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Predictors of Success in the Era of the Boundaryless Career

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Abstract

The present study examines three classes of career competencies proposed as important predictors of success in the boundaryless career. Three criteria of career success were examined: perceived career satisfaction, perceived internal marketability, and perceived external marketability. Using data from 458 alumni from a large southeastern university, predictions were tested using partial correlations and dominance analysis. The results found support for the importance of 'knowing why', 'knowing whom', and 'knowing how' as suggested by previous theoretical work. The findings are discussed in reference to future research and theorizing on the boundaryless career. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Since the late 20th century, careers have shifted from those within a single organization toward career paths that encourage free movement between different career contexts such as between organizations nationally and internationally (Eby et al., 2003;Hall, 1996). To stay attractive in the rapidly changing organizational, occupational and industrial markets and to pursue boundaryless careers, i.e. careers that allow us to move freely both physically and psychologically between jobs, organizations, occupations, industries and countries (Sullivan and Arthur, 2006;Eby et al., 2003), individuals need to develop more flexible and adaptable career capital (CC) (Defillippi and Arthur, 1994). ...
... Since the late 20th century, careers have shifted from those within a single organization toward career paths that encourage free movement between different career contexts such as between organizations nationally and internationally (Eby et al., 2003;Hall, 1996). To stay attractive in the rapidly changing organizational, occupational and industrial markets and to pursue boundaryless careers, i.e. careers that allow us to move freely both physically and psychologically between jobs, organizations, occupations, industries and countries (Sullivan and Arthur, 2006;Eby et al., 2003), individuals need to develop more flexible and adaptable career capital (CC) (Defillippi and Arthur, 1994). CC is an individual asset combining cumulative career competencies consisting of three types of knowing: career-related motivation, meaning and identification (knowing-why); career-relevant skills and knowledge (knowing-how); and career-relevant social networks (knowing-whom) (Arthur et al., 1995;Defillippi and Arthur, 1994;Inkson and Arthur, 2001). ...
... The CC framework (Inkson and Arthur, 2001) suggests that career is a continuous process that can include moving between jobs nationally and internationally. This framework also suggests that boundaryless careers (Eby et al., 2003) would not be possible if we could not take our CC with us, i.e. could not transfer CC between various career contexts throughout our career journey (Defillippi and Arthur, 1994). Research on the CC possessed by internationally mobile employees provides some evidence that individuals can transfer their CC not only between local organizations but also between organizations located in different countries Dickmann and Watson, 2017;Jokinen, 2010). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this literature review is to critically analyze, synthesize and integrate the currently fragmented literature concerning the factors affecting the international transfer of individual career capital (CC). Design/methodology/approach This paper is a systematic literature review of the factors affecting the international transfer of individual CC from/for expatriates, repatriates and other employed highly skilled migrants and return migrants. The findings are classified based on the Social Chronology Framework (SCF) proposed by Gunz and Mayrhofer (2015). Findings This systematic literature review suggests that the international transfer of individual CC, which can be expressed both as (1) individual-level transfer across different organizations located in different countries as the direct use and application of CC and (2) individual knowing-how transfer to other individuals within organization, is affected by the individual, organizational and broader contextual-level factors that are bound by the aspect of time. The authors summarize the findings by presenting a model of the factors affecting the international transfer of individual CC. Originality/value The authors align the CC framework (Defillippi and Arthur, 1994) to the SCF (Gunz and Mayrhofer, 2018) by explaining the factors affecting the international transfer of individual CC that go beyond the qualities of CC, including the Being, Space and Time domains. Moreover, the authors critique the current focus on the international CC transfer in the present suggesting that future research should explore this phenomenon as a more dynamic process. Finally, the authors contribute to the literature on the global mobility of highly skilled employees' by highlighting gaps in the knowledge of the international transfer of CC and presenting a future research agenda.
... In a recently conducted research, empirical evidence has been found in favor of career competencies as an important tool for graduates to mobilize during and after their period of school to work transition (Presti, 2021). Theoretical research confirms that career competencies such as 'knowing why,' 'knowing whom,' and 'knowing who' are the three most important indicators of career success (Eby, Butts, & Lockwood, 2003). ...
... Here, 'know why' is linked to career planning, 'know whom' is linked to networking and 'know how' is linked to skill development and which are all the necessary competencies for succeeding in this era of boundaryless careers (DeFillippi & Arthur, 1994;Eby et al., 2003;Vos, Clippeleer, & Dewilde, 2009). Career insight, proactive personality, and openness to experience are three variables of 'knowing why' (career planning) competency. ...
... A boundary less career is a notion in which variables are used to predict professional success. There are three types of variables that predict professional success in individuals, which are sometimes referred to as career skills (Eby et al., 2003). Writing about boundary less careers and career competences centers around three main types of variables: 'knowing why, ' 'knowing whom,' and 'knowing how' (M. ...
Article
Due to increased trend in job transitions, prospects of occupation these days are difficult to predict. Therefore, workers need to develop differentiated set of skills and competences to be able to adapt to a variety of available occupations. The volatility in employability due to ever changing technologies, business environments and models need to focus on becoming lifelong learners not only to maintain their employability but to create more opportunities for themselves. This situation has affected work like of people in a way that the careers no more belong to the organizations but to individual. According to the literature on boundaryless careers, there are three types of variables that can be used to predict career success. Combinations of these three variables are generally referred to as career competencies. Theoretical research reveals that 'understanding why, ‘whom,' and 'how' are the three most important indicators of career success. The findings demonstrate that proactive career behaviors are predicted by future work self and identity resolution. Future work self has a significant positive impact on employment status and, as a result, can lead to future employment success. The findings also revealed that future work self predicts career planning the most. Career consultation is the second most reliable indicator of future employment. Future work self can also forecast proactive skill improvement and proactive career consulting. The study showed results that identity resolution predicts career planning the most. Identity resolution also predicts proactive skill development, career consultation and proactive career networking.
