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Pursuing Happiness: The Architecture of Sustainable Change

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Abstract

The pursuit of happiness is an important goal for many people. However, surprisingly little scientific research has focused on the question of how happiness can be increased and then sustained, probably because of pessimism engendered by the concepts of genetic determinism and hedonic adaptation. Nevertheless, emerging sources of optimism exist regarding the possibility of permanent increases in happiness. Drawing on the past well-being literature, the authors propose that a person's chronic happiness level is governed by 3 major factors: a genetically determined set point for happiness, happiness-relevant circumstantial factors, and happiness-relevant activities and practices. The authors then consider adaptation and dynamic processes to show why the activity category offers the best opportunities for sustainably increasing happiness. Finally, existing research is discussed in support of the model, including 2 preliminary happiness-increasing interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... An appropriate dosing design will further regulate people's motivation and perception when intervention programs are being implemented in their daily life, thereby enabling PIs to achieve maximum effects [19]. In terms of frequency, Lyubomirsky et al. [20] suggested that repetitive and excessive PIs will cause a sense of weariness in individuals and diminish the effectiveness of interventions as a result. Lower-frequency intervention doses can sometimes more effectively maintain a sense of freshness towards intervention programs in individuals while further inducing them to develop motivation for continuous adoption of a given strategy in the future. ...
... This makes it possible to avoid overuse of the activity due to the prolonged intervention time, which would cause the participant to feel satiation in the perception and stop benefiting from it [22]. Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, and Schkade [20] emphasized that behavior changes, characterized by sporadicity and diversity, can help us break through hedonic adaptation, and therefore, behavior changes generated by personal intentions can deliver a longerlasting sense of well-being than environmental changes. The concentration of intervention doses, exerting the strength of benevolence five times in a day achieves higher concentration than doing so five times in a week can help individuals avoid the outcome in which positive perceptions are lessened as a result of habituation and reduced freshness induced by constant activity execution during the intervention period [20]. ...
... Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, and Schkade [20] emphasized that behavior changes, characterized by sporadicity and diversity, can help us break through hedonic adaptation, and therefore, behavior changes generated by personal intentions can deliver a longerlasting sense of well-being than environmental changes. The concentration of intervention doses, exerting the strength of benevolence five times in a day achieves higher concentration than doing so five times in a week can help individuals avoid the outcome in which positive perceptions are lessened as a result of habituation and reduced freshness induced by constant activity execution during the intervention period [20]. Dosing intervals are a crucial factor influencing experimental effects. ...
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Positive interventions (PIs) that are based on the theory of positive psychology have proven to be effective in improving well-being and alleviating depression. However, little research has explored the effect of dosing intervals on experimental effects. As such, this study designed strength-based PIs using cognitive reframing theory and compared flexible and fixed dosing intervals to find out which one could more effectively reduce depression with equal total amounts of dosing. The 8-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (8-item CES-D) and the Positive reframing scale (PRS) were adopted as research instruments. A total of 193 Taiwanese college students were recruited as the research sample and they were randomly assigned to experimental Group A (fixed dosing intervals), experimental Group B (flexible dosing intervals), and the Control Group. The research participants received 17-day interventions with follow-up tests administered in the seventh week of the experiment. Ultimately, 157 participants completed the experiment. According to the ANCOVA results, participants in experimental Group A showed significantly lower degrees of depression than those in the Control Group in both post-test and follow-up stages and displayed greater effect size in the follow-up stage than in the post-test stage. The results indicated that the design of fixed dosing intervals enabled the participants to effectively integrate reflections on reframing learned during PIs into their life. On the contrary, participants in experimental Group B exhibited no significant difference in the degree of depression from those in the Control Group during either the post-test or follow-up stage and manifested poorer effects in the follow-up stage than in the post-test stage. These results demonstrated that fixed dosing intervals achieved better effects than flexible dosing intervals. Participants receiving fixed dosing intervals could more effectively execute cognitive reframing and showed longer-lasting experimental effects, whereas participants using the design of flexible dosing intervals were more prone to forget to implement PIs and attain less positive effects as a result.
... Life satisfaction, as cognitive evaluation of one's life, refers to assessment of discrepancy between the present and ideal situation (Diener et al., 1999). Also, Lyubomirski et al. (2005) viewed happiness as a phenomenon composed of high positive, low negative affect and life satisfaction, in line with Diener's construct of subjective wellbeing (Diener et al., 1999). Happiness and life satisfaction, although related (Diener et al., 1999;Lyubomirski et al., 2005), are considered two distinct constructs. ...
... Also, Lyubomirski et al. (2005) viewed happiness as a phenomenon composed of high positive, low negative affect and life satisfaction, in line with Diener's construct of subjective wellbeing (Diener et al., 1999). Happiness and life satisfaction, although related (Diener et al., 1999;Lyubomirski et al., 2005), are considered two distinct constructs. Happiness, a highly subjective phenomenon, is transient and momentary, depending on genetics, life circumstances and intentional activities (Lyubomirski et al., 2005), Life satisfaction is a more stable construct referring to where individual finds himself in life based on individual criteria and individual cognitive judgement. ...
... Happiness and life satisfaction, although related (Diener et al., 1999;Lyubomirski et al., 2005), are considered two distinct constructs. Happiness, a highly subjective phenomenon, is transient and momentary, depending on genetics, life circumstances and intentional activities (Lyubomirski et al., 2005), Life satisfaction is a more stable construct referring to where individual finds himself in life based on individual criteria and individual cognitive judgement. The assessment of life satisfaction may be targeting either overall life satisfaction or specific life domains such as work, family, health, leisure etc. (Pavot & Diener, 2008). ...
Article
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While it was established that COVID-19 pandemic had negative consequences on several aspects of mental health, little is known about the role of positive mental health indicators in pregnant women during this period. The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between meaning in life, life satisfaction and happiness and the extent to which meaning in life predicts life satisfaction and happiness. The sample consisted of 161 pregnant women from Slovakia. Data were collecting using Life Meaningfulness Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Subjective Happiness Scale. As predicted, results showed that meaning in life is a predictor of life satisfaction and happiness. Higher happiness was related to increasing degree of meaning in life and absence of pregnancy-related health problems. 65% of participants reported high level of satisfaction with life and 48% of participants reported higher happiness than average person. These findings provide evidence for associations between meaning in life, life satisfaction and happiness in Slovak pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic and indicate that despite negative consequences of the pandemic, positive indicators of mental health in pregnancy play a significant role.
... In addition, it emphasizes pleasant cognitive and affective practices (Massé et al., 1998;Diener et al., 2003). Studies proved that workplace psychological wellbeing creates benefits in the best interest of individuals and the organization (Judge et al., 2001;Harter et al., 2002;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Employees possess superior psychological wellbeing levels at the individual level, have better immune systems, more energy, and more major social networks (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). ...
... Studies proved that workplace psychological wellbeing creates benefits in the best interest of individuals and the organization (Judge et al., 2001;Harter et al., 2002;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Employees possess superior psychological wellbeing levels at the individual level, have better immune systems, more energy, and more major social networks (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Resultantly, at a firm level, productivity (Harter et al., 2002), individual performance (Judge et al., 2001), quality of work, cooperation, and creativity (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005) are improved. ...
... Employees possess superior psychological wellbeing levels at the individual level, have better immune systems, more energy, and more major social networks (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Resultantly, at a firm level, productivity (Harter et al., 2002), individual performance (Judge et al., 2001), quality of work, cooperation, and creativity (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005) are improved. ...
Article
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This study examined the potential impacts of entrepreneurial leadership on followers' psychological wellbeing and proactive work behavior through sustainable employability and work uncertainty in a sample of 218 employees employed in SMEs of Pakistan. Hierarchical regression results demonstrated that entrepreneurial leadership was positively connected with sustainable employability and negatively linked with work uncertainty. Sequentially, sustainable employability was positively correlated with proactive work behavior and employees' psychological wellbeing, and work uncertainty was negatively associated with proactive work behavior and employees' psychological wellbeing during the COVID-19 crisis. Furthermore, bootstrapping confirmed the mediation effects of work uncertainty and sustainable employability on proactive work behavior and the psychological wellbeing of employees. Sustainable employability did not mediate the relationship between entrepreneurial leadership and psychological wellbeing. Mediators, sustainable employability, and work uncertainty positively linked employees' psychological wellbeing and proactive work behavior. The results highlighted the significant roles of sustainable employability and work uncertainty and interpreted why entrepreneurial leadership may affect employees' positive behaviors.
... This structure of hedonic SWB seems to be comparable for adults and children (Long, & Huebner, 2014). especially focusing on children and adolescents, Lyubomirsky et al. (2005) suppose in their model of sustainable happiness that besides personality/genetic factors circumstances in life (e.g., origin or demographics, but also life events) play an additional role of about 10% contributing to overall happiness. ...
... To further evaluate the effects of circumstances such as a pandemic on SWB, one can refer to the research on the relevance of life events on SWB (Luhmann et al., 2012;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Studies on the impact of major negative life events on SWB demonstrate that SWB seems to be relatively stable (Diener et al., 1999). ...
... For example, the sustainable happiness model and accompanying studies (e.g. Luhmann et al., 2012;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005) demonstrate that major life events impact on general SWB and domain-specific satisfaction. Furthermore, the self-determination theory claims that the need for autonomy, Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
Article
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First empirical results indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on adolescents' and adults' subjective well-being. In the present study we focus on the subjective well-being of elementary school children before and after the first pandemic-related school lockdown and examine if possible declines in subjective well-being are especially pronounced for some groups, considering socio-economic status, migration background, and gender as moderators. We tested N = 425 elementary school students (mean age: M = 8.19; SD = 1.04) longitudinally with four measurement points (three before the school lockdown and one after) regarding their general life satisfaction, mood, and domain satisfaction regarding peers, family, and school. Piecewise growth curve models revealed a significant decline in positive mood and in satisfaction with the family. Decline in life satisfaction and satisfaction with peers nearly missed significance. The investigated moderators had no impact on the changes in subjective well-being. We conclude that the pandemic had detrimental effects on young children's subjective well-being. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10902-022-00537-y.
... According to research on the hedonic treadmill (Brickman & Campbell, 1971;Diener & Oishi, 2005;Kahneman, 1999), positive events may spark temporary increases in happiness, but individuals often quickly return to their baseline level of happiness. At the same time, evidence suggests that individuals can sustainably boost their happiness through intentional, agentic change (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). We propose that fostering dualgrowth mindset may enable such agentic change, leading to relatively durable gains in happiness. ...
... However, not all agentic changes are likely to durably heighten happiness. According to Lyubomirsky et al. (2005), changes are more likely to increase happiness when they produce experiences that are volitional, selfconcordant (matching one's interests and motivations), effortful, and novel (substantially different from one's prior routines). Fostering dual-growth mindset should encourage agentic changes that meet these four criteria, while the agentic changes from fostering either self-or job-growth mindset may only meet the first two criteria (volitional and self-concordant). ...
... We based the timing of the two posttests on prior research. Past studies have shown that interventions can influence happiness within 6 weeks (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005), and researchers have often used 6 months as a meaningfully long period of time for examining the effects of interventions, including in studies on mindset (e.g., Yeager et al., 2016), happiness (e.g., Kushlev et al., 2017;Stewart et al., 1997), and job redesign (e.g., Lawler et al., 1973;Orpen, 1979). ...
