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Abstract

The Organizational Culture Inventory (R. A. Cooke and J. C. Lafferty, 1983) measures 12 sets of shared behavioral expectations associated with 3 types of cultures: constructive, passive-defensive, and aggressive-defensive. These cultural norms are hypothesized to influence thinking and behavior, motivation and performance, and satisfaction and stress of organizational members. Tests of 3 types of reliability and 2 types of validity on data provided by approximately 4,890 Ss indicate that the inventory is dependable for assessing normative aspects of culture. Obtained alpha coefficients support internal consistency; tests for interrater agreement show that significant variance in individuals' responses is explained by their organizational membership; and tests for differences across time show temporal consistency. Factor analysis provides general support for construct validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Throughout the years, organizational and management scholars have identified and studied different types of organizational cultures (Cameron & Quinn, 1999;Cooke & Lafferty, 1987;Cooke & Szumal, 1993;Handy, 1976). Cooke and Szumal (1993), for example, identified three general types of organizational cultures that are the constructive cultures, passive-defensive cultures, and aggressivedefensive cultures. ...
... Throughout the years, organizational and management scholars have identified and studied different types of organizational cultures (Cameron & Quinn, 1999;Cooke & Lafferty, 1987;Cooke & Szumal, 1993;Handy, 1976). Cooke and Szumal (1993), for example, identified three general types of organizational cultures that are the constructive cultures, passive-defensive cultures, and aggressivedefensive cultures. Constructive cultures are the cultures that encourage staff members to work together so that they achieve their organizational goals. ...
... Constructive cultures are the cultures that encourage staff members to work together so that they achieve their organizational goals. Constructive cultures include the humanisticencouraging culture, which requires the employees to be supportive and constructive; affiliative culture, which emphasizes interpersonal relationships; achievement culture, which values accomplishing tasks; and self-actualizing culture, which values creativity and innovation (Cooke & Szumal, 1993). ...
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It is proven that corporate cultures have a great impact on productivity, job satisfaction, and turnover. This study, through ethnographic and textual analysis, aims to investigate the influences of corporate/organizational cultures (Cooke & Szumal, 1993) on management and business communication. To form a comprehensive, holistic, and in-depth understanding of the organizational culture and its direct and indirect effects on professional communication in the workplace, participant observations were conducted, interviews were carried out and interorganizational and intraorganizational textual data was collected from an educational institute. The ethnographic and textual analysis revealed that the act of adaptiveness to the organizational culture shaped the communicative practices, the linguistic structures, and the behavioral norms of the place discourse community. As the employees were bound by the rules and regulations, they made direct and indirect references to the policies using referential intertextuality, functional intertextuality, and conventional formulaic expressions. As the employees were also bound to be supportive, friendly, and respectful, they strived to use proper opening and closing markers, positive and negative politeness, and affiliative humour to create a positive environment and reduce stress. Employees also used ellipsis, substitutions, hedges, and emoticons to mark excitement in conversations and writing. The study revealed that organizational cultures influence business communication through shaping the “I think”, “I feel”, and “I act” attitudes in different situations.
... Organizational culture has been found to be associated with different criteria of organizational effectiveness (Hartnell et al., 2011), and on an individual level, it is correlated with job satisfaction, organizational commitment (Silverthorne, 2004), job involvement (Goodman et al., 2001), and turnover intentions (Goodman et al., 2001). In conclusion, organizational culture has been proven to be an important antecedent for the work experiences and behaviors of employees (Cooke & Szumal, 1993). Therefore, we believe that it is also possible for an organizational culture to affect the experiences of psychological empowerment. ...
... The first dimension's poles are a concern for people and concern for tasks. The second dimension sorts values according to the poles higher-order growth needs and protecting security needs (Cooke & Szumal, 1993). In this circumplex, the IMPEC values belong in the high people and high growth sector and represent a constructive organizational culture. ...
... Generally speaking, "organizational culture is imbued with emotion" (Smollan & Sayers, 2009, p. 435). Constructive types of organizational culture are associated, for example, with the job satisfaction of the employees (Cooke & Szumal, 1993). That is why we tested how the IMPEC was related to affect-oriented constructs, such as work satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. ...
Article
Psychological empowerment – the experience of competence, meaning, self-determination and impact at work – has become very popular in organizational research. Meta-analytic results show many positive consequences of psychological empowerment and many different antecedents such as positive leadership, high performance practices, and work design characteristics. However, scarce research is available on how organizational culture influences psychological empowerment. We believe a missing instrument is one reason for the underdevelopment in this field. For this reason, we developed IMPEC (Instrument Measuring Psychological Empowerment Culture) for measuring specific cultural values for psychological empowerment. IMPEC was tested in four studies. In the first study ( n = 208 German employees), the reliability, factor structure, and its relationship with psychological empowerment and affective variables were analyzed. The second study had two waves ( n = 182 German employees) in which the predictive and incremental value of the IMPEC for performance-oriented variables were evaluated. In the third study, the instrument was translated into English and validated in a US sample ( n = 346). Finally, a multi-wave study was conducted in a German setting ( n = 210) to test if the IMPEC could predict critical constructs better than the empowerment climate questionnaire.
... One study used a survey, and three others had a qualitative approach. In the study by Sanfilippo et al. from 2018, organizational culture was measured using the Diagnosing Organizational Culture Instrument (DOCI) (Sanfilippo et al., 2018)-a validated, commercially available test for measuring organizational culture (Cooke & Szumal, 1993). The test inventory has 12 domains measuring normative beliefs or behavioural expectations associated with three types of cultures, constructive, passive-defensive, and aggressivedefensive (Cooke & Szumal, 1993). ...
... In the study by Sanfilippo et al. from 2018, organizational culture was measured using the Diagnosing Organizational Culture Instrument (DOCI) (Sanfilippo et al., 2018)-a validated, commercially available test for measuring organizational culture (Cooke & Szumal, 1993). The test inventory has 12 domains measuring normative beliefs or behavioural expectations associated with three types of cultures, constructive, passive-defensive, and aggressivedefensive (Cooke & Szumal, 1993). ...
Article
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Organizational climate and culture may influence different work-related outcomes, including responsible conduct of research and research misconduct in academic or research organizations. In this scoping review we collected evidence on outcomes of interventions to change organizational climate or culture in academic or research settings. Out of 32,093 documents retrieved by the search, we analysed 207 documents in full text, out of which 7 met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final analysis. The included studies measured organizational climate (2 studies), organizational culture (4 studies), or both (1 study) at biomedical faculties (4 studies) or non-academic university departments (3 studies). Four studies had post-test, and three before-and-after study designs. The majority of interventions were face-to-face activities (meetings, different teambuilding activities), and two were based on organizational change. Six studies reported positive changes in organizational climate/culture after the intervention. These positive changes were measured as improvements in score on different questionnaire survey or were described through authors’ or external evaluator’s narrative reports. However, the methodological quality of the studies was low, both for qualitative and quantitative study designs. Replicable studies, using rigorous methods and clearly defined outcomes are urgently needed if organizations want to achieve a real change in organizational climate or culture for responsible research. The protocol for this scoping review was registered at https://osf.io/7zjqb.
... Also, they believe they must interact with people in ways that will not threaten their employment security because bureaucracy still plays an essential role. These are characteristics of the avoidance, conventional, and approval culture styles, which are associated with the passive/defensive culture style (26). Passive/defensive cultural style experience a high number of unresolved con icts, and the workforce often reports lower levels of job satisfaction and motivation (27). ...
... These aspects were also observed in this study. This study gave some useful insights into the culture of the health system of Curaҫao; however, more research (e.g., use the Organisational Culture Inventory tool) is needed to study this complex mechanism more profoundly (26). ...
Preprint
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Background Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika pose a significant challenge to health systems in countries they affect, especially countries with less developed healthcare systems. Therefore countries are encouraged to strengthen their healthcare systems to achieve more resilient systems. This qualitative study aims to examine the performance of the health system of the Dutch Caribbean island of Curaҫao with regards to the prevention and control of VBDs in the last decennium by using the WHO health system building blocks. Methods From January 2019 to February 2020, a multi-method qualitative study was performed in Curaçao., applying content analysis of documents (n = 50), five focus group discussions (n = 30), interviews with experts (n = 11), and fifteen observation sessions. The study was designed based on the WHO framework: health system building blocks. Two cycles of inductive and deductive coding were employed, and Nvivo software was used to analyse the data. Results This study’s data highlighted the challenges (e.g., insufficient oversight, coordination, leadership skills, structure, and communication) that the departments of the health system of Curaҫao faced during the last three epidemics of VBDs (2010–2020). Furthermore, low levels of collaboration between governmental and non-governmental organisations (e.g., semi-governmental and private laboratories) and insufficient capacity building to improve skills (e.g., entomological, surveillance skills) were also observed. Lastly, we observed how bottlenecks in one building block negatively influenced other building blocks (e.g., inadequate leadership/governance obstructed the workforce's performance). Conclusions This study uncovers potential organisational bottlenecks that have affected the performance of the health system of Curaҫao negatively. We recommend starting with the reinforcement of oversight of the integrated vector management program to ensure the development, implementation, and evaluation of related legislation, policies, and interventions. Also, we recommend evaluating and reform the existing administrative and organisational structure of the health system by taking the cultural style, challenges, and barriers of the current health system into account. More efforts are needed to improve the documentation of agreements, the recruitment, and evaluation of the workforce's performance. Based on our findings, we conceptualised actions to strengthen the health system's building blocks to improve its performance for future outbreaks of infectious diseases.
... Our approach of operationalizing OC using language circumvents the limitations of conventional evaluations as it harnesses the potential of crowd-contributed, anonymized, and publicly available Glassdoor data. This is grounded in four OC instruments -1) Organization Cultural Inventory (assesses OC with 12 task and interpersonal styles [30]), 2) Organization Culture Profile (assesses OC with 54 value statements [90]), 3) Hofstede's Organization Culture Questionnaire (assesses OC on 6 independent dimensions) [62], and 4) Organization Culture Survey (assesses OC on 6 components [50]). ...
... Therefore we first verify which descriptors align with established frameworks of OC that are widely used in organization research. Two coauthors familiar with organizational studies independently inspected each of the 189 descriptors in O*Net on the basis of four OC instruments, Organization Cultural Inventory[30]), Organization Culture Profile[90]), Hofstede's Organization Culture Questionnaire[62], and Organization Culture Survey[50]). Any discrepancies (n = 23) with respect to the validity of a job descriptor was resolved by both authors on agreeable themes and concepts. ...
Conference Paper
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Organizational culture (OC) encompasses the underlying beliefs, values, and practices that are unique to organizations. However, OC is inherently subjective and a coarse construct, and therefore challenging to quantify. Alternatively, self-initiated workplace reviews on online platforms like Glassdoor provide the opportunity to leverage the richness of language to understand OC. In as much, first, we use multiple job descriptors to operationalize OC as a word vector representation. We validate this construct with language used in 650k different Glassdoor reviews. Next, we propose a methodology to apply our construct on Glassdoor reviews to quantify the OC of employees by sector. We validate our measure of OC on a dataset of 341 employees by providing empirical evidence that it helps explain job performance. We discuss the implications of our work in guiding tailored interventions and designing tools for improving employee functioning.