... However, the transition phase in early-career, from college/university to the labor market, is challenging. A pool of competencies provides confidence in pursuing career ambitions and moving into the labor market (Eby et al., 2003;Ko, 2012). From the employer's perspective, individuals' competencies are equally valuable for productivity and performance (Rodrigues et al., 2014) and to employ adaptive behavior (Parker et al., 2009) and remain successful (Colakoglu, 2011). ...
... Organizations in Pakistan operate in high power distance environment and traditional or even contemporary organizations operating in high power distance cultures usually follow a top-down hierarchical structure (Hofstede, 1983;Nauman et al., 2022). In such a culture, usually, promotion is based on pay band and service tenure instead of the employee's skills and performance (Eby et al., 2003;Peter and Hull, 1969). Therefore, it is likely that competencies, based on a career level, hold different significance for career growth in such economies. ...
Article
This study analyzes how career competencies increase individuals’ career commitment through positive career shocks from the project perspective. Further, this paper discusses the interaction effect of career satisfaction and career shocks to career commitment. Survey data were collected from early-career engineers working on engineering projects, and later analyzed through PROCESS Macro. Findings revealed that positive career shocks increased the career commitment of young engineers who had acceptable career competencies. This study extends the current career debate more precisely in the project context by highlighting the role of positive career shock, a relatively new construct in project management research, in career commitment. This also highlighted policy implications from a project viewpoint, such as how project recruiters may help early-career workers develop and enhance their attitudes toward a certain career, which is advantageous to the organization and project outcomes.
... In this era of boundaryless careers, successful employees remain value-added to their present employer and are viewed as marketable by other organizations (Eby et al., 2003). Employees' career success, which could be both subjectively and objectively defined (Judge et al., 1995), not only represents "the positive psychological and work-related outcomes accumulated as a result of one's work experience" (Seibert and Kraimer, 2001), but also reflects their essential contributions to organizational goal achievement (van Dam, 2004;Ng et al., 2005). ...
... Second, we only consider the P-E fit theory as the explanation and mediation mechanism to link ethical leadership and subjective and objective career success. Possibly there are other potential mediation processes, such as "knowing whom" and "knowing why" career competencies that emphasize social capital and working motivations (Eby et al., 2003). Future studies may control relevant variables to substantiate such conclusions. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of ethical leadership on followers’ subjective and objective career success from a P-E fit perspective. Specifically, the mediating effects of demands-abilities fit, needs-supplies fit, and person-organization fit in the relationship between ethical leadership and employee subjective (i.e., career satisfaction) and objective career success (i.e., mobility and promotability) were investigated. We collected two-wave data from 160 employees and used hierarchical regressions to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that ethical leadership had a positive effect on employee career satisfaction, mobility, and promotability. Moreover, employee demands-abilities fit mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and career mobility and promotability; needs-supplies fit and person-organization fit mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and employee career satisfaction. Theoretical and empirical implications were discussed.
... As such, several studies have been conducted using the ICF to ascertain the power of CC (three knowing) on CS. For instance, one study's finding using 411 participants (alumni) by Eby et al. (2003) offered initial evidence for the extrapolative importance of three approaches of interpreting what a successful career is. Colakoglu (2011) has shown that the "three ways of knowing" are necessary for people to develop independent and autonomous careers and to lessen the complexity of their boundaryless careers. ...
... According to Ballout (2007), knowing-why is important for subjective CS, as it implies that people should be aware of the following factors, namely, what drives them in their work; and what kind of employment would give them a sense of personal significance so that they can completely identify with their work. Individuals must be aware of their own talents and shortcomings, as well as their unique career objectives they want to attain (Eby et al., 2003). This is because individuals need to fulfil their job objectives and accomplish things, to be successful (Olckers and Koekemoer, 2017;Ang, 2019). ...
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Purpose This study aims to investigate the influence of creativity and resource availability on career competencies (CC) and career success (CS) of entrepreneurs in Nigeria using the intelligent career framework. Design/methodology/approach Data was obtained using answers to questionnaires given to 348 successful entrepreneurs. The data was analysed using non-parametric software (Smart-PLS). Findings The results indicate that entrepreneurs who possess “know-why”, “know-how” and “know-whom” can access the required resources and are doing well in their careers. It is suggested that these competencies were significantly related to entrepreneurial CS. Resource availability moderates the relationship of knowing-how, knowing-why competencies and CS, whilst creativity moderates only the link between knowing-whom and entrepreneurial CS. Research limitations/implications The results help us to comprehend better the nature of successful entrepreneurial careers and the prominent role of tripartite competencies in achieving a successful career. Also emphasised here is the prominence of a more holistic perspective of these components based on a mix of social, motivational and human capital. Practical implications These findings hinted that entrepreneurs should pay uniform consideration in fostering each CC. There are implications for career advisers, practitioners and entrepreneurship programmes. Originality/value To the authors’ best knowledge, this is first-of-its-kind research that used primary source data in understanding CC – “knowing-how, knowing-whom and knowing-why” – with entrepreneurs’ CS in Nigeria.
... Especially proactive career behaviors have become a very important structure for university students who are in the process of transition to working life (Thomas et al., 2010). Because proactive career behaviors are behavioral patterns that facilitate career transition processes and increase the employment rate of individuals (Claes & Ruiz-Quintanilla, 1998;De Vos et al., 2009;Eby et al., 2003;Forret & Dougherty, 2004). For this reason, it is of great importance to determine the structures that may be related to the proactive career behaviors of individuals. ...
