Article

Psychotherapist Self-Care: Practitioner-Tested, Research-Informed Strategies

Authors:
  • University of Scranton
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Provides a compilation of consensual self-care strategies for psychotherapists that is clinician recommended, research informed, and practitioner tested. Illustrative examples from the author's own practice and life are included. The self-care strategies are as follows: (1) Recognize the hazards of psychological practice; (2) think strategies, as opposed to techniques or methods; (3) begin with self-awareness and self-liberation; (4) embrace multiple strategies traditionally associated with diverse theoretical orientations; (5) employ stimulus control and counterconditioning when possible; (6) emphasize the human element; (7) seek personal therapy; (8) avoid wishful thinking and self-blame; (9) diversify, diversify, diversify; and (10) appreciate the rewards. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... The few strategies teachers use to manage burnout include: self-monitoring and awareness of a problem, identification of stressors, accurate appraisals of transactions with the work environment, commitment to action, and acquiring or enhancing personal coping resources. According to Norcross (2000) it is important to have a variety of self-change skills and one should embrace multiple strategies, even if they are from diverse theoretical orientations. ...
... Awareness of how one tends to respond to stress also provides a database against which to measure change and growth. Self-awareness is the first step in self-care that combats burnout (Norcross, 2000). Without self-awareness, teachers may never be motivated to engage in selfcare to help prevent and treat burnout. ...
... Improving and maintaining one's physical health is an effective self-care method as it increases one's energy, sense of well-being, and ability to deal with stress effectively. Balancing professional activities with a life outside of work is an important form of self-care (Norcross, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
The article will help teachers and school managers acquire more skills on how to mitigate incidences of job burnout.
... Second, they need to be self-aware in order to accurately gauge their own distress levels so they can take action to alleviate the situation. Third, practitioners need to utilise a range of strategies that work for them, such as particular forms of exercise, or massage, or relaxation techniques (Norcross, 2000). ...
... As constructivist career counsellors, we are implicitly involved in co-creating either a kind or an unkind world with our clients. Baruch and Vardi's (2016) assertion seems to imply that positivity and optimism are not sufficiently realistic; however, this is not the case, as evidenced by Hooley (2016), who explicates the myriad challenges clients face; by Bright (2017), who takes an inclusive and humorous approach to the daily challenges people face; and by Norcross (2000), who explains the challenges practitioners face throughout their working lives. If practitioners do have a tendency to favour the positive, is it caused by our inherent kindness -are career development practitioners inherently kind? ...
... It is interesting that Tabick (2009) described kindness and compassion as an 'understanding [of] one's connection to the whole of creation: understanding that one is part of that creation, that there is a unity that underlies all that we see, all that we hear, all that we feel' (para 10). This is evocative of Durie's (2011) description of Te Whare Tapa Wh a, a construct that compares good health to the four sides of a house and prescribes a balance between spirituality, intellect and emotions, the human body, and human relationships, and Norcross' (2000) observation that psychotherapists have commented that the impact of their work feels like a form of spiritual service. Perhaps, attempts to offer kindness, or discuss kindness, make people aware that the spiritual aspect within themselves, which is necessary for good health, is depleted or has been deprived. ...
Article
Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau once asked: what wisdom can you find that is greater than kindness? This article explores whether career practitioners might need to ask themselves the same rhetorical question in relation to career practice. Career development consultations that explicitly aim to focus on offering kindness might be a welcome change for practitioners well versed in extolling the oft-cited career competencies of developing resilience and remaining open to opportunities. This study indicates a need for increased focus on the provision of kindness in career development and suggests practical interventions that career practitioners can utilise.
... Therapist self-care is a growing topic of discussion in the clinical arena (e.g., Norcross 2000). Although a full discussion is beyond the scope of this paper, it is worth noting that self-care is increasingly presented as an ethical imperative for clinicians (e.g., Norcross 2000; Wise et al. 2012). ...
... Self-care activities, such as meditation, getting adequate rest, and reasonable scheduling are associated, both with improved therapist well-being (Shapiro et al. 2007), and with reduced countertransference behaviors during sessions (Baehr 2004). Indeed, evidence showing benefits to both clinicians and patients (e.g., Wise et al. 2012;Norcross 2000;Irving et al. 2009) has become rather compelling, leading one group of authors to endorse mindfulness-based practices as Bthe how of effective self-caref or psychologists (Wise et al. 2012, p. 487). ...
... Guides to therapist self-care are plentiful (e.g., Kottler 2011;Norcross and Guy 2007), and apply equally as well to work with suicidal patients and psychotherapeutic work in general. In addition to time management and mindfulness strategies typically recommended in such guides, we would join Norcross (Norcross 2000;Norcross and Guy 2007) in urging therapists (especially those working with suicidal patients) to include personal therapy as an option for managing negative reactions to suicidal patients, as well as stress in general. While we would not agree that any and all negative reactions to suicidal patients indicate the need for therapy, we are well aware of the empirical literature (summarized by Norcross 2000), showing that (a) personal psychotherapy is more the rule than the exception among psychotherapists, and (b) psychotherapists typically report strong satisfaction with the benefits of personal therapy. ...
Article
Full-text available
While the construct of countertransference has been established in psychodynamic theory since its inception, it has received relatively little attention from cognitive-behavioral theorists. However, it is generally agreed that therapists’ reactions to patients powerfully influence treatment, for better or worse. Suicidal patients in particular are likely to evoke negative reactions in therapists. In this paper, we briefly review the theoretical literature on countertransference, with particular attention to suicidal patients, from standpoints of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral theory and research. We argue that the cognitive-behavioral perspective, together with the RAIN model proposed by mindfulness authors (Recognition, Acceptance, Investigation, and Non-Identification), opens avenues to assess, distance from, and perhaps modify cognitions that could lead to counter-therapeutic emotions and behaviors in working with suicidal patients. We conclude that, while work with suicidal patients can be challenging, cognitive-behavioral therapists can potentially improve effectiveness and enhance their own well-being by managing their reactions in a manner consistent with their theoretical orientation.
... Others have approached self-care by focusing on general categories or domains of well-being, such as physical, spiritual, emotional, or social well-being (e.g., Baker, 2003;Carroll, Gilroy, & Murra, 1999). Still others have emphasized specific behaviors or activities aimed at promoting wellbeing (e.g., Barnett et al., 2007;Norcross, 2000;Skovholt, Grier, & Hanson, 2001). In this regard, recommended self-care strategies include seeking personal therapy, taking time for interpersonal relationships, creating variety in the workday, participating in extracurricular activities, and engaging with professional organizations (Coster & Schwebel, 1997;Norcross, 2000;Norcross & Guy, 2007). ...
... Still others have emphasized specific behaviors or activities aimed at promoting wellbeing (e.g., Barnett et al., 2007;Norcross, 2000;Skovholt, Grier, & Hanson, 2001). In this regard, recommended self-care strategies include seeking personal therapy, taking time for interpersonal relationships, creating variety in the workday, participating in extracurricular activities, and engaging with professional organizations (Coster & Schwebel, 1997;Norcross, 2000;Norcross & Guy, 2007). ...
... Furthermore, self-care is purposeful in that it contains an intentionality component, a planful decision to engage in specific activities or behaviors (Godfrey et al., 2011;Lee & Miller, 2013;Wise, Hersh, & Gibson, 2011). Self-care also is a process involving self-reflection, awareness, and adaptation to one's changing needs, experiences, and values (Coster & Schwebel, 1997;Norcross, 2000;Skovholt et al., 2001). Finally, the goal of self-care is promotion of healthy functioning and enhancement of well-being. ...