Article
Past research on growth mindsets has focused on the benefits of viewing the self as flexible rather than fixed. We propose that employees can make more substantial agentic changes to their work experiences if they also hold growth mindsets about their job designs. We introduce the concept of dual-growth mindset-viewing both the self and job as malleable-and examine its impact on employee happiness over time. We hypothesize that fostering a dual-growth mindset yields relatively durable gains in happiness, while fostering a growth mindset about either the self or job is insufficient for sustainable increases in happiness. We tested these predictions using two experimental studies: a field quasi-experiment in a Fortune 500 technology company and a controlled experiment with employees in a variety of organizations and occupations. Across the two experiments, fostering dual-growth mindset yielded gains in self-reported and observer-rated happiness that lasted at least 6 months. Fostering growth mindsets about either the self or job alone did not generate lasting increases in happiness. Supplementary mediation analyses suggest dual-growth mindsets boosted happiness by enabling employees to plan more substantial job crafting. Our research suggests that durable gains in happiness at work depend on holding flexible mindsets about the job, not only the self. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... For example, randomized experiments have shown that short activities, such as reflecting on core values, can lessen the destructive effects of stress on performance and improve achievement (Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Garcia & Cohen, 2013;Walton & Wilson, 2018). A large body of evidence also shows that a wide range of activities inspired by social psychological theory can instigate enduring improvements in life satisfaction (Ko et al., 2021;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Margolis & Lyubomirsky, 2020). Specifically, positive psychology interventions (PPIs) are purposeful activities designed to increase people's life satisfaction and flourishing . ...
... Specifically, positive psychology interventions (PPIs) are purposeful activities designed to increase people's life satisfaction and flourishing . They often help people to overcome the phenomenon of 'hedonic adaptation' (Frederick & Loewenstein, 1999), the tendency to habituate to positive (and negative) life circumstances and experiences (Lyubomirsky, 2011;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2004, 2006. PPIs include a wide range of interventions, such as replaying positive life events , focusing on character strengths , practicing gratitude (Emmons & McCullough, 2004), performing acts of kindness (e.g., Dunn et al., 2008;Layous et al., 2012;Lyubomirsky et al., 2011), writing about and affirming core values (Cohen & Sherman, 2014), and practicing self-reflection (King, 2001;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). ...
... suggesting that the intervention undid the normal tendency for unhappy people to engage in psychologically safer activities in their daily lives. This interpretation is consistent with research suggesting that life satisfaction is strongly influenced by individuals' intentional cognitive and behavioral choices (e.g., Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006, 2007Sin & Lyubomirsky, 2009). ...
Article
An increasingly large body of research in social psychology has underscored the power of brief situational interventions in promoting purposeful change. The present research contributes to the literature on positive psychology interventions (PPIs) by testing a novel volitional intervention that encourages people to engage in activities ‘outside their comfort zone.’ Participants were randomly assigned either to a condition that encouraged them to engage in an activity outside of their comfort zone over the following two weeks or to a control condition that encouraged them to keep a record of their daily activities. The intervention boosted the life satisfaction of people who were relatively less happy at baseline, with exploratory analyses tentatively suggesting benefits strongest among people who went outside their comfort zone by helping others. Discussion centers on the potential of behavioral ‘stretch’ interventions to promote positive change and well�being among people dissatisfied with their life.
... Prosocial acts have been shown to boost a number of mental states including life satisfaction, wellbeing, and psychological flourishing. These effects can last for several weeks or even months following the end of an intervention [10][11][12][13][14][15]. Evidence indicates that prosocial behaviors produce positive emotions and happiness even when performed at a distance, making them ideally suited to the current crisis [16][17][18]. ...
... Another feature of prosociality effects on well-being is their longevity. Studies examining the longevity of prosocial interventions have shown that positive effects on various outcomes can last anywhere from several weeks to several months [10][11][12][13][14][15]. Our study is consistent with this work. ...
Article
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic, the accompanying lockdown measures, and their possible long-term effects have made mental health a pressing public health concern. Acts that focus on benefiting others-known as prosocial behaviors-offer one promising intervention that is both flexible and low cost. However, neither the range of emotional states prosocial acts impact nor the size of those effects is currently clear-both of which directly influence its attractiveness as a treatment option.Objective To assess the effect of prosocial activity on emotional well-being (happiness, belief that one's life is valuable) and mental health (anxiety, depression).Methods1,234 respondents from the United States and Canada were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and randomly assigned (by computer software) to perform prosocial (N = 411), self-focused (N = 423), or neutral (N = 400) behaviors three times a week for three weeks. A follow-up assessment was given two weeks after the intervention. Participants were blind to alternative conditions. Analyses were based on 1052 participants (Nprosocial = 347, Nself = 365, Nneutral = 340).FindingsThose in the prosocial condition did not differ on any outcome from those in the self-focused or neutral acts conditions during the intervention or at follow-up, nor did prosocial effects differ for those who had been negatively affected socially or economically by the pandemic (all p's > 0.05). Exploratory analyses that more tightly controlled for study compliance found that prosocial acts reduced anxiety relative to neutral acts control (β = -0.12 [95% CI: -0.22 to -0.02]) and increased the belief that one's life is valuable (β = 0.11 [95% CI: 0.03 to 0.19]). These effects persisted throughout the intervention and at follow-up.Conclusion Prosocial acts may provide small, lasting benefits to emotional well-being and mental health. Future work should replicate these results using tighter, pre-registered controls on study compliance.
... Moreover, the majority of these previous studies have explored the relationship between SWB and activities predefined by the researchers, such as social activities or activities believed to cause SWB [9,13]. Here, we focus more broadly on everyday activities in relation to SWB, which includes assessing overall activities that are not predefined. ...
... For example, an article reviewing eight studies about variety in activity showed that variation over a longer time span, such as a day, increases happiness, whereas variation in activities over shorter time spans, such as an hour, decreases happiness [12]. Similarly, another study [13] showed that counting one's blessings once a week increases SWB more than counting them three times a week, directly illustrating how the variation-related feature dosage affects the relation between activities and SWB. ...
Article
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Activities and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) have been shown to be intricately related to each other. However, no research to date has shown whether individuals understand how their everyday activities relate to their SWB. Furthermore, the assessment of activities has been limited to predefined types of activities and/or closed-ended questions. In two studies, we examine the relationship between self-reported everyday activities and SWB, while allowing individuals to express their activities freely by allowing open-ended responses that were then analyzed with state-of-the-art ( transformers-based ) Natural Language Processing. In study 1 ( N = 284), self-reports of Yesterday’s Activities did not significantly relate to SWB, whereas activities reported as having the most impact on SWB in the past four weeks had small but significant correlations to most of the SWB scales ( r = .14 –.23, p < .05). In Study 2 (N = 295), individuals showed strong agreement with each other about activities that they considered to increase or decrease SWB (AUC = .995). Words describing activities that increased SWB related to physically and cognitively active activities and social activities (“football”, “meditation”, “friends”), whereas words describing activities that decreased SWB were mainly activity features related to imbalance (“too”, “much”, “enough”). Individuals reported both activities and descriptive words that reflect their SWB, where the activity words had generally small but significant correlations to SWB ( r =. 17 –.33, p < .05) and the descriptive words had generally strong correlations to SWB ( r = .39–63, p < .001). We call this correlational gap the well-being/activity description gap and discuss possible explanations for the phenomenon.
... Cette alternative est également constructive pour l'entreprise dans sa démarche vis-à-vis du salarié, car elle permet d'une part de parler de manière positive de la santé, ce qui peut constituer un point d'ancrage à une collaboration renforcée entre facteurs contribuant au bien-être professionnel tels que le maintien de la motivation lutte contre l'absentéisme et la prévention de la santé mentale. individuelle (Lachmann et al., 2010 ;Wright et al., 2002), une meilleure qualité de travail (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005), une productivité organisationnelle accrue (Harter et al., 2002), des comportements prosociaux plus nombreux (Lee et Allen, 2002 ;Podsakoff et al., 2000 ;Dagenais-Desmarais, 2010 conséquences sur le bien-être au travail et plus particulièremet sur les relations interpersonnelles au sein des équipes commerciales de l'entreprise X. ...
Article
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La diffusion massive des TIC (notamment des technologies nomades) au sein des entreprises est souvent accompagnée de restructurations susceptibles de modifier en profondeur les conditions de travail des travail des salariés. Ces mutations technologiques ne sont pas sans conséquence sur la santé mentale des employés et les relations humaines au sein de l’organisation, lesquelles peuvent se trouver fragilisées ou renforcées selon les conditions d’introduction des technologies. Dans ce papier, nous nous intéressons à l’influence des technologies nomades sur le bienêtre au travail et plus particulièrement sur l’une des composantes de ce dernier, les relations interpersonnelles professionnelles. Pour ce faire, nous nous appuyons sur une étude qualitative et une étude quantitative déployées au sein des équipes commerciales d’une entreprise de distribution de courrier. L’analyse montre que certains facteurs notamment organisationnels peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur un renforcement des liens sociaux.
... Individuals that voluntarily engage in higher rates of prosociality benefit from greater physical health, lower disease rates, higher quality of life, and longer average lifespans [4][5][6][7][8] . Psychologically, prosociality induces feelings of happiness, which in turn increase the motivation to engage in further acts of prosocialty [9][10][11][12] , thereby creating a positive behavioral health loop for the actor 13 . However, because prosociality also entails a direct benefit to a target, which can often result in tertiary beneficence beyond the initial actor/target, prosociality can be considered not only essential to, but also an accurate metric of a society's overall cohesiveness and vitality 1 . ...
Article
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The existing literature largely focuses on health risks and other pharmacodynamics of using cannabis, with fewer investigations of other normative psychological effects from consumption among otherwise healthy people. We measured several basic constructs of social psychology corresponding to the concept of prosociality among 146 healthy young adults between 18 and 25 years (M = 18.9, SD = 1.4) with varying detectable levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in their urine, controlling for participant’s sex, age, ethnicity, and childhood socio-economic status. Compared to THC-free individuals, cannabis users scored higher than non-users on validated measures of Prosocial Behaviors (d = .34, p = .04), the Empathy Quotient (d = .36, p < .01), Moral Harmlessness (d = .76, p < .01) and Moral Fairness (d = .49, p < .01), but exhibited a lower sense of Ingroup Loyalty (d = .33, p = .04). Relative to THC-free, same-sex individuals, female cannabis users scored significantly higher on measurements of Aggression (ds = .65 and .57, ps < .05) and male users scored higher on the Agreeableness dimension of personality (d = .91, p < .01).. Linear associations were found between the recency of last cannabis usage and the Prosocial Behaviors, Empathy Quotient, Moral Harmlessness, Moral Fairness and Agreeableness personality scores (rs from − .24 to .38, ps < .05). The findings suggest cannabis usage is associated with an increased sense of prosociality and prioritization of humanitarian behaviors that declines with time following cannabis consumption. Further research should focus on heterogeneity in the effects of cannabis consumption across users.
... Life satisfaction is a main indicator for measuring subjective wellbeing. Several studies have demonstrated that gratitude, as a positive variable, is closely related to life satisfaction (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Wood et al., 2007). It is significantly and positively correlated with subjective wellbeing, as confirmed by previous empirical research (Watkins et al., 2003;Chan, 2013;Witvliet et al., 2018). ...