... Proactive career behaviors have been the subject of frequent research in recent years. Previous research has found that proactive career behaviors are associated with future work self (Strauss et al., 2012), career adjustment (Savickas, 2013;Spurk et al., 2020), career satisfaction Matsuo, 2020), career management (Eby et al., 2003;Ślebarska & Flakus, 2020), career success (Cha et al., 2017;De Vos et al., 2009;Verbruggen et al., 2007), career exploration, career planning, career decision self-efficacy (Korkmaz et al., 2020), and employment (De Vos et al., 2009). ...
Article
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This study was conducted to examine the moderating role of career decision regret in the relationship between university students' visions about the future and proactive career behaviors.The study consisted of a total of 312 university students, including 167 (53.5%) females and 145 (46.5%) males, at a university in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Visions about the Future Scale, Career Decision Regret Scale, and Career Engagement Scale were used as data collection tools. Correlation analysis and regression analysis based on the bootstrap method were employed in data analysis. As a result of the correlation analysis, it was concluded that proactive career behaviors had significant relationships with visions about the future and career decision regret. The result of the regression analysis conducted to determine the moderating effect indicated that career decision regret had a moderating role in the relationship between visions about the future and proactive career behaviors. Promoting individuals’ visions about the future and reducing career decision regret can contribute to increasing proactive career behaviors.Resultsobtainedwere discussed, and suggestions were made for practitioners and researchers.
... Perceived employability is a subjective construct concerning an individual's perception of his or her possibility of obtaining and maintaining employment (Berntson & Marklund, 2007). In the boundaryless career era, an individual's career is no longer subordinate to a given job or limited to an organization; instead, one's career may transcend organizational memberships and consist of sequences of experiences across both jobs and organizations (Eby et al., 2003). Against this backdrop, employees who are employable within and outside the current organization are more likely to gain favour from the current and future employers. ...
... Against this backdrop, employees who are employable within and outside the current organization are more likely to gain favour from the current and future employers. Therefore, one of the key signs of individual career success (including gain job security) in the boundaryless career era is the continuous improvement of employability (Eby et al., 2003). Moreover, while job insecurity is detrimental to employee well-being (De Witte et al., 2016), perceived employability may enhance employee health and well-being (e.g., Tornroos et al., 2017). ...
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Based on a two-dimensional perspective of job insecurity and perceived employability, the present study examines the role of perceived employability in preventing job insecurity and subsequent work-related well-being (i.e., emotional exhaustion and vigour). Building on the Job Demands-Resources Model, our hypotheses were tested with 3-wave panel data of 1,233 Chinese employees with six months in between each measurement time. Results showed that: 1) perceived internal employability had a cross-lagged relation with qualitative job insecurity, and perceived external employability had a cross-lagged relation with quantitative job insecurity; 2) there was no cross-lagged relationship between job insecurity and work-related well-being indicators, while emotional exhaustion was positively related to both qualitative and quantitative job insecurity; 3) the relationship between perceived external employability and vigour was reciprocal; perceived internal employability was positively related to future vigour, but not the other way around. Hence, the present study contributes to the job insecurity and perceived employability literature by identifying perceived employability as a critical antecedent of job insecurity and work-related well-being as well as finding the reverse relationship between job insecurity and emotional exhaustion.
... According to them hardiness is related to employability and is a multidimensional concept known for the individual's inclination to act rather than be passive about the outcomes. Eby Butts and Lockwood (2003), found a positive relationship between perceived employability and subjective career success when employees' skill building was shown to lead to career satisfaction and success. Also, Gowan (2012), identified four dimensions of perceived employability: career identity, personal adaptability, social capital and human capital. ...
... Thus, as more expensive cities offer more cultural amenities (Florida & Mellander, 2010;Glaeser et al., 2001), open individuals might be more willing to pay this amenity-premium to satisfy their psychological needs (Glaeser & Gottlieb, 2006). At the same time, open individuals may not only be more willing but also more able to pay the higher housing prices that come with such amenities (Florida, 2014a;Glaeser et al., 2001) because Openness is positively related to educational attainment (McCrae, 1996), higher income (Boudreau et al., 2001), and career success (Eby et al., 2003). ...
Article
Accumulating evidence suggests that culture changes in response to shifting socioecological conditions; economic development is a particularly potent driver of such change. Previous research has shown that economic development can induce slow but steady cultural changes within large cultural entities (e.g., countries). Here we propose that economically driven culture change can occur rapidly, particularly in smaller cultural entities (e.g., cites). Drawing on work in cultural dynamics, urban economics, and geographical psychology, we hypothesize that changes in local housing prices-reflecting changing availability of local amenities-can induce rapid shifts in local cultures of Openness. We propose two mechanisms that might underlie such cultural shifts: selective migration (i.e., people selectively moving to cities that offer certain amenities) and social acculturation (i.e., people adapting to changing amenities in their city). Based on trait Openness scores of 1,946,752 U.S. residents, we track annual changes in local Openness across 199 cities for 9 years (2006-2014). We link these data to annual information on local housing markets, an established proxy for local amenities. To test interdependencies between the time series of local housing markets and Openness, we use Panel Vector Autoregression modeling. In line with our hypothesis, we find robust evidence that rising housing costs predict positive shifts in local Openness but not vice versa. Additional analyses leveraging participants' duration of residence in their city suggest that both selective migration and social acculturation contribute to shifts in local Openness. Our study offers a new window onto the rapid changes of cultures at local levels. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Innovative Work Behavior was measured by using the generation of an idea, idea promotion, and idea realization, developed by [41] based on [42]. Subjective career success was measured by perceived career success, job satisfaction, and external marketability, developed by [43] based on [44], [45], [46]. ...
... There is a rich body of previous works on career success (Ng 2005;Heslin et al. 2019). This knowledge has built our understanding of the role of environmental (Ng et al. 2014), human capital (Zacher 2014;Poona et al. 2015;Jarlstrom et al. 2020), social capital (Jarlstrom et al. 2020;Eby et al. 2003), and motivational factors (Judge et al. 1995) on the perception of career success and on objective measures of individual career success (such as salaries or increases in position levels). However, recent academic debate that was initiated by Hall (2004) and continued by several others (Haenggli and Hirschi 2020;Xin et al. 2020;Wilhelm, Hirchi 2019) has focused on the career self-management and pro-active roles that individuals should take in order to advance their careers. ...
