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Physiological and psychological correlates of forgiveness

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Abstract

Forgiveness is an important theological construct that impinges directly upon our ability to relate to others. Some research associates higher forgiveness with better mental health but little data exists which relates biological factors to forgiveness. This study correlated forgiveness scale scores of 68 community adults with a variety of immunological, psychophysiological and other physiological factors. Blood samples and physiological measurements were taken after a 30-minute rest period. In addition, participants completed a series of standardized assessments of anger, anxiety, depression, social desirability and coping styles. Higher levels of forgiveness correlated with better health habits, lower anxiety, lower anger, lower depression, and more task coping. In addition, people with higher levels of forgiveness had lower hematocrit levels, lower white blood cell counts, and higher TxPA levels. Lower forgiveness levels were correlated with higher T-helper/cytotoxic cell ratios. In general, results supported the hypothesis that forgiveness is positively associated with indices of good health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Traditionally, forgiveness may have both personal and relational advantages (Paleari et al., 2003). People who are inclined to forgive decrease the negative affect like anger, depression, and anxiety (Seybold, Hill, Neumann, & Chi, 2001;Reed & Enright, 2006;Russell, 2013) as well as increase the overall sense of physical (Seybold et al., 2001;Wilson, Milosevic, Carroll, Hart, & Hibbard, 2008), psychological, behavioral, and emotional well-being (Jenkins, 2012) than those who could not forgive easily. At the relational level, people who practice a habit of forgiveness experience a freedom from damaging relationships in the family, within friends, romantic partners, and religions. ...
... Traditionally, forgiveness may have both personal and relational advantages (Paleari et al., 2003). People who are inclined to forgive decrease the negative affect like anger, depression, and anxiety (Seybold, Hill, Neumann, & Chi, 2001;Reed & Enright, 2006;Russell, 2013) as well as increase the overall sense of physical (Seybold et al., 2001;Wilson, Milosevic, Carroll, Hart, & Hibbard, 2008), psychological, behavioral, and emotional well-being (Jenkins, 2012) than those who could not forgive easily. At the relational level, people who practice a habit of forgiveness experience a freedom from damaging relationships in the family, within friends, romantic partners, and religions. ...
... friends, parent, and siblings). Forgiveness-seeking scripts seemed not to matter in out-group situations despite the notion that forgiveness enhances positive emotions and replaces negative feelings (Seybold et al., 2001;Witvliet et al., 2002;Berry et al., 2005;Reed & Enright, 2006;Russell, 2013). ...
Article
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Forgiveness has been widely investigated-most of the time, using victims’ perspective. However, limited attention has been given to the nature and process of forgiveness from a transgressors’ standpoint. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the forgiveness-seeking scripts of the transgressors in interpersonal transgressions using both descriptive qualitative (Study 1; N=87) and experimental (Study 2; N=299) approaches. Study 1 provided qualitative information regarding successful forgiveness-seeking script patterns. The scripts were developed and validated through Guttman scale and Q-sort method to arrive at five (5) scripts. The successful forgiveness-seeking scripts were integrated in vignette stories which were used as priming for the experiment (Study 2), which accounted for relationships that were considered in-group or outgroup. Study 2 revealed that the successful forgiveness-seeking scripts included admitting to one’s mistake and providing resolution to the situation which was more evident when one has a close relationship with the transgressor. The amount of information discussed in the script is considered valuable in maintaining good interpersonal relationships, this study supports the research stating that relationships are moderated by forgiveness (Heintzelman, Murdock, Krycak, & Seay, 2014) and that the degree of relationship affects forgiveness (Maio, Thomas, Fincham, & Carnelley, 2008).
... Of course, forgiveness of self and others are quite different experiences, with the former more focused on overcoming self-condemnation and guilt and the latter overcoming the hurt and betrayal. Seybold, Hill, Neumann, and Chi (2001) measured resting measures of peripheral nervous system functioning and found no relations between forgiveness and resting HR, BP, or corrugator EMG. In contrast, Toussaint and Williams (2003) found a significant inverse association between trait forgivingness and resting DBP in a sample of diverse, community-dwelling adults. ...
... Like measures of peripheral nervous system functioning, some investigators have examined the relation between dispositional forgiveness and resting neuroendocrine states. In most of these studies, no relation between trait forgivingness and resting cortisol or oxytocin has been observed (e.g., Berry & Worthington, 2001;Gregory, 2005;Seybold et al., 2001;Ward, 2010), with the sole exception being a significant inverse relation between forgiveness and resting cortisol observed by Toussaint and Williams (2003). ...
... Unfortunately, not many studies have examined the relation between forgiveness and immune system functioning. By analyzing blood from community-dwelling adults at rest, Seybold et al. (2001) reported that greater forgiveness was correlated with a few markers of improved immune system functioning; however, no relation with forgiveness was observed for the other measures of lymphocyte functioning assessed (e.g., NK cells). After controlling for relevant demographic and health factors, Owen, Hayward, and Toussaint (2011) reported that CD4 cell percentage was significantly higher among individuals with HIV/AIDS who endorsed greater forgiveness. ...
Chapter
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Health benefits associated with forgiveness have been hypothesized to be associated with reductions in the human stress response, including activity in the cortex, the autonomic and somatic nervous systems, and the neuroendocrine/immune systems. In this chapter, we describe the body of literature that has examined this hypothesis. Although various methods have been used to elicit physiological stress responses in these studies, forgiveness has been consistently found to be associated with dampened physiological responses to stress when compared to unforgiveness. Salubrious effects of forgiveness have been observed most consistently when study participants are exposed to recollections of actual betrayal events, but have also been detected when participants imagine fictional scenarios or are asked to make forgiveness judgments. There is no evidence that forgiveness is associated with the magnitude of physiological stress responses to stimuli not associated with interpersonal transgressions, and the association between forgiveness and resting levels of physiological parameters has not been consistently observed. The promising relations between forgiveness and attenuated physiological responses to interpersonal stress revealed in this relatively recent body of literature supports continued empirical work examining the process of forgiveness and health outcomes and the potential mediating role of the human stress response. Through such efforts, engagement in forgiveness may warrant consideration as a means for promoting wellness.
... In previous work, forgiveness has been negatively correlated with alcohol consumption (Lawler-Row et al. 2008;Seybold et al. 2001). In a study of adolescents, both forgiveness of self and feeling forgiven by God were related to lower alcohol use in the past 90 days (Knight et al. 2007). ...
... This is a more nuanced measure of forgiveness than previous analyses (Knight et al. 2007;Webb and Brewer 2010;Webb et al. 2006) based on three questions within the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/ Spirituality (BI have forgiven myself for things that I have done wrong,^BI have forgiven those who hurt me,^BI know that God forgives me^) to measure forgiveness of self, others, and feeling forgiven by God. However, the self and others subscales of the Heartland Forgiveness Scale have commonalities with the two 15-item Mauger scales that have previously been used (Robinson et al. 2011;Seybold et al. 2001). ...
... Two previous studies have examined forgiveness and alcohol use specifically in college-aged subjects (Lawler-Row et al. 2008;Webb and Brewer 2010). However, our participants were older than the 12-18-year old adolescents in one previous study (Knight et al. 2007), and younger than the middle-aged participants in others (Robinson et al. 2011;Seybold et al. 2001;Webb et al. 2006). Approximately, half of our participants were white; most studies in this area have samples with 80-90% white participants (Lawler-Row et al. 2008;Robinson et al. 2011;Webb and Brewer 2010;Webb et al. 2006), although one study had a minority (22%) of Caucasians (Knight et al. 2007). ...
Article
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Forgiveness, particularly forgiveness of oneself, has been associated with lower alcohol use in several samples. We aimed to confirm this finding in college students and expand it by exploring the relationship of self-compassion to alcohol use. Surprisingly, we found that students who drank (n = 54) scored higher than nondrinkers (n = 30) on the self-kindness and mindfulness aspects of the Self-Compassion Scale, as well as the self-forgiveness aspect of the Heartland Forgiveness Scale. There was no statistical difference between social drinkers and binge drinkers. The relationships of self-compassion and forgiveness to alcohol use and abuse should be further investigated to clarify conflicting results, and a longitudinal cohort study could be particularly useful in elucidating whether self-compassion and forgiveness are related to one’s decision to drink alcohol at all.
... Just like rumination, forgiveness has shown itself to be associated with depression, anxiety and stress (Maltby et al., 2001;Seybold et al., 2001). Forgiveness is a process through which an individual has acknowledged that a transgression has occurred and has reframed their perception of the transgression so that their response to it is no longer negative. ...
... The association found between rumination and emotional distress supports previous findings by Maltby et al. (2001) who reported that rumination was a predictor of depression, anxiety and stress. The association between forgiveness and emotional distress supports research by Seybold et al. (2001) who reported an association between forgiveness and depression. The reported forgivenessemotional distress association also supported research by Porada et al. (2018) who found that forgiveness was associated with unconditional self-acceptance and irrationality (which included measures of global evaluations of self-worth). ...