Article
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This study aimed to explore the mechanism of college students’ meaning of life. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Gratitude Questionnaire Six-Item Form, the General Wellbeing Schedule, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire were used as measurement instruments. In total, 1,312 valid responses were obtained. The results showed that the cognitive reappraisal and expression suppression strategies were significantly positively and negatively correlated with gratitude, subjective wellbeing, and the sense of life meaning, respectively. Further, Emotion regulation strategies can affect college students’ sense of life meaning through three paths: the mediating effect of gratitude; the mediating effect of subjective wellbeing; the chain mediating effect of gratitude and subjective wellbeing. This study illuminated the roles of gratitude, and subjective wellbeing in influencing the sense of life meaning among the Chinese college students. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
... The content of the well-being programme as a plan of action was built on existing knowledge (Baltes & Freund, 2003;Fredrickson, 2009;Linley et al., 2006;Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005;Smith, 2006;Yates & Masten, 2004). Strengths were selected from six categories of character strengths and virtues (see Peterson & Seligman in van Schalkwyk & Wissing, 2013, p. 585), namely gratitude, self-regulation, kindness, perspective, persistence, and enthusiasm. ...
Chapter
Child marriage has been identified as a violation of human rights and an obstacle to promoting the development goals concerning gender, health and education. All these impacts undermine the development of the girl child. Despite the potential for negative outcomes, the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic resources can buffer the adverse effects (e.g., psychological, physical and economic impact) of early marriage. This study employed a qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore and describe protective resources utilised by married girls in the Northern region of Ghana to cope with the challenges in their marriage and to promote positive outcomes. Using semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 21 married girls who were aged between 12 and 19 years. Findings, from a thematic analysis of data, showed that intrinsic resources that promoted positive outcomes included possession of resilience attitudes, the use of help-seeking and active coping, and in some instances avoidance coping for problems they perceived as unsolvable. Extrinsic resources included interpersonal support networks, however, participants reported limited access to community and NGO support, which were also identified as protective resources. Policy makers and clinicians should consider a social justice approach in evaluating and recommending protective resources to girls in early marriages when working to promote their well-being. In so doing, attention should be placed on making external support systems accessible to married girls.
... Tous ces éléments ont contribué 131 L'étude du bonheur au travail peut être associée dans un premier temps à la psychologie positive, une discipline née en 1998 et qui, à la différence de la psychologie traditionnelle qui a pour objet d'étude les individus atteints de maladies mentales, est centrée sur le développement du bien-être chez les individus, qu'ils soient atteints de maladies ou pas. Dans ce sens, Lyubomirsky et al. (2005) proposent une définition quantifiable du bonheur au travail, à savoir : premièrement 50% de point fixe, c'est-à-dire un bonheur qui est déterminé génétiquement et est supposé être fixe, stable dans le temps et immunisé contre toute influence ou contrôle (p.116). Ensuite, 10% de circonstance de vie, c'est-à-dire tout ce qui est relatif aux faits stables de la vie d'un individu comme la région nationale, géographique et culturelle, des facteurs démographiques comme l'âge, le sexe et l'origine ethnique, ou encore l'histoire personnelle, le statut matrimonial, le statut professionnel, sécurité d'emploi, santé, etc. (p.117). ...
Thesis
À l’ère du numérique, les transformations du travail donnent naissance à de nouvelles formes organisationnelles de plus en plus instables et dynamiques. Parmi ces formes, nous avons étudié les plateformes numériques de transport qui mettent en relation les chauffeurs et les clients. Ces organisations technologiques ont généré une mutation profonde dans le secteur du transport de personnes et en premier lieu dans le métier du VTC (voiture de transport avec chauffeur), ce qui ne s’est pas fait sans heurts puisque la santé au travail des chauffeurs en constitue un enjeu majeur. En effet, la particularité des plateformes de transport est de déléguer le management à une application numérique fonctionnelle à partir d’un ensemble d’algorithmes programmés à interagir selon des logiques et des règles spécifiques. Dans ce sens, le chauffeur, qui est censé être indépendant en raison de son statut juridique, se trouve accompagné tout au long de son activité par une technologie qui lui dicte ses tâches, le surveille, le trace, l’évalue, le rémunère et le suspend en cas d’erreur. Ce contexte révèle alors une condition pénible de travail non seulement par le fait d’être quotidiennement en interaction avec une technologie automatique qui ignore les différentes formes de langage du chauffeur, mais surtout en ce que la rationalisation de celle-ci se révèle parfois incapable de gérer la complexité de l’environnement réel de l’activité. Ainsi, l’absence des véritables interlocuteurs des plateformes, en l’occurrence ceux qui ont le pouvoir décisionnel, impose au chauffeur de s’adapter à une nouvelle réalité de travail dans laquelle les informations sont descendantes et les communications extrêmement encadrées sans possibilités d’ouverture et de débat. Dans cette conjoncture, nous questionnons les mécanismes de la médiation info-communicationnelle des plateformes pour savoir si elle affecte la santé des chauffeurs. À cette fin, nous revenons sur le cadre théorique de notre étude de la plateforme. L’absence de conceptualisation autour de cette notion a nécessité de mobiliser des travaux interdisciplinaires pour mieux appréhender notre objet d’étude. À partir des éléments analytiques que fournissent ces recherches, nous mobilisons le cadre théorique des CCO et ACO pour analyser la communication organisationnelle qui constitue le champ de notre thèse. Ces travaux nous permettent de nous situer au sein des SIC et de comprendre l’évolution des info-communications organisationnelles vers des formes mutationnelles où la santé au travail est plus que jamais questionnée. Or les recherches autour de la santé se limitent à des organisations salariales pour lesquelles la réglementation juridique est bien définie. Ceci impose dans notre cas une approche différente. Nous construisons celle-ci à partir de l’outil méthodologique de l’entretien semi-directif du type récit de vie que nous avons mobilisé auprès de 50 chauffeurs VTC. Cette enquête qualitative menée entre novembre 2019 et octobre 2020 a permis de collecter différentes données aidant à analyser la médiation des plateformes et ses corrélations avec l’apparition de souffrances et de pathologies chez notre population d’étude.
... The content of the well-being programme as a plan of action was built on existing knowledge (Baltes & Freund, 2003;Fredrickson, 2009;Linley et al., 2006;Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005;Smith, 2006;Yates & Masten, 2004). Strengths were selected from six categories of character strengths and virtues (see Peterson & Seligman in van Schalkwyk & Wissing, 2013, p. 585), namely gratitude, self-regulation, kindness, perspective, persistence, and enthusiasm. ...
Chapter
Psychology is concerned with human behaviour, therefore all psychologies are contextually-embedded and culturally informed. A movement towards globalising psychology would invariably diminish the localised socio-cultural situatedness of psychology, and instead seek to advance a dominant Euro-American centred psychology even in regions where such applications do not fit. The emergence of strong voices, and theoretically grounded and empirically supported positions from the global South in general and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, in studies of well-being allows for the opportunity to explore and describe an Africa(n) centred positive psychology. Acknowledging the limitations of cross-cultural psychological approaches, which have encouraged the uncritical transportation of Euro-American centred concepts and values, in this chapter we utilise assumptions from critical, cultural and African psychology to present our initial thoughts about a culturally embedded, socially relevant and responsive, and context respecting Africa(n) centred positive psychology. This challenge warrants consideration of early contributions to the study of well-being, its current data-driven positivist tendency, as well as African worldviews grounded in interdependence, collectivism, relatedness, harmony with nature, and spirituality. For an Africa(n) centred positive psychology, it is also essential to consider questions of epistemology, ways of knowing about the world and the human condition, context respecting knowledge, and theory building. Drawing on current scholarly evidence in sub-Saharan Africa, which emphasises relationality and societal values and norms shaping experiences of well-being, we propose future directions and discuss implications for empirical research and theory building within positive psychology which seeks to centre Africa and African experiences.
... The content of the well-being programme as a plan of action was built on existing knowledge (Baltes & Freund, 2003;Fredrickson, 2009;Linley et al., 2006;Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005;Smith, 2006;Yates & Masten, 2004). Strengths were selected from six categories of character strengths and virtues (see Peterson & Seligman in van Schalkwyk & Wissing, 2013, p. 585), namely gratitude, self-regulation, kindness, perspective, persistence, and enthusiasm. ...
Chapter
Positive mental health, and the validity of its assessment instruments, are largely unexplored in the Ghanaian context. This study examined the factor structure of the Twi version of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form and explored the prevalence of positive mental health in a sample of rural Ghanaian adults (N = 444). A bifactor exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) model fit the data better than competing models (confirmatory factor analysis [CFA], bifactor CFA, and ESEM models). We found a high omega reliability coefficient for the general positive mental health factor (ω = .97) and marginal reliability scores for the emotional (ω = .51) and social well-being (ω = .57) subscales, but a low reliability score for the psychological well-being subscale (ω = .41). Findings support the existence of a general mental health factor, and confirm the underlying three-dimensional structure of mental health, but suggest that caution should be applied when interpreting subscale scores, especially for the psychological well-being subscale. Based on Keyes’s criteria for the categorical diagnosis of the presence of positive mental health, 25.5% of the sample were flourishing, with 74.5% functioning at suboptimal levels (31.1% languishing, 41.4% with moderate mental health) and may benefit from contextually relevant positive psychological interventions, which may also buffer against psychopathology.
... The content of the well-being programme as a plan of action was built on existing knowledge (Baltes & Freund, 2003;Fredrickson, 2009;Linley et al., 2006;Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005;Smith, 2006;Yates & Masten, 2004). Strengths were selected from six categories of character strengths and virtues (see Peterson & Seligman in van Schalkwyk & Wissing, 2013, p. 585), namely gratitude, self-regulation, kindness, perspective, persistence, and enthusiasm. ...
Chapter
Harmony is recognized as fundamental to being and functioning well in philosophical traditions and empirical research globally and in Africa. The aim of this study was to explore and describe harmony as a quality of happiness in South Africa (N = 585) and Ghana (N = 420). Using a qualitative descriptive research design, participants’ responses to an open-ended question from the Eudaimonic-Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI, Delle Fave et al., Soc Indic Res 100:185–207, 2011) on what happiness meant to them were coded according to the formalized EHHI coding manual. Responses that were assigned any of the following codes were considered: codes from the “harmony/balance” category in the “psychological definitions” life domain; and codes from any other life domain containing the words “harmony”, “balance”, or “peace”. This resulted in 222 verbatim responses from South Africa and 80 from Ghana that were analyzed using content analysis to get a sense of the experiential texture of harmony as a quality of happiness. Findings showed that happiness was often expressed as harmony and balance within and between intrapersonal, interpersonal, transcendental, and universal levels of functioning, with wholeness, interconnectedness, and synergy implied. These findings, resonating with philosophical reflections on harmony from Africa and elsewhere, suggest that harmony as a quality of happiness is essentially holistic and contextually embedded and that context-sensitive interdisciplinary approaches to theory building and intervention development pertaining to harmony are needed locally and globally.
... Second, happiness and satisfaction with life have been shown to be related. Importantly, satisfaction with life is more stable and enduring than momentary subjective happiness and therefore more meaningful than in-the-moment happiness (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). ...
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It is well established that experiences make people happy, but we still know little about how individual differences affect the relationship between consumption of experiences and happiness. This study focuses on gender as the predictor of happiness and addresses the following question: Do women and men differ in the way they attain happiness from consumption of experiences? Considering that research shows that women and men differ in how they process information, it is possible that they differ in how much they reflect on an experience too. Therefore, this study also investigates how the relationship between consumption of experiences and gender is moderated by Need for Cognition (NFC) in affecting subjective happiness. The results of a survey of adult consumers show than women derive more happiness and life satisfaction from meaningful experiences than men whereas men derive more happiness and satisfaction with life from pleasurable experiences than women. NFC moderates these results. The study provides evidence for the distinction between pleasure and meaning in consumption contexts and for the important role of gender in consumption of experiences. Its results imply that design and structuring of commercial experiences should take customer gender into account.
