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Lives lived in milliseconds: Using cognitive methods in personality research

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Abstract

This chapter discusses the use of cognitive methods in personality research. It is suggested that cognitive measures of personality are less reliable than self-report measures of personality. This apparent fact can be attributed to at least two important sources. Cognitive measures are very much dependent on momentary states of mind. Such factors may be less important to trait self-report measures, which do not rely on state-related sources of information to the same extent. In addition, the reliability and stability of traits derive in part from the fact that people develop very stable beliefs about themselves. These beliefs, however, may provide a misleading picture of how much people's lives and personalities are actually changing. The upshot of these two considerations leads to the suggestion that cognitive processing measures cannot, and should not, be as stable as self-reports of personality. Nevertheless, it is important to pay somewhat constant attention to the reliability of cognitive processing measures, as such measures may or may not in fact tap reliable and stable individual differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... As is true of many performance-based measures (Sanders 1998), these target distance means were positively skewed. We therefore log-transformed them to reduce skew (Robinson 2007), though results are reported in terms of non-transformed means for ease of interpretation. ...
... To simultaneously examine possible effects involving condition and psychopathy, General Linear Model (GLM) procedures were used. The GLM is a parent to both analysis of variance and multiple regression procedures, but is more flexible in handling mixed designs of the present type (Robinson 2007). In the present case, condition was a discrete, within-subject predictor of motor control and psychopathy was a continuous, z-scored (Robinson 2007) between-subjects predictor. ...
... The GLM is a parent to both analysis of variance and multiple regression procedures, but is more flexible in handling mixed designs of the present type (Robinson 2007). In the present case, condition was a discrete, within-subject predictor of motor control and psychopathy was a continuous, z-scored (Robinson 2007) between-subjects predictor. Initial GLMs focus on each form of psychopathy separately, omitting sex for the sake of parsimony. ...
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A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of psychopathy relative to lower levels, both as a function of primary and secondary psychopathy and particularly their shared variance. These novel findings provide support for the idea that motor control systematically varies by psychopathy, in a basic manner, consistent with views of psychopathy emphasizing lesser control.
... Reaction time data were handled in a standard manner. Inaccurate trials were dropped, millisecond values were log-transformed and log latencies 2.5 SDs faster or slower than the grand mean were replaced with these outlier values (Robinson, 2007). For each participant, we then computed two scores, one averaging across trials involving power words and the other averaging across trials involving affiliation words. ...
... conditions considered separately. Power versus affiliation difference scores will almost necessarily be less reliable (Miyake, Friedman, Emerson, Witzki, & Howerter, 2000;Robinson, 2007), but there was some reliability to them (alpha = .48). The latter estimate was computed by subtracting the first-obtained power log time from the first-obtained affiliation log time, the second-obtained power log time from the second-obtained affiliation log time and so on, and then performing an internal consistency analysis on these trial-level difference scores. ...
... We hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal arrogance would be linked to enhanced processing for power cues relative to affiliation cues. To examine this interactive hypothesis, we used the general linear model (GLM) platform, which is well suited to handle continuous personality dimensions in combination with within-subject designs (Robinson, 2007). The predictors were arrogance (which was z-scored or centered: Aiken & West, 1991) and cue type (power vs affiliation) and the dependent variable was speed of categorization. ...
Article
The arrogance dimension of the circumplex contrasts people who seemingly value power over affiliation (high arrogance) versus those who do not (low arrogance). Following this line of thinking, and building on an incentive salience model of approach motivation, three studies (total N = 284) examined the differential processing of power versus affiliation stimuli in categorization, perception and approach-avoidance paradigms. All studies found interactions of the same type. In study 2, for example, people high in arrogance perceived power stimuli to be larger than affiliation stimuli, but this differential pattern was not evident at low arrogance levels. People high, but not low, in arrogance also approached power stimuli faster than affiliation stimuli in a motor movement task (study 3). The results contribute to a process-based understanding of how interpersonal arrogance functions while linking such differences to the manner in which power versus affiliation cues are perceived and reacted to. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Personality Psychology
... On the remaining trials, participants' accuracy rate, which reflects the percent of correct responses, was 92.58% (SD = 5.49%). We log-transformed accurate reaction time trials and replaced trials above and below 2.5 SDs from the mean with the 2.5 SD value in accordance with suggestions for handling reaction time data (Ratcliff, 1993;Robinson, 2007). ...
... Participants' accuracy rate was 95.61% (SD = 3.90%). We log-transformed accurate reaction time trials and replaced trials above and below 2.5 SDs from the mean with the 2.5 SD value in accordance with suggestions for handling reaction time data (Ratcliff, 1993;Robinson, 2007). ...
... Participants' accuracy rate on the remaining trials was 93.03% (SD = 6.32%). We log-transformed accurate reaction time trials and replaced trials above and below 2.5 SDs from the mean with the 2.5 SD value in accordance with suggestions for handling reaction time data (Ratcliff, 1993;Robinson, 2007). ...
Article
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The shooter bias effect reveals that individuals are quicker to “shoot” armed Black (vs. White) men and slower to “not shoot” unarmed Black (vs. White) men in a computer task. In three studies (N = 386), we examined whether being observed would reduce this effect because of social desirability concerns. Participants completed a “shooting” task with or without a camera/live observer supposedly recording behavior. Cameras were strapped to participants’ heads (Studies 1a/1b) and pointed at them (Study 1b). In Study 2, a researcher observed participants complete the task while “filming” them with a smartphone. We replicated the shooter bias, but observation only reduced the effect in Study 2. These results reveal that being observed can reduce the shooter bias effect.
... The dependent measure here was the time that elapsed from the presentation of the trial stimulus to the completion of the movement. For analysis purposes, these times were log-transformed to reduce skew and 2.5 SD outliers were also replaced, though means are reported in terms of milliseconds, all standard procedures in our lab (Robinson, 2007). Responses were slower on conflict trials (M = 986 ms) than on simple approach trials (M = 785 ms), F (1, 129) = 336.65, ...
... We next sought to determine whether these resolutions varied meaningfully with anger and provocation. To investigate this question, we conducted a General Linear Model (GLM) analysis in which conflict approach percentages were examined as a function of Provocation (no versus yes), manipulated within-subject, and Trait Anger, a continuous predictor that was zscored prior to the GLM (Robinson, 2007). Differential responses to provocation would be evident in an interaction among the predictors (Wilkowski & Robinson, 2008). ...
... To examine whether this occurred in Study 2, we quantified the length of time between stimulus presentation and movement completion. Analyses focused on log-transformed means, but millisecond means will be reported to illustrate the effects (Robinson, 2007). As hypothesized, movement execution was slower on conflict trials (1057 ms Decision-making therefore appeared more conflicted when conflict was manipulated. ...