Article
In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on the importance of self-care for psychologists and other mental health professionals. With the growth of positive psychology and preventive medicine, self-care is an emerging topic, promulgated as a means of avoiding the adverse effects of stress and promoting professional functioning and well-being. However, the research on self-care is limited because of the lack of an empirically based, psychometrically sound measure of this construct. Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop a measure of professional self-care. Professional psychologists were the focus of study, with the goal being to develop a measure that can be used in this population and similar groups of professionals. Based on expert feedback and a preliminary study of 422 licensed psychologists in Illinois, a 5-factor, 21-item scale was created. Factor analysis identified the following self-care factors: Professional Support, Professional Development, Life Balance, Cognitive Awareness, and Daily Balance. Preliminary analyses provided initial support for the validity of the 5 factors. A follow-up study was conducted with a second sample of clinical psychologists. The 5-factor structure provided a good fit to the data with the second sample. Thus, based on factor analysis and validity data, a 5-factor, 21-item Professional Self-Care Scale was established for further study and use in future research. (PsycINFO Database Record
... The shift toward rigorous qualitative studies (e.g., Darden & Rutter, 2011;Kouriatis & Brown, 2014;Sanders, Jacobson, & Ting, 2005) allows investigation and contextualization of phenomenological complexity (Clarke & Jack, 1998). Such studies support further meaningful exploration of how clinicians experience patient suicide, enabling the development of more nuanced strategies for postvention and clinician self-care (Norcross, 2000). Accordingly, there is a need to systematically review the emerging body of qualitative literature in this field. ...
... Although these may help improve future patient care, they fail to address clinicians' experience of patient suicide (Cutcliffe & Stevenson, 2008;Kendall & Wiles, 2010) and can feel punitive. Consequently, they may exacerbate feelings of guilt and self-blame and detract from clinicians' self-care (Norcross, 2000;Strobl et al., 2014). This is broadly consistent with previous research across various healthcare professions, which generally finds organizational support wanting and calls for improvements to better prepare clinicians and facilitate recovery following patient suicide (Ellis & Patel, 2012;Grad & Michel, 2005;Leaune et al., 2019;Sanders et al., 2005;Schneidman, 1971;Sherba, Linley, Coxe, & Gersper, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To provide a conceptual overview of how medical doctors and nurses experience patient suicide. Method: A systematic search identified ten qualitative papers for this interpretive meta-synthesis. Constructs were elicited and synthesized via reciprocal translational analysis. Results: Findings comprised four inter-related themes: (1) Intrinsic but taboo: patient suicide perceived as inevitable yet difficult to discuss. (2) Significant emotional impact: clinicians deeply affected, with resilience important for mitigating impact. (3) Failure and accountability: intense self-scrutiny, guilt and shame, with blame attributed differently across professions. (4) Legacy of patient suicide: opportunities for growth but lack of postvention guidance. Conclusions: Patient suicide affects clinicians profoundly. Further research should evaluate postvention procedures to inform effective guidance and support, acknowledging professional differences.HighlightsPatient suicide profoundly affects doctors and nurses as "suicide survivors."Despite common themes, professions differed in blame attributions.Organizations must develop postvention responses to meet clinicians' pastoral needs.
... Professional psychologists may have high rates of involuntary part-time employment (Lin et al., 2017), but more research in this area is necessary. Regardless, self-care among professional psychologists is a critical part of maintaining well-being and providing effective services (Norcross, 2000). In addition to other self-care strategies, Norcross (2000) recommended that professional psychologists identify sources of stress and modify work environments when possible. ...
... Regardless, self-care among professional psychologists is a critical part of maintaining well-being and providing effective services (Norcross, 2000). In addition to other self-care strategies, Norcross (2000) recommended that professional psychologists identify sources of stress and modify work environments when possible. Indeed, research has indicated that work environments have significant implications for burnout among professional psychologists, including working too many hours (Rupert & Morgan, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Using latent deprivation theory as a guide, this study examined financial and experiential deprivation as moderators of the relation between involuntary part-time work and life satisfaction in a large sample of United States college graduates (N = 61,251). We also examined mean differences in financial deprivation, experiential deprivation, and life satisfaction between employment status groups and examined group differences in the rates of involuntary part-time work. We found that involuntary part-time workers had greater financial and experiential deprivation and lower life satisfaction than other employment groups, except for people who were unemployed. We also found that financial and experiential deprivation moderated the relation between involuntary part-time work and life satisfaction. Specifically, people with lower financial and experiential deprivation were protected from the negative relation between involuntary part-time work and life satisfaction. Finally, we found that the rates of involuntary part-time work were higher for marginalized groups, such as women, people of color, and people with an LGBT identity. This study highlights the relation between involuntary part-time work and life satisfaction, the roles of financial and experiential deprivation, and the importance of qualifying employment statuses on a continuum.
... V súvislosti s pomáhajúcimi profesionálmi Shapiro a kolektív (2007) upozorňujú, že súčasťou ich života nemá byť len poskytnutie pomoci a starostlivosti iným, ale aj sebe. Norcross a Brown (2000) zdôrazňujú dôležitosť starostlivosti o seba tým, že spochybňuje účinnosť pomoci poskytovanú sociálnymi pracovníkmi klientom, ak pre nich samých nebola starostlivosť o seba prioritou a cítia sa v práci vystresovaní a unavení. Podobne Barnett a kol. ...
... Napriek poznaniu, že pomáhajúci profesionáli v sociálnych službách, napríklad sociálni pracovníci, psychológovia, terapeuti, sú vystavení stresorom a vysokým nárokom, systematický výskum v tejto oblasti je málo rozvinutý, ako to potvrdzujú napríklad Newell a MacNeil (2010), Norcross (2000). Viacerí autori prezentujú stanoviská, že zvýšená úroveň využívania stratégií starostlivosti o seba môže znížiť úroveň záťaže alebo negatívnych dôsledkov a vykonávania profesie v oblasti sociálnych služieb a v práci s ľuďmi, napríklad (Alkema et al., 2008;Bober, Regehr, 2006;Kulkarni et al., 2013;Newell & MacNeil, 2010). ...
Book
Full-text available
Monografia Starostlivosť o seba a dôsledky vykonávania pomáhajúcich profesií vznikla ako súborné dielo autorského kolektívu tvoreného riešiteľmi projektu APVV-14-0921 „Starostlivosť o seba ako faktor vyrovnávania sa s negatívnymi dôsledkami vykonávania pomáhajúcich profesií“, ktorý je finančne podporený Agentúrou na podporu výskumu a vývoja. Dôvodom pre výskum tohto druhu je nedostatok poznatkov o tom, ako pomáhajúci profesionáli zvládajú nároky svojho povolania a ako realizujú starostlivosť o seba. Aj keď sú pomáhajúce profesie svojou povahou rozmanité, to, čo majú spoločné, je intenzívne, dlhodobé zaujatie a veľmi blízky medziľudský kontakt s človekom, ktorý pomoc očakáva, vyhľadáva a využíva na naplnenie svojich potrieb. Práve tento mnohokrát veľmi intenzívny kontakt, majúci povahu psychologického pôsobenia, môže vyvolať zvýšenú mieru psychickej pracovnej záťaže, spôsobiť stres a vyhorenie pri nadmerných objektívnych a subjektívnych očakávaniach a požiadavkách na pracovný výkon, často s obmedzenými zdrojmi, nedostatkom opory a ocenenia tak finančného, ako aj spoločenského. Napriek tomu, že sa títo pracovníci snažia účinne pomáhať svojim klientom, sami, v dôsledku pracovnej záťaže a potenciálnych negatívnych dôsledkov, ktoré ich ohrozujú pri vykonávaní tejto práce, realizujú starostlivosť o svoje psychické, fyzické zdravie, sebarozvoj a profesionálny rozvoj v minimálnej alebo nedostatočnej miere. Prezentovaná monografia zahrňuje prvé etapy riešenia výskumného projektu zamerané na vytvorenie a overenie teoretického modelu starostlivosti o seba v pomáhajúcich profesiách, na ktoré nadviazalo intenzívne skúmanie fenoménu starostlivosti o seba u reprezentantov pomáhajúcich povolaní rôzneho zamerania v sociálnej sfére, v súvislosti s prežívaním a prekonávaním negatívnych dôsledkov vykonávania týchto povolaní, najmä stresu, vyhorenia, únavy z pomáhania, ale aj pozitívnych dôsledkov, akými sú zadosťučinenie spojené s pomáhaním a pracovná spokojnosť. Táto monografia mohla vzniknúť aj vďaka účinnej podpore tých pomáhajúcich pracovníkov, ktorí ochotne prispeli svojim časom a myšlienkami pri spolupráci na výskume a poskytnutí svojich poznatkov a názorov na skúmané javy.