... that mental health is much more than simply the absence of mental illness and symptoms of psychopathology, but also very much a matter of what it means to be 'mentally healthy' (which is relevant for everyone); and that mental health is dynamic and people themselves can do something to influence their mental health (Lyubomirski et al., 2005;Koushede and Donovan, 2022). ...
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the overall campaign reach and impact of the ABCs of Mental Health in Denmark; a secondary objective is to investigate how mental health-promoting beliefs and actions are associated with good mental health. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was administered to two representative cross-sectional samples of the Danish population (1,508 respondents in 2019; 1,507 respondents in 2021) via an online survey. The data were subsequently pooled together into one sample consisting of 3,015 respondents. In addition to questions pertaining to campaign reach and impact, the questionnaire also included a validated scale for mental well-being and questions about beliefs and actions in regard to enhancing mental health. Findings: About 7.6% had been reached by the campaign (familiar with ABC name or messages), or 11.9% when also counting familiarity with campaign slogans. Among these, respondents reported (proportions in parentheses) that the campaign had 1) made them reflect on their mental health (74.2%), talk to friends and family about mental health (35.5%), given them new knowledge about what they can do to enhance mental health (78.4%), or take action to enhance their own mental health (16.2%). An internal well-being locus of control and proactive behaviours towards enhancing mental health are shown to be associated with higher mean scores on mental well-being, lower odds of low mental well-being and higher odds of higher mental well-being. Originality/value: An internal well-being locus of control and proactive behaviours towards enhancing mental health are suggested to both prevent low levels of mental well-being and promoting high levels of mental well-being. The results indicate that the ABCs of Mental Health campaign may be implemented to promote such beliefs and actions universally throughout the population.
... Achieving sustainable happiness is a common goal for many people in various societies. 1 Well-being researchers have mainly conceptualized happiness using two perspectives: hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. 2 On one hand, the hedonic approach focuses on happiness achieved through the attainment of stimulus-driven pleasures and the avoidance of pain. On the other hand, the eudaimonic approach views happiness as the actualization of one's daimon or true self that is fully functioning. ...
Article
The Caring for Bliss Scale (CBS) is a new measure that assesses an individuals' capacity to cultivate inner joy and happiness. Developed in the United States, its generalizability remains unknown in non-Western contexts. This research explored the scale's cross-national invariance among college students in the Philippines (n = 546) and the United States (n = 643). A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis using maximum likelihood estimation showed that the unidimensional model of caring for bliss exhibited configural, metric, scalar, and residual invariance across the Filipino and the U.S. samples. This scale also had good internal consistency estimates in both settings. In both contexts, caring for bliss was positively correlated with well-being and negatively correlated with different negative quality of life indicators (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). This study offered preliminary evidence regarding the cross-national applicability of the CBS in different cultural settings during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... These findings are consistent with earlier theoretical accounts of gratitude, suggesting that gratitude creates more cohesive and better functioning groups (Smith, 1790(Smith, /1976). It has been found that people with high levels of gratitude are likely to appreciate and enjoy positive relationships in their lives and therefore may receive more peer support (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005), financial giving (Rind and Bordia, 1995) and help (Grant and Gino, 2010) from social resources. Latino American college students perceive the presence of experiences and expressions of gratitude as more welcoming than their peers (Corona et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Gratitude, as one of the positive emotions associated with self-transcendence, is also a moral and pro-social emotion with a pro-social nature. Therefore, in order to verify whether gratitude has the same effect as pro-social in promoting connection with nature, this study (N = 890) divided subjects into three groups (gratitude, recreation, and control) and used a questionnaire to explore the effects of gratitude on positive emotions of self-transcendence, connection with nature, and pro-environmental tendencies (willingness to participate in environmental protection, willingness to sacrifice for the environment). The results found that (1) positive emotions of self-transcendence partially mediated the effect of the gratitude condition on connection to nature, and (2) positive emotions of self-transcendence and connection to nature were fully and continuously mediated, suggesting that the gratitude condition had an indirect effect on both (a) willingness to participate in environmental protection and (b) willingness to sacrifice for the environment. These findings imply that we may need to pay more attention to the connection between gratitude and nature to promote a harmonious relationship between humans and nature.
... In recent years, Kern et al. (2021) added the health dimension to the PERMA model and evaluated well-being as a sixdimensional construct (PERMAH). According to the related literature, happiness has positive effects on physical health (Veenhoven, 2008) and mental health (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005), and it negatively correlates to many negative variables, such as depression (Kahriz et al., 2020), anxiety (Crowley et al., 2020) and stress (Brailovskaia et al., 2019) which disrupt the psychological harmony of the individual. ...
... Psychological capital components individually and jointly facilitate positive well-being (e.g., Luthans et al., 2013;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Wood et al., 2011). For example, psychological capital is positively associated with job satisfaction and work performance (Culbertson et al., 2010), diminished depressive symptoms (Avey et al., 2010), reduced job burnout and psychological distress (Leon-Perez et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
This dissertation emphasizes the social value creation mission of social entrepreneurship, and redirects attention to the pivotal role of social entrepreneurs in tackling grand challenges and resolving societal problems, such as that of gender inequality. Recognizing the urgency of empowering women, this dissertation focuses on social entrepreneurship programs aimed at encouraging women’s entrepreneurship. While previous studies have explored macro level structures and policies related to social change initiatives, this study foregrounds the lived experiences and voices of women entrepreneurs, and examines the drivers and outcomes of initiatives at the micro level. This dissertation comprises three articles that address different stages of the social change process. Article 1 considers the interpretation of the issue from the perspective of the individual embedded in the community. Drawing on the literature on social movements and framing, this conceptual article asks, how do social entrepreneurs frame social change, secure community support, and motivate action? Article 2 explores ways of shifting values in a manner that is non-violent and sensitive to the local culture. Accordingly, the research questions are, how do social enterprises work with and around entrenched cultural values to create positive social change? How can practices shift values without alienating members? Article 3 attempts to understand the effects of social change at the individual level and asks the question, how does entrepreneurship training and venture creation impact the well-being of women entrepreneurs at the BOP? In accordance with the inductive nature of the research and the aim of uncovering strategies and tactics, an inductive, qualitative method was adopted. While article 1 is a conceptual analysis, articles 2 and 3 use the qualitative case study method. Taken together, the three articles in this dissertation. Taken together, the three articles in this dissertation offer creative approaches for social entrepreneurs tackling grand challenges at the community level. The articles reveal strategies of: (1) framing issues in ways that appeal to both emotions and cognitions, thereby garnering commitment for social change; (2) introducing value-laden practices to subtly reorient and augment values; and (3) developing the psychological capacity of women entrepreneurs and supporting their personal well-being needs. Advocating for a more holistic view of social change processes, this dissertation shows that incremental changes and local solutions bode well for scalable and sustainable change efforts, and tend to be less disruptive and violent than radical changes.
... Happy employees are self-confident, organized, self-control, supportive and effectively cope up the stress at the workplace (Lyubomirsky, 2005). "Happiness is a mindset which allows the person to maximize performance and achieve his/her potential" (Pryce-Jones, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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Happiness plays an important role in human life and career. Continuous engagement, happiness and satisfaction at the workplace have a positive impact on health that enhances productivity and performance of an employee in a firm. It is believed in society at large that happiness is a state of mind and the people who are happy can achieve success in their career through positivity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality of work happiness of nonacademic staff and to find the relationship between Quality of Workplace Happiness and demographic characteristics among them. The research was conducted among the managerial and supervisory staff working in three select Public Institutions of Higher Learning at Delhi with a sample size of 309. The results of the study revealed that the level of work-life happiness is moderate among the respondents. There is a significant influence of demographic factors such as gender and lever of hierarchy on work-life happiness. Women managers and supervisors are more satisfied on the workplace.
... Happy employees are self-confident, organized, self-control, supportive and effectively cope up the stress at the workplace (Lyubomirsky, 2005). "Happiness is a mindset which allows the person to maximize performance and achieve his/her potential" (Pryce-Jones, 2011). ...
... Řada teoretických koncepcí uznává biologicky determinované rysy osobnosti (včetně temperamentu) a sociální/environmentální faktory, které ovlivňují osobní pohodu, zároveň ale existují protichůdné názory o míře jejich vlivu (Brown a Rohrer, 2020). Příkladem může být často citovaná a populární teoretická koncepce osobní pohody, kterou publikovali Lyubomirsky et al. (2005). Tato jejich koncepce zdůrazňuje tzv. ...
Article
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Cíl. Studie komplexně analyzuje vybrané demografické, osobnostní a kontextuální faktory a jejich roli ve vztahu k subjektivnímu hodnocení pocitů štěstí a spokojenosti u 1975 dětí/dospívajících ve věku 10–18 let. Metody. Výzkumný vzorek byl sestaven prostřednictvím oslovení základních a středních škol, zařízení pro výkon ochranné a ústavní výchovy, diagnostických ústavů, dětských a azylových domovů v Česku. Míra štěstí a celková životní spokojenost byla zjišťována pomocí Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999) a Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; Huebner, 1991). Sběr dat byl uskutečněn vyplněním on-line dotazníků v roce 2020 před vypuknutím pandemie covid-19. Výsledky. Mnohonásobnou lineární regresní analýzou bylo zjištěno, že míra štěstí a spokojenosti má tendenci klesat v období střední a pozdní adolescence. Nižší míra štěstí a spokojenosti byla zjištěna také u těch, kteří prožívali dospívání doma v neúplné rodině, v institucionálním zařízení, považovali prostředí, v němž vyrůstali, za nebezpečné a nepodnětné, nepociťovali přijetí ze strany pečující osoby a sami sebe považovali za „choleriky“ a „melancholiky“. Závěry. K predikci štěstí a spokojenosti nejvíce přispívalo subjektivní hodnocení vlastního temperamentu a pocitu přijetí pečující osobou. Velmi slabé efekty byly nalezené s ohledem na pohlaví a spiritualitu. V této studii realizovaná adaptace a psychometrická analýza SHS a SLSS poukázala, že obě české verze nástrojů lze považovat za validní a spolehlivé k identifikaci štěstí a spokojenosti u dané populace dospívajících. Limity studie. Omezení se vztahují k průřezovému charakteru výzkumu a ke skutečnosti, že vzorek nebyl reprezentativní. Psychosociální data, jako hodnocení pocitu přijetí pečující osobou, temperament či spiritualita, byla získána ze subjektivních vypovědí dospívajících prostřednictvím jednopoložkových škál. ******* Objectives. The study comprehensively analyzes selected demographic, personality and contextual factors and their role in relation to the subjective evaluation of feelings of happiness and satisfaction in 1,975 children/adolescents aged 10–18. Methods. The research sample was compiled in primary and secondary schools, facilities for protective and institutional education, diagnostic institutes as well as children’s homes and asylum shelters in the Czech Republic. Happiness and overall life satisfaction were assessed using the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999) along with the Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; Huebner, 1991). Data collection was carried out by the completion of online questionnaires in 2020 before the onset of the covid-19 pandemic. Results. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that happiness and satisfaction tended to decline in middle and late adolescence. Lower levels of happiness and satisfaction were also found among those who had experienced growing up at home in a single-parent family or in an institutional setting, who considered the environment in which they grew up to be dangerous and dull, who did not feel accepted by the caregiver and who self-evaluated as “choleric” and “melancholy.” Conclusions. The respondents’ subjective evaluation of their own temperament along with the feeling of acceptance by the caring person contributed the most to the prediction of happiness and satisfaction. Very weak effects were found with respect to gender and spirituality. The adaptation and psychometric analysis of the SHS and SLSS carried out in this study showed that the Czech versions of both instruments can be considered valid and reliable to identify happiness and satisfaction in a given population of adolescents. Study Limitations. The limitations relate to the cross-sectional design of the research as well as the fact that the sample was not representative. The psychosocial data, i.e. assessments of temperament, spirituality and the feeling of acceptance by the caregiver, were obtained from the young people’s subjective statements through single-item scales.