Article
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The approach-avoidance conflict is one in which approaching reward brings increased threat while avoiding threat means forgoing reward. This conflict can be uniquely informative because it will be resolved in different ways depending on whether approach (toward) or avoidance (away from) is the stronger motive. Two studies (total N = 191) created a computerized version of this conflict and used the test to examine questions of motivational direction in anger. In Study 1, noise blast provocations increased the frequency of approach behaviors at high levels of trait anger, but decreased their frequency at low levels. In Study 2, a simpler version of the conflict test was used to predict anger in daily life. As hypothesized, greater approach frequencies in the test predicted greater anger reactivity to daily provocations and frustrations. The discussion focuses on the utility of the approach-avoidance conflict test and on questions of motivational direction in anger. (PsycINFO Database Record
... To quantify Stroop costs in more sensitive terms, we turned to the reaction time (RT) data. Prior to any analysis of this data, we followed standard procedures by (a) deleting reaction times for inaccurate trials (Ratcliff, 1993) and (b) replacing times that were faster or slower than 2.5 SD from the mean with 2.5 SD outlier scores (Robinson, 2007). Following such procedures, we found a robust Stroop effect in that the average person was slower on incongruent trials (M = 527 ms; SD = 85; a = 0.93) than congruent trials (M = 502 ms; SD = 79; a = 0.93), as indicated in a repeatedmeasures ANOVA, F(1, 126) = 54.21, ...
... Stroop costs were then quantified in terms of the more sensitive (MacLeod, 1991) RT metric. As in Study 1, we deleted the reaction times for inaccurate trials and then replaced 2.5 SD outliers with 2.5 SD cutoff scores (Robinson, 2007). There was a robust Stroop effect such that color categorization latencies were faster when color-word combinations matched (M = 476 ms; SD = 84; a = 0.95) rather than mismatched (M = 503 ms; SD = 99; a = 0.95); that is, there was a significant effect for congruence condition in a repeated-measures ANOVA, F(1, 126) = 90.24, ...
... Essentially, this hierarchical approach score would contrast a person's approach-avoidance rating means for his/her different goal levels-a within-subject comparison. Notwithstanding potential criticisms (Edwards 1994), it can be shown that within-subject comparisons of this type are mathematically equivalent to difference scores created by subtracting within-subject conditions from each other (Robinson 2007). Difference scores can therefore be recommended when contrasting different conditions within a participant for purposes of creating a single summary index for that individual (Robinson 2007). ...
... Notwithstanding potential criticisms (Edwards 1994), it can be shown that within-subject comparisons of this type are mathematically equivalent to difference scores created by subtracting within-subject conditions from each other (Robinson 2007). Difference scores can therefore be recommended when contrasting different conditions within a participant for purposes of creating a single summary index for that individual (Robinson 2007). Certainly this is the case relative to other indices (e.g., residual scores) that we could think of. ...
Article
Variations in the organization of personal goals are thought to be important to self-regulation, yet relevant measures and evidence is largely lacking. In two studies (total N = 217), participants were prompted to self-generate personal goals at three levels of a goal hierarchy (low, mid, and high), following which they rated all of these goals along an approach-avoidance dimension. A hierarchical approach measure was created from these ratings and this novel individual difference measure was hypothesized to predict the better self-regulation of goal frustrations in daily life. Such predictions were confirmed. For example, daily frustrations precipitated anger among those low but not high, in hierarchical approach (Study 2). The findings are important theoretically as well as from a measurement perspective.
... Raw movement times were first logtransformed to reduce positive skew (Ratcliff, 1993). Subsequently, times more than 2.5 SDs from the mean were replaced with 2.5 SD upper and lower scores, thus lessening outlier impact while still including all accurate trials (Robinson, 2007). Analyses involve this transformed metric, but means are reported in terms of millisecond values for ease of interpretation. ...
... SD = 24.92), and given the nature of the paradigm (Robinson, 2007), trials involving inaccurate memory performance were deleted as being non-representative Downloaded by [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign] at 08:40 17 June 2014 of the processes of interest (Ratcliff, 1993). Subsequently, movement times were quantified as in Study 1 and then averaged for cells of the 2 × 2 design. ...
Article
Theories of self-regulation emphasize the special role that the symbolic self may play in approach and avoidance movements, but experimental evidence is lacking. In two experiments (total N = 157), participants moved either a self-relevant (e.g., "me") or non-self (e.g., "not me") agent to one of two locations, one occupied by a positive word and the other occupied by a negative word. In both experiments, the movement agent interacted with the destination valence such that it was only the symbolic self that moved more quickly to positive rather than negative locations. These results established a role for the symbolic self in approach/avoidance that had been questioned, thereby supporting both classic and contemporary self-related theories of approach and avoidance.
... Then, log-transformed times that were 2.5 SDs faster or slower than the overall log-transformed mean were replaced with such 2.5 SD outlier values. This procedure ensured that all accurate responses were included, while lessening the undue influence of outliers (Robinson 2007). Subsequently, data were averaged for the separate cells of the pronoun by font size experimental design. ...
... We hypothesized that implicit self-importance would better, and perhaps exclusively, characterize high arrogant relative to low arrogant individuals. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a General Linear Model (GLM) analysis, which combines features of ANOVA and multiple regression (Robinson 2007). Interpersonal Arrogance was zscored in the analysis and treated as a continuous variable. ...
Article
Object relations theories emphasize the manner in which the salience/importance of implicit representations of self and other guide interpersonal functioning. Two studies and a pilot test (total N = 304) sought to model such representations. In dyadic contexts, the self is a “you” and the other is a “me”, as verified in a pilot test. Study 1 then used a simple categorization task and found evidence for implicit self-importance: The pronoun “you” was categorized more quickly and accurately when presented in a larger font size, whereas the pronoun “me” was categorized more quickly and accurately when presented in a smaller font size. Study 2 showed that this pattern possesses value in understanding individual differences in interpersonal functioning. As predicted, arrogant people scored higher in implicit self-importance in the paradigm. Findings are discussed from the perspective of dyadic interpersonal dynamics.
... We followed the data analysis procedure outlined by Meier et al. (2007), Ratcliff (1993), and Robinson (2007) for analyzing reaction time data. First, we deleted inaccurate trials where the informative (warning) sign was misread by the participant as a warning (informative) sign (12.27%). ...
... Finally, we replaced log-latencies faster or slower than 2.5 standard deviations from the log-latency mean with these cutoff scores. Log transformation followed by 2.5 standard deviations replacements seems to be one of the best procedures to prevent capitalizing on chance (Robinson 2007). Analyses were conducted on logtransformed data, but means are also reported in raw milliseconds to facilitate comprehension. ...