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Subjective career success describes an individual’s satisfaction with his/her professional life. We propose a novel model for evaluating the universal personal values as well as the behavioral and socio-demographic factors that lead to subjective career success. Data was collected from employees of organizations across 20 different industries in Latvia (with a sample size of N = 348). This study reveals that the personal values that have the most significant influence on a subjective career are self-direction and power. Behavioral factors explained nearly 30% of the variance, revealing that the most important career behaviors that lead to subjective career success are control and confidence behaviors as well as attitudes toward rewards and relationships. Curiosity behaviors and education levels had negative impact on subjective career success, and previous experience in managerial positions had the most significant positive impact on the subjective career success of the respondent included in the sample. The respondents’ genders had no impact on subjective career success. The results of the study are applicable to both organizations and their human resource departments as well as individuals who aim at advancing their careers. For individuals, there is an important message to be had that, by practicing pro-active career behaviors, they can possibly compensate for some lack of education or previous managerial experience. On the organizational side, it is important to understand what personal, behavioral, and socio-demographic factors lead to the positive perception of a career path, as it would increase one’s organizational commitment and drive him/her toward reaching their organizational goals.
... As marital status and number of children have been highlighted as variables that can affect the work-family relationship (Behson, 2002;Byron, 2005;Eby et al., 2003), in addition to gender and tenure, family demand was also assessed by adapting the strategy of Bedeian et al. (1988), which considers both marital status and the number of children (1 = single, divorced, or widowed without children; 2 = married without children; 3 = married, divorced, or widowed with 1 child; 4 = married, divorced, or widowed with 2 children; 5 = married, divorced, or widowed with 3 children; 6 = married, divorced, or widowed with 4 children) simultaneously. ...
Article
Based on the Conservation of Resources theory, this research investigates the association between work-family relationships and employees’ well-being in teleworking situations, and explores the role of Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB) as an important resource to help employees balance the exchange between work and life domains and improve well-being while teleworking. The current study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, when most organizations opted for telework and employees found themselves involuntarily working from home. We examined the intensity of remote work as a boundary condition to determine when FSSB can be a resource for employees in telework. Our research combines two studies: a cross-sectional study with 318 workers from a bank that implemented telework over seven months; and a two-wave study with 290 participants from another bank – time 1 was prior to lockdown and time 2 was ten months later. Moderated mediation hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling and the PROCESS macro for SPSS. Results from both studies show that FSSB is related to positive outcomes for work-family relationship and also for well-being. However, many of these associations are conditional upon the levels of intensity of telework. Implications for HRM theory and practice are discussed.
... Due to the increased pace and sequence of changes in society and organizations (Perera and McIlveen, 2017), careers have become increasingly complex and flexible in the past few decades (Baruch et al., 2015). As a result of the more turbulent and mobile nature of careers (Eby et al., 2003), career resiliencei.e. the willingness and ability to adapt to new situations, overcome adverse career impacts and bounce back after a career change (e.g. Seibert et al., 2016;Vough and Caza, 2017)has become a vital career resource for individuals (e.g. ...
Article
Purpose To deepen the understanding of the process of growth and development of career resilience, this study aims to investigate the impact of career history and openness to change as antecedents of career resilience and the effect of career resilience on career self-management and career outcomes (salary and career satisfaction) over time using the Career Construction Theory. Design/methodology/approach The authors applied structural equation modeling with cross-lagged associations between career characteristics (number of employees, job seniority and missed promotions), openness to change, career resilience, individual career management (ICM) and career success (salary and career satisfaction) using three-wave data of 872 employees. Findings Openness to change had cross-lagged positive relationships with career resilience. The number of (previous) employers and missed promotions had a positive effect on career resilience, whereas job seniority was related negatively to career resilience. Furthermore, career resilience had a positive effect on individual career self-management in terms of networking, practical things and drawing attention over time. No effect was found on the individual career self-management dimension of mobility-oriented behavior over time. Finally, ICM had a positive effect on salary and career satisfaction over time. Originality/value Altogether these results suggest that career resilience is not only a way to stay active as an employee and cope with career changes, but it also enhances employees’ chances to achieve objective and subjective career success.
... The sense of career success refers to the positive psychological feelings gradually accumulated by individuals in the course of their career and the related achievements made in their work. It includes both subjective and objective success, and is an important indicator and variable to evaluate individual career development (Seibert et al., 1999;Eby et al., 2003). Currently, studies on career success are mostly focused on the field of management, but in recent years, the number of studies on career fulfillment in the field of nursing field has gradually increased (Wu et al., 2022). ...
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Background: Nurses' career success is an important factor affecting the quality of nursing services and the stability of the nursing workforce, and enhancing nurses' career success level is of key significance to the development of the nursing discipline. As psychological resilience and craftsmanship are important spiritual traits in the process of nurses' career development, it is important to understand the mechanism of their effects on nurses' career success level. Objective: To explore the current situation of craftsmanship, psychological resilience and career success levels of female nurses in central China, and to verify the mediating role of craftsmanship between psychological resilience and female career success using structural equation model. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2359 female nurses from three hospitals in central China through an online questionnaire, including craftsmanship, psychological resilience and career success scale. The data were analyzed by Z-test and Spearman rank correlation with SPSS 23.0 statistical software, and the mechanism of the effect of craftsmanship and psychological resilience on career success was completed by AMOS 23.0 statistical software. Results: The scores of career success, psychological resilience, and craftsmanship of female nurses in central China were 68.00 (61.00, 75.00), 74.00 (64.00, 84.00), and 83.00 (79.00, 95.25). Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that Chinese female nurses' career success was positively correlated with craftsmanship (r = 0.511, P < 0.01) and psychological resilience (r = 0.595, P < 0.01). Craftsmanship played a mediating role between psychological resilience and career success, accounting for 39.3% of the total effect ratio. Conclusion: The scores of career success and psychological resilience of female nurses in central China are at a moderate level, and craftsmanship plays a mediating role between psychological resilience and career success. It is suggested that nursing managers should pay attention to the importance of career success to nurses' self-development and nursing team stability, and improve their sense of career success by effectively improving nurses' psychological resilience and craftsmanship.