... Subjective well-being (SWB) is highly valued as it is linked to more successful work, health, and social relationships (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon & Schkade, 2005). SWB within autistic individuals has featured in only a small amount of research, which yield inconsistent and variable findings, of which, gender has been at the root of disparities . ...
Thesis
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Surfacing the Perspective of Autistic Girls Aged Between Thirteen and Eighteen Within a Complex Social Discourse on Autism: A Qualitative Inquiry
... As such, many previous studies have reported that participation in leisure activities has a positive effect on the QOL of the elderly [11,[36][37][38]. In addition, demographic characteristics (gender, age, income level, academic background, etc.) and environmental characteristics can lead to differences in happiness and QOL [39,40]. Demographic characteristics and variables have also been studied as predictors of QOL [41][42][43]. ...
Article
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In preparation for the expected super-aged society in 2025, this study attempted to prepare basic data that can help design development measures for the welfare of the elderly so that everyone can prepare for a healthy and happy retirement. Accordingly, the major factors affecting the quality of life of the elderly in Korea were verified. To this end, the questionnaire consisted of 22 questions in total, and a mobile survey was conducted between September and October 2021; in total, 250 copies were used for the final analysis, and the following conclusions are derived. The major factors that were found to determine the quality of life of the elderly were age, subjective health status, monthly household income, leisure activities, and health inequality fairness. It was found that the higher the age, the lower the quality of life. Further, the higher the subjective health status, monthly household income, participation in leisure activities, and perceptions of health inequality as fair, the more the quality of life of the elderly was affected. Therefore, policy support such as leisure activity, health programs, and medical welfare services for the elderly and sufficient attention from our society are all required.
... Individual differences in positive affect are related to a host of salient developmental outcomes, including high quality interpersonal relationships (Ramsey & Gentzler, 2015), creativity and problem solving (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005), and physical health (Pressman et al., 2019). Individual differences in positive affect have also been implicated in the etiology of adolescent-onset psychopathologymost notably, depression (Khazanov & Ruscio, 2016)-and may figure prominently in processes of youth risk and resilience more broadly (Davis & Suveg, 2014;Gilbert, 2012). ...
Article
Individual differences in positive affect (PA) are related to a host of salient developmental outcomes, including social functioning, physical health, and psychopathology. One factor that may contribute to individual differences in PA involves individual differences in PA regulation, which may be broadly categorized into strategies to enhance PA and strategies to dampen PA. To date, however, factors contributing to individual differences in youth PA regulation have been largely understudied. Thus, the present study examined associations between youth depressive symptoms and (a) the implementation and (b) the effectiveness of enhancing and dampening regulation in daily life settings. Participants included 146 early adolescents (52.1% girls; ages 10–14; M[SD] = 12.71[.86]). Youth depressive symptoms were measured using self-report on the CDI-SF. Youth PA and use of enhancing and dampening regulation were assessed 3–4 times per day for a period of 9 days using smartphone-based experience sampling methods (31 total assessments). Results of multilevel structural equation models indicated that depressive symptoms predicted individual differences in youth implementation of dampening but not enhancing regulation. Cross-level interaction analyses indicated that depression did not predict the effectiveness of enhancing or dampening regulation in modulating youth subsequent PA. Findings indicate that youth reporting more depressive symptoms engage in greater dampening of PA relative to their peers, but that PA up- and down-regulation strategies are no more or less effective among early adolescents experiencing elevated levels of depression. Results have implications for understanding mechanisms of risk and resilience across development.
... Hence, they are believed to be conducive to the survival of humankind in the process of evolution. They are also believed to lead to positive, pleasurable feelings (i.e., happiness, optimism, self-confidence, feeling in control [62,63] which have been shown, in turn, to be associated with better mental and physical health outcomes as well as longevity [64][65][66]. Third, use of SMC to help others in daily life was found to be prospectively associated with lower risk of depression and greater self-reported mental health and physical health, as well as lower risk of a cardiovascular disease. ...
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Purpose Excellent character, reflected in adherence to high standards of moral behavior, has been argued to contribute to well-being. The study goes beyond this claim and provides insights into the role of strengths of moral character (SMC) for physical and mental health. Methods This study used longitudinal observational data merged with medical insurance claims data collected from 1209 working adults of a large services organization in the US. Self-reported physical and mental health as well as diagnostic information on depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular disease were used as outcomes. The prospective associations between SMC (7 indicators and a composite measure) and physical and mental health outcomes were examined using lagged linear and logistic regression models. A series of sensitivity analyses provided evidence for the robustness of results. Results The results suggest that persons who live their life according to high moral standards have substantially lower odds of depression (by 21-51%). The results were also indicative of positive associations between SMC and self-reports of mental health (β = 0.048-0.118) and physical health (β = 0.048-0.096). Weaker indications were found for a protective role of SMC in mitigating anxiety (OR = 0.797 for the indicator of delayed gratification) and cardiovascular disease (OR = 0.389 for the indicator of use of SMC for helping others). Conclusions SMC may be considered relevant for population mental health and physical health. Public health policies promoting SMC are likely to receive positive reception from the general public because character is both malleable and aligned with the nearly universal human desire to become a better person.
... These tools are aimed at altering cognition or affect and include such interventions as gratitude, savoring, and the best-possible-self activities (Sin and Lyubomirsky, 2009;White et al., 2019). The flourishing components of many PPIs also include happiness, relationships and locus of control (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Bryant and Veroff, 2007;Round and Burke, 2018;Borelli et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Positive Psychology Interventions (PPI) are widely applied to improving wellbeing and helping individuals flourish. At the same time, Lifestyle Medicine (LM) offers an opportunity to boost PPI and psychological research, by expanding its capacity beyond psychology, to include the body and social environment. However, little is known about the relationship between LM and positive psychology flourishing models. Flourishing is as a stage of optimal human functioning that goes beyond moderate wellbeing. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to, (1) identify which of the six LM pillars (sleep, physical exercise, eating well, alcohol intake, social engagement, stress management) best-predicted flourishing; (2) examine the relationship between the number of LM pillars used by individuals and flourishing; and (3) determine the odds of using LM pillars by flourishers. A total of 1,112 participants, mostly female professionals (73%), aged 40–59 (77%), based in Ireland, completed an online survey. Regression analysis showed that all six LM pillars predicted flourishing as measured by the PERMA Profiler (including the Physical Health component) and the Mental Health Continuum (MHC). Moreover, the chi-square and odds ratio analysis showed that those who flourished were three times more likely to use 3–6 LM pillars than those who were moderately well; and nine times more likely than languishers. The results are discussed in the context of their contribution to enhancing the population’s health and wellbeing.
... As an adaptive coping mechanism, gratitude may reduce stress by allowing negative life experiences to be reinterpreted with a grateful perspective (Timmons & Ekas, 2018;Wood et al., 2008). Researchers have also demonstrated that negative emotions (e.g., envy, bitterness, or anger) are inhibited among individuals with high gratitude, as these feelings are incongruent with gratitude practices (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Nelson, 2009). Study of the mechanisms of gratitude and its positive impact on well-being indicate that increasing gratitude also serves to increase social connection and prosocial behavior (O'Connell et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose/objective: Flourishing, a primary outcome of rehabilitation psychology, is understudied among adults with disabilities. Gratitude has emerged as an individual strength that is both malleable and robust in predicting flourishing and adaptation to disability. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of gratitude on flourishing over time and to analyze the potential mediating role of adaptation to disability on this relationship for a group of adults with disabilities. Research method/design: Data were collected at 3 time points over 21 months (N = 429). A single mediator model with external demographic variables was tested to determine the relationship of gratitude (Time 1) with adaptation to disability (Time 2) and flourishing (Time 3). Approximately 40% of the initial sample was retained across all time points. Results: Gratitude predicted later flourishing and adaptation to disability accounted for a significant portion of this relationship, accounting for 27% of the total effect. Conclusions/implications: Results of this single mediator model indicate that adaptation to disability serves as a partial mediator of the relationship between gratitude and flourishing, with both gratitude and adaptation to disability having a significantly positive influence on flourishing. Understanding gratitude's influence on later adaptation and flourishing provides data to inform rehabilitation psychology interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Happiness is an emotional state characterized by feelings of joy, cheerfulness, satisfaction, and serenity. Happiness has many definitions, usually associated with positive emotions, feelings, and life satisfaction (Diener et al., 1999;Diener, 2000Diener, , 2021; happy individuals are more likely to be flourishing people (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Within the dark triad research, previous literature is heavily loaded with inquiries related to subjective wellbeing (Joshanloo, 2021). ...
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The transition from adolescence to adulthood is fraught with challenges that might have impacts on later life and personality development. Earlier research investigated Dark Triad traits in connection to emotional problems. The current study, on the other hand, focused on investigating the mediating role of psychological maladjustment in the relation of Dark Triad traits, psychological distress, and subjective happiness in emerging adults. A sample of 546 participants aged 18-25 years (M = 21.2 years) from Pakistan have participated to complete an online survey. Standardized assessment tools were used to measure the targeted variables. Results indicated that Machiavellianism and psychopathy were positively associated with psychological distress, whereas narcissism appeared to be a non-significant predictor. Subjective happiness was positively associated with Machiavellianism and negatively associated with psychopathy. In addition, mediation analysis through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) indicated that the Dark Triad traits (Machiavellianism and psychopathology), psychological distress, and subjective wellbeing were explained by psychological maladjustment. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Thesis
This thesis explores the role that curriculum-based environmental education plays in influencing young peoples' wellbeing. It adopts a social constructivist approach to understand how wellbeing is understood, articulated and experienced by young people in residential learning environments. The thesis argues that positivistic and adult-centred accounts of wellbeing have restricted our appreciation of the diverse ways in which young people engage with and recognise their emotions in educational settings. In adopting an alternative framework, the thesis argues for experiential and subjective understandings of wellbeing to be developed through a range of methodological tools. The research sought to develop these ideas by focusing on the experiences of students visiting the Field Studies Centre at Slapton Ley (Devon, UK) and utilised focus groups and solicited participant diaries, providing a basis for phenomenological inquiry that enabled a direct engagement with young people participating in environmental education programmes. The empirical research focused on the experiences of young people between the ages of 14 and 18 years on a residential, curriculum-based environmental education programme and examined the role and potential of environmental education for supporting the wellbeing of young people. From an initial thematic analysis of the data five elements were identified as key to the participants' wellbeing: wellbeing as multidimensional, social elements, psychological elements, physical health and environmental elements. These elements were then used to provide a framing for understanding young peoples' experiences of wellbeing throughout the lived experience of curriculum-based environmental education and, as a result, the research yielded three themes that provide an understanding of the key experiences of environmental education and its connection to wellbeing: experiences of place, experiences of people, and the learning experience. Using these themes and the participants' conceptualisations of wellbeing, the research then iii explored how strategies can be developed within environmental education to promote the wellbeing of young people and reveals the importance of fostering feelings of restoration, increasing social bonds and developing a sense of achievement and accomplishment. Consequently, this research contributes to the fields of environmental education and health and wellbeing research within a geographical context through demonstrating the importance of qualitative approaches in revealing the ways young people articulate their emotions in educational settings. Alongside this, it challenges assumptions about the way nature is utilised in wellbeing interventions, highlighting the role that social and cultural backgrounds can play in the way nature is experienced by different groups and how this can be addressed within environmental education. Therefore, a key contribution of this research is in providing an empirical analysis for the relationship between environmental education and wellbeing, and how to best design environmental education programmes that meet the needs of young people.