... The constructive culture trait is characterized by members who believe they must take initiative, think in non-traditional ways, work cooperatively and it reflects a healthy balance of people and task-related concerns (Cooke and Szumal, 1993). The defensive culture trait has passive and aggressive features. ...
... We selected this culture measure because prior work has attested to its reliability and validity (Cooke and Szumal, 1993) and its use in the assessment of culture at the group level. The culture items were modified to accommodate the project setting by inserting the word 'project' (Appendix A). ...
The changing project environment does not allow to detail or estimate all desired employee behaviors. We contend that to increase project outcomes, it is valuable for managers to create a context in which project members willingly help colleagues perform their tasks, beyond what is required. The current study’s objectives are to investigate whether these project members’ backing up behaviors influence success and can be brought about by project culture. We support the model utilizing 219 project members (project participants) in 69 projects, from various industries in the USA. Results imply a plunge in members’ backing up behaviors can indicate project failure. Owed to restrictions facing project managers, in terms of control over compensation and employee availability, results imply that project culture is a useful substitute lever to manage members’ backing up behaviors, which in due course can propel project success. Practical implications for managing backing up behaviors in order to augment project success are provided.
... After the instrument that declared practical, it was then employed to measure OCBs, LE, and OP as depicted in Table 2. To analyze the validity of items obtained by correlation analysis between item scores and total item scores, it was used product moment correlations. Validity is a measure that shows the validity of an instrument (Cooke and Szumal 1993). In addition, a reliability analysis is performed to show the extent of the consistency of the measurement or in other words the extent to which a measurement result is relatively consistent if the measurement is scientifically repeatable. ...
... The results of the validity analysis show that all statements (67 statements) are valid with sig. (2-tailed) < 0.05 (Table 3) (Cooke and Szumal 1993), while the reliability was categorized as high with Cronbach's alpha OCBs = 0.721, LE = 0.760 and OP = 0.796. Cronbach's alpha value >0.7 obtained indicates that the questionnaire used is relevant and can be used. ...
Article
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This study examines the effect of organizational citizenship behavior and leadership effectiveness on organizational performance in the Department of Education, Youth and Sports in Maluku Province, Indonesia. Results of the study showed that in simultaneous organizational citizenship behavior and leadership effectiveness give effect to the strongest towards the achievement of organizational performance. Another interesting finding in this study is that despite the lack of incentives and rewards for employees as well as the lack of quality of human resources, it can be reduced by reforming the internal stem based on resources owned so that organizational performance can be optimized.
... The 12 cultural norms of the OCI are represented by 120 statements (10 per cultural norm), where respondents have to indicate their level of agreement using a 1-5 scale, (1) not at all, (2) somewhat, (3) moderately, (4) mostly, and (5) strongly. A number of studies show empirical support for the structure and internal consistency of the 12 cultural norms (lower-order dimensions) and the three cultural styles (higher-order dimensions) provided by principal component analyses (e.g., Cooke and Rousseau, 1988;Cooke and Szumal, 1993;Xenikou and Furnham, 1996). However, Cook and Szumal (1993) also noted that some cultural scales showed dual loadings, which could be an indication of weaknesses in discriminant validity or a suggestion that norms for the Aggressive-Defensive and Passive-Defensive styles may be loosely linked in certain settings. ...
... Meanwhile, the safety scale did not yield significant differences between the two facilities or among the groups within each facility and between facilities. Some differences on selected subsets of 40 items that comprise the safety scale were found, but they were not as large or reliable as those for the OCI. Brown (2000a) explained that his results were consistent with the findings of Haber et al. (1991) and with Cooke and Szumal's (1993) suggestion that specialized scales are not necessarily more sensitive to safetyrelevant organizational differences than general-purpose inventories like the OCI. ...
... (d) "Macht korrumpiert", wie Kipnis (1976) und Mitchell et al. (1998 Rosenstiel et al., 1983;Denison, 1990;Cooke & Szumal, 1993;Gebert, Boerner & Matiaske, 1998 (Gebert, Boerner & Berkel, 2001). Allerdings kann Offenheit auch unerwünschte Nebeneffekte wie Instabilität, Streit, Anarchie und Orientierungslosigkeit haben, so dass eine gewisse Schließung zum Ausgleich notwendig ist (Gebert, Boerner & Lanwehr, 2001). ...
... Deutlich wird in diesen Beschreibungen die Wechselwirkung von Organisationsstruktur und Organisationskultur. Gemeinsam, partizipativ und unbürokratisch sind hier die Stichworte der Machtbegrenzung. Ein Modell mit drei Typen von Organisationskulturen haben Cooke und Mitarbeiter entwickelt(Cooke & Szumal, 1993): Konstruktive Kulturen sind durch eine Kombination von Verhaltensnormen gekennzeichnet, die Leistung, Selbstentfaltung, Humanität und Beziehung betonen; für aggressiv-defensive Kulturen sind Macht, Opposition, Wettbewerb und Perfektionismus charakteristisch, während passiv-defensive Kulturen durch Konventionalität, Zustimmung, Abhängigkeit und Vermeidung gekennzeichnet sind. In einer Studie mit 159 Service-Organisationen findenKlein, Masi und Weidner II (1995), dass Organisationen mit konstruktiven Kulturen einerseits durch eine egalitärere Machtverteilung und hohen wechselseitigen Einfluss zwischen den Hierarchieebenen (Organisationsstruktur) und andererseits durch höhere Servicequalität und bessere Arbeitsleistungen (Ergebnisse) gekennzeichnet sind. ...
Book
In diesem Buch geht es um gelungene und misslungene Innovationen aus deutschen Unternehmen und um die wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse und praktischen Lehren, die man daraus ziehen kann. Diese Betrachtung ist in mehrerer Hinsicht einzigartig: In der Innovationsforschung werden entweder einzelne Innovationsfälle ausführlicher recherchiert oder Breitenerhebungen zu ausgewählten Fragen von Innovationen durchgeführt. Hier haben wir die Vorzüge beider Verfahren kombiniert: Wir haben intensive Fallstudien erstellt, gewonnen aus ausführlichen Interviews mit den Hauptbeteiligten, so dass die spezifische Entwicklung jeder einzelnen Innovation erfasst werden konnte. Dies geschah nicht nur bei Einzelfällen, sondern bei insgesamt 42 Produkt- und Verfahrensinnovationen. Ergänzt wurde es durch eine anschließende Fragebogenerhebung bei den befragten Hauptbeteiligten, so dass wir auch vergleichende Auswertungen machen konnten, um Hypothesen bzw. Erklärungen statistisch abgesichert zu prüfen. Dabei haben wir gelungene und misslungene Innovationen aus denselben Unternehmen verglichen, so dass die ermittelten Unterschiede direkt die Innovationsprozesse widerspiegeln und nicht etwa Unterschiede zwischen Unternehmen, Branchen oder Marktbedingungen. Aus den recherchierten Innovationsfällen wurden 21 ausgewählt und jeweils als Beispiel für die untersuchten Thesen dargestellt (im Inhaltsverzeichnis kursiv gedruckt). Diese Fallgeschichten sind nicht, wie sonst oft üblich, als Heldentaten oder Schurkenstücke ausgemalt, sondern sie geben einen realistischeren Einblick in die Vielgestaltigkeit und Verschlungenheit typischer Innovationsprozesse als üblich.
... Also, they believe they must interact with people in ways that will not threaten their employment security because bureaucracy still plays an essential role. The characteristics of avoidance and conventional and approval culture styles are associated with the passive/defensive culture style [25]. Organisations with passive/defensive cultures have many unresolved conflicts, and the workforce often reports low levels of job satisfaction and motivation [26]. ...
... This study gave some valuable insights into the culture of the health system of Curaҫao. However, to study this complex mechanism more profoundly, the literature suggests using the Organisational Culture Inventory tool [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika pose a significant challenge to health systems in countries they affect, especially countries with less developed healthcare systems. Therefore, countries are encouraged to work towards more resilient health systems. This qualitative study aims to examine the performance of the health system of the Dutch Caribbean island of Curaҫao regarding the prevention and control of VBDs in the last decade by using the WHO health system building blocks. Methods From November 2018 to December 2020, a multi-method qualitative study was performed in Curaçao, applying content analysis of documents ( n = 50), five focus group discussions ( n = 30), interviews with experts ( n = 11) and 15 observation sessions. The study was designed based on the WHO framework: health system building blocks. Two cycles of inductive and deductive coding were employed, and Nvivo software was used to analyse the data. Results This study’s data highlighted the challenges (e.g. insufficient oversight, coordination, leadership skills, structure and communication) that the departments of the health system of Curaҫao faced during the last three epidemics of VBDs (2010–2020). Furthermore, low levels of collaboration between governmental and non-governmental organisations (e.g. semi-governmental and private laboratories) and insufficient capacity building to improve skills (e.g. entomological, surveillance skills) were also observed. Lastly, we observed how bottlenecks in one building block negatively influenced other building blocks (e.g. inadequate leadership/governance obstructed the workforce's performance). Conclusions This study uncovers potential organisational bottlenecks that have affected the performance of the health system of Curaҫao negatively. We recommend starting with the reinforcement of oversight of the integrated vector management programme to ensure the development, implementation and evaluation of related legislation, policies and interventions. Also, we recommend evaluating and reforming the existing administrative and organisational structure of the health system by considering the cultural style, challenges and barriers of the current health system. More efforts are needed to improve the documentation of agreements, recruitment and evaluation of the workforce's performance. Based on our findings, we conceptualised actions to strengthen the health system's building blocks to improve its performance for future outbreaks of infectious diseases. Graphical abstract
... It is important to take individual responsibility. Organizations support and care for individual success (Pheysey 1993;Cooke and Szumal, 1993). Task-Oriented Culture: Organizational goals are ahead of individual goals. ...