Article
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We propose that features of static visuals can lead to perceived movement (via dynamic imagery) and prepare the observer for action. We operationalize our research within the context of warning sign icons and show how subtle differences in iconography can affect human behavioral response. Across five studies incorporating multiple methodologies and technologies (click-data heat maps, driving simulations, surveys, reaction time, and eye tracking), we show that warning sign icons that evoke more (vs. less) perceived movement lead to a quicker propensity to act because they suggest greater risk to oneself or others and increase attentional vigilance. Icons used in our studies include children crossing signs near schools, wet floor signs in store settings, and shopping cart crossings near malls. Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating dynamic elements into icon design to promote imagery and thereby elicit desired and responsible consumer behavior.
... Accordingly, the Pythagorean Theorem (c 2 = a 2 + b 2 ) was used to calculate the distance between each joystick sample and the trial target in squared pixel-based units. These sample-specific values were then averaged by trial and log-transformed to reduce positive skew (Robinson, 2007). We then computed three means: one across insulting trials, one across non-insulting trials, and one across all trials. ...
... We next sought to determine whether BAS Reward was equally predictive of motor control following provocation versus not. To examine this possibility, we performed a General Linear Model (GLM) analysis in which the two predictors of motor control were priming condition (insult versus not) and z-scored variations in BAS Reward (Robinson, 2007). As hypothesized, there was a fairly substantial main effect for BAS Reward, F(1, 69) = 13.78, ...
Article
Theoretically, the processes involved in approach motivation and action control should overlap. In both cases, a person must commit to a goal, identify a goal target, and seek to reduce discrepancies between the self and this goal target on a somewhat continuous basis. These ideas motivated three studies (total N = 253) in which personality differences in the behavioral approach system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) were assessed as potential predictors of performance in an objective motor control task. People high in BAS Reward had markedly better motor control (i.e., smaller distances from targets) than people low in BAS Reward. This was true across a variety of affective priming conditions. The other components of BAS and BIS, by contrast, were inconsistent predictors. The results support both reward-based and functional perspectives of the BAS in the context of a cybernetic view of how self-regulation by approach operates.
... Similar to other popular conceptualisations of Disinhibition we view this behaviour as being strongly driven by Neuroticism or other components of the Avoidance system (e.g., Patterson & Newman, 1993;Robinson, 2007). Empirical evidence identifying Neuroticism as an important predictor of increased sales performance (e.g., Smillie, Yeo, Furnham & Jackson, 2006), impaired response modulation (i.e., an inability to switch response sets), disinhibited behaviour (e.g., Wallace, Bachorowski, & Newman, 1991), and faster reaction times on a reversal learning task (e.g., Gullo, Jackson & Dawe, in press) further support our inclusion of Neuroticism in our definition. ...
... Based on theoretical models of Disinhibition (e.g., Patterson & Newman, 1993;Robinson, 2007) and some emerging empirical evidence (e.g., Moeller & Robinson, 2010;Robinson, Wilkowski & Meier, 2008), we argue that Disinhibition is the result of mechanisms related to Neuroticism. Therefore, in situations of competing approach and avoidance stimuli, individuals high in Disinhibition act without restraint to avoid punishment rather than to seek reward. ...
Article
The Excitation Transfer paradigm proposes that externally-caused residual arousal may later intensify unrelated feelings of attraction, and thus emphasising the role of situational variables. On the other hand, Emotional Intelligence (EI) involves an individual's internal capacity to interpret and engage with emotionally-relevant information. This study proposed that EI-(as assessed by the Trait-Meta Mood Scale-TMMS)-may moderate the Excitation Transfer effect. A sample of 104 female undergraduates was randomly allocated to complete a cognitive task whilst either seated at a table (control) or riding an exercise bike (aroused condition). Participants then viewed a video recording of a male confederate and rated his attractiveness on a 19-item First Impression Scale. Results indicated no main effects for arousal or EI on any factor of attractiveness. However further analysis demonstrated significant higher-order interactions between EI and arousal upon attractiveness factors. Specifically, individuals with higher EI scores were less likely to be influenced by irrelevant arousal. Results suggest that evaluative judgements of attractiveness are influenced by the interaction of personality and situational variables.
... Similar to other popular conceptualisations of Disinhibition we view this behaviour as being strongly driven by Neuroticism or other components of the Avoidance system (e.g., Patterson & Newman, 1993;Robinson, 2007). Empirical evidence identifying Neuroticism as an important predictor of increased sales performance (e.g., Smillie, Yeo, Furnham & Jackson, 2006), impaired response modulation (i.e., an inability to switch response sets), disinhibited behaviour (e.g., Wallace, Bachorowski, & Newman, 1991), and faster reaction times on a reversal learning task (e.g., Gullo, Jackson & Dawe, in press) further support our inclusion of Neuroticism in our definition. ...
... Based on theoretical models of Disinhibition (e.g., Patterson & Newman, 1993;Robinson, 2007) and some emerging empirical evidence (e.g., Moeller & Robinson, 2010;Robinson, Wilkowski & Meier, 2008), we argue that Disinhibition is the result of mechanisms related to Neuroticism. Therefore, in situations of competing approach and avoidance stimuli, individuals high in Disinhibition act without restraint to avoid punishment rather than to seek reward. ...
Book
Personality and individual differences research is relevant to practically every facet of human existence. For instance, since theories of persons either explicitly or implicitly guide clinical work, the field contributes to discussions of understanding abnormal psychology and provides a guide for conceptualising best treatment. Additionally, the field is relevant to understanding human development across the lifespan, and our understanding of personality and individual differences impacts upon our views of socialisation and interpersonal relations. This book presents research which draws attention to the rich scientific literature that continues to emerge with respect to personality and individual differences psychology.
... We removed inaccurate trials (4% of trials), log transformed reaction times to reduce positive skew, and replaced times 2.5 standard deviations beyond the grand latency mean with the log cutoff scores (Meier et al., 2007;Robinson, 2007). We then conducted a 2 (prime type: semantically prosodic, non-prosodic control) × 2 (prime valence: positive, negative) × 2 (target valence: positive, negative) repeated measures analysis of variance on log-transformed reaction times. ...
... Inaccurate trials (3.4% of trials) were removed, and reaction times were log transformed to reduce positive skew. We replaced reaction times that were 2.5 standard deviations beyond the grand latency mean with the log cutoff scores (Meier et al., 2007;Robinson, 2007). We conducted a 3 (prime type: strongly valenced, semantically prosodic, non-prosodic control) × 2 (prime valence: positive, negative) × 2 (target valence: positive, negative) repeated measures analysis of variance on logtransformed reaction times. ...