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Social values are very important for well-being at work. This study investigates which and how social values affect well-being at work and contributes to the growing interest that the issue of quality of life at work has aroused in the areas of human resources management (HRM). Semi-structured interviews were held with 21 active employees of a large Portuguese business group in the environmental sector. The study took place in two parts; first, in December 2018 and then two years after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, in January 2022. Theories and concepts emerged from the thematic analysis and the subsequent consideration of the literature and emerging conceptual understanding. This qualitative interview study examines what employees expect from work experience about the behavior of leaders and supervisors as representatives of the formal structure of the organization and the behavior of co-workers as an expression of an ethical and positive work environment. The findings show the five social values most important for employee well-being: respect, trust, equity with no discrimination, help and gratitude. The knowledge of the social values with more impact on employee well-being constitutes very important information for human resource management and for the employees, themselves.
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Happiness is an essential universal human goal in their life that can improve the quality of life. Since the introduction of positive psychology, the primary consideration has been pointed out to the study of the role from certain factors in predicting the happiness, especially the advancement of technology that allows computer-mediated to be part of human interaction. It provides a multidimensional approach and indirect influence to the human expression and communication. The project investigates what it takes to build a happy country by analysing on the relationship between the happiness ranking of countries and their macro level factors. The World Happiness Report 2019 is used coupled with Python programming for visualizing and extracting information from the dataset to better understand the bigger picture.
Conference Paper
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The problem of unhappiness can arise due to differences in perception and cognitive processes in each age range. Measuring children's happiness by the standards of adults' happiness can create intergenerational gaps. This study aims to describe the concept of happiness in elementary school children in Makassar City. This study uses a qualitative method with the principle of constructive realism involving 461 respondents. The data collection technique is in the form of a questionnaire using open questions. Based on the results of the study, it was found that: (1) the definition of happiness based on children's perceptions, specifically conditions related to positive emotions; (2) as for the source of children's happiness with the ten highest percentages, videlicet, having harmonious relationships with the closest people, doing favourite activities, doing "outing" activities (activities outside the home), getting rewards, doing sports, gaining achievements, consuming favourite foods and drinks, celebrating special days, wishes fulfilled, and gratitude; and (3) The reason for the importance of happiness in children is because happiness can make children feel positive and prevent children from negative feelings. Based on this explanation, parents and educators must strive to create and improve positive relationships in families and schools, provide opportunities for children to do fun activities, provide opportunities for children to socialize with friends, try to meet children's needs, and seek strategies to improve happiness and well-being in children at home and at school.
Article
During secondary school, students’ well-being is challenged in manifold ways and declines continuously. To address this issue, we designed and evaluated a six-day online art-of-living intervention to foster eighth and ninth graders’ ( N = 69) well-being. Art-of-living (AoL) is based on empirical evidence and conceptualizes strategies that lead to well-being. We tested the effectiveness of the AoL training and investigated the possible contribution of body-related AoL exercises to cognitive exercises by comparing two intervention groups (cognitive training vs. cognitive and body-focused training) and a waitlist control group. Levels of AoL and well-being at pretest, posttest, and two-week follow-up showed that both significantly increased in the intervention groups. No significant differences were found between the cognitive and combined training. We discuss methodological issues of the study and propose that the approach to enhance student well-being by using art-of-living exercises is fruitful for application in school and should be explored further.
Chapter
Social networking sites offer opportunities for users to express themselves and receive immediate feedback in the form of virtual likes. Adolescents place a great deal of value on the number of likes, regarding them as indicators of peer acceptance and support. Since peer feedback and social comparison are integral to adolescents' self-evaluations, the aim of the current chapter is to determine whether self-esteem is sensitive to the number of likes associated with their own (peer feedback) and others' posts (social comparison). The synthesis of literature indicates that self-esteem is responsive to indicators of one's value to others as well as the value of others, supporting the sociometer and social comparison theories. Indications of liking online serve to enhance self-esteem, whereas rejection deflates it. In addition, seeing others get many likes negatively impacts viewers' self-esteem. The gaps in the literature are discussed and future research is suggested.
Chapter
While the contribution of research conducted within positive psychology is acknowledged, this sub-discipline of psychology is criticised for its “limited utility” in the South African context. The researcher’s continuous involvement and knowledge from practice and practical field experiences obtained from more than 10 years of connecting with community members living in a high-risk context opened doors for meaningful and engaged research. This chapter describes experiences and implementation outcomes based on positive psychology in a high-risk community in the South African context. Drawing on various well-being research studies conducted within the selected high-risk community, research findings are described to illustrate the outcomes of the implementation of a sustainable well-being programme, its progress over time, and lessons learned in the process. The well-being of children, families, and schools in a Western Cape high-risk community is seriously challenged as they are continuously exposed to a “hostile environment”. While the negative effects of poverty and many social ills are confirmed by research, the need for contextually appropriate positive psychology interventions to mitigate the psychological consequences of economic deprivation is clear. Engaging with vulnerable groups is important to enable the generation of well-being interventions at the community level in the South African context.
Chapter
Accepting the premise that CRISPR-mediated gene editing in humans will occur in the future, we present an anticipatory analysis of the ethical viability of CRISPR concerning future stakeholders. We show that pluralist universalism, which holds social justice and freedom as its central tenets, illustrates that a decrease in social justice for future stakeholders will occur if CRISPR is used in this way. We use computing’s digital divide as an analog for CRISPR and demonstrate that there will be inequalities in access and advantage conferred by the use of CRISPR with respect to historically ethnic and socioeconomic disadvantaged groups. To make recommendations for policymakers, we use the model of distributive justice (DJ). DJ drives policy considerations that place specific emphasis on developing international treaties that de-emphasize the role of scientists and other elites and elite institutions in dictating policy regarding the use of CRISPR in humans.
Chapter
Positive interventions based on theories in positive psychology have proven effective in contributing to well-being. Although college students frequently use social networking sites, few studies have investigated the use of these sites to facilitate positive interventions. For this research, two positive interventions, photo diaries and the expression of gratitude, were developed and implemented in Facebook using a randomized controlled trial. 136 college students were recruited and randomly assigned them to one of two experimental groups or a control group. Results indicated that photo diary reduced depression during the posttest stage, and these effects continued during the follow up stage. Concerning happiness, the photo diary presented no significant effects in the posttest but did present significant effects in the follow up. Expression of gratitude showed no significant effects on happiness in the posttest but did show significant effects in the follow up. The results of the study demonstrate that social networking sites can be used to implement positive interventions.
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Background An increasing number of undergraduate positive psychology courses offer students a holistic view of the broader discipline of psychology. Even short-term participation in positive psychology activities as part of a taught course may improve psychological well-being and lower stress. However, there is a dearth of qualitative evidence on how students experience this learning process. Objective This study aimed to explore UAE-based undergraduate students’ reflections on their experiences of an elective positive psychology course and their participation in various positive psychology interventions (PPIs). Method This qualitative study explored 21 UAE-based undergraduate students’ reflections on taking a semester-long positive psychology course, in which they participated in PPIs. The rich data from semi-structured interviews were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Results Three main themes emerged, namely rethinking positive psychology, changes in perspective on happiness and search for positivity, and enhanced relationships. Conclusion and Teaching Implications The study suggests that positive psychology may reach past the time and space of the taught course and have at least a short-term positive impact on students' mental and social lives. Findings from this study imply the potential of positive psychology in higher education and point towards further integration of such courses in undergraduate programs in the UAE and beyond.
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Zadovoljstvo učenika školom definira se kao kognitivno-afektivna evaluacija zadovoljstva školskim iskustvom (Huebner, 1994). Zadovoljstvo učenika školom izuzetno je važno za kvalitetno odrastanje učenika i značajno doprinosi općem zadovoljstvu životom. Ovim se radom nastojalo predstaviti najvažnije spoznaje i rezultate istraživanja iz područja zadovoljstva učenika školom. Rad uključuje pojmovno određenje zadovoljstva školom i subjektivne dobrobiti učenika. Prikazani su rezultati dosadašnjih istraživanja, karakteristike učenika koje su povezane sa zadovoljstvom te posljedice učeničkog nezadovoljstva školom. Isto tako, rad donosi pregled svih mjernih instrumenata za ispitivanje zadovoljstva učenika školom. Na kraju se iznose preporuke za buduća istraživanja te unapređenje školske prakse.
Article
Purpose: Diagnosis and treatment of childhood brain tumor have detrimental effects on physical, neurocognitive, psychological, and social functioning that lasts into adulthood and effects quality of life (QOL). To address diminished QOL, an Internet-based behavioral activation (BA) intervention was developed. Behavioral activation aims to increase activities and behaviors likely to improve thoughts, mood, and QOL. Methods: Participants included 127 young adult survivors of childhood brain tumor (SCBT) randomized into the experimental group (n= 64) or the waitlist control group (n= 63). The dependent variables included: life satisfaction, stress, and activation and were assessed with a two-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Results revealed a significant interaction between the intervention and time on life satisfaction, F(1, 125)=4.793, p = 0.03. There were no significant main effects over time for perceived stress and activation. Conclusions: Findings offer initial evidence that BA can be delivered over the internet and that Internet-delivered BA can have a positive effect on the QOL of young adult SCBT. Internet-based BA interventions can serve as a resource for young adult SCBT who desire to boost their mood and QOL.Implications for rehabilitationBehavioral activation (BA) is aimed at increasing positively reinforcing overt behaviors that are likely to promote improved thoughts, mood, and quality of life (QOL).Results indicated study participants in the experimental group demonstrated a significant gain in life satisfaction compared to the control group after receiving the Internet-based BA intervention; and provides support that the intervention was associated with positive changes across time.Findings offer initial evidence that BA can be delivered over the internet and that Internet-delivered BA can have a positive effect on the QOL of young adult survivors of childhood brain tumor (SCBT).Internet-based BA interventions can serve as a resource for young adult SCBT who desire to boost their mood and QOL.
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Cultural activities might serve as a buffer to the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. Frequencies of participants’ cultural activities in terms of participation in digital cultural offerings or self-initiated cultural activities during the pandemic are examined, and whether prior cultural engagement and valuing of culture have an impact on this participation. It is explored whether both forms of cultural activities are directly connected with psychological well-being, namely, optimism concerning COVID-19, and whether this relationship is mediated by autonomy, relatedness and aesthetic experience. Regression and mediation analysis were calculated (N = 398). Both cultural activities were related to increased aesthetic experience and perceived autonomy, but only participation in digital cultural offerings was connected to increased perceived relatedness. Relatedness, in turn, was connected to increased optimism. The results reflect the protective function of cultural activities on psychological well-being, demonstrating the importance of cultural life in times of adversity.
