagining a partner forming a deep emotional attachment to another person. Asking another group of women and men to imagine a partner committing both infidelities at the same time, and then to indicate which component of the combined infidelity was the most distressing, produced the same sexual asymmetries. The prediction that men will infer from a partner's sexual infidelity the co-occurrence of emotional infidelity and that women will infer from a partner’s emotional infidelity the co-occurrence of sexual infidelity was not supported. An evolutionary perspective, rather than an alternative analysis emphasizing the different inferences men and women draw from sex and love, provided a satisfactory explanation of the sexual asymmetries in the cues to jealousy.
Article
Despite an abundance of research on inter-organizational trust, researchers are only beginning to understand the process of trust deterioration as an inter-organizational phenomenon. This paper presents a case study examining the deteriorating relationship between two international high-tech firms. We surveyed respondents from the supplier firm to identify major elements that reduced the supplier's trust in its customer, using the dimensions of trust identified by Mayer et al. (1995). While violations of ability, integrity, and benevolence all contributed to trust reduction, early violations of trustee benevolence contributed importantly to trust deterioration. Over time, the relationship became "sensitive," and respondents reported many incidents of trust violation. Managers reported primarily integrity- and benevolence-related incidents, while no pattern emerged among operations personnel. We examine the results in light of Hosmer's (1995) ethically-based trust principles. The supplier and customer would likely differ in their opinion of whether the customer was acting "ethically." This suggests that scholars need to examine how many principles can be violated before trust is eliminated, and whether any of the principles are particularly salient in business relationships.
Article
A form of betrayal occurs when agents of protection cause the very harm that they are entrusted to guard against. Examples include the military leader who commits treason and the exploding automobile air bag. We conducted five studies that examined how people respond to criminal betrayals, safety product betrayals, and the risk of future betrayal by safety products. We found that people reacted more strongly (in terms of punishment assigned and negative emotions felt) to acts of betrayal than to identical bad acts that do not violate a duty or promise to protect. We also found that, when faced with a choice among pairs of safety devices (air bags, smoke alarms, and vaccines), most people preferred inferior options (in terms of risk exposure) to options that included a slim (0.01%) risk of betrayal. However, when the betrayal risk was replaced by an equivalent non-betrayal risk, the choice pattern was reversed. Apparently, people are willing to incur greater risks of the very harm they seek protection from to avoid the mere possibility of betrayal.
Article
Affect is considered by most contemporary theories to be postcognitive, that is, to occur only after considerable cognitive operations have been accomplished. Yet a number of experimental results on preferences, attitudes, impression formation, and decision making, as well as some clinical phenomena, suggest that affective judgments may be fairly independent of, and precede in time, the sorts of perceptual and cognitive operations commonly assumed to be the basis of these affective judgments. Affective reactions to stimuli are often the very first reactions of the organism, and for lower organisms they are the dominant reactions. Affective reactions can occur without extensive perceptual and cognitive encoding, are made with greater confidence than cognitive judgments, and can be made sooner. Experimental evidence is presented demonstrating that reliable affective discriminations (like–dislike ratings) can be made in the total absence of recognition memory (old–new judgments). Various differences between judgments based on affect and those based on perceptual and cognitive processes are examined. It is concluded that affect and cognition are under the control of separate and partially independent systems that can influence each other in a variety of ways, and that both constitute independent sources of effects in information processing. (139 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We examined and refined a contextual model of marriage (Bradbury & Fincham, 1987) in order to organize the associations between individual difference variables and satisfaction in close relationships. Seventy-eight spouses were administered instruments assessing marital satisfaction and individual differences in femininity, masculinity, dysfunctional relationship beliefs, and causal and responsibility attributions for marital difficulties. As predicted, higher levels of satisfaction were related to femininity and to partner's femininity, and lower levels of satisfaction were related to dysfunctional beliefs and less benign attributions. More important, two competing hypotheses relating to the contextual model were tested. A model in which the transitory, or proximal, context (e.g., responsibility attributions for specific relationship events) mediates the relation between the stable, or distal, context (e.g., general beliefs about relationships) and satisfaction was refuted. Support was obtained, however, for a model in which proximal and distal variables both account for unique variance in marital satisfaction. The usefulness of distinguishing between transitory and stable variables and the implications of the contextual model for organizing research on close relationships are discussed.
Article
The correspondence bias is the tendency to draw inferences about a person's unique and enduring dispositions from behaviors that can be entirely explained by the situations in which they occur. Although this tendency is one of the most fundamental phenomena in social psychology, its causes and consequences remain poorly understood. This article sketches an intellectual history of the correspondence bias as an evolving problem in social psychology, describes 4 mechanisms (lack of awareness, unrealistic expectations, inflated categorizations, and incomplete corrections) that produce distinct forms of correspondence bias, and discusses how the consequences of correspondence-biased inferences may perpetuate such inferences.
Article
A theoretical framework is outlined in which the key construct is the need for (nonspecific) cognitive closure. The need for closure is a desire for definite knowledge on some issue. It represents a dimension of stable individual differences as well as a situationally evocable state. The need for closure has widely ramifying consequences for social-cognitive phenomena at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group levels of analysis. Those consequences derive from 2 general tendencies, those of urgency and performance. The urgency tendency represents an individual's inclination to attain closure as soon as possible, and the permanence tendency represents an individual's inclination to maintain it for as long as possible. Empirical evidence for present theory attests to diverse need for closure effects on fundamental social psychological phenomena, including impression formation, stereotyping, attribution, persuasion, group decision making, and language use in intergroup contexts.
Article
Research on moral judgment has been dominated by rationalist models, in which moral judgment is thought to be caused by moral reasoning. The author gives 4 reasons for considering the hypothesis that moral reasoning does not cause moral judgment; rather, moral reasoning is usually a post hoc construction, generated after a judgment has been reached. The social intuitionist model is presented as an alternative to rationalist models. The model is a social model in that it deemphasizes the private reasoning done by individuals and emphasizes instead the importance of social and cultural influences. The model is an intuitionist model in that it states that moral judgment is generally the result of quick, automatic evaluations (intuitions). The model is more consistent that rationalist models with recent findings in social, cultural, evolutionary, and biological psychology, as well as in anthropology and primatology.
Article
Two studies were conducted to examine the implications of an apology versus a denial for repairing trust after an alleged violation. Results reveal that trust was repaired more successfully when mistrusted parties (a) apologized for violations concerning matters of competence but denied culpability for violations concerning matters of integrity, and (b) had apologized for violations when there was subsequent evidence of guilt but had denied culpability for violations when there was subsequent evidence of innocence. Supplementary analyses also revealed that the interactive effects of violation type and violation response on participants' trusting intentions were mediated by their trusting beliefs. Combined, these findings provide needed insight and supporting evidence concerning how trust might be repaired in the aftermath of a violation.