Article
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In everyday language, concepts appear alongside (i.e., collocate with) related concepts. Societal biases often emerge in these collocations; e.g., female (vs. male) names collocate with art- (vs. science-) related concepts, and African American (vs. White American) names collocate with negative (vs. positive) concepts. It is unknown whether such collocations merely reflect societal biases or contribute to them. Concepts that are themselves neutral in valence but nevertheless collocate with valenced concepts provide a unique opportunity to address this question. For example, when asked, most people evaluate the concept “cause” as neutral, but “cause” is frequently followed by negative concepts (e.g., death, pain, and trouble). We use such semantically prosodic concepts to test the influence of collocation on the emergence of implicit bias: do neutral concepts that frequently collocate with valenced concepts have corresponding implicit bias? In evaluative priming tasks, participants evaluated positive/negative nouns (Study 1) or pictures (Study 2) after seeing verb primes that were (a) strongly valenced (e.g., hate and comfort), (b) neutral in valence but collocated with valenced concepts in corpora (e.g., ease and gain), or (c) neutral in valence and not collocated with valenced concepts in corpora (e.g., reply and describe). Throughout, neutral primes with positive (negative) collocates facilitated the evaluation of positive (negative) targets much like strongly valenced primes, whereas neutral primes without valenced collocates did not. That neutral concepts with valenced collocates parallel the influence of valenced concepts suggests that their collocations in natural language may be sufficient for fostering implicit bias. Societal implications of the causal embedding hypothesis are discussed.
... On average, video game studies had sample sizes of about 20, but Gentile and Stone (2005) noted that sample sizes of 200 are required for sufficient power. While the suggested sample size for behavioral research is 200 for, sample size sufficient in research utilizing EEG methodology tends to be much smaller, ranging from 15-40 participants (Robinson, 2007). Additional research using different methods of investigation is needed to clarify findings in the video game body of literature, particularly addressing the discrepant studies regarding the relationship between violent video games and negative effects. ...
Article
The present study examined electrical brain activations in participants playing three different video games. Forty-five adolescents between the ages of 13-17 (M
... SD = 3.79%). Standard (Robinson, 2007) procedures were used to prepare the latencies. Inaccurate trials were dropped, a log transformation was performed, and logged latencies more than 2.5 SDs from the grand mean (across participants and trials) were replaced with the 2.5 SD value. ...
Article
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Replication efforts involving large samples are recommended in helping to determine the reliability of an effect. This approach was taken for a study from Meier, Robinson, and Clore (2004), one of the first papers in social cognition guided by conceptual metaphor theory, which reported that evaluations were faster when word valence metaphorically matched (e.g., a word with a negative meaning in black) rather than mismatched (e.g., a word with a negative meaning in white) font color. The present investigation was a direct large-scale replication attempt involving 980 participants who completed an experiment using web-based software and were diverse in terms of race, age, and geographical location. Words with a positive meaning were evaluated faster when font color was white rather than black and words with a negative meaning were evaluated faster when font color was black rather than white, replicating the main results of Meier et al. (2004).
... This task recorded the latency (speed in milliseconds) and rate (number) of response endorsements of desired, neutral, or undesired possible self-descriptors. To reduce skew typical of reaction time data, we used standard procedures for screening (adjusting outliers to cutoff values +2.5 SDs from the mean of an RT (Reaction Time) trial across participants or a participant across RT trials) and normalizing (log transforming) raw latency scores to compute the final accessibility measure (Fazio, 1990;Ratcliffe, 1993;Robinson, 2007). ...
Article
Three studies tested whether self-doubt stems more from the absence of a strong desired self or the presence of a strong undesired self. Across studies, participants completed individual difference measures and then imagined a desired, neutral, or undesired possible self and completed strength measures for the imagined possible self. As predicted, compared to low self-doubt participants, high self-doubt participants reported less confidence in imagined desired selves and were slower to respond to desired self-consistent terms; however, they did not differ on explicit (confidence) or implicit (response speed) strength measures for imagined neutral or undesired selves. Moreover, the weaker desired selves imagined by high self-doubt participants predicted lower performance (compared to low self-doubt participants) on a final achievement test. Finally, the interactive effect of self-doubt and imagery on performance held after controlling for self-esteem and self-concept clarity but, consistent with predictions, was mediated by strength of the possible self.
... Incorrect responses and responses exceeding personal average RTs by three standard deviations on the Stroop task were excluded (5% of trials; see Robinson, 2007). After these exclusions, a 2 (thought control: suppression, concentration) × 2 (thought content: evaluation, communication) × 2 (target word: evaluation, communication) mixed-model ANOVA, with target word as the within-subjects variable and RT as the dependent measure, revealed no effects of thought control, F(1, 191) = 1.59, p = .21, ...
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Thought suppression can cause ironic increases in the occurrence of intrusive thoughts. Intrusive thoughts of evaluation could be especially disruptive while undergoing evaluation. Such a context, however, could help suppression efforts as the context provides an external source for which to attribute suppression failures. When suppressing thoughts of evaluation in a non-evaluative context (a context-content mismatch), typical ironic effects of thought suppression occurred. There was no increased accessibility of evaluation, however, when suppressing evaluation in an evaluative context (a context-content match), which allowed for attributing intrusive thoughts to the context, rather than the self, making suppression easier. Suppressing thoughts of evaluation may be beneficial in an evaluative context, suggesting that the consequences of willful suppression are moderated by context.
... The use of EEGs and fMRI in taste tests is relatively new, as previous research in this area relied upon self-report measures (Kamotani, Hooker, Smith, & Lee 2010;Ottenfeld, Bernstein, & Witte, 2008;Robinson, 2007). Though self-report measures are useful, the combination of these measures and brain imaging technology are lending tremendous additions to the marketing field (Davidson, 2004;Hazlett & Hazlett, 1999;Ohme et al., 2009). ...
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The authors investigate consumers’ willingness to switch from a preferred manufacturer brand to an unfamiliar private-label brand if taste is perceived as identical. Consumer decisions are examined through recordings of electrical brain activity in the form of electroencephalograms (EEGs) and self-reported data captured in surveys. Results reveal a willingness of consumers to switch to a less-expensive brand when the quality is perceived to be the same as the more expensive counterpart. Cost saving options for consumers and advertising considerations for managers are discussed. Available at http://digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu/kjur/vol2/iss1/5
... For the first set of analyses, the within-subject factor of image valence was person-centered, such that the neutral valence category had a score of 0. Personality-based predictors were z-scored (Robinson, 2007) and slopes and intercepts were allowed to vary at random, consistent with a focus on individual differences (Klein et al., 2017). In the first analysis, the main effect for attention to emotion was not sig- ...