... Job Satisfaction Scale was developed by (Wanous et al., 1997). Perceived Career Success developed by (Eby et al., 2003). The last instrument used to determine career success was developed by (Briscoe et al., 2021), who constructed and validated a new subjective career success measure that encompassed a broad cross-section of country cultures (Briscoe et al., 2021). ...
Article
Career success is an individual's ability to achieve self and work success. There are various instruments to determine individual career success. However, there has not been a career success instrument specifically developed for adolescents. This study aims to develop and validate The Adolescent Career Success Instrument (ACSI) using the Rasch model analysis. Participants in this study consisted of 3 guidance and counseling experts for the constructed test, 4 students for the readability test, and 106 students (33 male students and 73 female students) from high school for the empirical test. ACSI reliability test results show that the item reliability is 0.90 in a good category, while the personal reliability is 0.85 in a good category. Cronbach's alpha value is 0.91 in the very good category. The results of the ACSI analysis using the Rasch model showed that 49 reliable items could be used to measure adolescent career success.
... Therefore, the three-dimensional theory of career success espoused by Eby et al is widely accepted. 17 A number of studies have investigated the influencing factors of career success and demonstrated that both external factors like work environment, 18 organisational support 19 and internal factors like emotional intelligence and gender could influence career success. 20 21 Recently, the association between ability, which is quite similar to competency, and career success has been focused on and explored in psychology. ...
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Objectives The wound, ostomy and continence nursing practice has its own scope and standards, and each standard requires relevant competency. However, the core competencies of wound, ostomy and continence nurses that contribute to the career success are poorly known. To identify associations between career success and core competencies of wound, ostomy and continence nurses in China. Design A cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample. Setting Participants were recruited from 108 hospitals in 28 provinces. Participants A total of 123 wound, ostomy and continence nurses were surveyed. Measures Career success, core competencies and demographic characteristics of wound, ostomy and continence nurses, were measured in this study. Methods A survey was distributed to 123 wound, ostomy and continence nurses were recruited from 108 hospitals in 28 provinces. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to explore associations between career success outcomes and core competency scores of wound ostomy and continence nurses and their demographic characteristics. Results The career success and core competency of wound, ostomy and continence nurses were both above average. Nurses who had higher total scores of core competency were more likely to have higher career success, including total score (OR=4.90), career satisfaction (OR=5.58) and perceived internal (OR=4.55)/external (OR=3.42) organisation competitiveness. Higher competency in interpersonal communication (OR=7.70) and more time for wound care per month (OR=8.80) predicted higher career satisfaction. Additionally, nurses with higher professional development were more likely to score higher in perceived internal organisation competitiveness of career success (OR=4.36) and the overall career success (OR=5.96). Conclusions The career success and core competency of the wound, ostomy and continence nurses in China were at an above average level. The associations between career success and core competency of the wound, ostomy and continence nurses were positive, suggesting that competency enhancement could improve nurses’ career success.
... The scale was adapted from London (1993) and Noe, Noe, and Bachhuber (1990) and exhibited adequate reliability in later studies (e.g. Eby et al., 2003). Respondents indicated their level of agreement with each statement on a 7-point Likert scale, with the anchors set at strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (7) for statements such as: "I am very involved with my job." ...
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The career attitudes and decisions of both male and female employees depend not only on the situation at work but are also influenced by their family dynamics. This paper explores the differences in the relationship between career identity and career commitment and tested self-efficacy as a moderating variable for employees with different family dynamics. It also considered whether these relationships vary among male and female employees. The results show that in the female subsample the moderator was significant, while for males self-efficacy did not play a significant role. In terms of family characteristics, being married/cohabiting and being married/cohabiting with dependents in the household were found to be relevant differentiating factors among females when it comes to the significance of the moderating effect. In the male sample self-efficacy exhibited a significant effect only in the group of male employees with dependents.
... Looking at the development of the construct historically, it can be observed that definitions and models of employability tend to enlarge in time by accommodating different aspects of individual's characteristics such as sectors-specific skills and knowledge of qualifications holders, their transversal (generic) competences and learning attitudes, flexibility, adaptation, etc. (e.g. [16] [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30]) as well as introducing in the analytical model external factors such as the demand side of the labour market and characteristics of local economies, family socio-economic background, perception of academic credentials by employers, etc., pointing out the multidimensional character of the employability construct (e.g. [7] [16], [23], [30], [31]). ...
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This paper examines the relationship between study-related working experience or internship and early career outcomes of higher education graduates in eight European countries. The objective is to test the hypothesis that the odds of getting a first job upon graduation are increased by having study related work experience or internship during the studies. The hypothesis was drawn on the theoretical perspectives of the human capital theory and built on previous research on work-based learning experienced through internship and integrated in the curriculum. The results off the odds ratio analysis, applied on the whole sample and separately on each country participating in the EUROGRADUATE 2019 pilot survey, support the hypothesis.
... Individual marketability is one of the other important criterions of career success (Arthur, and Rousseau, 1996). Because jobs and career patterns are less long term and stable, individuals who are able to remain value-added to their present employer and who are viewed as marketable by other organizations are considered successful (Eby et al., 2003). Therefore, perceived marketability in one's organization (a belief that one is valuable to his or her current employer) and perceived marketability in the external market place (a belief that one is valuable to other employers) are important measures of subjective career success. ...