Article
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This research was carried out to make an inference about school managers' power sources, school culture, and psychological climate, which are thought to affect psychological empowerment will be emphasized. This study was designed and conducted according to the correlation research pattern to test the proposed conceptual model; and, this model has been tested with the Structural Equation Model (SEM). 358 teachers (252 women and 97 men) participated in the study. Then to evaluate the model χ² (Chi-square), χ²/df ratio (Chi-square/degree of freedom), SRMR (Standardized root mean square residual), GFI (Goodness-of-fit index), AGFI (Adjusted goodness-of-fit index), NFI (Normed Fit Index), TLI (Turker-Lewis Index), CFI (Comparative Fit Index) and RMSEA (Root mean square error of approximation) are examined. According to the results, some hypotheses have been accepted but some of them not. H1 -School principal's power sources affect psychological empowermentand H2 -Power sources affect the psychological climate- have been rejected. However H3 -School culture has an impact on its psychological climate-, H4 -Power sources affect school culture-, H5 -Psychological climate affects psychological empowermentand H6 -School culture affects psychological empowerment- has been accepted. Bu araştırma, psikolojik güçlendirmeyi etkilediği düşünülen okul yöneticilerinin güç kaynakları, okul kültürü ve psikolojik iklimi hakkında bir çıkarım yapmak amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Çalışma, önerilen kavramsal modeli test etmek için korelasyon araştırma modeline göre tasarlanmış, yürütülmüş ve bu model Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli (SEM) ile test edilmiştir. Araştırmaya 358 öğretmen (252 kadın ve 97 erkek) katılmıştır. Bulgular uyum indekslerine göre değerlendirilmiş ve yapılan modifikasyon sonucunda modelin uyum değerlerinin mükemmel düzeyde olduğu tespit edilmiştir (χ²=5.766; df=7; p=.567; χ²/df=.824; SRMR= .021; GFI=.995; AGFI=981; NFI=.994; TLI=1.000; CFI=1.000; RMSEA=.000). Elde edilen modele göre; okul müdürlerinin kullandıkları yumuşak güç türleri, psikolojik güçlendirmeyi olumlu etkilerken; sert güç türleri psikolojik güçlendirmeyi etkilememektedir. Yumuşak güç türleri, görev kültürünü, başarı kültürünü ve destek kültürünü olumlu etkilerken; bürokratik kültürü olumsuz etkilemektedir. Sert güç türleri, okulun kültürel boyutlarını etkilememektedir. Yumuşak güç türleri, psikolojik iklimi olumlu etkilerken; sert güç türlerinin etkisi bulunmamaktadır. Başarı kültürü ve görev kültürü, psikolojik güçlendirmeyi olumlu etkilerken; bürokratik kültür ve başarı kültürü, psikolojik güçlendirmeyi etkilememektedir. Başarı kültürü, görev kültürü ve destek kültürü, psikolojik iklimi olumlu etkilerken; bürokratik kültür etkilememektedir. Psikolojik iklim, psikolojik güçlendirmeyi olumlu etkilemektedir. Araştırma sonucunda okul kültürünün psikolojik iklim ve psikolojik güçlendirmeyi etkileyen önemli bir faktör olduğu görülmüştür.
... In this model, organizational properties impact staff members' individual and shared perceptions of the organization and its work, which in turn impact employees' work performance. Organizational properties are essentially the way things are done at each organization, and include the organizations' culture (i.e., normative beliefs and shared behavioral expectations [9]) and structure (i.e., the centralization of power and staff/employee hierarchy). Individual and shared perceptions refer to employees' own perceptions of the workplace (psychological climate) as well as the collective perceptions of the workplace (organizational climate); for example, staff views about the organization's readiness to implement an EBP, as well as organization-wide view about the importance of an EBP [10]. ...
Article
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Background: Substance use disorders are prevalent among youth involved with the criminal justice system, however, evidence-based substance use disorder treatment is often unavailable to this population. The goal of this study was to identify barriers to effective implementation of evidence-based practices among juvenile justice and community mental health organizations through the lens of an adopter-based innovation model. Methods: In this mixed-methods study, qualitative interviews were conducted with n = 15 juvenile justice staff and n = 14 community mental health staff from two counties implementing substance use services for justice involved youth. In addition, n = 28 juvenile justice staff and n = 85 community mental health center staff also completed quantitative measures of organizational effectiveness including the implementation leadership scale (ILS), organizational readiness for change (ORIC), and the implementation climate scale (ICS). Results: Organizationally, staff from community mental health centers reported more "red tape" and formalized procedures around daily processes, while many juvenile justice staff reported a high degree of autonomy. Community mental health respondents also reported broad concern about their capacity for providing new interventions. Staff across the two different organizations expressed support for evidence-based practices, agreed with the importance of treating substance use disorders in this population, and were enthusiastic about implementing the interventions. Conclusions: While both community mental health and juvenile justice staff express commitment to implementing evidence-based practices, systems-level changes are needed to increase capacity for providing evidence-based services.
... Problems are solved optimally. This type of culture refers to organizations that support its members who do their job successfully (Cooke & Szumal, 1993). ...
Article
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is research has been conducted to determine the relationship between school culture and teachers’ occupational commitment. e research was carried out according to the relational survey model for this purpose. e sample of the study consists of 377 teachers (150 male, 227 female) working in different public schools in Istanbul’s Pendik district. e School Culture Scale and Occupational Commitment Scale have been used to collect the study data. e data obtained from the scales were transferred to the program SSPS. Frequency (f), mean (M), standard deviation (SD), kurtosis, and skewness coefficients for the data have been calculated and parametric tests performed. According to the study’s ‚ndings, a signi‚cant relationship exists between teachers’ occupational commitment and school culture. A positive and moderate relationship has been found for teachers’ professional commitment with task culture, success culture, and support culture; meanwhile, a low and positive relationship exists between teachers’ professional commitment and bureaucratic culture. Task culture is the strongest school culture predicting teachers’ occupational commitment.
... The first is the use of existing methods used to express the organizational culture. For example, you employ the terms used in the Competing Values Framework [4] and the Organizational Culture Inventory [10]. The advantage of this method is that it is considered to be highly certain, as it allows the use of established terms that have been found by the previous studies to be appropriate for describing organization's characteristics. ...
Article
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Organizations may change their strategies in order to respond to changes in the environment or to change management policies due to a change in management. In order to effectively implement the strategy, the unconscious perception of the organizational members who are the bearers of the strategy must also change, but how should the leaders (often managers) who lead the organizational transformation recognize that the unconscious perception of the organizational members is changing? In this paper, authors introduce a method developed by themselves to visualize the unconscious perception of organizational members. Authors then compare the unconscious perception of employees before and after the change of management in a small and medium-sized company in Japan and visualize the changes. Authors also consider the relationship between these changes and the changes in strategy in the SME with the president changes. As a result, authors speculate that the method developed by the authors may have been successful in describing the change in employees’ unconscious perception.
... Moderating effect of team-oriented culture Depending on the epistemology and ontology of organizational culture and climate, the concepts of organizational culture and climate can overlap and yet be mutually exclusive (Schneider et al., 2013). Using a definition from psychology, organizational culture includes shared behavioural expectations and normative beliefs (Cooke and Szumal, 1993). To understand how employees build their perceptions about their organizations, our study assessed the visible part of organizational culture quantitatively. ...
Article
This study aims to examine the relationship between having a learning organization (LO) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and the moderating role of team-oriented culture on this relationship. Using 516 respondents from diverse industries in West Malaysia, the authors tested the psychometric properties of the three variables. LO positively influenced OCB. Team-oriented culture moderated the relationship between having a LO and OCB. This study helps explain how to achieve a LO in a context of high power distance and collectivist culture such as Malaysia. This study also highlights the importance of the anticipated synergistic effects of a LO and team-oriented culture in promoting OCB.
... Workplace (or organisational) culture is the values, beliefs, assumptions, and expectations shared by staff that are reflected in their behaviour and interactions with others. [16] The prevalence of bullying, harassment, and discrimination towards women in STEM workplaces is a well documented problem, with key statistics highlighted in Table 1. [5,17] While men are also subject to these negative behaviours, the prevalence and impacts on women occur at a disproportionally higher rate. ...
... interchangeably (Schneider 2000;Von Treuer 2006); however, organisational climate and organisational culture are two different terms and have been investigated independently. The major difference between culture and climate is that culture emphasises shared values and perspectives within an organisation (Cooke & Szumal 1993); whereas, climate implies workgroup perceptions of individuals that may or may not be shared (James et al. 2008). ...
Thesis
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There is little consensus about how innovation occurs in Australian state government departments. This lack of knowledge impedes the growth and execution of innovation in the Australian public sector. The three major objectives of this thesis are to: (1) identify specific barriers to innovate in public sector organisations in Australia; (2) identify leadership characteristics that promote a culture of innovation; and (3) investigate the relationship between barriers, leadership characteristics, organisational climate and workplace innovation at four different levels in Australian public sector organisations. Hence, this thesis explores the dynamics of innovation in these organisations and specifically State government departments. The diversity of interpretations of public sector innovation leads to a plethora of management tools. These tendencies are also evident in the literature. This thesis seeks to clarify the factors that impact on innovation in Australian public sector organisations. This thesis is framed by ‘innovation systems theory’, which emphasises that innovation does not function in isolation. It depends on the interaction between numerous actors, entities and external stakeholders. In this thesis, the author argues that from an innovation systems perspective, barriers to innovation, leadership characteristics, and organisational climate are activities that influence innovation processes at four different levels. These determinants are not independent of each other but instead support and reinforce or offset one another. This thesis by analysing the determinants/dynamics of innovation in Australian State government departments, will deploy a sequential exploratory mixed methods research design consisting of qualitative data from annual reports, newsletters, and websites of several state government departments in Australia and quantitative survey as a method of inquiry. The thesis formulates a conceptual framework that comprises organisational barriers to innovation, leadership characteristics, and organisational climate. A qualitative research approach served to address the three thesis research questions. The researcher employed both thematic and content analyses through multiple methods of qualitative and quantitative approaches employing NVivo Pro11 and Pro12 software. The first stage analysis involved an analysis of Federal governments’ initiatives, action plans and advice to State governments. The second stage analysis involved an analysis of the policies and strategies of each State government. The third stage analysis involved an examination of the strategies and implementation policies of specific State government departments, namely: the Department of Education; the Department of Environment; the Department of Health and Human Services; and the Department of the Premier and Cabinet across six States and two territory governments of Australia. As well, a quantitative research approach was applied to test hypotheses using statistical procedures and generalising to a large population from the sample. The first stage of the quantitative analysis involved the first generation of multivariate data analysis techniques, these being statistical methods such as correlations and regressions. Meanwhile, the second stage of analysis was conducted at four different levels of innovation to show in-depth analysis. Hence, a partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) analysis was applied. PLS-SEM added more depth to the regression employed. The findings were constructed by providing a comprehensive description of the research settings. Based on the quantitative analysis of the hypothesised relationships, the findings revealed that H1 was fully supported and indicated that key barriers do impact on the ability to innovate in public sector organisations at the individual level. H2, H3, and H4 were not supported and indicated that key barriers have no impact on the ability to innovate in public sector organisations at the organisational, team, and climate levels. Moreover, H5, H6, H7, and H8 were fully supported and indicated that leadership characteristics wield an impact on the ability to innovate in such institutions at the individual, organisational, team, and climate levels. Likewise, H9, H10, H11, and H12 were fully supported and indicated that organisational climate has an impact on the ability to innovate in the public sector at the individual, organisational, team, and climate levels. Based on the qualitative analysis, the data revealed three critical issues and its mechanisms that could stimulate or hinder a culture of innovation in public sector organisations in Australia: organisational barriers (e.g. staff resistance; severe rules and regulations; old organisational models; lack of resources and autonomy; lack of measurement tools; budget and funding; and lack of professional development plans); leadership characteristics (e.g. supportive and risk-taker; passionate, practical and persistent; leading by example; influential and inspirational; decisiveness, courtesy and respect; decision-making; coaching; strategic leadership; national leadership; and inclusive leadership); and organisational climate (e.g. policy development; organisation’s size and structure; a culture of sharing; initiatives; labs; incentives; collaboration and networking; measurement tools; embracing diversity; commitment; behavioural insights; and workplace planning). Based on these findings, the researcher attempted to clarify all aspects by developing some figures under each piece of finding (theme). The thesis findings provided strong and comprehensive empirical evidence for a relationship between several factors that affect the ability to innovate in the Australian public sector and for the first time address innovation at four levels (individual, organisational, team, and climate). Ultimately, the researcher developed a model for workplace innovation, as well as recommendations for scholars and practitioners. Keywords: Australia, innovation, leadership, organisation, public sector
... Cooke et al. [18] are of the opinion that organizational level factors shape the cultures of organizations. According to the study conducted by Hofstede et al. [19], there is agreement that authoritative culture is comprehensive, generally shared, and socially built; it includes suppositions, convictions, and desires for conduct, exists at an assortment of levels, and shows itself in a wide scope of features of organizational life. ...