Article
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Individuals are thought to differ in the extent to which they attend to and value their feelings, as captured by the construct of attention to emotion. The well-being correlates of attention to emotion have been extensively studied, but the decision-making correlates have not been. A three study program of research (total N = 328) sought to examine relationships between stimulus-specific feelings and decisions concerning those stimuli in the context of high levels of within-subject power. Evidence for the pleasure principle was robust, in that individuals placed a virtual self closer to stimuli that they found more pleasant (Study 1) and they wished to re-view such stimuli more frequently (Studies 2 & 3). These relationships, however, were more pronounced at higher levels of attention to emotion. The findings affirm the importance of feelings in decision-making while highlighting ways in which individual differences in attention to emotion operate.
... Other methods of assessing traits, such as performance or decision-making tasks, do not rely as heavily on subjective interpretation, but, with a few exceptions (e.g., traits related to cognitive ability), they have been much less well developed than questionnaire measures (DeYoung, 2011). The psychometrics of task-based trait assessment is a promising growth area in personality psychology (Robinson, 2007). ...
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Cybernetics, the study of goal-directed, adaptive systems, is the best framework for an integrative theory of personality. Cybernetic Big Five Theory attempts to provide a comprehensive, synthetic, and mechanistic explanatory model. Constructs that describe psychological individual differences are divided into personality traits, reflecting variation in the parameters of evolved cybernetic mechanisms, and characteristic adaptations, representing goals, interpretations, and strategies defined in relation to an individual’s particular life circumstances. The theory identifies mechanisms in which variation is responsible for traits in the top three levels of a hierarchical trait taxonomy based on the Big Five and describes the causal dynamics between traits and characteristic adaptations. Lastly, the theory links function and dysfunction in traits and characteristic adaptations to psychopathology and well-being.
... Stable individual differences in attitudes and traits have an important function both in the aetiology and in the prediction of human behaviour, yet their influence does not need to rely upon deliberative processes. Recent research in personality has started to focus on the role of individual differences in basic cognitive processes that can lead from perception to behaviour in a few hundred milliseconds (Robinson, 2007). These influences do not rely much on deliberative processes; on the contrary, they concern quick associative processes leading to spontaneous behaviour. ...
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The influence of stable individual differences on behaviour need not solely rely upon deliberative processes but can also be exerted through automatic associative processes. In this contribution, three studies that illustrate the role of individual differences in automaticity are presented in the domain of helping behaviour. The first study provides evidence both for a double dissociation and for an additive pattern of implicit and explicit measures in predicting relevant altruistic behaviours. The subsequent two studies show that when the concept of altruism is subliminally primed, individual differences in implicit attitudes significantly predict behaviour. The results are in line with the gatekeeper model, and their implications are discussed focusing on the key role of individual differences in modulating automaticity effects. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Political ideology was a continuous predictor and discrete emotion was a categorical within-subject one. Such designs are best handled by the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of SAS, with the continuous predictor z-scored (Robinson, 2007). Main effects for Political Ideology and Discrete Emotion were not significant, Fs < 1, but the hypothesized Political Ideology by Discrete Emotion interaction was significant, F (1, 103) = 7.73, p < .01, ...
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Approach–avoidance frameworks for political ideology have been proposed with increasing frequency. Following such frameworks and a wider motivation–emotion literature, it was hypothesized that political ideology would be predictive of the extent to which anxiety (avoidance-related) versus anger (approach-related) words would be evident in written texts. Study 1 sampled user-generated text within conservative versus liberal Internet chat rooms. After correcting for the greater normative frequency of anger words, a crossover ideology by emotion type interaction was found. Study 2 found a parallel interaction among college students writing about a non-political topic. Political ideology thus has a discrete emotional signature, one favoring anxiety among conservatives and anger among liberals.
... We, therefore, logtransformed them for predictive purposes and also replaced logtransformed factor scores 2.5 SDs below or above the mean with such outlier values. Similar procedures are used in transforming reaction time distributions, which are invariably positively skewed (Robinson, 2007). In all cases, higher factor scores indicate greater patterning in responding. ...
Article
Most of the major theories of creative cognition pre-date the cognitive revolution in psychology. There is, thus, great potential in using modern cognitive assessments to understand the differential creativity of individuals. In this study, creativity was assessed in terms of originality, fluency, flexibility, and past creative achievements. The same individuals (N � 102) completed a random number generation (RNG) task in two conditions: one (a baseline condition) in which there were no instructions to produce a random sequence and a second (an ability condition) in which such instructions were administered. Two components of departures from randomness—Prepotent Associates (shorter-term violations of random responding, such as using consecutive numbers more often) and Repetition of Responses (longer-term violations of random responding by repeating the same number over intervening trials)—were quantified. Prepotent Associates in the ability condition negatively predicted fluency and flexibility. On the other hand, Repetition of Responses in the baseline condition positively predicted originality and self-reported creative achievements. Results are discussed in terms of the unique processing substrates likely to underlie different creativity outcomes, as well as the utility of modeling such processes in terms of temporal trends in thought patterning, as can be assessed in RNG tasks.
... In order to reduce the impact of outliers in the skewed distribution of RTs we applied a logarithmic transformation of RTs for all trials [67,68]. The second step of the procedure consisted in detecting the outlier trials using the log-transformed RTs measured for each one of the 30 primary trial patterns (see Section 2.2.1) using the scores function based on the median absolute deviation. ...
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Patients affected by Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are characterized by impaired executive functioning and/or attention deficits. Our study aim is to determine whether the outcomes measured by the Attention Network Task (ANT), i.e., the reaction times (RTs) to specific target and cue conditions and alerting, orienting, and conflict (or executive control) effects are affected by cognitive training with a Dual n-back task. We considered three groups of young adult participants: ADHD patients without medication (ADHD), ADHD with medication (MADHD), and age/education-matched controls. Working memory training consisted of a daily practice of 20 blocks of Dual n-back task (approximately 30 min per day) for 20 days within one month. Participants of each group were randomly assigned into two subgroups, the first one with an adaptive mode of difficulty (adaptive training), while the second was blocked at the level 1 during the whole training phase (1-back task, baseline training). Alerting and orienting effects were not modified by working memory training. The dimensional analysis showed that after baseline training, the lesser the severity of the hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, the larger the improvement of reaction times on trials with high executive control/conflict demand (i.e., what is called Conflict Effect), irrespective of the participants' group. In the categorical analysis, we observed the improvement in such Conflict Effect after the adaptive training in adult ADHD patients irrespective of their medication, but not in controls. The ex-Gaussian analysis of RT and RT variability showed that the improvement in the Conflict Effect correlated with a decrease in the proportion of extreme slow responses. The Dual n-back task in the adaptive mode offers as a promising candidate for a cognitive remediation of adult ADHD patients without pharmaceutical medication.