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An increasingly dynamic career context has changed the nature of careers and led to the emergence of more autonomous and self-directed boundaryless careers. The common idea in different forms of boundaryless careers is mobility. Psychologically and physically mobile individuals start to manage their own careers in terms of their personal pursuits. In such a career environment, the nature of career success has also changed. The importance of subjective career success has been emphasized more than objective career success because only individuals themselves can meaningfully define and assess their career success with reference to their own self-defined standards, needs, and values in such an unstable environment. With the transmission of career responsibility to the individuals, the need to develop career competencies as knowing why competencies, knowing whom competencies, and knowing how competencies emerge in order to survive and become successful. This study reviews career concept and the new perspectives as a boundaryless career within a constantly changing environment which makes it impossible to become successful unless gaining new competencies and survival methods and the new perspectives on career success with a growing increase in subjective career success instead of objective career success
... These skills are a central element in the overall skills landscape, as well as in workplace learning and VET (Aarkrog and Wahlgren, 2017). The literature deeply supports and deploys the need for people to actively build their careers to be employable (Eby et al., 2003;Forrier et al., 2015) and to do so, they need to acquire softskills. Moreover, these competencies become strong predictors of success in academic and career transitions (Blokker et al., 2019). ...
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Vocational Education and Training (VET) policies are paying increasing attention towards the need to develop quality career guidance processes. Career guidance plays an essential role in this challenge by enabling people to develop the career management skills that allow them to become aware of their full potential and to construct life projects that facilitate the emotional management of uncertainty and complexity, participating as responsible agents in their environment. After conducting a literature review on each of these key elements, we set out to identify best practices in VET as “building blocks” for the construction of an integrated career guidance plan in VET. This study adopts an approach based on qualitative methodology, specifically a documentary type of research has been carried out. The documents analysed correspond to 88 best practices identified in Andalusia (Spain). The analysis strategy used was a content analysis. For this purpose, a system of categories has been designed, from a deductive perspective, which has contributed to a systematic analysis of them. One of the first conclusions of the study is the uneven development o best practices in the different VET professional pathways. The practices carried out in the centres begin to incorporate different elements and thus facilitate the creation of a suitable context for the development of comprehensive career guidance plans in VET. The article closes by offering implications for the development of guidance in the education system (at VET level) and discusses lines of future research.
... Simultaneously, career studies provide extensive knowledge about the role of career competencies in successful career development (Colakoglu 2011;Eby et al. 2003;Van Der Heijde -Van Der Heijden 2006;Kuijpers -Scheerens 2006;De Vos et al. 2011), especially in times of rising frequency of new careers which evolve across the organisational and industrial boundaries, bounded largely by individual career competencies and personal employability (Arthur -Rousseau 1996, DeFillippi -Arthur 1994, Sallivand -Baruch 2009). According to DeFillippi and Arthur (1994), career competencies consist of three ways of knowing which together make an individual career capital. ...
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This study explored the impact of the COVID-19 career shock to career capital among sports clubs personnel. With this aim, an explanatory mixed-method research was undertaken based on data gathered via a survey among the personnel of sports clubs in Poland (N = 226). The quantitative stage of data analysis (a multivariate analysis of covariance) determined the scale of the changes in career capital and its elements (knowing-how , knowing-why , knowing-whom) across different respondent groups, while the subsequent thematic analysis of the data gathered through open questions explored the sources of these changes. The results show that the shock had a positive impact mainly on knowing-how, and a lesser one on knowing-why, while it was neutral for knowing-whom. Nevertheless, there is an important heterogeneity of the experiences among sports club personnel, even when accounting for the differences in the way that COVID-19 impacted their clubs. By exploring the consequences of a career shock to career capital, this study contributes to career construction theory.
... A quantitative research approach was adopted in the research in which a survey instrument was distributed to the faculty of teaching of the universities of Sindh Jamshoro. The study uses the career success scale to measure the factors of career path and career efficacy having 11 items developed by Eby, Butts, & Lockwood, (2003) and Greenhause (1971). The career motivation factor was measured from the subscale with 21 entries, from which 9 was adapted from a study by Buitendach & Witte, 2005. ...
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... Tenemos, por un lado, resultados que muestran una relación positiva con el éxito en la carrera (Gelissen y De Graaf, 2006;Ng et al., 2005;; Van der Linden, Te Nijenhuis y Bakker, 2010) o ausencia de relación (Boudreau et al., 2001). Los resultados con respecto a la satisfacción con el trabajo han sido también variados, distribuyéndose los estudios en un rango que va desde estudios que no han encontrado relación (Judge et al., 2002) o esta ha sido ligera (Boudreau et al., 2001) a otros que han encontrado relaciones positivas (Eby, Butts y Lockwood, 2003). ...
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... The basic premise of boundaryless careers, i.e. careers that are not limited to a single job position, organisation, occupation, industry, or perhaps even country (Eby et al., 2003), is based on the idea of boundaryless or transferable CC (De-Fillippi & Arthur, 1994). The international transfer of CC is generally understood as the direct use of CC for the individual career in an organisation located in a country different to the one where the CC was developed (DeFillippi & Arthur, 1994;Dickmann & Cerdin, 2016;Dickmann & Watson, 2017;Inkson & Arthur, 2001;Jokinen, 2010). ...
Chapter
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Previous studies have shown that leader narcissism has a significant impact on the effectiveness of a leader and employee behaviors; however, research on career outcomes of employees is still inadequate. This study explores the effects of leader narcissism on the career success of employees from an interpersonal relationship perspective and examines the mediating role of supervisor-subordinate conflict and the moderating role of dominant personality traits of employees. Data from 291 employees in Chinese companies have revealed that leader narcissism, directly and indirectly, affects the career success of employees through supervisor-subordinate relationship conflict. However, dominant personality traits of employees strengthen the impact of leader narcissism on supervisor-subordinate relationship conflict. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings of this study are further discussed.