Article
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The present research paper focuses on four key aspects of organizational culture in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): employee attitude, performance, behavior, and productivity. Every organization has a unique culture, which shapes the employees’ perspectives to a large extent. The greater the consistency of the approach, the greater the likelihood of that organization achieving success. The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of corporate culture on the behavior of heterogeneous groups of employees. The UAE, as an emerging economy, has various ethnicities and nationalities in its workforce, each having its own distinctive national customs, languages, religions, histories, and work patterns. This paper examines two cases in the remittances and foreign exchange industry in the UAE as being characteristic of finance companies, comprising employees who originated from many nations working together regardless of their socio-cultural background. Based on a questionnaire, the literature, and a hypothesized model, this paper investigates the relationship of UAE’s heterogeneous work culture on employees’ perspectives. In an innovative way, the result of this study reveals and supports our hypotheses that organizational culture has a high impact on the work performance, attitudes, and behaviors of the employees belonging to two selected companies, regardless heterogeneous nationalities and cultures.
... In recent years, and due to the desire to develop robust and valid measurements that can be applied at scale and used across institutions, research has tended towards quantitative methods, with a range of surveys being developed and tested (Jung et al., 2009). Through surveys such as the organizational culture inventory (Cooke & Szumal, 1993), Denison's organizational culture survey (Denison et al., 2014), the competing values framework (CVF) (Cameron & Quinn, 1999), and the organizational culture profile (OCP) (O'Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991), dimensions of culture that are common, important for performance, and comparable between organizations, have been outlined. Many culture surveys identify values for adaptability, performance, and supporting employees as core to organizational culture (Van den Berg & Wilderom, 2004), with the consensus (e.g., between employees) and intensity of cultural values predicting behavior and outcomes (Boyce, Nieminen, Gillespie, Ryan, & Denison, 2015;Chatman, Caldwell, O'Reilly, & Doerr, 2014;Denison et al., 2014;Hartnell, Ou, & Kinicki, 2011). ...
Article
We systematically reviewed the literature using unobtrusive measures to study organizational culture. To synthesize, theorize, and evaluate this research, we introduce the concept of an unobtrusive indicator of culture (UIC) for organizations. A UIC measures organizational culture through collecting data without engaging employees, and is conceptualized in terms of cultural artefacts. We identified thirty-five articles, containing 135 distinct UICs, drawn from 16 distinct data sources. UICs coalesced into two groups. First, textual UICs, with culture measured through language patterns in annual reports, employee online reviews, and emails. Second, UICs focusing on organizational practices, for instance, organizational policies or executive rewards. Over two-thirds (68%) of UICs measured values for integrity, results orientation, and clan cultures, and we conjecture that UICs may be most useful for studying aspects of culture sensitive to reporting biases, and benchmarking large samples of organizations. Forty-eight percent of UICs had good or promising construct validity: many were textual UICs, and those focusing on organizational practices were less established. UICs can potentially advance the study of organizational culture, yet must be developed and applied cautiously, with careful consideration of their advantages and limitations, and how they complement existing measurements and conceptualizations of culture.
... The OCI is an instrument with high internal scale consistency, as well as discriminant and convergent validity [52]. The OCI's validity and reliability have been widely proven [53][54][55]. It is also one of the most cited and used surveys in a large variety of fields [56]. ...
Article
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Organizational culture determines the norms, values and behaviors of an organization, playing a key role in the safety of high-reliability organizations (HRO). Previous research has shown that differentiated subcultures can coexist within organizations, sharing some norms and values but not necessary everything From this perspective, this study was aimed at (1) describing the organizational culture of the Spanish nuclear industry and (2) determining the potential presence of organizational subcultures. To do that, a statistical analysis of organizational culture surveys (Organizational Culture Inventory®, N = 5825) handed over to all organizations within the Spanish nuclear industry, was carried out. Results allow us to accurately characterize the industry’s organizational culture, which is made up of predominant “Constructive”-style behaviors together with “Defensive” normative patterns of the “Conventional”, “Dependent” and “Perfectionistic” styles. Indications about the existence of various subcultures associated to the nuclear organization type, the sociodemographic aspect and the organizational structure component were also found. Certain safety implications potentially linked to the existence of subcultures and to the industry’s organizational culture are discussed.
... Dark Leadership basiert auf der Differenzierung und Etikettierung von Personen als Narzissten, Machiavellisten und Psychopaten, die gebremst oder gefördert durch die jeweilige Organisations-und Rekrutierungskultur in Führungspositionen gelangen, dort gemessen an den Organisationszielen sowohl positive als auch negative Wirkung entfalten (Judge, Piccolo & Kosalka, 2009) und dabei die Organisationskultur, verstanden als Normen, Werte und Praktiken einer Organisation (vgl. Cooke & Szumal, 1993) und die innerorganisationalen Rekrutierungsmechanismen nachhaltig prägen. Welke (2020) hat Argumente zusammengetragen, die vermuten lassen, dass der Leistungssport in besonderem Maße für Dark Leadership anfällig ist, so dass ein Gegenprogramm angeregt wird, "das auf einer ethisch-moralischen und pädagogisch geprägten Grundhaltung aller Verantwortlichen basiert" (Welke, 2020, 33). ...
Article
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Thieme, L. (2020). 'Mir geht es um die Sache!' - Leadership, Macht, Fairness und Ergebnisorientierung in Arbeits- und Interssenorganisationen. Leipziger Sportwissenschaftlichen Beiträge, 61(2), 68-88. ///Abstract: If actors in organisations or organisations as a whole are modelled as purely result-oriented, as result- and fairness-oriented and as result- and power-oriented, a whole range of constellations can be identified in addition to the positive effects of leadership and power assertion processes, which over time lead to the destruction of organisational resources and, moreover, to dysfunctional leadership. Waste of resources through power games can be structurally avoided much better in work organisations than is the case in interest organisations. In organisations dominated by power games, power games can even become the actual purpose of the organisation if the position holders of such organisations can access resources that are made available to them personally or to the organisation by third parties and not by the members of the organisation. A comparison between sports clubs and sports associations shows that sports associations are much more attractive to power-preferring actors without a focus on results. ///Zusammenfassung: Modelliert man Akteure in Organisationen oder Organisationen als Ganzes als rein ergebnisorientiert, als ergebnis- und fairnessorientiert sowie als ergebnis- und machtorientiert, lassen sich neben positiven Wirkungen von Leadership und Machtdurchsetzungsprozessen eine ganze Reihe von Konstellationen erkennen, die im Zeitverlauf zur Vernichtung von Organisationsressourcen und zudem zu dysfunktionaler Führung führen. Ressourcenverschwendung durch Machtspiele lassen sich in Arbeitsorganisationen strukturell deutlich besser vermeiden als dies in Interessenorganisationen der Fall ist. In machtspieldominierten Organisationen können Machtspiele sogar zum eigentlichen Organisationszweck werden, wenn die Positionsinhaber solcher Organisationen auf Ressourcen zugreifen können, die ihnen persönlich oder der Organisation von Dritten und eben nicht von den Organisationsmitgliedern zur Verfügung gestellt werden. Im Vergleich zwischen Sportvereinen und Sportverbänden zeigt sich, dass Sportverbände in deutlich höherem Maße attraktiv für machtpräferierende Akteure ohne Ergebnisorientierung sind.
... Variable definitions and measures of organizational culture and climate are utilized across disciplines, contexts, and investigators (e.g., Denison 1996;Schein 2000;Schneider 2000). Definitions of organizational culture tend to be more consistent, and typically focus on shared and established norms, assumptions, and values of an organization, which communicate behavioral expectations to employees of a work unit (Cooke and Szumal, 1993;Sorensen, 2002). Organizational culture can be measured via surveys, observations, or interviews to gather both an insider and outsider perspective regarding an organization's health and functioning (Peterson and Fischer 2004). ...
Article
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Both organizational culture and climate are associated with service quality and outcomes across youth-service settings. Increasing evidence indicates capacity of organizational interventions to promote a positive and effective culture and climate. Less is known about common intervention components across studies and service settings. The current systematic review reviewed 9223 citations and identified 31 studies, across six youth-service settings, measuring changes over time in organizational culture and climate following implementation of an organizational or workforce support intervention. Results highlight the promise of organizational interventions, a need for more comparison and randomized designs, and future directions for maximizing capacity of organizations to promote health for frontline providers and the children they serve.
... In the presentation of our results, we note that this type of steering approach generates beliefs concerning the legitimacy of norms. These beliefs interrogate the determinist character of norms in firms, or, in other words, the way in which those norms are naturalized, becoming a routine and then a culture (Cooke and Szumal 1993). This reflexive approach to norms often calls into question routines and the beliefs by which they are underpinned. ...
Chapter
The growth of a firm depends on its adaptability (Barringer et al. 2005), or, in other words, on the evolution of its business model and its capacity to generate a flow, if not of innovations, then at least of innovative suggestions shared throughout the employee corpus (Foss and Saebi, 2017). Amongst the factors at the origin of this flux we should mention, in particular, the entrepreneurs’ regulatory role, and interactions between the head of the firm and employees based on the way in which they steer the company (Redien-Collot and Radu 2014; Fust et al., 2018 ). The entrepreneurs’ growing cognitive skills in applying performance monitoring systems is rarely questioned. Our study concludes that, for a significant sample of women founders and heads of high-growth firms, there are three steering options generating three types of fairly remarkable swathes of innovative propositions on the part of employees. Two of these steering models present fairly radical socio-cognitive breaks with traditional models. In view of these results, it is impossible to see female leadership as a single (repressed) alternative to masculine models of entrepreneurial success. Women entrepreneurial emancipation has several implications in the understanding of the strategic deployment of their firms. This research explores how the spirit of emancipation drives women's entrepreneurship, including their strategic choices and the freedom to innovate experienced by their employees (Rindova et al. 2009).
... Although the validity and reliability of the tools have been evaluated in prior studies, these indices of the instruments were re-evaluated due to cultural, social, organizational differences of the population target in this study. The validity of OCI was previously evaluated by (Cooke and Rousseau 1988;Cooke and Szumal 1993;Xenikou and Furnham 1996). The validity of the safety culture instrument based on IAEA was also evaluated by de Castro, Gracia et al. (2013). ...