... The studies aimed to determine the supervisee's anxiety in counselling sessions and to analyze its effects emphasised the concept of self-awareness as well. Norcross (2000) describes the therapist's self-awareness known as a self-care strategy, as the instantaneous attention of the therapist to self-thoughts, emotions, physiological reactions, and behaviour (Nutt-Williams 2003). Hence, it is found that novice therapists felt lost, confused, anxious, and overwhelmed during counselling sessions and their self-awareness was mostly associated with anxiety and self-criticism (Nutt- Williams et al. 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Anxiety is a factor that affects the supervisee’s learning and professional development process, performance while working with the client, counselling self-efficacy, supervisory relationship, and benefit from supervision. Anxiety, which developmental models accept as a developmental feature of novice supervisees (NS), may arise from the supervisee, factors related to the client, how the supervision process is carried out, and supervisor behaviours. This study aimed to reveal how NS experience anxiety during the supervision process. In this phenomenological study, 10 NS were interviewed. The findings obtained as a result of the content analysis revealed three basic structures as the source of anxiety, indicators of anxiety, and strategies for coping with anxiety. The results provide a framework for supervisors to recognise the anxiety of NS, understand its source, and deal with it effectively.
... Impacted by the psychosocial stressors of the pandemic and abruptly shifting to online platforms, research therapists shared their increased feelings of Zoom fatigue and, for some, experiences of burn-out. The increased and enhanced implementation of self-care practice strategies was shared by AEDP clinicians to be essential in their well-being and evidenced by research literature (Norcross, 2000;Tosone, 2021). Therapist 1 shared: "I would say that I do more self-care at home than I ever did at the office. ...
Article
COVID-19 has not only killed and infected millions of people worldwide but has also resulted in unprecedented psychosocial stressors that continue to have profound mental health consequences for many people, exacerbating pre-existing psychological suffering and contributing to the onset of new stress related conditions. It has also resulted in a major revolution in the delivery of mental health treatment abruptly shifting psychotherapeutic practice to online technology. Psychotherapists need to be prepared for how their clinical work may change. This qualitative research study has been phenomenological in nature, attempting to capture and contribute to the literature on the lived experience of psychotherapists in navigating the transition through a global pandemic and exploring how the accompanying shift to telehealth has impacted clinical practice and the therapeutic relationship, if at all. A single-session, semi-structured interview lasting approximately one hour was conducted over Zoom with 15 mental health clinicians certified in an integrative psychotherapeutic attachment-based treatment model Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP). Research findings and data were analyzed using a thematic coding process and principles of grounded theory. Significant findings of this study included the identification of factors that might negatively impact the online therapeutic relationship and the recognition of ways to strengthen and enhance telehealth effectiveness with an attachment-based and relational lens. Advantages and disadvantages of telehealth practice were identified and explored in addition to the effects of shared trauma on the therapeutic relationship and the post-traumatic growth and resilience of the therapist. Implications for theory, practice and social work education are discussed. Limitations included the small size and homogeneity of the study sample.
... For participants of this study, part of the rebalancing process required an ongoing self-monitoring of their inner dialogue, energy levels and enthusiasm for work. This continuing introspection is a core feature in much of the literature on burnout prevention (Barnett et al., 2007;Norcross, 2000;Skovholt et al., 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Burnout is an experience in response to chronic job stressors, understood to be composed of three components: exhaustion, cynicism and inefficacy. Burnout is an occupational hazard among psychotherapists that may result in poorer quality of care for clients and a diminished quality of life for clinicians. Several quantitative studies have shown that psychotherapists are at risk of developing burnout given the demanding nature of their work. While much research has been carried out with psychotherapists who work in organisations, there is a lack of available literature concerning the experience of the psychotherapy practitioner working in private practice. This study aimed to gain an understanding of psychotherapists’ lived experiences of burnout while working exclusively in private practice in Ireland. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate themes were identified: (a) A Professional Identity Crisis: “maybe I just don't have what it takes?”; (b) The Embodiment of Burnout: “constantly running on red”; and (c) The Process of Rebalancing: “being real”. The participants revealed a disillusionment with their career, alongside self-criticism and shame for not meeting their internalised standards. They illuminated a profound felt sense of depletion and physical unwellness. They also shared their ongoing process of rebalancing rather than recovery from burnout. Participants universally described difficulty identifying and articulating burnout. The findings are discussed with reference to identity, embodiment of burnout and the process of rebalancing.
... Although several conceptualizations of self-care exist within literature (Barnett et al., 2005;Dorociak et al., 2017;Norcross, 2000), within this article, self-care will be defined as "self-initiated behaviors that promote good health and well-being" (Christopher et al., 2006, p. 496). Enacting self-care requires an active engagement in one or more activities designed to address aspects of one's wellness (e.g., spiritual, emotional, physical, social;Baker, 2003;Carroll et al., 1999;Myers et al., 2000); however, it is often perceived as a process for mental health professionals to engage in on an as-needed basis. ...
Article
Attention has been given to multicultural counseling, social justice and advocacy work over the last several decades; with this in mind, it is essential Counselors educators work as anti-racist change agents to understand the role of self-care in advocacy and be armed with self-care strategies based upon racial identity standing. Working through the lens of racial identity development models, educators will learn ways to support students of the dominant culture in engaging in self-care without initiating oppressive behaviors, and conversely will learn strategies to assist Black, Indigenous, Persons of Color (BIPOC) in enacting self-care without assisting in their own oppression. Thus, the purpose of this conceptual manuscript is to (a) provide a rationale for self-care as an ethical imperative, (b) introduce self-care strategies to employ while supporting anti-racist andragogy through intentional wellness, and (c) call students to build self-care routines focused on multiculturalism and social justice.
... For this paper, I draw on the definition whereby self-care involves steps to develop, protect, maintain and improve health, wellbeing or wellness (Self-Care Forum, 2019). In this sense, self-care is a proactive action (Reading, 2018) that is underpinned by self-awareness, balancing of self and other interests (Norcross, 2000) and reflection (Cook-Cottone, 2016). Personal growth is a significant part of self-care in relation to wellbeing (Santana and Fouad, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Creating psychologically safe spaces for pre-service teachers to talk about their hopes, dreams and tensions of becoming teachers is complex work that requires teacher educators to engage with a range of pedagogical practices. A teacher educator must consider how they create this safe space, offering opportunity for vulnerabilities to be revealed. But a teacher educator must also be vulnerable them self; with an awareness for not always knowing what one will be told, will hear or will see. I argue that a mindfulness practice supports being grounded and an ability to hold the space for pre-service teachers as they explore their wellbeing and thus develop, grow, maintain and protect their self-care. In this paper, I draw on reflective and goal setting data to examine pre-service teachers’ understandings of their own wellbeing and self-care needs. I use poetic representation to illuminate practices that provide insight into what resources are drawn upon, and what concerns pre-service teachers have as they prepare for their last professional experience placement before graduation. Poetic representation of data provides opportunity to connect with the experiences of pre-service teachers and reveals where there are gaps that can provide us opportunities to consider where we locate pre-service teacher wellbeing in initial teacher education.
... Yapılan tanımlar göz önünde bulundurularak ve kapsamlı bir literatür taramasından sonra, öz bakımda bazı genel temalar belirlenmiştir. Araştırmacılar kişisel bakımın fiziksel , psikolojik (Norcross, 2000), manevi (Valente ve Marotta, 2005) ve destek (Miner, 2000) bileşenlerini araştırmışlardır. Aynı zamanda ruh sağlığı uzmanları tarafından en çok kullanılan ve en etkili olarak algılanan öz bakım faaliyetlerini tanımlamak için ampirik girişimlerde bulunulmuştur (örneğin; Kramen-Kahn ve Hansen, 1998, Schwebel ve Coster, 1998. ...