Article
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Core self-evaluation (CSE) is a latent construct that refers to the fundamental appraisal that an individual derives about their self-worth, their capabilities and their competence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between CSE and emotional distress, in the forms of depression, anxiety and stress. The study also sought to explore how the cognitive processes of rumination and forgiveness may mediate these relationships. Participants (N = 193) completed a series of questionnaires assessing CSE, rumination, forgiveness, an emotional distress. The analysis indicated that CSE is negatively associated with emotional distress and that this relationship is partially mediated by rumination and forgiveness. Mediation in series was not present when rumination and forgiveness were represented by global factors but was reported when they were represented by the sub-factors of brooding and forgiveness of self/situation. This was consistent for a global measure of emotional distress and for the specific emotions of depression and stress. While the relationship between CSE and anxiety was mediated by rumination, forgiveness did not contribute to this relationship. CSE appears to be a significant contributor to the experience of emotional distress, with rumination (brooding) and forgiveness tending to mediate these relationships.
... In other words, the link between lack of forgiveness and poor mental health is supported (Toussaint & Web, 2005). The present study tried to examine these relationships through depressive symptoms, which are a representative indicator of psychological maladjustment (Chung, 2013;Kaplan, 1992;Seybold, Hill, Neumann, & Chi, 2001). ...
... Coyle & Enright, 1997;Lin, Mack, Enright, Krahn, & Baskin, 2004). However, lack of forgiveness should not be over- looked, as there are positive connections to neuroticism, a Big Five personality trait (Berry et al., 2005;Seybold et al., 2001;Walker & Gorsuch, 2002), and stable individual differences based on initial attachment (Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007;Burnette et al., 2009;Chung, 2014;Chung & Lee, 2014). The results also indicate that self-compassion moderates the relationship between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms. ...
Article
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Although an association between lack of forgiveness and poor mental health is known, prior studies have reported mixed findings of the relationship between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms. In an attempt to explain the strength differences between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms, this study examined the moderating effect of self-compassion. A total of 311 Korean teachers (89 men, 222 women; M age = 39.3 year, SD = 9.1) were asked to complete self-report questionnaires, including the Korean versions of the Trait Forgivingness Scale, the Self-Compassion Scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Moderated multiple regression was used for analysis, and a buffering interaction of self-compassion was discovered. Specifically, self-compassion moderated the relationship between lack of forgiveness and depression; the relationship was stronger for those low on self-compassion.
... Although scarce, research exists that has directly examined the relationship between forgivingness and physical health. Seybold et al. (2001) examined psychophysiological variables and self-report measures of the tendency to forgive others and oneself. In their study, these researchers found associations with poor health habits such as alcohol use and smoking. ...
... Additionally, individuals who scored higher on forgivingness measures exhibited lower levels of anxiety, anger, and depression, as well as lower white blood cell counts (Lawler et al., 2005;Seybold et al., 2001). Additionally, Lawler et al. (2003) found that higher trait forgiveness was negatively associated with lower resting blood pressure levels and improved post-stress recovery. ...
Chapter
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In the growing literature on the psychology of forgiveness, definitions play a crucial role. Depending on how one defines forgiveness, the information gathered, conclusions drawn, and implications suggested can differ widely. This is particularly true for the relationship between forgiveness and health outcomes. In this chapter we review the theological, philosophical, and cultural roots of forgiveness as well as contemporary research into forgiveness as a multifaceted construct. Throughout the chapter, implications for how a given definition may relate forgiveness to health are offered. Ultimately, rather than arguing for a single broad definition, we provide five key considerations for use in future research into the forgiveness-health link.
... In addition to that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and EMG tension in facial muscles in the unforgiveness are similar to patterns registered when a person experiences stress and negative emotion (Witvliet et al., 2001). Besides, the data of the blood chemical analysis test also show similarity between the states of unforgiveness and both stress and negative emotions (Seybold et al., 2001). ...
... High level of willingness to forgive is associated with the better functioning of the cardiovascular (Toussaint & Cheadle, 2009), endocrine (Toussaint & Williams, 2003) and immune systems (Owen et al., 2011;Seybold et al., 2001). Forgiveness correlates negatively with anger and depression (Reed & Enright, 2006;Subkoviak et al.,1995), and has a positive correlation with optimism and self-confidence (Worthington, 2005). ...
Article
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Background. Researchers who study forgiveness have used different theoretical conceptualizations of the construct. Most agree that forgiveness is a complex phenomenon (Enright and Fitzgibbons, 2000), which involves cognitive (Flanigan, 1992), affective (Malcolm & Greenberg, 2000), behavioral (Gordon et al., 2000), motivational (McCullough et al., 1997), decisional (DiBlasio, 1998), and interpersonal (Baumeister et al., 1998) aspects. Forgiveness was also interpreted in terms of coping strategies (Worthington & Scherer, 2004, Strelan & Covic, 2006), though there is no uniform statements as to which types of strategies are likely to be related to forgiveness. Objectives. The aim of the present study was to analyse the multifunctional nature of forgiveness and test the hypothesis that proneness to forgiveness facilitates the efficacy of the individual’s coping with stressful situations. Method. For the empirical research we have used Heartland Forgiveness Scale (Thompson, Snyder, Hoffman, 2005), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler & Parker, 1990, adapted by T. Kryukova, 2001) and The Self-Handicapping Scale (Jones & Rhodewalt, 1982, adapted by D. Nosenko). Sample. Participants (36 females and 26 males) of the first mature age group (21 – 35 years) were recruited from the population of the university undergraduate and graduate students as well as the university alumni who volunteered to participate as acquaintances of the authors. Results. The research has shown that the individuals with high level of willingness to forgive demonstrate lower frequency of resorting to the emotion-focused coping in comparison with the individuals characterized as unforgiving, lower proneness to self-handicapping as well as the lower tendency to avoidance. Conclusion. The research findings have confirmed the hypothesis about the existence of the statistically significant differences between the individuals with different levels of willingness to forgive in the efficacy of coping (both reactive and proactive).
... The current study was designed to investigate predictors of self-forgiveness and interpersonal forgiveness. Understanding the predictors of both selfforgiveness and interpersonal forgiveness is important for counselors because difficulties with self-forgiveness and interpersonal forgiveness may have implications for psychological wellness (Ahadi & Ariapooran, 2009;Hirsch, Webb, & Jeglic, 2012;Seybold, Hill, Neumann, & Chi, 2001). Indeed, forgiveness interventions are effective for the treatment of depression, anger, and stress (e.g., Harris et al., 2006;Reed & Enright, 2006). ...
... Forgiveness is related to many mental health concerns that are relevant for college students. For example, forgiveness positively predicts healthy coping (Seybold et al., 2001) and subjective well-being (Wohl, DeShea, & Wahkinney, 2008) and negatively predicts depression (Webb et al., 2008) and suicidal behavior (Hirsch et al., 2012). In light of these relationships, forgiveness-focused interventions may help promote psychological wellness among college populations. ...
Article
The relations of parental warmth, self-conscious emotions, and forgiveness were investigated. University students completed self-report questionnaires online through the university-sponsored website. The questionnaires contained measures of five constructs: parental warmth, empathy, shame, self-forgiveness, and interpersonal forgiveness. From the results, the authors concluded that interpersonal forgiveness and self-forgiveness were predicted by parental warmth, empathy, and shame. Empathy mediated the relation of parental warmth with interpersonal forgiveness and self-forgiveness. Parental warmth and self-conscious emotions were important in the prediction of both interpersonal forgiveness and self-forgiveness.
... As noted by Wade et al. (2014), the concept of forgiveness includes both the reduction of angry and resentful emotions, thoughts and behaviours, and the increase in positive and benevolent emotions, thoughts and behaviours towards the offending person. Research found that forgiveness is negatively correlated to anger (Reed and Enright 2006;Seybold et al. 2001) and individual acts of forgiveness lead to the reduction of anger (Huang and Enright 2000). A recent meta-analysis of experimental studies on forgiveness therapy showed that interventions specifically designed to promote forgiveness are effective not only at helping participants achieve forgiveness and hope, but also at reducing depression, anxiety, and anger (Wade et al. 2014). ...
... Regarding the discriminant validity, our results confirm the capacity of the scale to detect the negative correlation between forgiveness and anger (Reed and Enright 2006;Seybold et al. 2001). Specifically, the TFS scores were more highly correlated to traitanger scores and less to state-anger scores. ...