Article
The current study aimed at investigating the influence of organizational culture on safety culture in an oil industry. The data relating to organizational culture were gathered by the Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI). To this end, a valid questionnaire was used to gather the data associated to safety culture. The questionnaires were randomly distributed among 409 employees working in 13 units of an oil industry. In total, 380 valid completed questionnaires were gathered. Probabilistic Bayesian Networks have been employed to determine the influence of organizational culture on safety culture in a quantitative form. The resultant model output could establish the probabilistic relationship between 12 norms (OCI1 to OCI12) of the organizational culture and safety culture. Furthermore, the OCIs with a direct influence and the ones with the greatest influences on safety culture were also identified. In this line, the findings showed that OCI11 (achievement), OCI4 (conventional), OCI7 (oppositional), and OCI8 (power) were the most important variables that directly influenced safety culture, while OCI6 was revealed to have an indirect influence on safety culture. Therefore, the findings of this study can be benefited from to improve and reinforce safety culture in the plant under study.
... Although this lack of depth is often strongly questioned by qualitative cultural researchers (e.g. Schein, 1996: 11), quantitative cultural research has become acknowledged for its complementary role in bringing additional insight to the broader understanding of organisational culture, especially through its suitability for large scale comparative studies and statistical inferences ( Rousseau, 1990: 185;Cooke & Szumal, 1993: 1322. ...
Article
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Although the need for organisational cultures to be supportive of project management is frequently expressed in the project management literature, a comprehensive explanation of what supportiveness comprises, has not yet come to light. The field of organisational culture research recognises culture as a complex and multi-dimensional topic. To date, the project management literature has taken a superficial view of culture instead. It specifically lacks progress towards a converging set of organisational culture dimensions as predictors of effective project management. Against this apparent shortcoming, a research project was launched, aiming to define the dimensions of a project management supportive organisational culture. This article presents the findings of the literature study phase of this research. Ample evidence was found, although dispersed amongst a diversity of project management research themes, to give substance to the notion and to postulate a multi-dimensional framework of organisational culture expected to be relevant to project management. The researchers make no premature claims about the conclusiveness of the proposed framework, but introduce it as a thoroughly researched hypothesis for empirical study. The study makes its contribution by converging literature evidence, previously lacking such coherence, into a consolidated organisational culture perspective. The hope is that it will spark further theory development in respect of the organisational context of project management.
... El cuestionario a través del cual vamos a establecer las medidas de validez convergente del DOCS es otro de los más utilizados en la actualidad, el Organizational Culture Inventory (Cooke y Lafferty, 1989), al que de ahora en adelante denominaremos OCI. La validez y fiabilidad de este instrumento también han sido demostradas satisfactoriamente (Cooke y Szumal, 1993). Este instrumento así como el modelo teórico en que se sustenta han sido usados en diversas investigaciones (Ghinea y Brãtianu, 2012; Gundry y Rousseau, 1994; Keenan, Cooke y Hillis, 1998; Pool, 2000; Xenicou y Simosi, 2006) y aplicado a más de 2 millones de individuos a nivel mundial (www.humansynergistics.com). ...
Article
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El (DOCS, Cuestionario de Cultura Organizacional de Denison) es uno de los instrumentos más utilizados en el análisis de la cultura organizacional. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la validez convergente de la versión en español del DOCS. Para ello hemos empleado otro instrumento de gran relevancia y utilización en el campo de la psicología de las organizaciones, el Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI, Inventario de Cultura Organizacional) de Cooke y Lafferty. Hemos evaluado la validez convergente de estos cuestionarios por medio de correlaciones de Pearson, utilizando una muestra de 344 miembros de una universidad española pertenecientes a diferentes equipos de investigación. Los resultados apuntan que el cuestionario de Denison se ajusta de manera muy pobre a una de las dimensiones del segundo instrumento, la Cultura agresiva-defensiva. En cambio, las altas correlaciones entre las dimensiones del DOCS con la dimensión de Cultura constructiva del OCI señalan que es muy probable que el equivalente conceptual y psicométrico entre ambos cuestionarios se encuentre en esta dimensión principalmente, lo que nos conduce a considerar que el DOCS es un instrumento especializado en la evaluación de organizaciones con una cultura constructiva.
... teamwork-conflict, climate-morale, information flow, involvement, supervision, meetings), combining it with conducting qualitative interviews. The organisational culture inventory proposed and tested by Cooke and Szumal (1993) measures behavioural norms in an organisational environment. The organisational culture profile developed by O'Reilly et al. (1991) sorts OC into eight dimensions (i.e. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the principal organisational cultural dimensions that affect levels of post-merger integration (PMI) in Chinese acquisitions in Germany and to explore the relationship of these specific organisational cultural dimensions and levels of integration. Design/methodology/approach Data set were collected using a structured questionnaire given to Chinese and German managers and employees, who implemented/were responsible for the PMI in 12 Chinese acquisitions in Germany. A total of 120 questionnaires were distributed and there were 67 respondents, corresponding to a response rate of about 56 per cent. Principal components analysis, one-way ANOVA and bi-variate Spearman’s correlation were applied to analyse the data. Findings Findings revealed that five organisational cultural dimensions (i.e. adaptability, consistency, involvement, balance and flexibility) were extracted to be the primary indicators affecting levels of integration in Chinese reverse mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in the German market. Further, adaptability emerged as the only predictor with a significant negative implication on predicting the degree of PMI that Chinese investors would initiate to integrate their acquired German subsidiaries. Originality/value This study is one of the few studies to consider the specific organisational cultural dimensions affecting the integration levels of reverse M&As and is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to explore the correlations of specific corporate cultural dimensions and integration levels in emerging multinational enterprises’ reverse M&As through quantitative research.
... The latencies and fixations points will add to our ability to model attention and tie it to their answers on the metacognitive measures as shown in Van Gog and Jarodzka [16]. As participants use the virtual reality game, we expect that their performance will begin to approach an expert's performance in the same game as their metacognition improves as measured by the Engineering Design Metacognitive Questionnaire (EDMQ) developed by Lawanto [17] as well as the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) [13] and Group Style Inventory (GSI) [18]. Other questionnaires such as Flow State Scale (FSS) will also be used [19]. ...
Chapter
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One of the key challenges in engineering education is the problem of teaching future engineers’ professional skills. Engineering students need to know what they do and do not know. This is termed metacognition. There is still quite a bit that we do not know about how metacognition develops in classroom settings. In this study, we discuss an exploration of these issues using both physical and virtual reality (VR) simulations of manufacturing systems; which are performed by student teams. We discuss the incorporation of measures of metacognition into a model of conflict and error to predict what types of experiences may be most helpful to produce improved metacognition in engineering students.
... Individual success is supported. (Cooke & Szumal, 1993;Pheysey, 1993). The search for a strong school culture stands out as a common goal. ...
Article
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This study aims to compare the effect of school culture on school effectiveness and performance according to the opinions of teachers and administrators. The study sample consists of 3468 teachers and 425 administrators in Istanbul in the 2020-2021 academic year, determined by the convenience sampling method. A correlational survey model was used as the research model. The data were collected with the help of the "School Culture Scale," "School Effectiveness Index," and "Performance Scale." The data were analyzed by correlation and regression analysis. While the task culture and support culture positively affected the teachers' performance, respectively, bureaucratic culture and success culture do not affect teachers' performance. The support culture, task culture, and success culture affect the school effectiveness the most, respectively. In addition, teachers' performance affects school effectiveness positively. While the support culture and task culture positively affect the performances of the managers, success culture and bureaucratic culture do not affect the performances of the administrators. Most do not, while the support culture and bureaucratic culture affect school effectiveness, success, and task culture. In addition, the performance of administrators has a positive effect on school effectiveness.
... Other researches also have revealed that organizational culture correlates with a variety of individual outcomes. Studies have demonstrated that organizational culture was significantly correlated with employee attitude and behavior and was positively related with motivation, job satisfaction, teamwork, considerate leadership, quality of customer service and performance and was negatively associated with work avoidance, stress, and a supervisor's use of criticism (Cooke & Szumal, 1993). These results found some similarities in the research conducted by Welsch & Lavan (1981) that participative climate and teamwork are positively related to organizational commitment while role conflict and role ambiguity are disadvantageous to commitment. ...
Article
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This study explored the organizational culture, organizational commitment and job satisfaction of the faculty membersof the St. Paul University System (SPUS). This study employed a descriptive and correlational research design. Thedata gathered were analyzed and interpreted using frequency and percentage distribution to confirm statisticalassumptions and to describe the participants' profile in terms of the identified variables. The weighted mean was usedto interpret the responses obtained from the use of the Likert's scale. The regression analysis was used to determine thebest predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment while Pearson and Chi-Square were used todetermine the degree of relationship between the variables. The results of this study indicate that there is a significantpositive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational culture. It was also found out that job satisfactionpredicts organizational commitment. The results of this study will be a basis for the SPUS to strengthen theorganizational commitment and explore various ways to raise the level of job satisfaction of the faculty members of therespondent-institutions.
... As such, data were not available to compute scale reliabilities. However, existing research shows evidence of acceptable instrument reliability; Cronbach's alpha is reported for constructive (four dimensions ranging from α 5 0.75 to 0.95), passive/defensive (four dimensions ranging from α 5 0.77 to 0.85) and aggressive/defensive (four dimensions ranging from α 5 0.75 to 0.86) (Cooke and Szumal, 1993; see also Cooke and Rousseau, 1988;Rovithis et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose: Despite considerable conceptual interest in the relationship between organizational culture and various types of organizational change, empirical evidence regarding this relationship at different levels and types of change is surprisingly absent. This study examines whether organizational culture perceptions differ in frequently versus infrequently changing organizations, and whether this relationship is moderated by members’ hierarchical level in the organization (i.e., staff, manager, executive). Design/methodology/approach: Study includes culture survey data for 904 staff, managers, and executives from one frequently changing and two infrequently changing organizations in the education sector. Findings: Results show multiple non-monotonic organization-by-organizational level interaction effects on cultural style scores. In the frequently changing organization, executives report lower constructive cultural style scores and higher defensive cultural style scores than do managers and staff. In the infrequently changing organizations, executives, managers, and staff report similar constructive and defensive style scores. Originality: Our findings show that systematic differences in perceptions of cultural styles across organizational levels relate to organizational change frequency. This contrasts with existing literature emphasizing the importance of culture perceptions being pervasive throughout the organization. Practical Implications: In frequently changing organizations, leaders are more likely to be discontent with the status quo and continuously encourage change efforts, while lower level members’ have considerable experience with change and are empowered to continuously create change. The result is systematic differences in culture perceptions across levels, but also an agile organization capable of pursuing opportunities to improve organizational performance.