Article
Full-text available
ÖZET Hem uygulamalı hem de teorik bir disiplin olan psikoloji, etik çerçevede kendisine rehberlik eden bir takım zorunluluk ve sorumluluklara sahiptir. İnsanın ruh sağlığına her yönüyle dâhil olduğu düşünüldüğünde, klinisyenlerin doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak ilgili oldukları bireylerin iyi oluşlarına özellikle duyarlı olmaları gerekir. Psikolojinin bütünlüğü, profesyonellerin kendi davranışlarını düzenleyebileceği kapsama bağlıdır. Bu noktada, yeterlilik psikolojiyi meslek olarak tanıtan ilke ve değerler kümelenmesinin merkezinde yer alır. Psikolojide yeterlilik, kişinin mesleki yeterlilikleri ile tutarlı, kültürel ve bireysel farklılıklara duyarlı ve kanıt temelli uygulamalara bağlı olan görevleri anlama ve gerçekleştirmeyi içerir. Psikologların günümüz toplumunda karşılaştıkları baskılar göz önüne alındığında, hizmet ettikleri kişilere yüksek kaliteli bakım sağlamak için mesleki yaşamları boyunca yetkinlik ve yetkinliklerini sürdürme konusundaki etik yükümlülüklerini en iyi şekilde nasıl karşılayacakları sürekli olarak tartışılan bir konudur. Danışana yönelik en iyi, en kaliteli ve en etkili hizmetin sunulması için psikoterapistin mesleki işlevselliğini en üst düzeyde tutması önemlidir ki bu durum literatürdeki ilgili araştırmalarla desteklenmiştir. Bu çalışmada, bu doğrultuda, önce etik ve yeterlilikten kısaca söz edilecek, daha sonra psikoterapistin yeterliliğinin değerlendirilmesi, psikoterapistin kişisel terapisi, öz-bakımı ve duygusal yeterliliği etik çerçevede ele alınacaktır. ABSTRACT Psychology, both an applied and a theoretical discipline, has a number of obligations and responsibilities that guide itself in the ethical frame. When it is thought that people are involved in every aspect of mental health, clinicians must be particularly sensitive to the well-being of the individuals to whom they are directly or indirectly related. The integrity of psychology depends on the extent to which professionals can regulate their behavior. At this point, competence is at the center of the cluster of principles and values that promote psychology as a profession. Psychological competence includes understanding and implementing tasks that are consistent with one's professional competence, are sensitive to cultural and individual differences, and depend on evidence-based practices. Given the pressures that psychologists face in today's society, how to best meet their ethical obligations to maintain competence and competence throughout their professional lives to provide high quality care to people they serve is a constantly debated issue. It is important for the psychotherapist to keep the professional functionality at the highest level in order to provide the best, highest quality and most
... While in the field of psychotherapy in general the therapist' self-awareness is considered as valuable for the therapeutic process (e.g. Norcross, 2000), all participants have at times described distracting feelings of incompetence that were understood as an inescapable part of their work with psychosis (e.g. Paula: "I'll be struggling with my confidence regarding the interventions", Barbara: "it doesn't give her anything, it has nothing to offer"). ...
Thesis
New exciting literature that points to the significance of considering intersubjective processes in therapeutic work with people diagnosed with psychosis has been recently developed in the realms of phenomenological psychology and psychiatry. However, the research literature reveals an emphasis towards the exploration of clients’ processes and an underestimated inclination towards the in-depth exploration of therapists’ experiences that work from an intersubjective/interrelational perspective with this client group. Given this particular limitation, we therefore need a more detailed exploration of what this work is like, and how therapists make sense of this work considering this intersubjective turn. This project has therefore attempted to shed light on the intersubjective processes of psychotherapy for psychosis from the therapists’ point of view while emphasising how the therapeutic praxis can be grounded upon firm existential-phenomenological principles. The study explored the subjective experiences of six counselling psychologists and/or therapists who identified themselves as working intersubjectively with psychosis. After careful consideration, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was employed as the most suitable methodology in order to explore the interviews and to gain insight into participants’ lived experiences of their relationships with clients. The analysis of data revealed four key themes: the primacy of sense-making, a relational approach to therapy, therapists’ processes in the rupture of relatedness and the lived experience of being-with. Despite the congruence with the limited literature on therapists’ lived experiences of their intersubjective work with psychosis, the results of this study also shed light on some neglected areas of consideration with regards to the therapeutic process, while encouraging the consideration of existential/phenomenological contributions towards both the understanding and clinical praxis of the psychotherapy for psychosis. This piece of work consists therefore of a significant contribution to the limited literature on phenomenological and intersubjective work with psychosis and is an essential addition to counselling psychology literature.
... While in the field of psychotherapy in general the therapist' self-awareness is considered as valuable for the therapeutic process (e.g. Norcross, 2000), all participants have at times described distracting feelings of incompetence that were understood as an inescapable part of their work with psychosis (e.g. Paula: "I'll be struggling with my confidence regarding the interventions", Barbara: "it doesn't give her anything, it has nothing to offer"). ...
Conference Paper
New recovery-oriented literature points to the significance of considering dialogical and interrelational approaches to both the conceptualisation and psychotherapy of psychosis. This literature encompasses a broad spectrum - including phenomenological, integrative, humanistic, psychoanalytic, narrative and cognitive-behavioural approaches. Despite the emphasis on intersubjective processes inherent in the therapeutic process, there has been a tendency to focus on the exploration of clients’ processes, while an exploration of therapists’ experiences remains somewhat absent. We, therefore, need a more detailed exploration of what this work is like, and how therapists make sense of this work considering this intersubjective turn. This paper discusses findings from a recently completed phenomenological exploration of the experience of therapists working intersubjectively with psychosis.
... This is consistent with the results of previous studies. Novack et al. (1999) and Norcross (2000) suggested that greater selfawareness could lead practitioners to engage in more self-care behaviors. This aligns with trends in the fields of research and practice. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was aimed at identifying counselor profiles based on their balance between self‐care and caring for others, and examining how these profiles differ by levels of burnout and life satisfaction. We conducted a latent profile analysis of 292 Korean counselors and identified four groups: (a) low care, (b) typical care, (c) high care, and (d) low self‐care/high other‐care. Of these, the typical care and high care groups had lower levels of incompetence and deterioration in personal life and higher levels of life satisfaction compared with the low self‐care/high other‐care group. Counselor self‐awareness, education level, work experience, and number of handled cases were found to be differentiators among the four profiles. Limitations and implications are discussed.
... En la investigación sobre la eficacia de la psicoterapia, la conciencia que tienen los terapeutas de las tareas que realizan se considera beneficiosa (Norcross, 2000), tanto para su propio desarrollo personal, como para el proceso terapéutico en sí mismo (Williams, Hurley, O'Brien, & DeGregorio, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir, cualitativamente y en profundidad, la concepción de la práctica de la psicoterapia en psicólogos venezolanos. Sobre la base de la teoría fundamentada, se procesaron las entrevistas realizadas a siete psicólogos con una experiencia profesional de al menos un lustro, con diversos enfoques terapéuticos en sus prácticas clínicas. Los resultados revelan que los entrevistados conciben la psicoterapia como un proceso basado en una relación que conduce al crecimiento personal, tanto del paciente como del terapeuta, por lo que la dimensión intersubjetiva y relacional —aunque asimétrica— está implícita en su práctica clínica. Se determinó que, de acuerdo con sus experiencias, el éxito del proceso psicoterapéutico depende del establecimiento de una positiva relación terapéutica, porque esta favorece el surgimiento de aspectos íntimos y subjetivos del paciente en el proceso terapéutico. Se concluye que la dimensión intersubjetiva en el proceso psicoterapéutico es esencial y debe estar presente en la conceptualización de la psicoterapia. Cómo citar este artículo: Campo-Redondo, M. (2021). Concepción de la Psicoterapia. Aproximación Cualitativa desde la Teoría Fundamentada. Revista Colombiana de Psicología, 30(1), 47-61. https://doi.org/10.15446/rcp.v30n1.78535
... An understanding of psychological principles coupled with knowledge of such conditions may serve as protective factors for these professionals. [25] The positive relationship found between burnout and compassion fatigue provides evidence to the side of the debate that considers the two to be strongly connected. [10,26] Moreover, the significant predictive role of compassion fatigue is in line with the claims of theorists who believe that compassion fatigue strongly contributes to the development of burnout. ...