Article
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Forgivingness, or the dispositional tendency to forgive, is an enduring tendency to forgive transgressions across situations and over time. It can be distinguished from state-forgiveness, which refers to the experience of forgiveness in specific situations. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Trait-Forgivingness Scale (TFS) in Italian adolescents. Participants were 921 middle and high school students (58% females), ranging from 12 to 19 years of age (M = 15.9, SD = 2.04). The results of Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) supported the one-factorial structure of the scale, and showed an acceptable measurement invariance across gender and a partial invariance of the scales across age. Correlations supported the scales’ construct and discriminant validity. The correlation between the TFS and other indicators of forgiveness ranged from strong to moderate supporting its convergent validity. The Italian version of the TFS presents good psychometric properties and therefore can be considered a reliable and valid instrument.
... The way of coping that individuals adopt to avoid being interpersonally harmed typically involve cognitive and emotional responses to lessen revenge motivations and increase the likelihood of seeking forgiveness interpersonally (McCullough, 2000). Previous studies have found that dispositional forgiveness is primarily associated with low levels of maladaptive coping such as rumination, cognitive avoidance and other self-blame (Seybold et al., 2001;Ysseldyk and Matheson, 2008). Since the relationship between forgiveness and cognitive emotion regulation strategies (especially inappropriate coping such as rumination, catastrophizing and self-blame, among others) has been demonstrated previously, in this study, in accord with the positive psychology movement, we specifically focused on adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies people may use to forgive interpersonal transgression leading to better quality of life. ...
... These results are in line with earlier work in undergraduate students showing empirical associations between forgiveness and coping strategies that are typically considered to be adaptive (Konstam et al., 2003;Maltby et al., 2007), suggesting that older people with a forgiving disposition are also more likely to use a positive cognitive way of handling the intake of emotionally arousing information when they respond to an interpersonal hurt. Thus, extending previous findings, it appeared that high dispositional forgivers were inclined to endorse a combination of cognitive coping strategies such as acceptance, positive refocusing, focusing on planning, positive reappraisal and putting into perspective that are typically considered to be adaptive (Konstam et al., 2003;Seybold et al., 2001;Ysseldyk and Matheson, 2008). Besides, adaptive cognitive coping was significantly associated with mental health scores. ...
... Much older studies also provide evidence that trait self-forgiveness is associated with biomarkers. Seybold, Hill, Neumann, and Chi (2001) examined healthy community adults and found that self-forgiveness was associated with lower white blood cell counts and higher T-helper/T-cytotoxic cell ratios, suggesting connections between self-forgiveness and immune system functioning. Toussaint and Williams (2003) examined a racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of White and Black community residents in the upper Midwest finding that self-forgiveness was inversely associated with resting diastolic blood pressure in high-income Whites and positively associated with resting cortisol in low-income Whites. ...
... Finally, almost all self-forgiveness and physical health research has examined self-reported symptoms. There are exceptions, but they are too few and far between to establish a consistent trend in the literature (da Silva et al., 2016;Seybold et al., 2001;Toussaint & Williams, 2003). If self-forgiveness is beneficial for physical health, then it likely has biological connections. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we present a stress-and-coping model of self-forgiveness and health. Three propositions are built from the seminal transactional model of stress and coping and the stress-and-coping model of forgiveness. The three propositions of the stress-and-coping model of self-forgiveness include: (1) self-condemnation is stressful; (2) self-forgiveness can be used to cope with the stressful effects of self-condemnation; and (3) self-forgiveness is related to health. Studies bearing on these propositions are briefly reviewed. Research is rapidly growing and supportive of the proposition that self-forgiveness is related to health, but studies examining the stressfulness of unforgiveness and the efficacy of self-forgiveness as a coping mechanism for self-condemnation are needed. There are countless applications of self-forgiveness in the promotion of health and wellness, and the relevance of self-forgiveness to students, interpersonal relationships, and workers is highlighted.
... Research has not only connected forgiveness to mental health, but also to physical and subjective health. Seybold, Hill, Neumann, and Chi (2001) examined the connection with physiological markers of health in 68 adult men. They found lower hematocrit and white blood cell counts in those scoring higher on forgiveness. ...
... Several studies have found negative associations between forgiveness levels and blood pressure (Friedberg, Suchday, & Shelov, 2007;Witvliet, Ludwig, & Vander Laan, 2001), however some studies have not (e.g. Seybold et al., 2001). Evidence also suggests an inverse relationship between forgiveness and pain (Carson et al., 2005;Offenb€ acher et al., 2016). ...
Article
Objectives: This study seeks (1) to replicate previous findings on the mediating effect of integrity/despair in the relation between forgiveness and depression in an elderly population and (2) to extend these findings to other aspects of functioning, namely life satisfaction and subjective health. Both aims were studied in a sample of residential elderly. Methods: Residential elderly (n = 329, M = 87 years) filled out questionnaires on forgivingness, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, subjective health and the developmental task of integrity/despair. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediational role of integrity-despair in the relation between forgivingness and the aspects of functioning. Direct and indirect effects are tested. Results: The results confirmed earlier findings stating that forgivingness and depression are negatively associated in residential elderly and that the developmental task of finding integrity and avoiding despair is significant mediator in this relationship. A similar pattern of mediational associations was found for life satisfaction. However, for subjective health only a direct effect between forgiveness and subjective health was found, whereas the developmental task of integrity and despair did not function as an underlying mechanism. Discussion: Framed within a life span perspective, we showed that the developmental task of finding a balance between integrity and despair is an important intrapersonal mechanism through which forgivingness is related with depressed feelings and life satisfaction for residential elderly. A different mechanism might explain the direct effect between forgiveness and subjective health.
... 12,13 Συγχωρητικότητα και υγεία Η συγχωρητικότητα γενικά συσχετίζεται με καλύτερη λειτουργικότητα του καρδιαγγειακού, του ενδοκρινικού και του ανοσοποιητικού συστήματος, καθώς και με μεγαλύτερο προσδόκιμο ζωής, αν και τα αποτελέσματα αυτά μπορεί να διαφοροποιούνται ανάλογα με τη μελετώμενη διάσταση της συγχωρητικότητας. [14][15][16] Γενικά, η συγχωρητικότητα συσχετίζεται θετικά με την ψυχική υγεία, ευεξία και τη διαπροσωπική λειτουργικότητα 17,18 και αρνητικά με την κατάθλιψη, την αυτοκτονικότητα, τη διαταραχή στρες μετά από ψυχοτραυματισμό και τη χρήση ουσιών. [19][20][21][22] Επίσης, συσχετίζεται αρνητικά και με το άγχος, τον θυμό, την εχθρότητα, τον ιδεομηρυκασμό και τα αρνητικά συναισθήματα εν γένει. ...
... 33 Πράγματι, έχει δειχθεί ότι η μνησικακία προκαλεί έντονα αρνητικά συναισθήματα καθώς και αντιδράσεις stress τουλάχιστον βραχυπρόθεσμα. 15,34 Βέβαια, πολλά μένουν να διευκρινιστούν σε σχέση με τα χαρακτηριστικά της μνησικακίας (π.χ. εύρος, συχνότητα, διάρκεια, ένταση κ.λπ.) και εκτός εργαστηριακών συνθηκών, ώστε να αναγνωριστεί ως κοινά αποδεκτός ψυχοπιεστικός παράγοντας. ...
Article
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Forgivingness occupies a prominent place in religions as well as in various philosophical systems of ethics and can be defined as the free, personal distancing from feelings of rage and resentment toward a person or persons having committed an injustice. The main psychological function of forgiveness consists in allowing for the replacement of negative emotions by positive ones, such as generosity, goodness, compassion, empathy, or even love toward the offender. It must be emphasized that forgiveness is independent from reconciliation, and it is not simply a form of tolerance, justification, oblivion, underestimation, denial or amnesty. Intrapsychic processes are sufficient and necessary for the genesis of forgiveness, although it is likely that these are also influenced by complex interpersonal events. Current research identifies various dimensions of forgiveness, which must be distinguished from each other, as they differ both on the level of causes, as well as on that of effects. The observation that forgiveness has a positive effect on mental health is not new, it is, however, only recently that comprehensive theories have been constructed and scientific research has been developed regarding the relationship between forgiveness and psychopathology. Over the recent years, there has been an increasing number of studies affirming the beneficial effects of forgiveness on a broad spectrum of aspects of mental health and well-being, despite the lack of complete clarification of underlying mechanisms. The positive connection between forgiveness and mental health could be mediated through direct or indirect mechanisms interacting not only on a biological level, but also in the psychological and social realm of human existence. One direct way could be the avoidance of ruminative thoughts reinforcing and maintaining negative emotions such as resentment, hatred, anger, anxiety and fear. Moreover, forgiveness cultivates empathy and promotes altruistic forms of behavior, facilitating the preservation of relationships and protecting from prolonged distress. An indirect mechanism could involve various forms of health behavior, interpersonal functionality and social supportive networks, factors universally accepted as contributing to mental health. Owing to the positive influence of forgiveness on health issues, various modes of intervention have been proposed and implemented using forgiveness either independently or from within the conceptual framework of specific psychotherapeutic methods. The aim of these interventions is to express negative emotions, to liberate the subject from the vicious circle of rumination, and to overcome resentment in a positive way. Thus, there is an obvious need to further promote forgivingness as a subject of psychological and psychiatric research, and to foreground findings and possible clinical psychotherapeutic applications.