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Düzenleyici-aracı modelin test edildiği bu araştırmada, lider-üye etkileşiminin (LÜE) kariyer tatmini aracılığıyla yenilikçi iş davranışı (YİD) üzerindeki dolaylı etkisinin çalışanların sektör deneyimine bağlı olacağını varsayan modelin test edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, Denizli ilinin organize sanayi bölgesinde faaliyet gösteren tekstil işletmelerinde çalışan 302 kişi üzerinde alan araştırması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Alan araştırması sırasında kolayda ve kartopu örnekleme yöntemi tercih edilmiştir. Ayrıca, sosyal izolasyon ve sosyal mesafe kuralları gereği üçüncü kişilerle yakın temastan kaçınılmış, soru cevap şeklinde yüz yüze anket yöntemi uygulanmıştır. Uygulanan anketlerde, bu araştırma kapsamında geliştirilen iki soruya yanıt aramıştır. Bunlar; (1) Tekstil çalışanlarının sahip olduğu LÜE’nin YİD üzerindeki etkisinde kariyer tatmininin aracı rolü var mıdır? (2) Tekstil çalışanlarının sahip olduğu sektör deneyimleri, LÜE’nin kariyer tatmini aracılığıyla YİD üzerindeki etkisini nasıl düzenlemektedir? Araştırma sonucunda ilk olarak, LÜE’nin kariyer tatmini aracılığıyla YİD üzerindeki dolaylı etkisinin anlamlı olduğu bulgulanmıştır. Diğer bir deyişle, çalışanların liderleri ile olan etkileşiminin kariyer tatmini aracılığıyla YİD’nı artırdığı tespit edilmiştir. Elde edilen bu sonuç, çalışanın lideri ile olan olumlu etkileşimi arttıkça, kariyer tatmininin de artacağını ve dolaylı olarak YİD sergileyeceğini ifade etmektedir. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen bir diğer önemli sonuç ise, LÜE’nin kariyer tatmini aracılığıyla YİD üzerindeki etkisinde sektör deneyiminin düzenleyici rol oynamasıdır. Bu sonuç, yüksek sektör deneyimine sahip çalışanların düşük olanlara kıyasla kariyerlerinden daha az tatmin olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca bu sonuç LÜE’nin kariyer tatmini aracılığıyla YİD üzerindeki olumlu etkisinin yüksek sektör deneyimine sahip çalışanlarda daha düşük olduğuna işaret etmektedir. Elde edilen söz konusu bulgular doğrutusunda araştırmanın amacına ulaştığı düşünülmektedir.
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Careers are moving from traditional to boundaryless pattern not only in the developed countries, but also in Nigeria, as indicated in the tertiary institutions. This study attempt to underpin the challenges inherent in boundaryless career as it affects tertiary institutions in Nigeria using Nasarawa state as a case study. Survey research design was used; the sample for the study was 152 lecturers determined by Taro Yamene sampling size calculation. The instruments used for data collection was designed questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion. Data generated was analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation, while a non-parametric statistic of chi-square was used in testing hypotheses at .05level of significance combined with content analyses of FGD. Results indicated that career progressions, inferiority perception amongst others are reasons for social and psychological mobility of tertiary institutions employees; age factor, signed bonds with their institutions, amongst others are factors inhibiting social and psychological mobility of tertiary institutions employees; The study further suggested that tertiary institutions in Nigeria should embark on continuous human capital development, create a defined career path for their employees and increase their commitment by having sufficient motivation to keep them in the system.
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Purpose Employability has long been a concern of scholars because of its complicated nature and changes in the requirements in labor markets to meet the new requirements of the Industrial Revolution 4.0 and globalization. However, there has not yet been much systematic investigation of the existing literature tracing the trends, changes and developments in employability research. This paper aims to fill this void by analyzing data obtained from the Scopus dataset from 1972 to 2019. Design/methodology/approach A total of 1,703 Scopus-indexed articles were filtered from 7,885 documents. The results reflect a rapidly emerging literature on employability, given the worldwide interest in this topic. Using descriptive statistics and bibliometric analyses, the review identified trends in employability research, whose impact has been sustained for several decades. Findings With science mapping, the conceptual structure of scientific disciplines was visualized, highlighting three main schools of thought including employers’ requirements and higher education institutions’ preparation; the antecedents of employability; and the role of work-integrated learning in enhancing employability. Originality/value The paper calls for more integrative research focusing on personal agency with the development of career paths inside organizations as well as for a more focus on a multilevel perspective exploring both individuals' and organizations’ perceptions.
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We introduce social networks theory and methods as a way of understanding mentoring in the current career context. We first introduce a typology of "developmental networks" using core concepts from social networks theory-network diversity and tie strength-to view mentoring as a multiple relationship phenomenon. We then propose a framework illustrating factors that shape developmental network structures and offer propositions focusing on the developmental consequences for individuals having different types of developmental networks in their careers. We conclude with strategies both for testing our propositions and for researching multiple developmental relationships further.
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This review analyzes how the changing nature of careers can be conceptualized by examining two major categories of careers research. Specifically, the developmental stage theories of Super (1957) and Levinson (1978, 1986, 1996) and the boundaryless career concept (Arthur & Rousseau, 1996) are used to assess our understanding of careers in today’s dynamic work environment. Directions for future research on existing topics, as well as five major recommendations for a new research agenda, are offered.