Article
Context: With the rising number of cancer cases in India, the stress levels of the treating team have increased. It has affected their self-care and made them susceptible to problems like burnout and compassion fatigue that adversely affect the quality of patient care. Aims: The aim of the study was to assess and compare the levels of burnout, compassion fatigue, and self-care in three groups of oncology professionals (clinical oncologists, nurses, and psychologists). Settings and design: The study included 134 oncology professionals working in New Delhi, Bengaluru, and Mumbai. Methods and material: Sociodemographic data sheet, Professional Quality of Life Scale V and Self-Care Assessment Worksheet were used. Statistical analysis used: Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U test, and Correlation Analysis. Results: The majority of the professionals reported moderate levels of burnout (60.4%) and compassion fatigue (56%). Oncology nurses reported an elevated risk as they scored significantly higher on these domains and had a lower degree of self-care. Interestingly, psychologists reported comparatively lower levels of burnout and compassion fatigue, despite the fact that they interact with the patients at a deeper level, looking after their psychological and emotional needs. Young age and a poor degree of self-care were identified as major risk factors. Conclusions: The moderate levels of burnout and compassion fatigue, though not severe, are a cause of concern and cannot be overlooked. The study highlights the need for self-care in this regard and suggests that individual and institutional level interventions, particularly for nurses and young professionals, would prove useful.
... Despite the growing literature on self-care for psychologists where researchers have used different approaches to conceptualize self-care for psychologists, there appears to be no standard definition for self-care (Dorociak, Rupert, Bryant, & Zahniser, 2017;Malinowski, 2014;Norcross, 2000). Dorociak et al. (2017) describe self-care as a multidimensional, multifaceted process of undertaking intentional strategies with the goal of enhancing well-being that has been conceptualized in different ways. ...
Article
The present study examined psychological, spiritual, physical/leisure, and social self‐care behaviours among psychologists using a major model of predicting human behaviour, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The study used a mixed method approach with two stages of data collection. Psychologists (N = 200) completed an online questionnaire assessing TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and intention) and additional constructs of action planning, coping planning, peer and supervisor norms, and organisational climate. Two weeks later, participants (n = 110) completed a follow‐up questionnaire assessing their self‐care behaviour. Results indicated general support for the standard TPB constructs in predicting self‐care intentions for psychologists and the additional construct of action planning mediated the intention‐behaviour relationship across most self‐care dimensions. Findings from the current research provide further understanding of the factors influencing self‐care engagement among psychologists and can be used to inform development of strategies to foster greater engagement in self‐care behaviour.
... Receiving psychotherapy or counseling ranked eighth and was reported by 64% of respondents. Despite being naturally accessible to therapists and recommended as self-care strategies (Norcross, 2000), less attention has been paid in the selfcare literature to the self-application of specific treatment techniques, such as cognitive restructuring, exposure and applied relaxation. Thus, it is not known to what extent practising therapists use treatment techniques on themselves and how they perceive them. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mental health problems are prevalent among therapists and may have a negative impact on therapist effectiveness. To counteract such problems, therapist self-care (for example, striking a balance between personal and professional demands and seeking personal therapy), has received increased attention. Conceptually, self-care can be considered as part of a personal practice model, focusing on techniques that therapists engage with self-experientially with a focus on their personal and/or professional development. However, studies of the self-application of specific treatment techniques are lacking. We aimed to explore the use, and perceived usefulness, of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques for self-care to prevent or treat own mental health problems among practising therapists. Participants were therapists ( n = 228) of various professional backgrounds in Sweden. Data were collected using a web-based survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and non-parametric analyses conducted to investigate associations of 13 CBT techniques with therapist characteristics. Use of CBT techniques for self-care was highly prevalent among participants, and they perceived the techniques as useful, irrespective of characteristics such as gender, age, profession, years since graduation, clinical experience, level of training in CBT, and previous experience of personal CBT. The high prevalence among therapists of the use of treatment techniques for self-care is very encouraging. Therapist self-care, including the self-application of treatment techniques, may be an important factor for therapist effectiveness, which calls for further development of personal practice models with respect to self-care, and future studies investigating associations between therapist mental health, self-care, effectiveness and patient outcome. Key learning aims (1) Therapist self-care using cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques to prevent or treat own mental health problems may influence therapist effectiveness. However, studies of self-application of treatment techniques are lacking. (2) In the present survey study, the use of CBT techniques for self-care was highly prevalent among practising therapists, and they perceived the techniques as useful, irrespective of characteristics such as gender, age, profession, years since graduation, clinical experience, level of training in CBT, and previous experience of personal CBT. (3) Almost all therapists believed that it was a good idea to self-apply CBT techniques for their own sake and for the benefit of their patients.
... In addition to the emotional toll of the shared traumatic reality, working in teletherapy requires concentration and may prove more demanding than face-to-face therapy. Implementing self-care practices and seeking support from colleagues may be essential for the wellbeing of therapists and the quality of work (Norcross 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
The covid-19 pandemic raises substantial challenges for the practice of psychotherapy. The rapid changes in the personal experiences of both clients and therapists, and the required adaptations in the therapeutic setting, affect the therapeutic relationship and its process. We examine common challenges observed through supervision of therapists and peer group discussions, viewing them in light of reports of previous collective traumatic events. Consequently, we introduce major premises and techniques borrowed from Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy as they may apply to teletherapy. These interventions aim to maintain and strengthen the intimacy and safety of the therapeutic attachment relationship, essential for processing actual experiences of emotions and creating affective changes. We explicate the rationale and the clinical application of these relational and experiential interventions, and organize them through a comprehensive model. The model visually illustrates the matching of therapeutic interventions to the handling of the psychological upheavals triggered by the changes imposed by the pandemic, particularly the move to teletherapy. In addition to theoretical and practical suggestions, which could be adapted to various models of therapy, we present a brief clinical case demonstrating the application of the suggested therapeutic thinking and interventions.
... Once the strategies are identified, then the individual psychologist can discover for herself the available and preferred methods for implementing these strategies-for instance, massage, exercise, and meditation for healthy alternatives and peer support groups or supervision for helping relationships. The focus should be squarely placed on broad strategies, which are then adapted to our own situation and preferences (Norcross, 2000). ...
Article
Psychologists are skilled in assessing, researching, and treating patients’ distress, but frequently experience difficulty in applying these talents to themselves. The authors offer 13 research-supported and theoretically neutral self-care strategies catered to psychologists and those in training: valuing the person of the psychologist, refocusing on the rewards, recognizing the hazards, minding the body, nurturing relationships, setting boundaries, restructuring cognitions, sustaining healthy escapes, maintaining mindfulness, creating a flourishing environment, cultivating spirituality and mission, fostering creativity and growth, and profiting from personal therapy. The latter deserves special emphasis in the making of health care psychologists. These strategies are recommended both during training and throughout the career span. Recommendations are offered for enhancing and publicizing systems of self-care throughout the profession.
... Another study cited that, self-reflection helps in building counselling competence by preventing violation in therapy, maintaining professional boundaries and providing a foundation for future mature professionalism [7]. Empathy: Empathy is a way of experiencing genuine respect, care, understanding client's situation by stepping into their shoes in a non-judgemental manner [8]. Carl Rogers in the year 1959, "Empathy is the ability to recognize and understand another person's internal private world, without losing the sense of separateness." ...
... Advocates can practice healthy coping strategies and self-care through first identifying broad strategies and then discovering preferred techniques that are helpful to them (Norcross, 2000). One comprehensive strategy that has been proven useful for advocates is that of utilizing helping relationships. ...
Article
Human trafficking results in tragedy, trauma, and devastation. Sex trafficking has become a universal dilemma demanding awareness, education, and restorative treatment for the survivors of its illegal and wide ranging crimes. Art therapy is an effective, engaging, and non-verbal treatment to provide healing support to sex trafficking survivors, and for the advocates who work with them. Art therapy facilitates emotional catharsis and empowerment, connection to others and strengthens concepts of the inner self to enhance resilience. Art therapy addresses trauma, and provides hope for the future. This article presents the application of art therapy to enhance resilience within a trauma-informed approach and provides recommendations for victim and advocate programming.