... Correlations with affective traits. At the core of vengefulness is the experience of negative affect, (Aquino, Tripp, & Bies, 2006;Bradfield & Aquino, 1999;McCullough, Garth, Kilpatrick, & Johnson, 2001;McCullough et al., 1998), specifically anger (Hepworth & Towler, 2004;Seybold, Hill, Neumann, & Chi, 2001;Stuckless & Goranson, 1992). Rumination over such anger experiences is also a central feature of this construct to the point that the widely-used Anger Rumination Scale has a 'Thoughts of Revenge' subscale (Sukhodolsky, Golub, & Cromwell, 2001). ...
... Vengefulness is an antisocial disposition. As evidence, vengefulness corresponds to greater "Dark Triad" traits such as narcissism and psychopathy (Book & Quinsey, 2004) and interpersonal hostility (i.e., the tendency to perceive others as threatening; Seybold et al., 2001). Suggesting that vengefulness is not simply the presence of antisocial tendencies, but also the absence of prosocial tendencies, vengefulness is negatively associated with agreeableness (McCullough et al., 2001), altruism (Ashton, Paunonen, Helmes, & Jackson, 1998), empathy (Stuckless & Goranson, 1992), and extraversion ( McCullough et al., 2001). ...
Preprint
People differ in how much they seek retribution for interpersonal insults, slights, rejections, and other antagonistic actions. Identifying individuals who are most prone towards such revenge-seeking is a theoretically-informative and potentially violence-reducing endeavor. However, we have yet to understand the extent to which revenge-seeking individuals exhibit specific features of aggressiveness, impulsivity, and what motivates their hunt for retribution. Toward this end, we conducted three studies (total N = 673), in which revenge-seeking was measured alongside these other constructs. Analyses repeatedly demonstrated that revenge-seeking was associated with greater physical (but not verbal) aggressiveness, anger, and hostility. Revenge-seeking’s link to physical aggression was partially accounted for by sadistic impulses toward enjoying aggression and the tendency to use aggression to improve mood. Dominance analyses revealed that such sadistic impulses explained the most variance in revenge-seeking. Revenge-seeking was associated with greater impulsive responses to negative and positive affect, as well as greater premeditation of behavior. These findings paint a picture of revenge-seekers as physically aggressive curators of anger, whose retributive acts are performed with planned malice and motivated by the act’s entertaining and therapeutic qualities.
... Growing evidence also supports a link between unforgiveness and adverse physical health outcomes, including alcohol and cigarette use and negative changes to aortic blood pressure and circulation [38,39]. ...
... Elsewhere, higher levels of forgiveness has been shown to predict better mental and physical health, which includes lower levels of anxiety, anger, stress and, depression [38,40]. Forgiveness has also been suggested to promote mental health indirectly through mediating variables such as social support, interpersonal functioning and health behaviour [32]. ...
Article
This study examined the relationship between anger, forgiveness, and depression in the postnatal period. The study was based on a group of 93 women with infant children. The results indicated that those with a depression diagnosis were prone to higher levels of anger and lower levels of forgiveness. These factors were also found to predict the severity of depressive symptoms experienced. A relationship between anger and forgiveness was observed as well, with anger-in contributing the most to difficulties with forgiveness and depression. Through mediation analysis, the anger was shown to have both a direct impact on depression and an indirect through forgiveness. The findings support the notion that the capacity for forgiveness is an important construct for the management of anger and depressive symptoms in the postnatal period.
... The way of coping that individuals adopt to avoid being interpersonally harmed typically involve cognitive and emotional responses to lessen revenge motivations and increase the likelihood of seeking forgiveness interpersonally (McCullough, 2000). Previous studies have found that dispositional forgiveness is primarily associated with low levels of maladaptive coping such as rumination, cognitive avoidance and other self-blame (Seybold et al., 2001;Ysseldyk and Matheson, 2008). Since the relationship between forgiveness and cognitive emotion regulation strategies (especially inappropriate coping such as rumination, catastrophizing and self-blame, among others) has been demonstrated previously, in this study, in accord with the positive psychology movement, we specifically focused on adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies people may use to forgive interpersonal transgression leading to better quality of life. ...
... These results are in line with earlier work in undergraduate students showing empirical associations between forgiveness and coping strategies that are typically considered to be adaptive (Konstam et al., 2003;Maltby et al., 2007), suggesting that older people with a forgiving disposition are also more likely to use a positive cognitive way of handling the intake of emotionally arousing information when they respond to an interpersonal hurt. Thus, extending previous findings, it appeared that high dispositional forgivers were inclined to endorse a combination of cognitive coping strategies such as acceptance, positive refocusing, focusing on planning, positive reappraisal and putting into perspective that are typically considered to be adaptive (Konstam et al., 2003;Seybold et al., 2001;Ysseldyk and Matheson, 2008). Besides, adaptive cognitive coping was significantly associated with mental health scores. ...
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This study examined whether adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies mediate the relationship between forgiveness and health-related quality of life in a sample of 350 Spanish people aged 55 years and older. Positive refocusing and positive reappraisal strategies partially mediated the relation between forgiveness and mental health. Thus, focusing on planning partially mediated the relation between forgiveness and physical health. Our findings contribute to an emerging understanding of the underlying coping process between forgiveness and health outcomes and might provide preliminary insight for potential intervention for increasing quality of life via the promotion of forgiveness and adaptive coping in the elderly. © The Author(s) 2015.
... As a self-protection mechanism, trait forgiveness can help individuals release negative emotions such as anger and hatred and maintain their physical and mental health. Less forgiving but more revengeful individuals, who are always under tremendous physical and mental pressures, frequently experience bad emotions like anger, hostility, dismay, anxiety and inferiority, which may result in depressed moods, dysfunctional immune system (Seybold, Hill, Neumann, & Chi, 2001) , high blood pressure or heart diseases (Friedberg, Suchday, & Shelov, 2007). Apparently, trait forgiveness can affect individual mental health directly. ...
... In contrast, people with less trait forgiveness tend to adopt emotion-centered strategies. They ruminate a lot on the offenses and enhance the avoidance or revenge motivation to the wrongdoers, which may leave them in poor health (McCullough et al., 2001;Seybold, Hill, Neumann, & Chi, 2001). An investigation conducted by Friedberg, Adonis, Von Bergen, and Suchday (2005) on New Yorkers one year after the September 11th terrorist attack also proved the existence of indirect mechanism that rumination mediated the relationship between forgiveness and perceived stress. ...
... 31,32 Another study echoed these results, and also found that lower anger levels were correlated with higher forgiveness. 33 The general conclusion of this study was that forgiveness led to better overall mental health. 33 In our study, we found that participants had an overall PHQ-9 score of 7.26, landing in the category of mild depression. ...
... 33 The general conclusion of this study was that forgiveness led to better overall mental health. 33 In our study, we found that participants had an overall PHQ-9 score of 7.26, landing in the category of mild depression. Participants with 4+ survivors had the highest PHQ-9 score (8.55) in comparison with those with zero survivors (5.75), showing a statistically significant result (difference of 2.80) that Armenians with more genocide survivors have higher depression levels, almost reaching moderate depression (p<0.01). ...
... It is also important to know whether self-forgiveness has an impact on immune functioning people. On this topic, Seybold, Hill, Neumann, and Chi (2001) in their study of community health, suggested that there is a connection between self-forgiveness and immune functioning. The reason being that self-forgiveness relates to lower white blood cell counts and higher T-helper/T-cytotoxic cell rations. ...
... The reason being that self-forgiveness relates to lower white blood cell counts and higher T-helper/T-cytotoxic cell rations. It is discovered that selfforgiveness is inversely associated with resting diastolic blood pressure in people of high-income and positively associate with resting cortisol in low-income people (Seybold, Hill, Neumann, & Chi, 2001). ...
Article
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It is timely to have this kind of study in South Africa as the country has an increasing number of people living with HIV and AIDS. While an extensive literature has documented factors associated with HIV and AIDS, psychosocial variables associated with the health of persons living with HIV (PLH) have only begun to receive attention recently. The objective of this paper was to explore the views of a group of people living with HIV and AIDS regarding HIV and AIDS and Self-Forgiveness. Theoretical base: To examine the role of self-forgiveness in people living with HIV and AIDS, George Engel’s Biopsychosocial Model was adopted. Methods: Individual In-depth Interviews were conducted with 10 purposefully-selected participants in Ekurhuleni. Outcomes: Results showed that self-forgiveness has a huge role in the lives of people living with HIV and AIDS. For instance, it has been found that self-forgiveness leads to acceptance of HIV status, promote infected people to seek medical care, and eventually gain the confidence to disclose to friends and families. Work implications: In conclusion, self-forgiveness has micro, messo and macro implications as it promotes good health of people living with HIV and AIDS; enhance HIV status self-disclosure and adherence to HIV treatment.