... To examine these hypotheses, we used the percentage of dwell time spent on the focal product (toy with frame) as the dependent variable in a general linear model analysis (Robinson, 2007). Context (shopping vs. nonshopping) was a discrete between-subjects predictor, trial type (product vs. nonsemantic distractors) was a discrete within-subjects predictor, and buying impulsiveness (z-standardized) was a continuous between-subjects predictor. ...
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This research focuses on the attentional processes that underlie buying impulsiveness. It was hypothesized that impulsive buyers are more likely than nonimpulsive buyers to get distracted by products that are unrelated to their shopping goal. The study applied a 2 (buying impulsiveness low vs. high) × 2 (shopping vs. nonshopping context) × 2 (product vs. nonsemantic distractors) mixed design. Participants’ attention allocation was measured via eye tracking during a visual distraction paradigm. The results support the distraction hypothesis. Impulsive buyers allocated less attention to a focal product than nonimpulsive buyers. The effect was context-specific and emerged only when the task was framed as a shopping situation. The results show that distraction is not limited to attractive products and suggest that it is driven by a general attentional openness for products in shopping situations.
... Movement times were positively skewed and we therefore log-transformed them for analysis purposes. Then, to reduce the impact of outliers, log-transformed movement times 2.5 SDs above or below the overall log latency mean were replaced with such 2.5 outlier values [37]. Subsequently, data were averaged for cells of the 2 (word category) by 2 (movement direction) experimental design. ...
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People often speak of success (e.g., "advance") and failure (e.g., "setback") as if they were forward versus backward movements through space. Two experiments sought to examine whether grounded associations of this type influence motor behavior. In Experiment 1, participants categorized success versus failure words by moving a joystick forward or backward. Failure categorizations were faster when moving backward, whereas success categorizations were faster when moving forward. Experiment 2 removed the requirement to categorize stimuli and used a word rehearsal task instead. Even without Experiment 1's response procedures, a similar cross-over interaction was obtained (e.g., failure memorizations sped backward movements relative to forward ones). The findings are novel yet consistent with theories of embodied cognition and self-regulation.
... We followed Robinson's (2007) suggestion and log-transformed the raw reaction times (RTs) to reduce the positive skew. We considered those 2.5 SDs faster or slower than the log-latency mean as outliers and filtered them out. ...
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To examine the hypothesis that there is a metaphoric link between geometric shapes (square vs. circle) and moral traits (integrity vs. deviousness), we conducted three experiments in China. In Study 1, integrity‐related words were classified faster when embedded in a square than in a circle. Conversely, deviousness‐related words were classified faster in a circle than in a square. Study 2 found that a person who preferred squares was perceived as more righteous and that a person who preferred circles was perceived as more devious. Study 3 revealed that the participants were more likely to pair a square with integrity‐related words and a circle with deviousness‐related words in a memory task. Given the negation of square‐integrity and circle‐deviousness emotional congruence, the findings of this research show that shape‐related information is a meaningful part of the mental representations of moral traits.
... To supplement such analyses, though, we also created residual versions of each variable. The residual version of the nonattachment variable, for example, was uncorrelated with dispositional mindfulness and therefore captured aspects of nonattachment that were unique to this construct (Robinson 2007). ...
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Objectives The present research had two objectives. It sought to examine whether traits related to mindful awareness and nonattachment could be distinguished. It also sought to compare both sets of traits with respect to their ability to dissociate relations between feelings and actions. Methods To examine processes of this type in a fine-grained manner, two studies (total N = 296; 69.93% female; 87.16% Caucasian; M age = 19.13) developed procedures capable of differentiating affective reactions and their intensity from the behaviors that could result from such feelings. In these situation judgment paradigms, participants were first asked to imagine themselves in a series of evocative situations (e.g., a romantic partner cheating on them). For each situation, individuals then rated how intensely they would experience the targeted feeling (e.g., anger) and how likely they would be to engage in a corresponding action (e.g., an aggressive one). Results Multilevel analyses of these responses revealed that both mindfulness (Study 1 p = .005; Study 2 p = .045) and nonattachment (Study 1 p < .001; Study 2 p < .001) moderated the feeling-action relationship such that it was less coupled among participants possessing the relevant traits, but this modulatory influence was more robust for nonattachment. Conclusions The methods, which build on emotional simulations and multilevel modeling, provide a paradigm for studying reactions to situations as well as feeling-action relationships. Additionally, the results provide insights into both mindfulness and nonattachment and the manner in which they are likely to function within emotional contexts.
... reflecting the fact that as previously described, the response latencies shown by the BP and HC groups did not significantly differ except in the context of negative primes. The heightened same-valence facilitation by negative primes that we observed in the BP group as hypothesized was therefore not better explained by a general tendency for individuals high in BP features to judge a significant other's negative traits particularly quickly (i.e., due to chronic accessibility, Robinson, 2007). Also note that when we conducted this same supplemental analysis for judgments of the disliked significant other, liked food, or disliked food, no significant effects emerged. ...
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Taking the bad with the good is a necessity of life, and people who readily integrate thoughts of their loved one’s flaws with thoughts of their more positive attributes maintain more stable, satisfying relationships. Borderline personality disorder, however, is often characterized by interpersonal perceptions that fluctuate between extremes of good and bad. We used a timed judgment task to examine information processing about significant others in individuals high in borderline personality features relative to healthy individuals and those high in avoidant personality features. In Study 1, when judging traits of a liked significant other, same-valence facilitation by negative primes (judging negative traits faster than positive traits after a negative prime) was significantly stronger in the borderline features group than the other two groups, and was inversely associated with self-reports of integrated thoughts about significant others. By contrast, same-valence facilitation by positive primes, (judging positive traits faster than negative traits after a positive prime), was significantly stronger in the avoidant features group than the other two groups, and inversely associated with self-esteem. No between-group differences in same-valence facilitation were statistically significant when participants judged traits of disliked significant others, liked foods, and disliked foods. In Study 2, same-valence facilitation by negative primes when judging traits of a liked significant other was significantly associated with less integrated positive/negative thoughts about that person in a 12-day diary. These results identify an implicit information processing pattern relevant to interpersonal difficulties in borderline personality disorder.
... Errors and RTs exceeding 2.5 SDs above participants' personal means were excluded, as was one participant with a mean RT of 2.5 SDs above the grand mean (Robinson, 2007). A 2 (letter type: global, local) Â 2 (clothing: formal, casual) mixed-design analysis of variance with RT as the dependent variable revealed a main effect of letter type, F(1, 51) ¼ 25.47, p < .001, ...