... We also hope the insight provided by the present work will help facilitate reflective practice. Given the present findings, it is surprising that major proficiency criterion developed by leading professional societies (e.g., Association of Applied Sport Psychology and American Psychological Association Division 47) fail to include reflective practice and self-care components, despite both being identified as critical competencies for SPP practitioners (Andersen, Van Raalte, & Brewer, 2000;Cropley, Hanton, Miles, & Niven, 2010) and professional psychologists (see Fouad et al., 2009;Norcross, 2000). Hence, we hope the conceptualization and measure developed here might assist practitioners to reflect on the challenges they face and the strategies they use to sustain effective practice when encountering such demands, and inform guidance for organizational ethics codes. ...
Article
Scholars within the field of psychology have increasingly reflected on the cost of caring and the quality of life of people in helping professionals. Indeed, the balance between the positive and the challenging aspects of this helping profession has become central in this discourse. In line with these developments, researchers have attempted to better understand sport psychology-professional quality of life (SP-PQL). In this article, we present the findings of a Delphi method study in which we aimed to develop an operational definition, conceptualization, and measure of SP-PQL. Specifically, we outline a rigorous, iterative three-stage Delphi process which was undertaken to reach expert panel consensus. In total, 16 participants, with over 10 years of experience in sport psychology, completed the three-stage Delphi. This study extends knowledge on quality of life in sport psychology via the development of a bidimensional model comprising challenges to and strategies to foster (SP-PQL). Moreover, the Delphi process led to the development of a novel instrument to measure SP-PQL among this professional group. Definitional, conceptual, and measurement advances emanating from this study and future considerations are discussed in relation to professional development, education, and future research.
... The need for self-care is personal and is directly related to the type of self-care one ought to engage in and there may not be a one-size fits all self-care plan (Bressi & Vaden, 2017;Carroll, Gilroy, & Murra, 1999;Derthick, Ivanovic, & Swift, 2015). Similar to other authors that have taken a broader view of self-care beyond specific activities (Lee & Miller, 2013;Norcross, 2000;Norcross & Guy, 2007), we present here a conceptual model for self-care that views self-care behaviors and practices as result of a process of self-care that requires understanding the internal and external factors that make selfcare more or less likely to occur. ...
Article
Foster parents play a critical role in the lives of youth in foster care, experience myriad stressors, have high rates of turnover and in turn the child welfare system ultimately over relies on relatively small numbers of caregivers to care for the majority of foster children. While there is a small literature that includes an examination of how foster parents care for themselves and maintain their well-being, to date there is only one study that has primarily examined foster parents’ self-care. The purpose of the current article is to highlight the need for greater attention to foster parent self-care and integrate the research literature about foster parent stressors and self-care to propose a conceptual model of foster parent self-care. This manuscript describes the stressors faced by foster parents to illustrate the need for greater attention to foster parent self-care. It then proposes a conceptual model that seeks to expand the notion of self-care beyond a set of practices to an understanding of self-care practices as the result of internal and external factors that contribute to or inhibit foster parent self-care. The authors make recommendations for foster parents, researchers and agencies interested in improving the health and well-being of foster parents.
... There exists a large literature on stress, burnout, compassion fatigue, and secondary traumatic stress amongst practicing psychologists, linking these constructs with impairment, psychological distress, ineffective care, and unethical behavior (e.g., Figley, 2002;Morse, Salyers, Rollins, Monroe-DeVita, & Pfahler, 2012;Smith & Moss, 2009). There is also a growing body of literature on self-care for practicing psychologists, aiming to raise awareness of its importance, provide practical strategies for implementation, and develop a professional culture that values and encourages self-care (e.g., Dattilio, 2015;Norcross, 2000;Norcross & Guy, 2007). There is unfortunately a very limited parallel literature for SELF-CARE AND THE CANADIAN CODE OF ETHICS 10 professional psychology graduate students, yet we know this population experiences significant stressors (Myers et al., 2012;Pakenham & Stafford-Brown, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Self-care as an ethical imperative for psychologists necessitates a continuous, proactive engagement in behaviours that promote psychological, emotional, and physical wellness. Graduate training programs have an ethical obligation to equip students with the knowledge and skills necessary to practice ethically and competently; there is, however, a considerable lack of emphasis on self-care in graduate programs as well as in the profession as a whole. This article reviews principles relating to self-care from the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, particularly the principles of Responsible Caring and Integrity in Relationships. The professional psychology training context is described as it relates to self-care, with a review of the training literature and accreditation standards. Given the lack of systematic training in self-care currently provided by professional psychology training programs, it is suggested that programs conceptualise self-care beyond impairment, view self-care as a competency to be taught and practiced, and integrate training opportunities across the spectrums of training and professional practice.
... Incorporating self-care practices into the daily routine is crucial for psychotherapists because it aids with balancing of caring for self and others and may reduce the impacts of working with trauma survivors and listening to client's trauma material. Research has shown that psychotherapists' who make time for self-care live a balanced life (Faunce, 1990;Norcross, 2000). Some prominent modes of self-care are mindfulness/meditation, engaging in spiritual practices, altering the work experience for the better, hobbies, exercise, and eating healthily. ...
... An increasing number of studies have supported the significance of psychology providers' proactive engagement in and implementation of self-care strategies (e.g., Barnett et al., 2007;Brucato & Neimeyer, 2009;Norcross & Guy, 2007;Pope & Vasquez, 2005;Wise, Hersh, & Gibson, 2012). Researchers have focused on identifying effective practices for developing and maintaining self-care, such as good sleep hygiene; regular exercise; reading; seeking and providing social support; supervision from colleagues and supervisors; participating in leisure activities; taking vacations; attending personal therapy; and engaging in meditative, mindfulness, or spiritual activities (Baker, 2003;Coster, Schwelbel, & Milton, 1997;McKinzie et al., 2006;Myers et al., 2012, Norcross, 2000Stevanovic et al., 2004). ...
Article
Engaging in self-care has been proposed as a means of counteracting work–life stress that can negatively impact efforts by sport psychology practitioners (SPPs) to effectively and ethically care for their clients. Utilizing Hill's Consensual Qualitative Research methodological approach, researchers examined the perceptions, experiences, and meanings that 20 internationally located, experienced, senior-level SPPs attributed to their self-care. The researchers identified 3 main domains: (a) defining self-care for SPPs, (b) describing the self-care challenges SPPs faced, and (c) identifying the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The experienced and senior-level practitioners participating in this study recognized a need to sustain a relatively balanced approach in their professional and personal lives. They presented a perspective of self-care as necessary to effectively support and provide care for clients. The SPPs identified self-care as an important contributor to their sport psychology professional quality of life. Study findings have implications for the well-being of both novice and more experienced SPPs. 2018
... Emotional well-being is closely related to ongoing self-care and, as such, has already been suggested by Beutler et al. (1994) as a pertinent therapist characteristics. The importance of psychotherapists' self-care (Elman, Illfelder-Kaye, & Robiner, 2005;Norcross, 2000;Wise et al., 2012), and especially potential difficulties in engaging in self-care has been addressed by many experts in the field (Figley, 2002). Wise et al. (2012) emphasize the interplay between care of the self and care of the other (p. ...
Article
Full-text available
A model of therapeutic competence that equally satisfies the requirements of practice and research is still lacking. The existing models are not widely accepted, at least partially because the postulated competences can often not be operationalized in a satisfactory manner. Yet, in order to be measurable, therapeutic competences need to be operationalized. We present the Three Level Model of Therapeutic Competence as a working model for studying therapeutic competence. The model proposes that therapeutic competence develops based on rather stable individual Dispositions, which promote the acquisition of therapeutic competences. We further distinguish between Basic Competences, which are mostly independent of the theoretical orientation of the therapeutic approach, and Specific Competences, which are defined based on the theoretical underpinnings of a therapeutic orientation (e.g. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy). We describe this model and outline how it can be used to operationalize and assess therapeutic competence.
... Hochschild, 1979). Apart from being therapeutically motivated (i.e., beneficial for the psychotherapy process), such neutrality may enhance the therapists' self-care (Norcross, 2000) in avoiding over-activation and work-related stress. ...