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This conceptual article uses the theory of planned behaviour and the social comparison theory with an aim to propose an integrated conceptual model of individual financial well-being. The study helps to understand the process by which individuals acquire the skills required for responsible management of finance and achieve financial well-being. The present article synthesises findings from the existing literature and proposes an integrated conceptual model that incorporates financial knowledge, financial behaviours, financial attitude, financial social comparison and financial self-efficacy into a single financial well-being model. Besides this, one’s level of materialism, orientation towards future, level of conscientiousness and cultural values are identified as antecedents of financial attitude. Moreover, the gender perspective is also incorporated in the model, which provides valuable insights on the existence of wide gap in wealth accumulation as indicated by substantial research work. The study develops several propositions that may advance empirical research in financial well-being domain. The study also discusses practical implications for financial service professionals who can positively improve the ability of individuals in financial matters by emphasising the importance of psycho-social variables.
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The question of what constitutes “the good life” is incomplete without also addressing the question of who gets to live the good life. Implicit in many discussions of the good life, particularly in American and Western European contexts, is that it is equally available to all members of society, and attainable via malleable dispositions (e.g., changing attitudes, self-relevant beliefs). In this way, the good life is experienced through a highly agentic process of self-discovery and environmental mastery. What is generally lacking in this work is a serious reckoning of how structural factors constrain access to unbounded agency, particularly for those individuals who are marginalized in society due to race, gender, sexuality, and other factors. Moreover, “the good life” fundamentally indexes individuals’ well-being, and thus any claims to the good life will depend on how well-being is defined. Throughout psychology well-being is most commonly defined in terms of positive subjective states (e.g., hedonia, eudaimonia) that again remove any consideration of external criteria or demands. In this paper, we put the preceding together by outlining how a master narrative perspective—which examines the culturally shared stories that guide thoughts, beliefs, values, and behaviors—brings attention to the structural constraints on well-being among individuals in marginalized positions in society. We also propose an alternative conceptualization of the good life, which includes the importance of interpersonal connection between those who share the experience of marginalization.
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In a variation on Pennebaker's writing paradigm, a sample of 81 undergraduates wrote about one of four topics for 20 minutes each day for 4 consecutive days. Participants were randomly assigned to write about their most traumatic life event, their best possible future self, both of these topics, or a nonemotional con- trol topic. Mood was measured before and after writing and health center data for illness were obtained with participant con- sent. Three weeks later, measures of subjective well-being were obtained. Writing about life goals was significantly less upset- ting than writing about trauma and was associated with a sig- nificant increase in subjective well-being. Five months after writ- ing, a significant interaction emerged such that writing about trauma, one's best possible self, or both were associated with decreased illness compared with controls. Results indicate that writing about self-regulatory topics can be associated with the same health benefits as writing about trauma.
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In a sample of 59,169 persons in 42 nations, relations between marital status and subjective well-being were found to be very similar across the world. Although cultural variables were found to alter the size of certain relations between marital status and subjective well-being, the effect sizes were very small. Specifically, in terms of life satisfaction, the benefit of marriage over cohabitation was greater in collectivist than in individualist nations. In terms of positive emotions, the benefit of being married over being divorced or separated was smaller in collectivist than in individualist nations. In addition, in terms of negative emotions, the benefit of being married over being divorced or separated was smaller in nations with a high tolerance for divorce. Finally, the relations between marital status, culture, and subjective well-being did not differ by gender. Because of the small size of the effects of the cultural variables, the authors concluded that the relations between marital status and subjective well-being are very similar across the world.
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Meta-analytic techniques were used to synthesize findings on the social activity/subjective well-being relation. We chose zero-order and first order associations as our dependent variables and several different measure, sample, and study quality characteristics as our independent variables. We found that social activity is positively and significantly related to subjective well-being. Contrary to activity theory, informal activities and activities with friends were not related to subjective well-being consistently more strongly than were formal activities and activities with neighbors. In addition, the remaining measure, sample, and study quality characteristics were not adequate predictors of variation in activity/subjective well-being associations.
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The question of how affect arises and what affect indicates is examined from a feedback-based viewpoint on self-regulation. Using the analogy of action control as the attempt to diminish distance to a goal, a second feedback system is postulated that senses and regulates the rate at which the action-guiding system is functioning. This second system is seen as responsible for affect. Implications of these assertions and issues that arise from them are addressed in the remainder of the article. Several issues relate to the emotion model itself; others concern the relation between negative emotion and disengagement from goals. Relations to 3 other emotion theories are also addressed. The authors conclude that this view on affect is a useful supplement to other theories and that the concept of emotion is easily assimilated to feedback models of self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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Handwritten autobiographies from 180 Catholic nuns, composed when participants were a mean age of 22 years, were scored for emotional content and related to survival during ages 75 to 95. A strong inverse association was found between positive emotional content in these writings and risk of mortality in late life (p < .001). As the quartile ranking of positive emotion in early life increased, there was a stepwise decrease in risk of mortality resulting in a 2.5-fold difference between the lowest and highest quartiles. Positive emotional content in early-life autobiographies was strongly associated with longevity 6 decades later. Underlying mechanisms of balanced emotional states are discussed.
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Two studies used the self-concordance model of healthy goal striving (K. M. Sheldon & A. J. Elliot, 1999) to examine the motivational processes by which people can increase their level of well-being during a period of time and then maintain the gain or perhaps increase it even further during the next period of time. In Study I, entering freshmen with self-concordant motivation better attained their 1st-semester goals, which in turn predicted increased adjustment and greater self-concordance for the next semester's goals. Increased self-concordance in turn predicted even better goal attainment during the 2nd semester, which led to further increases in adjustment and to higher levels of ego development by the end of the year. Study 2 replicated the basic model in a 2-week study of short-term goals set in the laboratory. Limits of the model and implications for the question of how (and whether) happiness may be increased are discussed.
Article
Current theories of motivation provide insightful discussions of why people behave as they do. In addition, the research studies surrounding these theories provide insights that can help people move toward the goals of greater competence, autonomy, and relatedness. However, these theories cannot lead to realization of what is widely considered the most fundamental goal of humanity: underlying contentment. In this article, a Zen Buddhist perspective is presented that illuminates some problematic aspects of current theories of motivation. The article also presents the way in which Zen Buddhism avoids these problems and points toward contentment (whether linked to Buddhist doctrine or not). The article closes with educational implications of a Zen Buddhist perspective.
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The validity of self‐report measures of subjective well‐being (SWB) was examined and compared with non‐self‐report measures using a sample of 136 college students studied over the course of a semester. A principal axis factor analysis of self‐ and non‐self‐report SWB measures revealed a single unitary construct underlying the measures. Conventional single‐item and multi‐item self‐report measures correlated highly with alternative measures, with theoretical correlates of SWB, and with a principal axis factor underlying five non‐self‐report measures of well‐being. Comparisons of family versus friend informant reports demonstrated the considerable cross‐situational consistency and temporal stability of SWB. Evidence of the discriminant validity of the measures was provided by low correlations of the various SWB measures with constructs theoretically unrelated to well‐being. It was concluded that conventional self‐report instruments validly measure the SWB construct, and that alternative, non‐serf‐report measures are useful for providing a comprehensive theoretical account of happiness and life satisfaction.
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The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Psychometric data on single-item and multi-item subjective well-being scales are presented, and the measures are compared. Measuring various components of subjective well-being is discussed. In terms of causal influences, research findings on the demographic correlates of SWB are evaluated, as well as the findings on other influences such as health, social contact, activity, and personality. A number of theoretical approaches to happiness are presented and discussed: telic theories, associationistic models, activity theories, judgment approaches, and top-down versus bottom-up conceptions.
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Self-determination theory is grounded in the belief that people work best and are happiest when they feel that they are in control of their own lives. This invaluable book explains the ramifications of the theory and provides clinical examples to show that it can be used to motivate patients undergoing treatment for such physical or psychological issues as diabetes management, smoking cessation, post-traumatic stress, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and depression. The first part of the book provides historical background to self-determination theory, showing that it is humanistically oriented and has three decades of empirical research behind it. In the process, the authors discuss why humanistic psychology fell out of favor in academic psychology; why "self-help" and New Age books have such perennial popularity; and why it is so important for authorities to support patients' sense of self. The remainder of the book presents many specific case examples to describe the theory's application. © 2003 by Kennon M. Sheldon, Geoffrey Williams, and Thomas Joiner. All rights reserved.
Article
A relationship between marital status on the one hand and various indicators of well-being and mental health on the other has been found in a large number of studies. Typically, that the currently married have been shown to enjoy the most favorable position, the divorced and widowed are generally worst off, and the never married in an intermediate position. This paper provides an analysis of the consistency and generality of this relationship: To what extent are there national differences? Is the relationship stronger for men than for women, as has been suggested by several authors? And is there evidence for such a relationship whatever measure of psychological well-being we use? Comparable interview data from 19 countries, including a few non-western ones, are used. The data are analyzed by ordinary linear regression methods, representing marital status by means of dummy variables and controlling for age and parenthood. At least some evidence of differences in psychological well-being between the currently married on the one hand and the previously married and the never married on the other are found in practically all countries. On average the relationship between marital status and well-being is quite similar for men and women. More striking differences are found between well-being measures. The relationship with marital status is weakest for positive affect and strongest for self-reported happiness, with the results for negative affect and overall life satisfaction falling in between.
Article
The question of how affect arises and what affect indicates is examined from a feedback-based viewpoint on self-regulation. Using the analogy of action control as the attempt to diminish distance to a goal, a second feedback system is postulated that senses and regulates the rate at which the action-guiding system is functioning. This second system is seen as responsible for affect. Implications of these assertions and issues that arise from them are addressed in the remainder of the article. Several issues relate to the emotion model itself; others concern the relation between negative emotion and disengagement from goals. Relations to 3 other emotion theories are also addressed. The authors conclude that this view on affect is a useful supplement to other theories and that the concept of emotion is easily assimilated to feedback models of self-regulation.
Article
This study examined the extent to which 3 dimensions of personal goals-commitment, attainability, and progress-were predictive of students' subjective well-being over 1 semester. At the beginning of a new term, 88 Ss provided a list of their personal goals. Goal attributes and subjective well-being were measured at 4 testing periods. Goal commitment was found to moderate the extent to which differences in goal attainability accounted for changes in subjective well-being. Progress in goal achievement mediated the effect of the Goal Commitment × Goal Attainability on Subjective Well-Being interaction. Results are discussed in terms of a need for addition and refinement of assumptions linking personal goals to subjective well-being.