... Kreativitas seorang pegawai akan mudah muncul apabila staff bekerja dalam situasi organisasi yang memiliki iklim yang mendukung, yaitu budaya inovasi. Iklim organisasi dapat dimaknai sebagai pola perilaku, sikap dan perasaan yang berulang yang merupakan indikasi kehidupan dalam organisasi yang lebih terkait dengan suasana dan nilai-nilai perilaku dan tindakan pegawai/staf dan mencerminkan nilai-nilai dan kepercayaan lingkungan tempat tinggalnya (Cooke & Szumal, 1993, Schneider, 2000Von Treuer, 2006, Aiswarya & Ramasundaram, 2012Madhukar, Vikas, 2017 Tantangan terbesar bagi pembuat kebijakan adalah kemampuan untuk melihat masa depan terkait dengan efek yang muncul dari kebijakan tersebut. Disamping itu, kebijakan yang dibuat harus bersifat holitisk, dapat mengakomodasikan juga kepentingan-lembaga lain baik lembaga pemerintah, maupun di luar pemerintah. ...
Chapter
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Inovasi sektor publik sedang menjadi pembicaraan yang cukup populer khususnya bagi pemerintah terutama untuk memberikan solusi terkait dengan penyediaan layanan publik yang lebih baik kepada masyarakat. Kondisi ini bukan hanya karena adanya pandemi Covid-19, tetapi juga karena tuntutan perkembangan zaman yang telah memasuki era Revolusi Industri (RI) 4.0. Karakteristik RI.4.0 yang sarat dengan kemajuan sistem informasi yang didukung dengan perkembangan teknologi yang semakin canggih menjadi tantangan yang berat bagi sektor publik. Seolah seperti kebetulan, pandemi Covid-19 yang mulai merebak pada awal tahun 2020 menjadi peringatan lebih keras lagi bahwa untuk mengidentifikasi, menerapkan bahkan membudayakan inovasi untuk memperbaiki pelayanan publik. Sehingga masa ini merupakan momentum yang justru dapat sebagai pemantik dan pendorong bagi percepatan pengembangan inovasi sektor publik. Namun demikian, karena sektor publik adalah kompleks, dan melingkupi hampir seluruh aspek kehidupan masyarakat, proses inovasi mengalami banyak tantangan dan hambatan. Hambatan terkait dengan perilaku ditengarai birokrasi menjadi kendala utama bagi proses pengembangan inovasi, disamping adanya kendala lain seperti kebijakan, kepemimpinan, iklim dan budaya organisasi, infrastruktur, dan tidak kalah pentingnya adalah mindset masyarakat. Padahal dinamika kemajuan sistem pelayanan pada sektor publik sangat tergantung kepada bagaimana organisasi sektor publik melakukan reformasi diri menyesuaikan dengan dinamika zaman.
... First, OCAI is used to assess organizational culture. Although it has been stated the OCAI is the most commonly used of organizational culture instrument [7]; [9]; [10]; [11], further study using different instrument of organizational culture such as Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI) [12], Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) [13], is suggested to see possible similar and/or different result. Second, the range of lean manufacturing score is very limited. ...
Conference Paper
Lean manufacturing is an approach to enhancing productivity through lean thinking. The success of the lean manufacturing application is influenced by various factors, one of them is the organizational culture. This study aims to explore lean manufacturing and organizational culture in an Indonesian aircraft manufacturer. Ninety workers in three production divisions (i.e., Detailed Part Manufacturing/DPM, Component Assembly/CA, Final Assyline & Delivery Center/FAL & DC) in the aircraft manufacture are involved in this study voluntarily by filling out a set of questionnaire. Lean manufacturing performance is observed using Lean Manufacturing Benchmark, whereas organizational culture is evaluated using the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument. The result shows that lean performance for DPM is 57%, CA is 61%, FAL & DC is 59%. All divisions have no dominant culture. However, the increased of lean performance is along with the increased hierarchy and clan culture, and the decreased of market and adhocracy culture. Implications of the results are discussed.
Purpose The present study proposes a model to examine the cultural fit between buyers and suppliers for establishing synergies in their processes and practices. Design/methodology/approach This study assessed buyers' culture through the Competing Values Framework and used Quality Management Practices Model as a proxy to assess suppliers' culture. The data from 262 paired respondents were used for this analysis. This survey was administered in India, using linear snowball-sampling technique. This study applied 3SLS regression for each culture group separately. Findings This study has instituted the cultural fit between the buyers' and suppliers' culture. It is observed that for getting synergies between cultures, buyers need to choose a set of suppliers which have similar cultural traits. Research limitations/implications This study presents empirical findings based on data from Indian manufacturing firms. These findings need testing in other developing countries and other sectors. Practical implications Organizations can formulate right policies for supplier selection based on the cultural fit between buyers and suppliers. Originality/value With increasing role of suppliers in the value chain, organizations around the world need to work with the right suppliers for gaining a sustainable competitive advantage. Selection of the right suppliers depends on the cultural fit between buyers and suppliers that, in turn, depends on the selection of the right suppliers based on the prevailing culture.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between organizational culture (OC) and total quality management (TQM) practices in the Indian construction industry. Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire survey was conducted to draw valid empirical data from 200 construction firms in India. The dominant culture was identified using cluster analysis. Findings The findings of cluster analysis show four emergent clusters, namely, internal, flexible, comprehensive and control. The OC profile of the Indian construction organizations is dominated by internal focus characterized by the features of both group and hierarchical cultures of Competing Values Framework (CVF). Furthermore, the results revealed that the comprehensive focus culture is the most suitable culture in addition to the internal and flexibility focus cultures for the implementation of TQM in India. Practical implications Before implementing the TQM practices, managers in construction organizations need to be aware of cultural orientation emphasized in their organizations to facilitate the effective implementation of TQM. Originality/value This paper contributes to the existing literature by providing empirical evidence that leads to the association between OC and TQM practices. The study proposes besides the internal and flexibility focus cultures, the comprehensive focus culture within the Indian construction industry are key drivers for the successful implementation of TQM practices.
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Employees' diversity performance is a key characteristic of employees' performance working in a diverse environment because diversity encourages employees to accept the differences and appreciate common ideas when working in a diverse environment. Diversity performance becomes more crucial when organisations target emerging markets, yet less research has been done to understand diversity performance and drivers that influence diversity performance. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the effects of workgroups' inclusions, diversity training and diversity engagement on employees' diversity performance. In this regard, data was obtained utilising questionnaires from employees working in the hospitality and tourism sector of Saudi Arabia. 170 completed surveys were employed to analyse the data using SPSS version 20. Results of the regression study suggested that workgroups' inclusions, diversity training, and diversity engagement significantly influence employees' diversity performance. The findings of this study will be helpful for human resource professionals and policymakers to design the human resource practises considering workgroups inclusions, diversity training and diversity engagement to improve employees' diversity performance in the context of the tourism and hospitality sector, specifically when these organisations are expanding business operation in emerging markets or when dealing with the diverse business environment. This is the first sort of study based on these factors measuring diversity success in the context of Saudi Arabia.
Chapter
Das Konstrukt der „Unternehmenskultur“ ist alles andere als neu. Bereits in den 80er Jahren wurde dieses Thema intensiv in der Fachwelt diskutiert. Eine konsequent systematische Betrachtung von Unternehmenskultur im Rahmen der Personalauswahl und -entwicklung rückt aber erst seit einigen Jahren vermehrt ins Zentrum der Aufmerksamkeit. Schlagwörter wie „Cultural Fit“ oder „Hire for Attitude, Train for Skills“ verdeutlichen diese Tendenz und unterstreichen, dass sich in der sich immer schneller ändernden Arbeitswelt der Fokus von der rein fachlich orientierten Auswahl in eine stärker passungsbetonte Richtung verschiebt. Die Berücksichtigung der jeweiligen Unternehmenskultur erlangt für die Personalauswahl und somit auch indirekt für den Unternehmenserfolg eine immer wichtigere Bedeutung.
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Az iskolában megjelenő proszociális és agresszív viselkedésformák alapjaiban határozzák meg a tanulók jóllétét, iskolai teljesítményét. Az iskolai bántalmazás kérdésével kapcsolatban a kutatások leginkább azok gyakoriságát veszik figyelembe, ugyanakkor meghatározó lehet az is, hogy a diákok hogyan vélekednek ezekről. Továbbá ezt a vélekedést befolyásolhatja az is, hogy a szerinte a társaik hogyan viszonyulnak a különböző viselkedésformákhoz (Stormshak és mtsai., 1999).Tanulmányunk célja, hogy feltárjuk az iskolában előforduló proszociális és agresszív viselkedések gyakoriságát, valamint foglalkozunk azzal is, hogy ezeket a viselkedésformákat mennyire helyeslik a tanulók egyénileg és mit gondolnak arról, hogy a társaik hogyan vélekednek ezekről, azaz, melyek az elfogadott normák ezzel kapcsolatban egy adott csoportban.A vizsgálatban 122 fő általános és középiskolás diák vett részt (átlagéletkor = 14 év, szórás =1,23 év), a normák felmérésére egy erre a célra kialakított normakérdőívet alkalmaztunk (Szabó és Labancz, 2015). Eredményünk szerint az proszociális viselkedések többször fordulnak elő az iskolában, mint az agresszív viselkedések, az előbbieket a diákok személyes attitűdjük szerint inkább támogatják, míg utóbbiakat elítélik. Ugyanakkor mindkét viselkedésforma esetében megjelent a többszörös tudatlanság jelensége, azaz a tanulók úgy hiszik, hogy társaik inkább támogatják az agresszív viselkedéseket, míg a proszociális viselkedéseket kevésbé helyeslik, mint ők maguk. Eredményeink alapján úgy tűnik, hogy a kialakított mérőeszközök alkalmazhatóak lesznek mind a prevenció, mind az intervenció területén az iskolapszichológusi munkában.
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This book combines a literature study and the results of a longitudinal case study from the oil and gas sector – the Ivar Aasen project – to explore the notion of learning in project-based organizations. First, readers are provided with a thorough examination of previous research on project learning, which is presented in structured and comprehensible format. The author explores the circular relationship between learning and performance in projects and identifies the means and attitudes required to support this circular relationship both within projects and between projects. The second part of the book has a narrower focus, namely on improving the institutionalized level of learning in project-based organizations. The empirical findings are drawn from the longitudinal case study and provide some useful insights into learning in a complex and demanding environment characterized by continuous changes, extreme time pressure, a multiplicity of stakeholders, tremendous financial impact, and market uncertainty. The study is peer-reviewed and presented as an academic text.
Article
Introduction In order to recruit high-potential trainees, surgery residency and fellowship programs must first understand what competencies and attributes are required for success in their respective programs. This study performed a systematic analysis to define organizational culture and competency expectations across training programs within one academic surgery department. Methods Subject matter experts rated the importance and frequency of 22 competencies and completed a 44-item organizational culture inventory along 1 to 5 Likert-type scales. Results Importance and frequency attributions of competencies varied significantly among programs (p < .05 by ANOVA), but there was substantial agreement on organizational culture; self-directed (x̄ = 3.8), perfectionist (x̄ = 3.7) and social (x̄ = 3.7) attributes were most representative of the program, while oppositional (x̄ = 1.8), competitive (x̄ = 2.5) and hierarchical (x̄ = 2.7) characteristics were least representative. Conclusions Residency and fellowship programs within the same department have shared perceptions of the culture and values of their institution, but seek different competencies among entering trainees.