Article
Full-text available
Two central dimensions in psychotherapeutic work are a therapist’s empathy with clients and challenging their judgments. We investigated how they influence psychophysiological responses in the participants. Data were from psychodynamic therapy sessions, 24 sessions from 5 dyads, from which 694 therapist’s interventions were coded. Heart rate and electrodermal activity (EDA) of the participants were used to index emotional arousal. Facial muscle activity (electromyography) was used to index positive and negative emotional facial expressions. Electrophysiological data were analyzed in two time frames: (a) during the therapists’ interventions and (b) across the whole psychotherapy session. Both empathy and challenge had an effect on psychophysiological responses in the participants. Therapists’ empathy decreased clients’ and increased their own EDA across the session. Therapists’ challenge increased their own EDA in response to the interventions, but not across the sessions. Clients, on the other hand, did not respond to challenges during interventions, but challenges tended to increase EDA across a session. Furthermore, there was an interaction effect between empathy and challenge. Heart rate decreased and positive facial expressions increased in sessions where empathy and challenge were coupled, i.e., the amount of both empathy and challenge was either high or low. This suggests that these two variables work together. The results highlight the therapeutic functions and interrelation of empathy and challenge, and in line with the dyadic system theory by Beebe and Lachmann (2002), the systemic linkage between interactional expression and individual regulation of emotion.
... The term introspection means "looking within" (from the Latin spicere, meaning "to look," and intro, meaning "within"), and it is considered to be instrumental in the achievement of self-awareness. Within the field of psychotherapy, clinician self-awareness is considered beneficial for both therapists and the therapeutic process ( Norcross, 2000). For example, introspection is considered essential to the successful resolution of counter-transference phenomena ( Gelso & Hayes, 1998). ...
... Similarly, the participants of this study discuss mindful colouring books, walking in the country and time with family as ways of practising self care. Norcross (2000) outlines self care strategies, suggesting that "counterconditioning" of burnout can occur through physical activities and healing activities such as yoga alongside other distractions such as reading and watching films. Whilst these results cannot confirm if the self care practised has prevented professional fatigue or trauma, the participants were aware of the concept and how it might help them. ...
Research
Full-text available
Counsellors, Social Workers and Specialist Domestic Violence practitioners all work with those who have experienced domestic violence. This study explores how listening to clients who have experienced fear, terror, physical violence and emotional abuse may impact on them. Work based stress is identified in literature as a concern for practitioners whilst listening to trauma from clients. Concepts such as compassion fatigue, vicarious trauma secondary trauma and burnout are also discussed in the literature as ways in which practitioners may be effected by their work. This study explores practitioner’s experiences and understanding around these concepts.
... To address the potential deleterious effects of stress on trainees, universities may consider providing specific training in burnout prevention and self-care practices. Trainees may benefit from training that emphasizes both the importance of self-care and the application of stress-management practices as a daily practice, to build future resilience and reduce risk of burnout (Barnett, Baker, Elman & Schoener, 2007;Figley, 2002;Norcross, 2000). Higher levels of self-compassion, self-awareness, and mindfulness have been linked with reduced risk of selfjudgement, burnout, and compassion fatigue among health professions (Beaumont, Durkin, Martin, & Carson, 2016;Di Benedetto & Swadling, 2014;Rupert et al., 2015). ...
Article
Objective: Little is known about the personal factors that increase vulnerability to job-related stress and burnout among psychologists in training. This study was based on a large international sample and aimed to explore the role of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) in predicting vulnerability to burnout, as well as attendant effects on short-term physical health, in clinical and counseling postgraduate psychology trainees. Method: An online, quantitative, cross-sectional survey method design was used to collect self-report data that measured burnout, EMS, and physical health from 1,297 trainees. Results: Only the unrelenting standards (US) schema predicted high burnout among trainees. The most commonly endorsed physical health symptoms were back and neck pain and tiredness, and were more severe for those experiencing high burnout. Conclusion: The current study contributes to our understanding of the role of the US EMS in the evolution of burnout in trainees and has implications for the development of self-awareness training programs for this population.
Article
The author designed this study to clarify the processes of recovery or deterioration in psychologists’ burnout. The author interviewed clinical psychologists (N=19) with high burnout scores and analyzed their episodic narratives by M-GTA. The psychologists’ mean years of experience was 5.3 years. The author also interviewed many novice psychologists. The results showed that novice psychologists who lacked competence and expertise could not cope with the mismatch between their work environment and salary, the workload, and human relationships, making it challenging to demonstrate their knowledge in the workplace or clinical practice. As a result, psychologists’ burnout became chronic. However, many psychologists who recovered from burnout and experienced growth by actively using self-care and social support continued to work without resigning from their jobs. These findings suggest the essential role of continuous self-care and social support after entering the workplace. Furthermore, organizational-level measures are necessary to prevent burnout due to environmental factors because individual efforts might have only limited effects.
Article
Full-text available
Tujuan penulisan artikel ini untuk menyajikan pentingnya perawatan diri bagi konselor dalam menghadapi stres. Metodologi atau pendekatan yang digunakan dalam tulisan ini menggunakan metode atau pendekatan kepustakaan, sedangkan pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menelaah dan/atau mengekplorasi beberapa jurnal, buku, serta sumber lain yang relevan dengan kajian. Temuan dalam kajian ini adalah mengenali pentingnya perawatan diri bagi konselor dalam menghadapi stres. Seorang konselor setidaknya mengetahui gejala stres yang dialaminya sehingga bisa menemukan panduan perawatan diri yang dirasa tepat untuk mengatasi stres yang dialami. Dengan teratasinya stres yang dialami oleh seorang konselor, diharapkan mereka dapat semaksimal mungkin menjalankan tugas dan tanggung jawabnya sebagai seorang konselor di sekolah.
Article
Purpose: Physician burnout is endemic across medical education and has numerous deleterious effects. Given the prevalence and negative effects of burnout, there is an urgent need to understand how residents experience and cope with stress and to develop explanatory models that inform the development of more effective interventions. Method: Using a qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach, the authors conducted semistructured interviews from March to April 2019, in which psychiatry residents were asked about their experiences of stress and how they coped. First- through fourth-year trainees at Zucker Hillside Hospital at Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, New York, were invited. Two authors independently and inductively coded deidentified transcripts. A constant comparative approach was used to analyze data and support construction of themes. Theoretic sufficiency was observed after 14 interviews. Results: The authors constructed an explanatory model for how residents cope with stress and whether they tended toward burnout or wholehearted engagement. The model included 3 themes: self-care, work relationships, and meaning making. Self-care, including time spent with others, provided connection and belonging that bolstered physicians' developing identities. Interpersonal relationships at work profoundly influenced the experience of residents. Positive peer and supervisor relationships enhanced confidence and perseverance. Negative role models and conflict engendered feelings of inadequacy. Finally, the ability to shift perspective and build meaning through examining moral values in the face of challenges was crucial for residents who reported success at coping with stress. Residents identified personal psychotherapy as an especially important strategy to facilitate meaning making. Conclusions: These findings provide guidance for how residency programs may help residents cope with stress and move away from burnout toward wholehearted engagement. Strategies may include reducing barriers to self-care and to accessing help early in training; creating spaces that promote peer connection and providing training in addressing conflict; and facilitating engagement in meaning-making activities.
Chapter
The demands and stress associated with parenting responsibilities make it an ideal sphere for the application of mindfulness principles. When a parent works to become more mindful, he or she devotes deliberate effort to attending to present experiences with their child in a nonjudgmental and open manner. This approach is multifaceted and can include increasing your awareness of your child’s needs and emotions, listening to your child with full attention, recognizing your own reactions to situations involving your child, and learning to respond kindly and compassionately to yourself, your child, and others. Rather than adding additional items to the daily schedule, mindfulness helps caregivers savor existing moments and make more deliberate decisions related to how they raise their children. Among other beneficial outcomes, research has shown that practicing mindfulness increases parents’ use of positive parenting skills with their children, bolsters their confidence, and strengthens their relationship with their children. This chapter includes thorough explanations of the principles of mindfulness as applied to the parent-child relationship as well as suggestions of how to realistically integrate mindfulness in your daily family routines. This chapter aims to provide parents with information and support in using mindfulness to enrich their lives and their relationships with their children.