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Drawing from literature on construal-level theory and the psychological consequences of clothing, the current work tested whether wearing formal clothing enhances abstract cognitive processing. Five studies provided evidence supporting this hypothesis. Wearing more formal clothing was associated with higher action identification level (Study 1) and greater category inclusiveness (Study 2). Putting on formal clothing induced greater category inclusiveness (Study 3) and enhanced a global processing advantage (Study 4). The association between clothing formality and abstract processing was mediated by felt power (Study 5). The findings demonstrate that the nature of an everyday and ecologically valid experience, the clothing worn, influences cognition broadly, impacting the processing style that changes how objects, people, and events are construed.
... Accordingly, participants were asked the question: "how many performance-based commendations/awards have you received" in the military? Responses to this question (from 0 to 100; M = 6.34) were positively skewed and we therefore added 1 and then log-transformed the distribution for analysis purposes (Robinson, 2007). The transformed distribution had low levels of skew (M = 1.56; ...
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The military is a highly stressful career that requires one to work closely with others. These features of the military render it plausible that skills related to emotional perception and management—or emotional intelligence—would tend to benefit performance within this setting. Hypotheses of this type were examined in a panel study that presented 152 active duty military personnel with a new scenario‐based measure that specifically focused on emotional occurrences within the workplace. As hypothesized, work‐related emotional intelligence (W‐EI) positively predicted task performance, discipline, organizational citizenship, and employees with higher W‐EI levels received a greater number of performance commendations. Additionally, these relationships tended to remain significant in discriminant multiple regressions. Altogether, the results provide important evidence for the benefits of W‐EI within an occupational context that requires a high degree of coordination as well as stress management.
... Najveća je prednost ovakvih pristupa da je sudionicima puno teže svjesno ili nesvjesno iskrivljavati svoje odgovore, pa se takve mjere smatraju opterećene manjom količinom konstruktno irelevantne varijance. Robinson (2007) naglašava prednost ovih mjera pred klasičnim mjerama samoprocjene, koje su subjektivne, ovise o dosjećanju ranijih situacija i događaja te ne omogućuju uvid u dinamiku procesa koji se mjere (str. 345). ...
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Automatic evaluation refers to automatic and quick categorization of stimuli into those of positive and negative valence, respectively. This hypothetical mechanism is scientifically interesting and potentially relevant as it can help shed light on automatic processing of affective stimuli. Furthermore, a large number of recently developed implicit measures is based on this mechanism and any insight gained can help develop and refine them further. Compared to explicit self-report measures, implicit measures estimate psychological constructs indirectly. Affective priming is one of the existing operationalizations of automatic evaluation and can be seen as an implicit measure of various constructs that have an emotional basis. Within this experimental framework, effects of automatic evaluation of primes on the processing of targets are assessed. If the stimuli used are congruent in valence the reaction is usually facilitated as compared to a non-congruent situation. The aim of this paper is to summarize the results of the most important affective priming studies, with particular focus on individual differences in the effect observed. Those individual differences could indicate the existence of individual differences in automatic evaluation. The existence of the latter is a necessary prerequisite for the development of implicit measurement procedures based on automatic affective processes. © 2014, Faculty of Arts and Sciences in Rijeka. All rights reserved.
... This analysis revealed a marginally significant normative effect of target race, F(2, 576) ϭ 3.01, p ϭ .050 2 and a significant Target race ϫ White fear interaction, F(2, 576) ϭ 3.05, p ϭ .048. Because we were primarily interested in difference in the withinsubject effect, we follow-up this significant interaction by com-paring the difference between different target race at high (ϩ1 SD) and low (Ϫ1 SD) levels of White fear in a series of regressions with the race difference score as the dependent variables (i.e., the within-subject effect; Judd, Kenny, & McClelland, 2001) and an adjusted White fear variable as the predictor (Aiken & West, 1991;Robinson, 2007). In these analyses, the significance of the intercept reflected the significance of the conditional effect of target race at that level of White fear. ...
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Objectives: A growing number of studies have documented the existence racial shooting biases against Black versus White targets (Correll et al., 2002). Little is known about individual differences that may moderate these biases. The goals of this study were to examine (a) whether White participants' fear of racial/ethnic minorities is associated with racial shooing biases, and (b) whether dehumanization and empathy moderate this effect. Method: Participants (N = 290) completed a dehumanization implicit association test and simulated shooting task, then reported their fear of racial minorities (i.e., White fear) and empathic ability. Results: We found that (a) individuals high in White fear showed a shooting bias, such that they had a lower threshold for shooting Black relative to White and East Asian targets, (b) Dehumanization moderated the White fear and shooting bias relation, such that individuals high in White fear and high in dehumanization had a significantly more liberal shooting threshold for Black versus White targets, and (c) Empathy moderated the White fear and shooting bias relation, such that people who were high in White fear and low in empathic ability had a more liberal shooting threshold for Black versus White targets. In sum, fearing racial/ethnic minorities can have devastating shooting bias outcomes for Black individuals, but this effect is stronger when people also dehumanize Black individuals, and weaker when people have high empathy. Conclusions: These findings contribute to the literature by identifying theory driven moderators that identify both risk and protective factors in predicting racial shooting biases. (PsycINFO Database Record
... These results suggest that all components of W-EI matter, but perhaps in part because they all tap global W-EI (Krishnakumar et al. 2016). To provide results relevant to the last point, we computed residual scores for each branch that controlled for overall NEAT levels (Robinson 2007). None of these residual scores interacted with JNA to predict CWB tendencies, ps [ .150. ...
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It is important, both theoretically and for applied reasons, to understand who is likely to engage in counterproductive work behaviors. It is known that such behaviors are more likely to be exhibited by unhappy employees (i.e., those high in job negative affect), but this should be particularly true for individuals low in work-related emotional intelligence. The current study (N = 91) examined moderation-related hypotheses of this type in relation to five counterproductive work behaviors—abuse, sabotage, theft, withdrawal, and production deviance—among a sample of employees working at least 20 h per week. These behaviors varied positively by job negative affect and negatively by work-related emotional intelligence. In addition, the two predictors interacted for all five outcomes such that the highest levels of counterproductive work behavior were observed among employees who were high in job negative affect and low in emotional intelligence. The discussion focuses on implications for understanding counterproductive work behaviors and on the value of assessing work-related emotional intelligence as an ability that differs by employees.
... Much literature shows how conceptual metaphors derive from an automatic, subconscious, and effortless process (Crawford 2009;Evans and Pourcel 2009;Landau, Meier, and Keefer 2010). To reach such a conclusion, most of the studies use implicit association tests or reaction-time tests Meier, Sellbom, and Wygant 2007;Schubert 2005), which are psychological measures aimed at detecting people's automatic association between mental representations of concepts (Robinson 2007). However, a test for automaticity does not provide information relative to what could happen if one were aware of the effect (Bargh 1984). ...