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Whenever multiple regression is used to test and compare theoretically motivated models, it is of interest to determine the relative importance of the predictors. Specifically, researchers seek to rank order and scale variables in terms of their importance and to express global statistics of the model as a function of these measures. This article reviews the many meanings of importance of predictors in multiple regression, highlights their weaknesses, and proposes a new method for comparing variables: dominance analysis. Dominance is a qualitative relation defined in a pairwise fashion: One variable is said to dominate another if it is more useful than its competitor in all subset regressions. Properties of the newly proposed method are described and illustrated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper proposes a competency-based view of careers, derived from competency-based models of employer firms. The implications for boundaryless careers are explored by reference to changing organizational, occupational and industry community contexts. All of these contexts are seen as likely to promote boundaryless career behaviors. Future research possibilities for each of three career competencies, and for interdependence among the competencies, are briefly examined.
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This paper argues for a reconceptualization of careers as repositories of knowledge. Careers are visualized as accumulation of information and knowledge rather than simply progressions of work experiences. This definition is considered in light of theories which characterize organizations as knowledge creators. The paper then applies this perspective to the emerging phenomenon of boundaryless careers and concludes that a knowledge perspective provides significant insight into the implications of such careers for individuals and organizations.
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The present study investigated the relationship of traits from the 5-factor model of personality (often termed the “Big Five”) and general mental ability with career success. Career success was argued to be comprised of intrinsic success (job satisfaction) and extrinsic success (income and occupational status) dimensions. Data were obtained from the Intergenerational Studies, a set of 3 studies that followed participants from early childhood to retirement. The most general findings were that conscientiousness positively predicted intrinsic and extrinsic career success, neuroticism negatively predicted extrinsic success, and general mental ability positively predicted extrinsic career success. Personality was related to career success controlling for general mental ability and, though adulthood measures of the Big Five traits were more strongly related to career success than were childhood measures, both contributed unique variance in explaining career success.
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Researchers have tended to focus on idealized models of careers that no longer accurately describe most workers (Arthur & Rousseau 1996; DeFillippi & Arthur 1996). The purpose of this article is to go beyond these models and examine careers in new ways. We suggest that the career patterns implemented by individuals will be influenced by two major factors: (1) transferability of competencies and (2) level of internal work values. Based on this differentiation, we propose a model of career types and examine the implications of this model for researchers, managers, and workers.
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This study examined the relationship between the “Big Five” personality dimensions (neuroticism, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and openness) and career success by surveying a sample of 496 (318 male and 178 female) employees in a diverse set of occupations and organizations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine the incremental variance contributed by the five personality traits after controlling for several career-related variables. Results showed that, as expected, extraversion was related positively to salary level, promotions, and career satisfaction and that neuroticism was related negatively to career satisfaction. Agreeableness was related negatively only to career satisfaction and openness was related negatively to salary level. Examination of moderators revealed that there was a significant negative relationship between agreeableness and salary among individuals in people-oriented occupations but no relationship for those in occupations not involving a strong “people” component.
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This article examines a previously unexplored aspect of job-related relocation of how characteristics of the relocation situation relate to post-move attitudes and intentions. The findings strongly suggest that the type of move matters. When relocations involved lateral or downward job changes, or reflected a decision that employees perceived as involuntary, their perception of organizational support was weakened and their turnover intentions were stronger. Social exchange theory predicts that an important element in assessing satisfaction with and the desire to remain in, a relationship is the balance of rewards versus costs associated with that relationship. It follows that an employee who relocated for a lateral or downward job change would be more likely to perceive an imbalance and report stronger intentions to terminate the employment relationship and reduce their psychological investment in the organization. Relocation situations that do not lead to fair exchanges or are perceived as forced by the organization may lead to perceptions of contract violations, which in turn may affect post-move attitudes and intentions.
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Career motivation is viewed as a multidimensional construct. Components consist of individual characteristics (career identity, career insight, and career resilience domains) and corresponding career decisions and behaviors. Relationships among these components and relevant situational conditions are proposed in a model based on prospective and retrospective rationality. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of Academy of Management Review is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)
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A NUMBER OF COMMON PRACTICES AND BELIEFS CONCERNING MULTIPLE REGRESSION ARE CRITICIZED, AND SEVERAL PARADOXICAL PROPERTIES OF THE METHOD ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE THE BASIC FORMULAS, SUPPRESSOR VARIABLES, MEASURES OF THE IMPORTANCE OF A PREDICTOR VARIABLE, INFERRING RELATIVE REGRESSION WEIGHTS FROM RELATIVE VALIDITIES, ESTIMATES OF THE TRUE VALIDITY OF POPULATION REGRESSION EQUATIONS AND OF REGRESSION EQUATIONS DEVELOPED IN SAMPLES, AND STATISTICAL CRITERIA FOR SELECTING PREDICTOR VARIABLES. (50 REF.)
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Goldberg (1992) developed a robust set of 100 adjective markers for the Big-Five factor structure found in phenotypic personality description. Because and even briefer marker set might be advantageous under certain assessment conditions, the performance of these 100 markers in 12 data sets was scrutinized, leading to the selection of an optimally robust subset of only 40 adjectives. This "Mini-Marker" subset demonstrated unusually impressive features for an abbreviated inventory, consisting of five scales that show, in comparison to the original scales, less use of difficult items, lower interscale correlations, and somewhat higher mean inter-item correlations; alpha reliabilities are somewhat lower. A format for administering this briefer inventory is appended.
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The authors examined perceived environment, perceived incentive and outcome, and person constructs for relationships with interest and participation in voluntary learning and development activity by nonmanagement employees. All 3 groups of constructs were related to development activity. In relationships with development activity, perceived outcome and environment variables interacted with workers' personal values relevant to aspects of a development setting, illustrating the potentially important role that differences in values may play in a development setting, illustrating the potentially important role that differences in values may play in a development context. Additionally, small relationships were observed between several demographic variables and values within a development setting. Results provide implications for the design and implementation of successful development programs and highlight the need to carefully consider individual differences in this context when targeting many different types of employees for participation.
Outcomes of mentoring for protégés: a meta-analysis
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