... After examining the relationship between resentment and mental health, several researchers have identified positive correlations between enduring resentment and depression (Brown, 2003;Kendler et al., 2003) and anxiety (Seybold et al., 2001). Other studies have discovered a negative link between enduring resentment and life satisfaction (Toussaint, et al., 2001) as well as psychopathic tendencies and high blood pressure (Muñoz et al., 2005;Witvliet, et al., 2001). ...
Article
Introduction: Traditional methods of purification and healing carried out by healers and priests are of utmost importance for the mental and spiritual rehabilitation of victims of torture and perpetrators. The efficacy of traditional practices in the rehabilitation of victims of torture in Nigeria is examined. Methods: Data is derived from 60 interviews with key informants and eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) conducted with victims of torture, youth militias, priests, secret cults, community leaders, women leaders, youth leaders, security agencies, and others, in local communities in the Niger Delta states of Bayelsa and Ilaje, Ondo. Results: By means of reconciliation rituals, both the perpetrators and the victims are re-integrated into the community. The mental healing of victims, who were deeply traumatized by the experiences of torture during violent conflict, is an aspect of community peacebuilding that is at least as important as material reconstruction. Traditional forms of justice and reconciliation that can address the psychosocial trauma of victims of torture may be helpful in the rehabilitation process. Conclusions: This paper suggests that healing and reconciliation rituals have been an essential component of rehabilitation processes in many local communities in the Niger Delta region. International, regional and national actors and institutions must recognize the cultural importance of such rituals and their potential relevance and significance for victims of torture, but their complex dynamics need to be better understood in order to safely and effectively apply them programmatically to achieve reconciliation and rehabilitation outcomes
... Through the application of these qualities and reason, the theory is that one is then motivated to forgive the transgressor, or release feelings of unforgiveness as an adaptive, intentional coping strategy (Worthington and Scherer 2004). In this way, the process of forgiveness can function to reduce sympathetic nervous system activity and related symptoms of stress or distress, as well as to promote healthy behaviors, such as better sleep, and related feelings of wellbeing (Brown 2003;Lawler-Row and Piferi 2006;Lawler et al. 2003Lawler et al. , 2005Seybold et al. 2001;Toussaint and Friedman 2008;Witvliet et al. 2001). ...
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Objectives Developing the skills to positively manage social transgressions is of particular salience to those in the teaching profession. The Mindfulness-Based Emotional Balance (MBEB) program is a professional development program for K-12 teachers to build mindfulness and related prosocial skills such as empathy, compassion, and forgiveness. The present study assessed the acceptability of the MBEB program and tested whether MBEB was associated with changes in teachers’ forgiveness skills.Methods Participants included 171 teachers from 3 school districts who were randomized to the MBEB program or waitlist control group. Program attendance was recorded and MBEB teachers reported on the helpfulness of the forgiveness component. Five indices of forgiveness were assessed at pre-program, post-program, and in the fall of the subsequent school year (follow-up). A series of OLS regression models tested whether program condition was associated with the forgiveness outcomes at post-program and follow-up.ResultsMBEB teachers attended 90% of sessions, and 70% of MBEB teachers reported the forgiveness component to be helpful or very helpful. In comparison with control teachers, MBEB teachers reported improvements in their efficacy to forgive colleagues and students, tendency to forgive, and situation-specific forgiveness at post-program. Changes in MBEB teachers’ efficacy to forgive colleagues, tendency to forgive, and situation-specific forgiveness were sustained into the fall of the subsequent school year.Conclusions Significant and sustained improvements in MBEB teachers’ forgiveness skills indicate that teachers, who are actively engaged in a high-stress profession, can benefit from a mindfulness-based program aimed at cultivating prosocial qualities such as forgiveness.
... Psychological ramifications may include depression, anxiety, and reduced self-esteem (Baskin & Enright, 2004;Lundahl, Taylor, Stevenson, & Roberts, 2008). Studies in brain activity (Pietrini, Guazzalli, Basso, Jaffe, & Grafman, 2000), hormonal patterns (Berry & Worthington, 2001), sympathetic nervous system activity (Witvliet, Ludwig, & Vander Laan, 2001) and blood chemistry (Seybold, Hill, Neuman, & Chi, 2001) demonstrate that the state of unforgiveness results in a physical stress response similar to that observed with other negative emotions (Worthington & Scherer, 2004). Because unforgiveness has a negative impact on psychological and physical well-being (Worthington & Scherer, 2004), while forgiveness has a positive impact (Lawler, Karremans, Scott, Edlis-Matityahou, & Edwards, 2008), it is important to understand the individual difference variables that might influence forgiveness. ...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was to determine if the relationship between interhemispheric interaction and cognitive flexibility extends to explanations of forgiveness and apology acceptance. A growing body of research indicates that consistency of handedness may be reflective of an individual’s degree of interhemispheric interaction and access to processes of the right hemisphere. As such, individual differences in processing that require interhemispheric interaction, such as belief updating, are associated with consistency of handedness. Participants completed the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI) and read descriptions of interpersonal transgressions, then rated their willingness to forgive before and after an apology was offered. There was a main effect such that the presence of apology increased forgiveness. However, inconsistent handedness was associated with greater forgiveness prior to apology compared to consistent handedness. A second study was conducted to determine if the individual differences in forgiveness were mediated by different dimensions of empathy (personal distress, perspective taking, empathic concern and fantasy). Participants completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the Forgiveness Scale and the EHI. Results revealed those with inconsistent handedness who scored lower on personal distress reported decreased negative thoughts about transgressors compared to those with consistent handedness.
... The tendency to forgive refers to one's global dispositional level of forgiveness across contexts (Brown, 2003). Previous studies suggested that forgiveness can help individuals overcome interpersonal violations, especially negative emotions such as anger, worry, fear, and embarrassment, reduce individual anxiety and depression, and improve self-esteem, subjective well-being, and life satisfaction (e.g., Worthington and Wade, 1999;Maltby et al., 2001;Seybold et al., 2001;Bono and McCullough, 2006;Reed and Enright, 2006). The results associated with forgiveness and positive outcomes are found not only in adult studies (e.g., Maltby et al., 2001;Berry et al., 2005;Lawler-Row et al., 2011) but also in adolescent studies (e.g., Benda, 2002;Gambaro, 2003;Barcaccia et al., 2020). ...
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Previous studies found the associations between motivations after transgression and forgiveness in adults. However, less is known about the relationship between transgression-related motivations and forgiveness among adolescents and the potential mediating role of empathy. These questions were investigated among 445 Chinese adolescents using the Tendency to Forgive Scale, the Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Inventory, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. The results found a negative relationship between avoidance and revenge motivation and forgiveness tendency and a positive association between benevolent motivation and forgiveness tendency. In addition, the study also revealed a partial mediating role of empathy regarding the effect of the transgression-related motivations on forgiveness tendency. These findings suggested that empathy plays a vital role in the relationship between transgression-related motivations and forgiveness among adolescents.
... hurt-rehearsing and grudge-holding) were enacted in comparison to forgiving responses. Likewise, Type 2 diabetic symptoms have been tied to less forgiving dispositions (DeWall et al., 2010), and people with higher levels of forgiveness had lower hematocrit levels, lower white blood cell counts, and lower T-helper/ cytotoxic cell ratios (Seybold et al., 2001). ...
Article
This study examined the relations among women’s experiences of abuse, forgiveness, revenge, psychological health, and physiological stress reactivity. Both dispositional (Study 1; N = 103) and state (Study 2; N = 258) forgiveness and vengeance were associated with psychological symptoms. However, the relation between revenge and greater depression was magnified among psychologically abused women, whereas—unexpectedly—the positive link between forgiveness and psychological health was strengthened among physically abused women. Moreover, while revenge coincided with increased cortisol reactivity following any relationship conflict, this was only evident for forgiveness following physical abuse. The complex interactions among these variables are discussed within a stress and coping framework.
... On the other hand, several studies confirmed that the higher the forgiveness, both episodic and dispositional, the lower the depression [33][34][35], and the higher the unforgiveness, the higher the depression [36][37][38]. Data obtained during intervention research also support these links [39]. ...