Chapter
In this chapter, we focus on trustworthiness as determined on the basis of role relationships – how these roles, nested in both societal and organizational cultures, help to operationalize trustworthiness. Although societal and organizational cultures both prescribe what is expected of an individual in a given social role, the two contexts are related, as organizational cultures are nested within societal cultures and are therefore constrained by societal culture. For example, power distance, a societal cultural variable that reflects the extent to which a society teaches its members that hierarchy is natural and expected, impacts how those at different levels of social hierarchy are expected to behave. In cultures where there is stronger hierarchy, those in lower power positions tend to disagree less with those in higher power positions, and a situation of dependency is more strongly fostered in high-power-distance cultures – both in society at large and in organizations.
Article
Background New Hampshire (NH) ranked first for fentanyl- and all opioid-related overdose deaths per capita from 2014 to 2016 and third in 2017 with no rate reduction from the previous year relative to all other states in the US. In response to the opioid crisis in NH, Manchester Fire Department (MFD), the state's largest city fire department, launched the Safe Station program in 2016 in partnership with other community organizations. This community-based response to the crisis—described as a connection to recovery—focuses on reducing barriers to accessing resources for people with substance use and related problems. The study aim is to characterize the multi-organizational partnerships and workflow of the Safe Station model and identify key components that are engaging, effective, replicable, and sustainable. Methods A mixed-methods design included: semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 110 stakeholders from six groups of community partners (Safe Station clients, MFD staff and leadership, and local emergency department, ambulance, and treatment partner staff); implementation and sustainability surveys (completed by MFD stakeholders); and ethnographic observations conducted at MFD. Qualitative data were content analyzed and coded using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Survey subscales were scored and evaluated to corroborate the qualitative findings. Results Community partners identified key program characteristics including firefighter compassion, low-threshold access, and immediacy of service linkage. Implementation and sustainability survey data corroborate the qualitative interview and observation data in these areas. All participants agreed that community partnerships are key to the program's success. There were mixed evaluations of the quality of communication among the organizations. Conclusion Safe Station is a novel response to the opioid crisis in New Hampshire that offers immediate, non-judgmental access to services for persons with opioid use disorders requiring community-wide engagement and communication. Data convergence provides guidance to the sustainability and replicability of the program.
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This is the second issue of the journal in 2021 explores different areas of research regards: the client relationship management and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumption expenditures, governance and corporate social responsibility, board characteristics, risk management, and company performance
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate aspects of organizational culture among the nursing staff of public mental health services organizations in Cyprus. Specifically, highlights are provided of possible differences on the attitudes of nurses regarding actual and desired aspects of organizational culture with respect to demographic characteristics such as gender, years of service and experience. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive explanatory type survey study was conducted in all public mental health services organizations of Cyprus. Specifically, a questionnaire was given to a representative sample of the nursing population, and data were collected and analyzed. The survey questionnaire was based on the organizational culture profile (OCP) methodology. Statistical analysis was carried out using correlational analysis, t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Findings: Results showed that there are significant discrepancies between the actual organizational culture and what is desired by staff members of public mental health services organizations in Cyprus. Further, significant differences are identified between actual and desired organizational culture moderated by the type of work, which is determined by the workplace. Originality/value: Even though, organizational culture is a major research topic little has been done in the context of public mental healthcare organizations. Further, for the case of Cyprus, it is the first time that such a study is carried out. The results presented in this paper may provide the foundation for measures to be taken for improving the existing operation of public mental healthcare organizations.
This research presents and validates a model of project team morale and its influence on project success. We operationally define morale in project-based work as a multi-faceted variable encompassing suggested definitions offered in former studies. Unlike past research, we investigate the mediating effects between these facets of morale and success. A structural equation model is proposed and empirically tested to investigate the interdependencies between the facets of project team morale and how they promote project success. The results show that project team morale explains 25% of the variance in project success. Findings provide project leaders with a tool to enhance project success by influencing employees’ morale, rather than solely focusing on traditional project planning and controlling activities. We provide practical implications for project team leadership and performance.
Chapter
The growth of a firm depends on its adaptability (Barringer et al., J Business Ventur, 20(5): 663–687, 2005), or, in other words, on the evolution of its business model and its capacity to generate a flow, if not of innovations, then at least of innovative suggestions shared throughout the employee corpus (Foss & Saebi, J Manag, 43: 200–227, 2017). Amongst the factors at the origin of this flux, we should mention, in particular, the entrepreneurs’ regulatory role, and interactions between the head of the firm and employees based on the way in which they steer the company (Redien-Collot & Radu, Handbook of research on strategic management in small and medium enterprises, 2014; Fust et al., Entrepreneur Res J, 8(2): 1–11, 2018). The entrepreneurs’ growing cognitive skills in applying performance monitoring systems are rarely questioned. This study concludes that, for a significant sample of women founders and heads of high-growth firms, there are three steering options generating three types of fairly remarkable swathes of innovative propositions on the part of employees. Two of these steering models present fairly radical socio-cognitive breaks with traditional models. In view of these results, it is impossible to see female leadership as a single (repressed) alternative to masculine models of entrepreneurial success. Women entrepreneurial emancipation has several implications in the understanding of the strategic deployment of their firms. This research explores how the spirit of emancipation drives women’s entrepreneurship, including their strategic choices and the freedom to innovate experienced by their employees.
Article
Phishing is one of the most common forms of social engineering that exploits human vulnerabilities and causes immense personal and organizational costs. This study advances the research on the factors of susceptibility to phishing in three regards. First, it addressed the role of organizational norms in susceptibility to phishing. Second, it aimed for high external and ecological validity by combining survey and phishing experiments data on large samples of organizations and their employees. Third, it employed a two-level design that considered explanatory variables at the individual and organizational levels. The study chiefly explored how formal, descriptive, injunctive, and personal norms influence employee interactions with phishing emails. To this end, an explanatory model was tested on 83,269 employees in 510 organizations using a multilevel modeling approach. Clicking on links in simulated phishing emails and entering personal information in simulated fraudulent websites were deemed as two types of susceptibility to phishing. Formal norms and collectively shared injunctive norms were found to exert the strongest effects on susceptibility to phishing; in contrast, personal norms exert a weak influence, and descriptive norms can result in a boomerang effect. These results have significant theoretical and practical implications for both researchers and managers seeking organizational-level mechanisms to reduce the threat of phishing emails.
Article
Decades of research shows that casework services as usual are ineffective in reducing risk factors associated with child welfare involvement. Although child welfare leaders recognize the impetus to implement evidence-based practice (EBP), they aren't privy to how to optimize provider, organizational, and political contexts to promote implementation. Qualitative data collected from scholars and leaders in this study furthers the development of theories and guidance on how to promote EBPs that are effective, relevant, and responsive to racial and ethnic diversity. Findings reveal that future efforts should be devoted to cultivating an optimal implementation climate to increase efficacy and relevancy of cultural exchanges with colleagues.
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The notion of “corporate culture” has received widespread attention in the past several years. But what is meant by the term and why should managers be concerned with it? Culture can be thought of as a mechanism for social control. As such, culture is important for both the implementation of strategy and as a mechanism for generating commitment among organizational members. Based on a comparison of strong culture organizations, ranging from cults and religious organizations to strong culture firms, this article argues that culture and commitment result from: systems of participation that rely on processes of incremental commitment; management as symbolic action that helps employees interpret their reasons for working; strong and consistent cues from fellow workers that focus attention and shape attitudes and behavior; and comprehensive reward systems that use recognition and approval. These techniques characterize “strong culture” organizations. © 1989, The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
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The current popularity of corporate culture has raised some important issues. Does culture have an impact? How deep seated is culture? Can culture be changed? Corporate culture is not merely a passing fad but represents a fundamental shift in our effort to understand the complex, multifaceted organizations of today. However, it cannot be approached as a quick fix solution to a complex and changing problem. Culture needs to be managed along with all the other elements of management theory, such as strategy, structure, reward systems, skills and human resource management, if a company is to devise an integrated program for improving its performance.
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Managers participating in management development programs provided self-report data on their thinking and behavioral styles as measured by Level I: Life Styles Inventory. Five co-workers (superiors, subordinates, peers) also described each manager on a parailel form of the inventory, Level II: Description by Others. These data were used to assess the consensual validity (agreement between self and others) and inter-rater reliability (agreement among others) of the twelve thinking/behavioral style measures included in the inventory. The results indicated that there was a fair amount of agreement among the respondents describing each manager, with eta-squared statistics ranging from 0.33 to 0.47 for the twelve styles. Correlations between self-reports and descriptions by others along the twelve measures ranged from .16 to .32. While these results provide some support for the consensual validity of the measures, they also point out important differences between the way managers see themselves and how they are perceived by others. It is concluded that feedback from others can observable of the twelve styles measured.
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Three studies examined the behavioral implications of a conceptual distinction between 2 types of social norms: descriptive norms, which specify what is typically done in a given setting, and injunctive norms, which specify what is typically approved in society. Using the social norm against littering, injunctive norm salience procedures were more robust in their behavioral impact across situations than were descriptive norm salience procedures. Focusing Ss on the injunctive norm suppressed littering regardless of whether the environment was clean or littered (Study 1) and regardless of whether the environment in which Ss could litter was the same as or different from that in which the norm was evoked (Studies 2 and 3). The impact of focusing Ss on the descriptive norm was much less general. Conceptual implications for a focus theory of normative conduct are discussed along with practical implications for increasing socially desirable behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Evaluated the theoretical framework underlying the Organizational Culture Inventory by R. A. Cooke and J. C. Lafferty (1983, 1986), which profiles the culture of organizations and their subunits in terms of behavioral norms and expectations. Data provided by members of diverse organizations are used to illustrate that there was agreement within organizations, and that there were significant differences across organizations, with respect to the norms and expectations measured by the inventory. Subcultural differences within organizations were found to occur across hierarchical levels. Data on preferred norms indicate that members of different organizations agreed that the ideal cultures for their firms would promote achievement-oriented, affiliative, humanistic, and self-actualizing thinking and behavioral styles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents methods for assessing agreement among the judgments made by a single group of judges on a single variable in regard to a single target. For example, the group of judges could be editorial consultants, members of an assessment center, or members of a team. The single target could be a manuscript, a lower level manager, or a team. The variable on which the target is judged could be overall publishability in the case of the manuscript, managerial potential for the lower level manager, or a team cooperativeness for the team. The methods presented are based on new procedures for estimating interrater reliability. For such situations, these procedures furnish more accurate and interpretable estimates of agreement than estimates provided by procedures commonly used to estimate agreement, consistency, or interrater reliability. The proposed methods include processes for controlling for the spurious influences of response biases (e.g., positive leniency and social desirability) on estimates of interrater reliability. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Contemporary work on marketing management is grounded implicitly in a structural functionalist or contingency perspective of organizational functioning. However, the field of organizational behavior from which such a perspective derives has recently developed a major thrust into theoretical modeling and empirical research on organizational culture. The authors survey this emerging literature on organizational culture, integrate it in a conceptual framework, and then develop a research agenda in marketing grounded in the five cultural paradigms of comparative management, cohtingency management, organizational cognition, organizational symbolism, and structural/psychodynamism.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Leading authorities share their approaches to understanding, managing and changing organizational cultures. Includes methods for identifying cultural norms, reinforcing the positive aspects of existing culture, and building new cultures that support organizational goals and strategies.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the grade organization and culture of secondary schools from a student perspective. The types of secondary schools studied were the junior-senior high school, grades 7 or 8 through 12, and the traditional high school, grades 9 through 12.^ There are a large number of school districts who currently use or are considering a secondary school organization which combines junior and senior high school students. The combination of students from such a wide age variance may impact on many of the variables associated with an effective educational program. This study focuses on the impact of grade configuration on school culture.^ Field research was used to collect data. Three junior-senior high schools and three senior high schools were studied using observations, interviews of the principals and students and a questionnaire. The questionnaire used was the Organizational Culture Inventory-Level V published by Human Synergistics.^ The results show that despite differences in grade organization there is little difference in the culture of secondary schools according to the students' perspective. All the schools studied displayed characteristics low in the styles considered to be conducive to high levels of student satisfaction.^ In conclusion, the results indicate that grade organization does not affect organizational culture. The cultures of all six schools are virtually the same. The fact that the Task/Security style is most predominant followed by the People/Security, then the Satisfaction styles is disturbing. The Satisfaction style has been identified by the author of the Organizational Profile as the most conducive to an effective organization. It includes achievement, self-actualizing, humanistic and affiliative styles. Further research may reveal the reasons for this. The research might involve the parents' and or staffs' perspectives or a long-range study which would follow the students through their years in secondary school. ^
Article
As a result of pervasive interest in communication and culture, increasing efforts are being focused on understanding communication/culture relationships and relating them to important organizational processes and outcomes. In an effort to contribute to our understanding, the present study was designed to determine whether thematic rules can be identified as direct reflections of culture and to relate thematic organizational rules to employee values, perceptions of actual and desired message sending and receiving activities, and organizational outcomes, such as perceptions of organizational success and satisfaction with organizational relationships and rewards. The results indicated that rule-value discrepancies, message sending differences, message receiving uncertainty, work satisfaction, and estimations of organizational quality and survival are interrelated and supportive of previously postulated theoretical relationships among values, culture, behaviors, and outcomes.