Article
Reports new studies (226 adult Ss) on increasing personal happiness. The studies are continuations of Studies 1, 2, and 3 reported in M. W. Fordyce (see record 1978-23415-001). The studies used a training program in happiness that centered on 14 fundamentals, including keeping busy, spending more time socializing, developing positive thinking, and working on a healthy personality. Adults at a community college participated in the programs. Measures of happiness included the Depression Adjective Check Lists and Happiness Measures. In Study 4, the complete program demonstrated significant happiness increases over a control group receiving summary instruction in the program. In Study 5, the complete program showed slight superiority over a control group receiving almost half the information. In Study 6, the full program was compared to groups receiving partial instruction from the program in their predetermined areas of "happiness weakness" and to a control receiving "placebo expectations" of greater happiness. All treatment groups demonstrated significant gains in happiness compared to controls, though no difference between the treatments was apparent. Study 7 involved a 9-28 mo follow-up of the program's effects on 69 past participants, with the vast majority of anonymous respondents reporting continued happiness increases. The collected findings indicate that the program had a long-lasting effect on happiness for most Ss and that this effect was due to the content of the information. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Conducted 3 studies in which a self-study program, designed to increase felt personal happiness and life satisfaction, was developed. The program was based on the literature of happiness, and it was hypothesized that normal community college students (total N = 338) could become happier if they could modify their behaviors and attitudes to approximate more closely the characteristics of happier people. In the 1st study, 2 of 3 pilot programs produced statistically significant happiness boosts compared to a placebo control. A single program was then designed that combined the best aspects of the pilot programs. In the 2nd study, an experimental group receiving this combined program showed significant boosts in happiness compared to a placebo control. In the 3rd study, the combined program was presented to Ss on a take-it-or-leave-it basis--those applying it showing significant boosts in happiness compared to those who did not. The studies suggest that the resulting self-study program may be helpful to individuals wishing to increase the emotional satisfaction they derive from living. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Chapter
Publisher Summary The dominant paradigm in current personality psychology is a reinvigorated version of one of the oldest approaches, trait psychology. Personality traits are “dimensions of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions.” In this context, trait structure refers to the pattern of co-variation among individual traits, usually expressed as dimensions of personality identified in factor analyses. For decades, the field of personality psychology was characterized by competing systems of trait structure; more recently a consensus has developed that most traits can be understood in terms of the dimensions of the Five-Factor Model. The consensus on personality trait structure is not paralleled by consensus on the structure of affects. The chapter discusses a three-dimensional model, defined by pleasure, arousal, and dominance factors in which it is possible to classify such state-descriptive terms as mighty, fascinated, unperturbed, docile, insolent, aghast, uncaring, and bored. More common are two-dimensional systems with axes of pleasure and arousal or positive and negative affect. These two schemes are interpreted as rotational variants—positive affect is midway between pleasure and arousal, whereas negative affect lies between arousal and low pleasure.
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J. Crocker and L. E. Park (2004) have achieved an admirable integration of the self-esteem literature with their claim that self-esteem is better conceived of as a dynamic human striving, rather than as a passive state or personality characteristic. However, the costs of self-esteem striving may be overstated-these costs may arise only in certain constrained cases. Also, although Crocker and Park suggested that self-esteem is not a true psychological need, there is evidence that humans in all cultures need to feel a positive sense of self-worth (K. M. Sheldon, in press). Problems may arise only when people strive too directly for this feeling, rather than deriving it as a natural concomitant of non-self-focused goals. A "sidelong" approach to self-esteem need satisfaction is advocated in this commentary.
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
This introduction to the two-part special issue reviews recent evidence that suggests that positive mood may play a beneficial, multifaceted, and flexible role in self-regulatory processes that cannot be explained by most current theories. First, under some conditions positive mood seems to facilitate careful processing of goal-relevant information, even negative information. Second, the relation of positive mood to cognition and behavior seems to be strongly moderated by goal-relevant features of the task context. Three frameworks (mood as input, processing advantages conferred by positive mood, and mood as resource) that may account for these facilitating effects of positive mood on self-regulation are discussed.
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Large samples of students in the Midwest and in Southern California rated satisfaction with life overall as well as with various aspects of life, for either themselves or someone similar to themselves in one of the two regions. Self-reported overall life satisfaction was the same in both regions, but participants who rated a similar other expected Californians to be more satisfied than Midwesterners. Climate-related aspects were rated as more important for someone living in another region than for someone in one's own region. Mediation analyses showed that satisfaction with climate and with cultural opportunities accounted for the higher overall life satisfaction predicted for Californians. Judgments of life satisfaction in a different location are susceptible to a focusing illusion: Easily observed and distinctive differences between locations are given more weight in such judgments than they will have in reality.
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A flood of new studies explores people's subjective well-being (SWB) Frequent positive affect, infrequent negative affect, and a global sense of satisfaction with life define high SWB These studies reveal that happiness and life satisfaction are similarly available to the young and the old, women and men, blacks and whites, the rich and the working-class Better clues to well-being come from knowing about a person's traits, close relationships, work experiences, culture, and religiosity We present the elements of an appraisal-based theory of happiness that recognizes the importance of adaptation, cultural world-view, and personal goals
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Even when goals are self-generated, they may not feel truly "personal," that is, autonomous and self-integrated. In three studies (one concurrent and two prospective), we found that the autonomy of personal goals predicted goal attainment. In contrast, the strength of "controlled" motivation did not predict attainment. Studies 2 and 3 validated a mediational model in which autonomy led to attainment because it promoted sustained effort investment. In Study 3, the Goal Attainment Scaling methodology was used to provide a more objective measure of goal attainment, and additional analyses were performed to rule out expectancy, value, and expectancy x value explanations of the autonomy-to-attainment effects. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of volition and self-regulation.
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Although goal theorists have speculated about the causes and consequences of making progress at personal goals, little longitudinal research has examined these issues. In the current prospective study, participants with stronger social and self-regulatory skills made more progress in their goals over the course of a semester. In turn, goal progress predicted increases in psychological well-being, both in short-term (5-day) increments and across the whole semester; At both short- and long-term levels of analysis, however, the amount that well-being increased depended on the "organismic congruence" of participants' goals. That is, participants benefited most from goal attainment when the goals that they pursued were consistent with inherent psychological needs. We conclude that a fuller understanding of the relations between goals, performance, and psychological well-being requires recourse to both cybernetic and organismic theories of motivation.
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A theoretical distinction is made between cultural, demographic, and personal constructs. The utility of the distinction is illustrated. Taking advantage of the shared aspect of culture, a method is presented that extracts a shared element of subjective culture from cultural samples. The method is illustrated with data concerning values obtained in Illinois and Hong Kong. The method converges with other methods of measurement of values, but has distinct advantages they do not possess. The illustration shows considerable agreement between Illinois and Hong Kong on most values, but also a few large discrepancies indicating extreme modernity in Hong Kong.
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The current study explored the interrelations between involvement in community service activities, level of expressed transpersonal commitment, and intensity of remembered positive experiences among adolescents. The Life Aspiration Questionnaire, Positive Experiences Questionnaire, and Extracurricular Activity Questionnaire were administered to 134 llth-and 12th-grade students involved in community service activities and to 126 of the adolescents' peers who were not participating in such activities. Involved adolescents were found to express higher levels of transpersonal commitment and a higher intensity of positive experiences. The two variables were found to be positively related for both involved and noninvolved adolescent groups. The results substantiated the contention that the ability to experience happiness and meaning in life was greater among those who were willing to give of themselves to others. The findings also constituted validation of the Life Aspiration Questionnaire, demonstrating the connection between word and deed in the transpersonal commitment of adolescents.
Article
In a two-phase study, we examined the relations of subjective well-being with the cognitive processing of affectively valenced life events. In Phase 1, both more intense and more enduring reactions to positive life events than negative ones were associated with higher well-being, and for intensity of reactions, this relation was stronger for those events that were subsequently recalled. When equal numbers of positive and negative life events were eligible for recall, well-being was unrelated to the relative likelihood of recalling the two types of events. Phase 2 suggested that life events are organized in memory according to the domain in which they occur but not according to their valence. However, neither the organization nor the retrieval of life events correlated with well-being. In combination, these findings suggest that cognitive processes associated with the encoding of life events, but neither the organization nor the retrieval of these events, are associated with subjective well-being.
Article
Empirical research and organismic theories suggest that lower well-being is associated with having extrinsic goals focused on rewards or praise relatively central to one's personality in comparison to intrinsic goals congruent with inherent growth tendencies. In a sample of adult subjects (Study 1), the relative importance and efficacy of extrinsic aspirations for financial success, an appealing appearance, and social recognition were associated with lower vitality and self-actualization and more physical symptoms. Conversely, the relative importance and efficacy of intrinsic aspirations for self-acceptance, affiliation, community feeling, and physical health were associated with higher well-being and less distress. Study 2 replicated these findings in a college sample and extended them to measures of narcissism and daily affect. Three reasons are discussed as to why extrinsic aspirations relate negatively to well-being, and future research directions are suggested.
Article
Neurobiological research with animals strongly suggests that the brain systems which mediate emotion overlap with those that mediate cognition to such a degree that it is difficult, if not impossible, to maintain any clear distinction between them. Possible reasons for this overlap are discussed; and a model of brain systems that simultaneously subserve emotion and cognition is presented. The model postulates the existence of three fundamental systems of this kind in the mammalian brain: a behavioural approach system, a fight/flight system, and a behavioural inhibition system. The neuropsychology of each of these systems is briefly presented.
Article
Reviews the literature since 1967 on subjective well-being (SWB [including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect]) in 3 areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Most measures of SWB correlate moderately with each other and have adequate temporal reliability and internal consistency; the global concept of happiness is being replaced with more specific and well-defined concepts, and measuring instruments are being developed with theoretical advances; multi-item scales are promising but need adequate testing. SWB is probably determined by a large number of factors that can be conceptualized at several levels of analysis, and it may be unrealistic to hope that a few variables will be of overwhelming importance. Several psychological theories related to happiness have been proposed; they include telic, pleasure and pain, activity, top–down vs bottom–up, associanistic, and judgment theories. It is suggested that there is a great need to more closely connect theory and research. (7 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reports new studies (226 adult Ss) on increasing personal happiness. The studies are continuations of Studies 1, 2, and 3 reported in M. W. Fordyce (see record 1978-23415-001). The studies used a training program in happiness that centered on 14 fundamentals, including keeping busy, spending more time socializing, developing positive thinking, and working on a healthy personality. Adults at a community college participated in the programs. Measures of happiness included the Depression Adjective Check Lists and Happiness Measures. In Study 4, the complete program demonstrated significant happiness increases over a control group receiving summary instruction in the program. In Study 5, the complete program showed slight superiority over a control group receiving almost half the information. In Study 6, the full program was compared to groups receiving partial instruction from the program in their predetermined areas of "happiness weakness" and to a control receiving "placebo expectations" of greater happiness. All treatment groups demonstrated significant gains in happiness compared to controls, though no difference between the treatments was apparent. Study 7 involved a 9–28 mo follow-up of the program's effects on 69 past participants, with the vast majority of anonymous respondents reporting continued happiness increases. The collected findings indicate that the program had a long-lasting effect on happiness for most Ss and that this effect was due to the content of the information. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted 3 studies in which a self-study program, designed to increase felt personal happiness and life satisfaction, was developed. The program was based on the literature of happiness, and it was hypothesized that normal community college students (total N = 338) could become happier if they could modify their behaviors and attitudes to approximate more closely the characteristics of happier people. In the 1st study, 2 of 3 pilot programs produced statistically significant happiness boosts compared to a placebo control. A single program was then designed that combined the best aspects of the pilot programs. In the 2nd study, an experimental group receiving this combined program showed significant boosts in happiness compared to a placebo control. In the 3rd study, the combined program was presented to Ss on a take-it-or-leave-it basis—those applying it showing significant boosts in happiness compared to those who did not. The studies suggest that the resulting self-study program may be helpful to individuals wishing to increase the emotional satisfaction they derive from living. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Current theories of motivation provide insightful discussions of why people behave as they do. In addition, the research studies surrounding these theories provide insights that can help people move toward the goals of greater competence, autonomy, and relatedness. However, these theories cannot lead to realization of what is widely considered the most fundamental goal of humanity: underlying contentment. In this article, a Zen Buddhist perspective is presented that illuminates some problematic aspects of current theories of motivation. The article also presents the way in which Zen Buddhism avoids these problems and points toward contentment (whether linked to Buddhist doctrine or not). The article closes with educational implications of a Zen Buddhist perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent findings indicate that happiness depends not so much on life circumstances as on the way in which these are interpreted and evaluated, which is loosely attributed to a concept of "happiness set." Two experiments with 84 Ss indicated that happiness can be improved either by a group