Article
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Although hope and forgiveness have been both negatively correlated with depression, actual relationships between all three variables have never been investigated. The aim of the study was to examine a theoretical model in which forgiveness mediates the relationship between basic hope and depressive symptoms. The sample was composed of 77 psychotherapy outpatients. Polish adaptations of the Basic Hope Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Heartland Forgiveness Scale were used. Negative and positive aspects of dispositional forgiveness of self, others, and situations beyond anyone’s control were applied. Results indicated that the general level of forgiveness, as well as overcoming unforgiveness, fully mediated the relationship between basic hope and depression symptoms, while positive dimension of forgiveness partially mediated the links between the variables. The findings demonstrate that the tendency to forgive might be a mechanism via which basic hope reduces odds of depression.
... In addition, Lawler et al. (2005) found that when people were able to forgive, there was a decrease in the number of medications taken, fatigue, somatic complaints, and overall symptoms of stress. Seybold, Hill, Neumann, and Chi (2001) even found that those able to forgive had stronger immune systems and a decreased probability for alcohol and cigarette use. ...
Article
There are several aspects to forgiveness. To this point, few studies have simultaneously considered the impact of all these different aspects, and none have considered the impact of all these aspects of forgiveness upon perceived physical health. Participants, ranging in age from 18 to 93, self-reported tendencies toward various types of dispositional forgiveness, well-being, and empathy. These individuals reported they were most inclined to seek forgiveness from others and feel forgiven by God. They were least inclined to self-forgive. A second study was conducted as a conceptual replication of the first study. Across both studies results suggested that the way granting forgiveness was operationalized mattered and that self-forgiveness was the most significant contributor to perceived physical health.
... Still, findings from Witvliet and colleagues (2001) and Hannon and colleagues (2012) suggest promising adaptive associations among systolic/diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure and for giveness communication. Notably, however, a study by Seybold, Hill, Neumann, and Chi (2001) discovered scant evidence for the association between forgiveness and cardiovas cular functioning. Their findings identified a significant relationship between blood vis cosity (i.e., measurement of the thickness of one's blood), but no relationship between blood pressure, heart rate, or cholesterol (LDL and HDL). ...
Chapter
Previous research demonstrates the health benefits of both intrapersonal and interpersonal forgiveness as indicated by various markers of physiological activity. Specifically, evidence suggests that forgiveness can help regulate the body’s stress response and increase an individual’s ability to relax after exposure to an acute stressor. This review identifies specific outcomes associated with the health benefits of forgiveness and its effects on cardiovascular functioning, as well as hyperarousal in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous systems. In addition to its health benefits, the findings suggest that activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis may influence the types of forgiveness that individuals communicate.
... Second, the present study provides an important and novel test of the stress and coping model of forgiveness [9][10][11] in the context of health research. Prior research has generally supported the stress and coping model of forgiveness, but these investigations employed study designs that were cross-sectional or limited to only two assessment time points [4,40,41]. Consequently, it was generally understood that forgiveness, stress, and health may influence one another, but impossible to determine the temporal sequencing of these effects. The study by Orth et al. [25] is notable for having four assessments over 6 weeks, but this study did not examine whether changes in perceived stress mediate the association between forgiveness and health. ...
Article
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Background Psychological stress is a well-known risk factor for poor health, and recent research has suggested that the emotion-focused coping process of forgiveness may help mitigate these effects. To date, however, no studies have examined how levels of forgiveness, stress, and health fluctuate and interrelate over time. Purpose We addressed this issue by examining how forgiveness, stress, and mental and physical health symptoms change and relate to one another over 5 weeks. We hypothesized that increases in state levels of forgiveness would be associated with decreases in perceptions of stress, which would in turn be related to decreases in mental and physical health symptoms. A reverse effects model was also tested. Methods We recruited a large, community-based sample of 332 young, middle-aged, and older adults (16–79 years old; M age = 27.9). Each week for 5 weeks, participants reported on their levels of state forgiveness, perceived stress, and mental and physical health symptoms. Results Levels of forgiveness, stress, and mental and physical health symptoms each showed significant change and individual variability in change over time. As hypothesized, increases in forgiveness were associated with decreases in stress, which were in turn related to decreases in mental (but not physical) health symptoms (i.e., forgiveness → stress → health). The reverse effects model (i.e., health → stress → forgiveness) provided a relatively poorer fit. Conclusions This study is the first to provide prospective, longitudinal evidence showing that greater forgiveness is associated with less stress and, in turn, better mental health. Strategies for cultivating forgiveness may thus have beneficial effects on stress and health.
... Most crosssectional and longitudinal studies in the literature showed negative relationships between forgiveness and anger (Barber, Maltby & Macaskill, 2005;Fincham & Beach, 2002;VanOyen-Witvliet, Ludwig & Vander-Laan, 2001). In various samples, those reported with higher anger levels got lower scores on forgiveness scales (Berry et al., 2005;Moore & Dahlen, 2008;Rohde-Brown & Rudestam, 2011;Seybold, Hill, Neumann & Chi, 2001). Spielberger (1983) approached emotion of anger as state and trait, and while defined the state anger as the prevention or the severity of the emotion against injustice; trait anger explains as a concept that reflects how often state anger is experienced (Özer, 1994). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of anger, gratitude and psychological well-being in predicting forgiveness. The study group consists of 221 adult (62% female and 38% male). Anger-Anger Style Scale, Gratitude Scale, Psychological Well-Being Scale and Heartland Forgiveness Scale were used as data collection tools. In analyzing the data obtained, Pearson moments correlation analysis and regression analysis were used. Research findings showed that there was a negative relationship between trait anger, anger-in sub-dimensions and forgiveness; there were positive relationships between the anger control sub-dimension, gratitude, psychological well- being and forgiveness. It has been determined that the common effects of these variables explain 42% of the variance of adults for forgiveness. In the light of the findings obtained from the research, suggestions for future research are presented.
... 1. Finding scales that show forgiveness tendency (Rye et al., 2001;Regalia & Paleari, 2014;Griffin, 2016), 2. Examining the health and psychobiologic consequences of forgiveness (Berry & Worthington, 2001, Farrow et al., 2001, Seybold, Hill, Neumann & Chi 2001, Toussaint, Williams, Musick & Everson 2001Van Oyen Witvliet 2001;Fincham 2015). ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the validity and reliability of the Forgiveness and Forgiveness Probability Scales, developed by Rye, Loiacono, Folck, Olszewski, Heim and Madia (2001), in Turkey. This study included 180 women whose children receive education in high schools on the voluntary basis for the validity and reliability study of the scales. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was applied to assess whether the structure of the 2-factor and 15-item structure of the Forgiveness Scale and the single-factor and 10-item structure of the Forgiveness Probability Scale are verified. In the first CFA applied, items with a statistically insignificant t value were examined. According to this review, no material with an insignificant t value was found on both scales. When the coefficients showing the relationship between the observed variables and the factors of the model showing the factorial structure of both scales were examined, it was concluded that all the compliance indices were sufficient. Taking into account the compliance statistics calculated with the CFA, the previously determined single and two factor structures of Forgiveness Scale and Forgiveness Probability Scale are generally compatible with the collected data.
... Lastly, blood chemistry measures show a similarity between unforgiveness and both stress and negative emotion. Seybold, Hill, Neumann, & Chi's (2001) correlational study of forgivingness disposition and physical markers found those who were unforgiving chronically had blood chemistry assays similar to those under stress (as cited in Worthington & Scherer, 2004, p.389). ...
... For example, decreased levels of anxiety, depression, anger, and stress associated with forgiveness may help explain why forgiving individuals are at lower risk of developing cardiovascular problems (Friedberg, Suchday, & Srinivas, 2009;Lawler-Row, Karremans, Scott, Edlish-Matityahou, & Edwards, 2008). Also, people who forgive others appear to exhibit stronger immune systems (Seybold, Hill, Neumann, & Chi, 2001), decreased physiological reactivity to stress (Lawler et al., 2003), lower blood pressure (Witvliet, 2005), and fewer physical symptoms overall (Toussaint, Williams, Musick, & Everson, 2001). All of these studies allude to a common point: the relationship between forgiveness and physical health is likely mediated by mental health mechanisms and moderated by factors such as personality traits, religiousness, and spirituality. ...
Article
In this article, we hypothesize that health outcomes associated with forgiveness, if it is received from God, others, or oneself or if it is granted to others, foreshadow the eschatological regeneration of Christians. Over a decade of scientific inquiry supports a working model that integrates forgiveness, health, and Christian (primarily Reformed) theology. To support this model, we examined studies, reviews of scientific literature, and theological sources to adduce relevant evidence according to four areas of forgiveness-by God, others, or oneself and granted to others. We thus identify domains in which God's promise of forgiveness and Christians' ministry of forgiveness to others might be associated with improved mental and physical health outcomes. In this way, the healing effects associated with forgiveness ultimately function as a glimpse of God's redemptive plan for humankind.