Article
Nediger and Chelladurai (1989) reported a principal components analysis of the Life Styles Inventory in a Canadian sample. They concluded that the solution did not exhibit the hypothesized circumplex pattern. A reanalysis of their intercorrelation matrix, using nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling, showed an almost perfect circumplex.
Article
The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of Lafferty's (1973) Life Style Inventory in the Canadian context, and to evaluate the circumplexity of those life styles. A total of 581 Canadian subjects (males = 302; females = 274) responded to the 240-item inventory. The twelve subscales of the Life Style Inventory were found to be internally consistent. The item-to-total correlations yielded acceptable estimates of convergent and discriminant validity. The pattern of correlations among the life styles also indicated construct validity. However, a factor analysis of the twelve life styles defined three broader orientations instead of four as hypothesized by Lafferty. Also, the mapping of the factor loadings of the twelve life styles on a two-dimensional space did not produce a perfect circumplex, which could indicate that the twelve life styles constitute a linear, simplex model.
Article
We described 663 unanticipated monitored circulatory events in 247 high-risk surgical patients by simultaneous invasive and noninvasive hemodynamic and oxygen transport monitoring systems. Unanticipated monitored events were defined as sudden reductions (>20%) in cardiac index (CI), Pao2, Sao2, transcutaneous Po2 (Ptco2), and Ptco2/Pao2 index, or decreases to the lower limits of satisfactory values, specifically: Pao2 <70 torr, Sao2 <95%, Ptco2 <50 torr, and Ptco2/Pao2 <0.6. Essentially, monitored events are the small variations superimposed on the overall physiologic patterns that describe the entire course of critical illnesses. Monitored events are described by their baseline values just before each event, at the nadir of the event, and at the recovery from the event. To simplify presentation of complex changes in many variables, the circulatory changes were evaluated in terms of cardiac, pulmonary, and peripheral perfusion functions. Common patterns of these monitored events and the incidence of these patterns in high-risk surgical patients were described. Before the unanticipated monitored event, there were normal or increased heart, lung, and perfusion functions in about three fourths of the events. At the nadir, cardiac functions decreased in about two thirds, perfusion decreased in over half, and lung function fell in only one quarter of the events. Recovery occurred with increased cardiac function in two thirds, improved perfusion in over half, and increased lung function in less than one fifth of these monitored events. Noninvasive and invasive hemodynamic and oxygen transport variables were measured simultaneously to evaluate compensatory and decompensatory patterns. The data provide an information base for criteria that may be used to develop therapeutic decision rules for noninvasive monitoring systems.
Article
The meta-theme of this book is integration of diverse perspectives on culture and on organizations. In this book, we bring together various cultural perspectives, main-stream theories of organizations, and empirical work from various social science disciplines on cultural phenomena in organizations. The inclusiveness of our approach allows us to tell many stories about organizational cultures.
Conference Paper
The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research.
Article
Contemporary work on marketing management is grounded implicitly in a structural functionalist or contingency perspective of organizational functioning. However, the field of organizational behavior from which such a perspective derives has recently developed a major thrust into theoretical modeling and empirical research on organizational culture. The authors survey this emerging literature on organizational culture, integrate it in a conceptual framework, and then develop a research agenda in marketing grounded in the five cultural paradigms of comparative management, contingency management, organizational cognition, organizational symbolism, and structural/psychodynamism.
Article
This paper presents the results of a study on organizational cultures in twenty units from ten different organizations in Denmark and the Netherlands. Data came from in-depth interviews of selected informants and a questionnaire survey of a stratified random sample of organizational members. Data on task, structure, and control characteristics of each unit were collected separately. Quantitative measures of the cultures of the twenty units, aggregated at the unit level, showed that a large part of the differences among these twenty units could be explained by six factors, related to established concepts from organizational sociology, that measured the organizational cultures on six independent dimensions. The organizational culture differences found resided mainly at the level of practices as perceived by members. Scores of the units on the six dimensions were partly explainable from organizational idiosyncrasies but were also significantly correlated with a variety of task, structural, and control-system characteristics of the units.
Article
The relationship between people's membership in social-interaction groups and the meanings they attach to organizational events was investigated. It was hypothesized that people who interacted together would interpret organizational events similarly and that different interaction groups would interpret organizational events differently. Interview and questionnaire data were collected from 64 members of an accounting firm. The data were analyzed with network analysis and multi dimensional scaling. The results provide evidence that people who interacted with each other had similar interpretations of organizational events and that members of different interaction groups attached qualitatively different meanings to similar organizational events. Methodological, theoretical, and practical implications of the results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
An investigation into organizational conditions and situations conducive to satisfaction as well as the nature and prevalence of pressures arising from opposing and incompatible institutional demands. By means of the case-study method, interviews, and a nationwide survey the effects of these demands upon roles are examined. These effects are related to individual personality characteristics and interpersonal relations. (140-item bibliogr.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
L. R. James et al (1984) developed an index, rWG, for assessing within-group agreement appropriate when only a single target is rated. F. L. Schmidt and J. E. Hunter (1989) criticized the conceptual foundation of rWG because it is not consistent with the classical model of reliability, and proposed an alternative approach, the use of the rating standard deviation ( SDx), the standard error of the rating mean ( SEM), and the associated confidence intervals for SEM to index interrater agreement. This comment argues that the critique of rWG did not clearly distinguish the concepts of interrater consensus (i.e., agreement) and interrater consistency (i.e., reliability). When the distinction between agreement and reliability is drawn, the critique of rWG is shown to divert attention from more critical problems in the assessment of agreement. The approach for assessing within-group agreement proposed by Schmidt and Hunter has several limitations. rWG should not be used as an index of interrater reliability but, within certain bounds, it is suitable as an index of within-group interrater agreement. SDx and SEM are not acceptable substitutes for extant indexes of interrater agreement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studied shared values in organizations by conducting 45 open interviews with 28 senior executives, 8 management consultants, and 4 employees. 21 shared value concepts (e.g., adaptability, courtesy, experimentation, humor, social equality) were derived from the interview process; 3 additional values (autonomy, obedience, orderliness) were added as a result of comments from colleagues and business practitioners. Groupings of shared values suggest relationship-, change-, and task-oriented organizations and those interested in maintaining the status quo. Interview data were classified into 3 categories of strategies/tactics used by managers: to recruit and select value-congruent candidates, to socialize employees toward the organization's value set, and to radically alter the organization's required value set in response to perceived changes in its competitive environment. It is suggested that organizations in the future will be hard systems (goals setting) or soft systems (value driven). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The concept of organizational culture has received increasing attention in recent years both from academics and practitioners. This article presents the author's view of how culture should be defined and analyzed if it is to be of use in the field of organizational psychology. Other concepts are reviewed, a brief history is provided, and case materials are presented to illustrate how to analyze culture and how to think about culture change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Is the recent popular management literature on corporate culture and cultural values just a passing fad or is it highlighting some fundamental organizational realities? The results from a recent nationwide survey of American managers shows, we are convinced, that clearly articulated organizational values do make a significant difference in the lives of employees, as well as in their organization's performance. This article is an effort to integrate this broad-based data on individual managers' values with the reported experience of successful organizations that pay careful attention to their culture. It also offers ideas on how human resource managers can facilitate the alignment of personal and organizational values.
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Sumario: What culture is and does -- The dimensions of culture -- How to study and interpret culture -- The role leadership in building culture -- The evolution of culture and leadership -- Learning cultures and learning leaders
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Thesis (Ph.D.)-Northwestern University, 1987. Bibliography: p. 196-203. Photoreproduction. s
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The amount of information which dental teachers wish students to absorb creates undesirable congestion of the curriculum. Individuals learn at different rates and if the course is designed for the average student, the better students are insufficiently challenged while the poor learner is left floundering. This problem is being met by the development of flexible, individualized instruction. As a result teachers are obliged to examine critically their goals and functions. If objectives are set for each course, teaching is planned to meet the objectives and methods of evaluation developed which are meaningful to the student, many of the criticisms laid by dentists against their education will be met. During the last decade the teaching of community dentistry has been developed in almost all dental schools as has the emphasis laid on preventive dentistry. In clinical teaching students are being introduced to patient care at an earlier stage resulting in better motivation and greater enthusiasm for the earlier parts of the course. Comprehensive patient care, the importance of occlusal dysfunction, the care of the handicapped and the utilization of auxiliary personnel are other areas of increasing importance. A significant development is the growing provision for an elective period during which the student may pursue his own particular interest.
SZUMAL of the analyses identifies a three-factor solution-Constructive, Aggressive-Defensive, and Passive-Defensive-which together account for approximately society or organization (see reviews by Kroeber & Kluckhohn
  • R A Cooke
R. A. COOKE & J. L. SZUMAL of the analyses identifies a three-factor solution-Constructive, Aggressive-Defensive, and Passive-Defensive-which together account for approximately society or organization (see reviews by Kroeber & Kluckhohn, 1952; Desh-pande & Webster, 1989; Reichers & Schneider, 1990).