Chapter
The world we live in involves the fact that terrible things happen to people, often perpetuated by other humans. We hear about tragedies in detail and are required to be present with a number of different intense emotions in others as well as ourselves. Trauma is contagious, and as witnesses to suffering, working with traumatized people can take a toll on our minds, bodies, and spirits. I will describe vicarious trauma, compassion fatigue, and secondary traumatic stress and the impact of trauma work on our personal and professional lives. As therapists, we bring unique strengths and vulnerabilities to our clinical work. Self-care is vital to manage the impact of our exposure to trauma and to prevent burnout.
Article
Background: Compassion fatigue refers to the emotional and physical exhaustion felt by professionals in caring roles, whereas compassion satisfaction encompasses the positive aspects of helping others. Levels of compassion satisfaction and fatigue have been found to be inconsistent in palliative care professionals, which could have serious implications for patients, professionals and organisations. Objectives: This study explored the experiences of clinical psychologists working in palliative care, all worked with adults with cancer, to gain an understanding of the impact this work has on their self and how they manage this. Methods: A qualitative approach was taken, using semi-structured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Three superordinate themes were identified: commitment, existential impact on the self and the oracle. The participants' experiences were characterised by the relationship between themselves and their patients, the influence of working in palliative services on their world view and the impact of organisational changes. Differences between working as a clinical psychologist in palliative care versus non-palliative settings were considered. Conclusions: Professionals working in palliative care should be supported to reflect on their experiences of compassion and resilience, and services should provide resources that facilitate staff to practice positive self-care to maintain their well-being.
Article
Background: Child abuse organizations are keenly aware of the impact helping abused and neglected children has on the people who do that work. In their efforts to address this issue, they look to their colleagues for recommendations on what works. Of particular value is testimony from those who have used evidence-informed programs to mitigate the impact on staff, so services to children do not suffer. Objective, participants and setting, results: The Resiliency Project provided that evidence-informed program, one that was developed for and by the child abuse field in 2009. With funding from the Office for Victims of Crime, The University of Texas at Austin team of researchers, educators and practitioners developed the Organizational Resiliency Model (ORM) specifically for the child abuse field. The model draws from research on strengths individuals who are resilient have, and offers strategies for organizations to use to build resiliency in their staff. The ORM was piloted with 24 leaders from the field, including children's advocacy centers (CACs); court-appointed special advocate (CASA) programs; and government-based child welfare agencies. This article reviews the research basis for the ORM and new research supporting the model, and offers lessons learned through structured interviews with 10 child abuse leaders who piloted the ORM and continue to use it ten years later. Conclusions: Using the ORM, based on evidence available at the time, supported by new research and attested to by child abuse leaders who have sustained the model in their organizations, can promote a healthy and resilient workforce.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: This article presents key findings of two major empirical studies of psy- chotherapist and counsellor development. Both aimed to advance knowledge of vari- ations in professional development and better understand the complexity of formative influences. Methodology: The Minnesota Study of Therapist and Counsellor Development and the International Study of Development of Psychotherapists (ISDP) combined quali- tative and quantitative research. Results: In the “Minnesota study,” qualitative analysis of data from 100 psychotherapists (172 interviews) at different experience levels led to formulating five phases of practi- tioner development: the Novice Student Phase, Experienced Student Phase, Novice Professional Phase, Experienced Professional Phase and Senior Professional Phase. Results were integrated in a model describing three developmental trajectories—Continued de- velopment, Exhaustion and Disengagement—suggesting a developmentally sensitive ap- proach to supervision. In the ISDP study, the Development of Psychotherapist Common Core Questionnaire was used to survey approximately 5,000 psychotherapists from countries throughout the world from 1991 to 2003 (currently about 12,000 therapists). Multi-level quantitative analysis yielded two broad dimensions of therapeutic work ex- perience, Healing Involvement and Stressful Involvement, based on therapists’ clinical skills, difficulties in practice, coping strategies, manner of relating to clients and in-session feel- ings. Analysis of therapists’ experiences of current professional development showed two dimensions (Currently Experienced Growth and Currently Experienced Depletion). These were predicted, respectively, by Healing Involvement and Stressful Involvement and in turn predicted different levels of Overall Career Development. Implications: Implications for supervison were drawn from the findings of The Phase Model and the Cyclical Trajectories model of the Minnesota-study, while the ISDP study results were integrated in a Cyclical-Sequential Model with implications for clinical training, supervision and practice. KEYWORDS counsellor, professional development, psychotherapist, supervision, therapy training
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this work is to explain differences between areas of job satisfaction across helping professions from government as well as non-government organizations offering social service (N=729). The relationship between areas of job satisfaction and perceived stress in specific groups of professions has been also explored. Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1985, 1997) and Global Measure of Perceived Stress (Cohen, Kamarck, Mermelstein, 1983) were used. The analysis revealed differences between areas of job satisfaction, also in interaction with specific profession. The highest satisfaction was with nature of work, while satisfaction bith rewards and operating conditions was the lowest. The correlation between areas of job satisfaction and perceived stress varried across professions. Most significant was negative relationship between satisfaction with nature of work and perceived stress.
Article
C. Norcross has made significant contributions in the areas of the transthe-oretical model of change, psychotherapy integration, and empirically supported psychotherapy relationships. This interview explores the contributions of pragmatic philosophy and his personal upbringing to his work as a psychotherapy researcher and practitioner. Dr. Norcross discusses the status of the psychotherapy integration movement, the work of the Task Force on Empirically Supported Psychotherapy Relationships, and future trends in psychotherapy over the next 25 years. He emphasizes the importance of a methodological rigor that recognizes the unique characteristics of the psychotherapy relationship. He describes his current interest in the psychotherapy of psychotherapists, illustrating it with his personal challenges in balancing work and home. KEY WORDS: psychotherapy; psychotherapy research; person of therapist; pragmatism; integration; therapeutic relationship. We must find a theory that will work; and that means something extremely difficult; for our theory must mediate between all previous truths and certain new experiences. It must derange common sense and previous belief as little as possible, and it must lead to some sensible terminus or other that can be verified exactly.-William James PRAGMATISM Abraham Wolf (AW)-You have written widely in the areas of psychotherapy integration, stages of change, and empirically supported psychotherapy relationships , among others. What do you see as the common thread?
Book
Therapists sometimes ask: What supports you in life? What gets you through difficult times? Our ‘journey’ in life relies on a range of resources to equip and fulfil us. Knowing about these resources, however, is not enough: for lasting benefits, they must be bodily felt experiences. The aim of this book is to illustrate the holistic purpose of therapy to resource integration of the client. It draws upon extensive material to affirm that the practice of contemporary therapy benefits from insights gained from evolving neuroscience. Particular emphasis is put on the benefits of drawing on the dimensions of experience to strengthen ego processes like self-awareness and self-regulation, and engage with the depths of being, including ‘soul’. Resource Focused Counselling and Psychotherapy provides professionals with a comprehensive and integrative model of resource focused therapy, drawing upon clinical examples and the current range of research and theory surrounding this emerging approach. Additionally, the book contains a range of self-resourcing exercises and practices for each part of the integrative model, enabling individuals to develop self-resources for greater resilience and well-being in their own lives. This book is an important read for psychotherapists, psychologists and counsellors, including those working with trauma. It also provides valuable insights for modalities practising from a psycho-spiritual perspective, including Jungian and transpersonal psychotherapists.
Chapter
Developing healthy habits of self-care is essential to the work of psychotherapy. Self-care has been linked to decreased burnout and increased job satisfaction for therapists. It includes a holistic integration and as such should include cultivating healthy living habits in each the following six domains: maintaining balance, intrapersonal experiences, interpersonal relationships, the professional realm, physical health, and recreation. Keywords: burnout; ethics; health; morale; self-care; therapist well-being
Article
The heads of 107 programs in professional psychology certified by the American Psychological Association participated in a questionnaire study designed to learn their views about well-functioning in professional psychologists and what they had done and would like to do, programmatically, to maintain and enhance it. Their responses were compared with those of 339 licensed psychologists in a prior study. Although the 2 groups both assigned high ratings to self-awareness, a balanced lifestyle, relationship with spouse or partner, and personal values, overall the program heads put more emphasis on the didactic-supervisory items, whereas the practitioners emphasized the personal-existential items. Modifications of psychology programs to place well-functioning of students on par with other major purposes are described in detail.