... Forgiveness studies with designs close to these ideals show cardiovascular reactivity patterns that reliably distinguish unforgiving responses toward others (as a state or trait) as generating more reactivity and prolonged activation than do forgiving responses toward others (and also link facial electromyograph patterns with the negative, aroused emotion of unforgiveness). Exploratory studies that seek to correlate single resting physiology measures with forgiving personality variables do not show these patterns ( Seybold et al. 2001). Nevertheless, it is important to keep in mind that it is sustained elevations in blood pressure that predict end-organ damage, and the impact of brief peaks in blood pressure, such as those measured in the forgiveness studies, is unclear (see Schwartz et al. 2003). ...
Article
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Empirical research on the links between forgiveness and both mental and physical health is burgeoning. This article reviews current research, with reflections on how Christians might engage this literature. It considers Christian and psychological conceptualizations of forgiveness, reviews the published literature on forgiveness and mental and physical health, addresses theoretical and interpretive issues, and reflects on ways that Christians may thoughtfully consider the contributions and limitations of empirical research on forgiveness and health.
... People with higher levels of forgiveness had lower hematocrit levels, lower white blood cell counts, and higher TX PA levels. Lower forgiveness levels were found to be related to higher Thelper/cytotoxic cell ratios [41]. ...
Article
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In social science, synthesis of literature is also an essential activity which informs the scholars and researchers about the recent developments related to constructs. The present review article discusses the issues related to forgiveness (and unforgiveness) with respect to definition, perspectives, contexts, and correlates. This review tries to enumerate the struggle of the concept-forgiveness to get a shape; contextual relevance and to find its associates. This theoretical exploration will help researchers and practitioners to posit and address the concept forgiveness with its full essence.
... There is a growing body of literature explicating the somatic benefits that forgiveness carries for the giver and receiver. Seybold, Hill, Neumann and Chi (2001) describe six pathways linking forgiveness to health: 1) decreased psychophysiological reactivity; 2) less interpersonal stress; 3) less frequent stress; 4) constitutional weakness associated with hostility and health; 5) more healthy behaviours; and 6) transcendent or religious factors. ...
Thesis
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This thesis explores crime and forgiveness from the perspectives of victims and perpetrators. While extensive research exists on the traumatic or harmful effects of crime for victims (Davis & Friedman, 1985; Frieze, Hymer, & Greenberg, 1987; Janoff-Bulman, 1989; Orth, Montada, & Maercker, 2006) far less research exists on the effect that criminal wrongdoing has on the perpetrator (Collins & Bailey, 1990; MacNair 2002a). The literature likewise holds little in the way of explicating how victims and offenders may be able mitigate such effects. One factor that appears to make a difference in this respect is forgiveness. Yet while forgiveness has received more attention in the religious and psychological literatures, there is much less known about its impacts in relationship to the effects of crime. In this study I seek to gain a richer and more nuanced understanding of the effects of crime and forgiveness in the lives of victims and offenders. As the focus of this study is the understanding of forgiveness from the perspectives of victims and offenders, as well as an examination of how they view forgiveness as affecting their lives, I utilized an interpretive phenomenological approach. Interpretive phenomenology provides a methodological framework from which to explore detailed and intimate understandings of people’s lives as they seek to make sense of and live in their social worlds (Reiners, 2012; van Manen, 1990); in this case for victims and perpetrators of crime. Towards this goal, in this study I employed semi-structured, in-depth interviews, conducted with a purposeful sample of 12 victims and 19 offenders ranging in age from 19 to 70. Following these interviews, I utilized an iterative process of data analysis, involving multiple readings of the interview transcripts and three divisions of coding which facilitated the identification of emergent and master themes within each case and superordinate themes which occurred across cases. In this study, I find that victims and offenders are decidedly affected by the harms they received and/or perpetrated, and that many credit forgiveness with restoring their psychological and emotional well-being as it released them from the distressing aftereffects of the crime they experienced. In my analysis of 31 interviews with victims and offenders, I developed seven themes used to explain the offence-related effects experienced by participants from their perspectives. Victims reported suffering ‘traumatic effects’ in the form of mental, behavioural, and somatic outcomes. Crime victimisation also created ‘threats iii to identity and self’ for many victims. In the aftermath of the crime victims often explained their ‘lost faith in a just world’ or having ‘unmet justice needs’. Offenders reported experiencing ‘challenged lives’ in the form of mental, emotional and future effects due to their criminal behaviour. They also explained significant impression management strategies as a way to ‘save face’ as they engaged in what I call ‘blame talk’ as a means to either accept or reject blame. In the second part of my focus, namely the effects of forgiveness on victims and offenders, I analysed the interviews to develop several themes related to how participants explained their understanding of forgiveness, or how they understood it to have affected their lives. Victims’ conceptualised forgiveness in terms of both ‘victim-focused’ and ‘offenderfocused benefits’. Victims also perceived forgiveness in terms of its restorative and transformative ‘functions’ in their lives. Offenders viewed forgiveness in terms of ‘giving’ and ‘receiving’ it as a part of the way they made sense of what it felt like or meant to them to be the forgiver and the role they played with respect to receiving forgiveness. Most offenders believed forgiveness assisted them in ‘moving forward’ with their lives. Of particular salience for offenders was ‘self-forgiveness’ and forgiveness they receive from loved ones. This study makes contributions to both theoretical and applied knowledge regarding the complex needs of victims and offenders in terms of how they make sense of their experiences in the aftermath of crime. Theoretically, the findings of the study suggest that forgiveness may be an effective means for mitigating the offence-related effects experienced by both victims and offenders. In terms of applied knowledge, a keener understanding of the viewpoints of victims and offenders has practical applications as it may assist those such as clinicians, service providers, and criminal justice professionals involved in the treatment or custodial care of both victims and offenders in the creation and implementation of treatment programs and protocols that would better address the complex needs of those who have experienced deleterious effects as a consequence of the harms they received and/or perpetrated.
Chapter
The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in research linking forgiveness to health and well-being. In this chapter we highlight race as one overlooked area of research in the forgiveness-health literature. To understand the complex interplay among race, forgiveness and health, as well as the broader social context we consider two general propositions: (a) blacks are more forgiving of others than their white counterparts; and (b) forgiveness has a more beneficial impact on health for blacks than whites. Overall, we conclude: (a) there are strong theoretical reasons to suspect the relationship between forgiveness and health varies by race; (b) there are pronounced black-white differences in levels of interpersonal forgiveness; (c) the role of race in the forgiveness-health connection as well as the role of the broader social context have been woefully understudied and present a promising direction for future research.
Article
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Forgiveness is conceptualized as the process of making peace with life. The three sources of forgiveness, another person, oneself, and a situation or circumstance are capable of freeing a person from a negative association to the source that has transgressed against a person. Research studies show the mental health benefits associated with forgiveness. The present study explores the experiences of adults who practice forgiveness, specifically, the indicators of forgiveness, the childhood antecedents, and the benefits of forgiving behavior. The study uses a qualitative research approach following a phenomenological framework. A total of 12 adults, ranging from 25 to 40 years of age, who received a high score on Heartland Forgiveness Scale were included in the study. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, their personal experiences were explored. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The themes emerged show that the childhood antecedents of forgiveness are parental influences and early childhood experiences. The indicators of forgiving behavior include positive emotional state, empathy and perspective taking, and religiosity. The themes identified are enhanced sense of well-being, improved self-acceptance, and competence to deal with challenges. Forgiveness enhanced physical and psychological well-being. The findings of the study have several implications for religious leaders, teachers, parents, mental health professionals, and trainers.
Chapter
This chapter discusses and summarizes forgiveness-related concepts and forgiveness interventions. Worthington argued that there are two related but distinct types of forgiveness, namely decisional forgiveness and emotional forgiveness. Worthington's REACH Forgiveness model has been most often employed in psychoeducational settings, but recently was applied with borderline personality disorder. It examines the empirical evidence for their efficacy and potential mechanisms by which forgiveness interventions can promote better physical and mental health. The chapter then explores strength of forgiveness interventions with clinical populations in contrast to community populations and populations who sought forgiveness to enrich their lives rather than repair problems. The authors suggest an important implication from their analysis: forgiveness treatments can often be used as adjuncts to make psychotherapy more cost-effective. Finally, the chapter concludes that psychotherapists might use forgiveness treatments to speed and deepen psychotherapy.
Chapter
Forgiveness and unforgiveness have been linked to short-term physiological responses. This information provides the basis to hypothesize, if not conclude, that chronic and continuing unforgiveness may present a risk to human physical health, and/or that forgiveness interventions may have a role to play in reducing these physical experiences. This chapter describes how unforgiveness and forgiveness are experienced physically; summarizes the impact that forgiveness interventions are recognized to have on human physiology and health conditions; proposes a model describing these relationships; and identifies a research agenda to move this scholarship forward. The analysis presented here suggests that future research will be able to document the use of forgiveness therapies to address and heal the consequences of stress-related health experiences. It is exciting to recognize that these interventions can have enormous personal and public health impacts.
Chapter
In the present chapter, we review the adverse effects of unforgiveness on physical health and develop an integrative conceptual model involving precursors as well as mechanisms that may function as a foundation for future empirical investigations on forgiveness and its influence on health. This model suggests that a forgiving personality, positive religious coping experiences, and age all impact the likelihood of a person to forgive. From there, we suggest that this forgiveness leads to decreased negative experiences, decreased risky health behaviors and unhealthy coping mechanisms, increased positive experiences, increased relational well-being, and increased spiritual well-being. These serve as mechanisms between forgiveness and better mental health and well-being, as well as between forgiveness and decreased physiological risk factors. These two factors combine and contribute to better physical health outcomes. We conclude with an agenda for future research in light of this model.
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This study introduces the forgiveness concept, one of the positive character strengths, and forgiveness-oriented therapies to Turkish literature. The content of the literature review includes: the attempts to define forgiveness: definitions of forgiveness; development of forgiveness across the life span; the benefits of forgiveness on social relationships, physical health and mental well-being; its predictors; measurement tools; therapy applications; Turkish literature; criticism and the areas that may necessitate further studies. The majority of suggested forgiveness definitions emphasize the shift of negative emotions for example, revenge, to positive emotions such as empathy and compassion. A considerable amount of literature has suggested the benefits of forgiveness on social relationships, physical and mental health for all parties. With the development of forgiveness scales, there has been an increasing interest in the field of forgiveness research. Forgiveness oriented therapies have been devised, and several studies implied their effectiveness for clients with different conditions. Seen as a virtue in many cultures (including Turkish) and religions around the world, forgiveness has been encouraged.
Book
Positive psychology - essentially the scientific study of the strengths that enable individuals and communities to thrive - is a relatively new discipline that has experienced substantial growth in the last 5-10 years. Research suggests that the principles and theories from this area of study are highly relevant to the practice of counseling and psychotherapy, and positive psychology presents clinicians and patients with a much needed balance to the more traditional focus on pathology and the disease model of mental health. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the best-researched positive psychological interventions. It emphasizes clinical application, providing a detailed view of how the research can be applied to patients. Covering the broaden-and-build theory, strengths-based therapy, mentoring modalities and more, the volume will provide numerous assessment tools, exercises and worksheets for use throughout the counseling and psychotherapy process. - Summarizes the applications of research from positive psychology to the practice of counseling and psychotherapy - Provides clinician a variety of assessments, worksheets, handouts, and take home and in-session exercises to utilize in the process of conducting therapy from a positive psychological perspective - Provides general treatment planning guidelines for the appropriate use of such assessments, worksheets, handouts, and exercises - Bibliography of positive psychology references to compliment the information provided in this book.
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Volume 6, Number 23 2012, ‫ي‬ ‫دوره‬ ‫ﺷﺸﻢ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎره‬ ، 23 ‫ﺑﻬﺎر‬ ، 1391 ٨٣ ‫داﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﺶ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻟﻔﻪ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫راﺑﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻮراﺳﻤﻌﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﺻﻐﺮ‬ 1 ، ‫ﺑﻴﺮاﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺼﻮر‬ 2 ‫ﻫﺎﺷﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮرج‬ ‫و‬ 3 ‫ﺑﺨﺸﺶ‬ ، ‫و‬ ‫ارﺗﺒﺎﻃﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺧﻮﺷﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺳﺦ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﺎزداري‬ ‫ﺳﻮي‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫را‬ ‫اﻓﺮاد‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫دروﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻃﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫رﻓﺘﺎرﻛﺮدن‬ ، ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫آن‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺮده‬ ‫رﻓﺘﺎر‬ ، ‫ﻣﺘﻤﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎزد‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬. ‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻫﺪف‬ ، ‫ﺑﺨﺸﺶ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻟﻔﻪ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫راﺑﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ‬) ‫ﺑﺨﺸﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ‬ ،‫ﭘﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺮ‬ (‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫داﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫در‬. ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ‬ ، 430 ‫ﻧﻔﺮ‬) 201 ‫و‬ ‫ﭘﺴﺮ‬ 229 ‫دﺧﺘﺮ‬ (‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺰ‬ ‫داﻧﺸﮕﺎه‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫داﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎن‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮي‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫روش‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬ ،‫ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻠ‬ ‫ﭘﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺳﺸﻨﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﺶ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺖ‬ ، ‫ﻗﺮار‬ ‫آزﻣﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻨﺪ‬. ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎن‬ ‫رﮔﺮﺳﻴﻮن‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ 25 ‫درﺻﺪ‬ ‫وارﻳﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫از‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺮ‬ 21 ‫درﺻﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ‬ ‫وارﻳﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫از‬ 6 ‫درﺻﺪ‬ ‫وارﻳ‬ ‫از‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬. ‫روان‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎزﮔﺎري‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫رﻧﺠﻮرﺧﻮﻳﻲ‬ ، ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎداري‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺶ‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫؛‬ ‫ﻃﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﻮدن‬ ‫وﺟﺪاﻧﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫رﻧﺠﻮرﺧﻮﻳﻲ‬ ‫روان‬ ،‫ﺑﺮوﻧﮕﺮاﻳﻲ‬ ،‫ﺳﺎزﮔﺎري‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدر‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻧﺪ‬. ،‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫رﻧ‬ ‫روان‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺠﻮرﺧﻮﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎزﮔﺎري‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﻲ‬ ، ‫ﻣﻌﻨ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدر‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫دار‬ .
Chapter
Neben der bekannten kognitiven Intelligenz, welche üblicherweise mit dem Intelligenzquotienten (IQ) beschrieben wird, gibt es viele weitere Formen. So studiert Daniel Goleman die emotionale Intelligenz und ermittelt einige Dimensionen emotional intelligenter Führung. Um Mitarbeiter intelligent zu führen, sind sowohl persönliche Kompetenzen wie Selbstwahrnehmung und Selbstmanagement als auch soziale Kompetenzen wie Beziehungsmanagement und soziales Bewusstsein notwendig (Goleman et al., 2003:61).
Book
أرنوط، بشرى اسماعيل أحمد(2015). قراءات في علم النفس الحديث. القاهرة: مكتبة الأنجلو المصرية .
Article
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The present research addresses the question of whether regulatory-mode orientations affect self-forgiveness. We expected that people with a strong locomotion orientation would be more inclined to self-forgiveness because of their tendencies toward movement and change, which focus them on the future, whereas people with a strong assessment orientation would refrain from self-forgiveness due to their evaluative tendencies which focus them on the past. These hypotheses were supported by the results in four studies that tested the relation between regulatory modes and self-forgiveness by measuring (Studies 1, 3 and 4) and manipulating (Study 2) regulatory-mode-orientations. Finally, in Study 4 we examined more closely our hypothesis that the relation between self-forgiveness and regulatory modes is mediated by past and future temporal foci. The implications of the results for regulatory mode theory are also discussed.
Article
Evidence indicates that self-construal is related to an individual’s perspective on granting forgiveness to an offender. One explanation suggests that people who have greater interdependent self-construal forgive others more often because they are motivated to forgive to keep the relationship intact. Furthermore, such forgiveness might lead to greater emotional well-being. The current study examined the relationship between interdependent self-construal and (a) decisional forgiveness and (b) emotional well-being. In addition, we tested models that included both trait forgivingness and the motivation to forgive to maintain relationships. Those results indicated that 1) both trait forgivingness and relational motivations to forgive uniquely mediated the relationship between interdependent self-construal and decisional forgiveness; and 2) trait forgivingness may be a pathway from interdependent self-construal to emotional well-being.
Article
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People differ in how much they seek retribution for interpersonal insults, slights, rejections, and other antagonistic actions. Identifying individuals who are most prone towards such revenge-seeking is a theoretically-informative and potentially violence-reducing endeavor. However, we have yet to understand the extent to which revenge-seeking individuals exhibit specific features of aggressiveness, impulsivity, and what motivates their hunt for retribution. Toward this end, we conducted three studies (total N = 673), in which revenge-seeking was measured alongside these other constructs. Analyses repeatedly demonstrated that revenge-seeking was associated with greater physical (but not verbal) aggressiveness, anger, and hostility. Revenge-seeking's link to physical aggression was partially accounted for by impulses toward enjoying aggression and the tendency to use aggression to improve mood. Dominance analyses revealed that sadism explained the most variance in revenge-seeking. Revenge-seeking was associated with greater impulsive responses to negative and positive affect, as well as greater premeditation of behavior. These findings paint a picture of revenge-seekers as physically aggressive curators of anger, whose retributive acts are performed with planned malice and motivated by the act's entertaining and therapeutic qualities.
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