Article
Emotion and rationality are fundamental elements of human life. They are abstract concepts, often difficult to define and grasp. Thus, throughout the history of western society, the head and the heart, concrete and identifiable elements,have been used as symbols of rationality and emotion. Drawing on the conceptual metaphor framework, we propose that people understand the abstract concepts of rationality and emotion using knowledge of a more concrete concept —the vertical difference between the head and heart. In six studies, we show a deep-seated conceptual metaphorical relationship linking rationality with “up” or “higher,” and emotionwith “down” or “lower.” We show that the association between verticality and rationality/emotion affects how consumersperceive information,and thereby has downstream consequences on attitudes and preferences. We find the association to be most influential when consumers are unaware of it,and when it applies to an unfamiliar stimulus.Because all visual formats –from the printed page to screens on a television, computer, or smartphone – entail a vertical placement, this association has important managerial implications. Our studies implement multiple methodologies and technologies and use manipulations of logos, websites, food advertisements, and political slogans.
... Next, the RTs were log-transformed to correct for a positively-skewed distribution. Then RTs greater than ±2.5 SDs from the mean RT for each respective action were winsorized (i.e., replaced with values that were ±2.5 SDs from the mean RT) (Robinson, 2007). Three participants (2 in the SCT condition; 1 in the control condition) refused to perform one of the five mock-aggressive actions. ...
Article
Poor self-control is a root cause of aggression and criminality. But people can improve their self-control through repetitive practice. Because self-control involves acting in accordance with personal values, practicing self-control can promote attainment of value-consistent goals. The present research tested the hypothesis that practicing self-control could both decrease and increase obedient aggression. In Experiment 1, relative to the active control group, participants who practiced self-control were more hesitant to engage in mock violence (e.g., “cutting” the experimenter's throat with a rubber knife), especially for participants high in dispositional empathy. In Experiment 2, practicing self-control increased obedience to kill insects, but only among participants who felt little moral responsibility for their actions. There was a trend for decreased killing among participants who felt morally responsible for their actions. Our findings suggest that when asked to behave aggressively, self-control promotes adherence to personal values, which may or may not fuel aggression.
... Much literature shows how conceptual metaphors derive from an automatic , subconscious, and effortless process (Crawford 2009; Evans and Pourcel 2009; Landau, Meier, and Keefer 2010). To reach such a conclusion, most of the studies use implicit association tests or reaction-time tests ( Meier, Sellbom, and Wygant 2007; Schubert 2005), which are psychological measures aimed at detecting people's automatic association between mental representations of concepts (Robinson 2007 ). However, a test for automaticity does not provide information relative to what could happen if one were aware of the effect (Bargh 1984). ...
... Much literature shows how conceptual metaphors derive from an automatic, subconscious, and effortless process (Crawford 2009;Evans and Pourcel 2009;Landau, Meier, and Keefer 2010). To reach such a conclusion, most of the studies use implicit association tests or reaction-time tests Meier, Sellbom, and Wygant 2007;Schubert 2005), which are psychological measures aimed at detecting people's automatic association between mental representations of concepts (Robinson 2007). However, a test for automaticity does not provide information relative to what could happen if one were aware of the effect (Bargh 1984). ...
... However, it is unlikely that any cognitive measure can entirely tap a personality trait, because cognitive processes are dynamic in nature (cf. Robinson, 2007). In contrast, personality traits are relatively stable across various situations and contexts. ...
... Personality psychologists distinguish unstable or situational responses, including cognition, from stable or dispositional traits such as Big Five Personality Traits (Robinson 2007). This corresponds to a distinction between research that focuses on personality structure vs research on personality process or how personality works (Fleeson 2007). ...
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This paper starts with some questions being asked in personality psychology that we NLP practitioners may be able to help answer. It then reviews how NLP approaches 'flexibility' and 'personality' and highlights some fuzziness in the way we currently use the term 'meta-programs'. That leads to some probing questions about existing meta-program questionnaires and then to some questions that seem worthy of systematic inquiry. Finally there is an outline of an approach for such an inquiry and a question for the reader.
... Inaccurate responses (M = 9.84%) were deleted, RTs were log-transformed, and log-transformed times 2.5 SDs below or above the grand latency mean were replaced with these values (Robinson, 2007). A 3 (Word Type) x 2 (Font Color) repeated measures ANOVA was then conducted on the (trimmed) log latency means, though millisecond means will be reported for ease of interpretation. ...
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Metaphor representation theory contends that people conceptualise their non-perceptual states (e.g., emotion concepts) in perceptual terms. The present research extends this theory to colour manipulations and discrete emotional representations. Two experiments (N = 265) examined whether a red font colour would facilitate anger conceptions, consistent with metaphors referring to anger to "seeing red". Evidence for an implicit anger-red association was robust and emotionally discrete in nature. Further, Experiment 2 examined the directionality of such associations and found that they were asymmetrical: Anger categorisations were faster when a red font colour was involved, but redness categorisations were not faster when an anger-related word was involved. Implications for multiple literatures are discussed.
... Results from cognitive studies of inhibitory control and aggressive tendencies have indicated that individuals with a superior inhibitory control, assessed using tasks such as continuous priming task (Robinson, 2007) and flanker interference paradigm (Coles, Gratton, Bashore, Eriksen, & Donchin, 1985;Gratton, Coles, Sirevaag, Eriksen, & Donchin, 1988), exhibit better responseswitching abilities to disengage from hostile interpretations when exposed to hostile stimuli or information, which further help them to suppress their aggressive tendencies and behaviors (Wilkowski & Robinson, 2007;Wilkowski & Robinson, 2008;Wilkowski & Robinson, 2010). It has been indicated that exposure to peer victimization in early adolescence is associated with maladaptive coping strategies, including substance abuse, and aggressive and delinquent behaviors among youth (Sullivan, Farrell, & Kliewer, 2006). ...
Article
Relationship between poor inhibitory control and adolescent interpersonal difficulties is well-documented. However, the way in which an emotionally neutral cognitive process (i.e., response inhibition) can lead to interpersonal difficulties is less clear. The current study is based on multimodal longitudinal data from 3,826 adolescents followed over a 4-year period. The main aim of this study was to examine an ecophenotype conceptualization of the association between response inhibition and bullying perpetration through increasing vulnerability of peer victimization and a negative attributional style toward self and others. To test for potential mediations, we first tested the independent effects of the main predictor (response inhibition) and proposed mediators (victimization, hostile automatic thoughts, and self esteem). Multilevel models highlighted independent effects of response inhibition, hostility-related automatic thoughts, and self-esteem in susceptibility to peer victimization and bullying perpetration, both in terms of general liability and fluctuations at each time point over the 4-year period (i.e., between and within person effects). Moreover, results from multivariate multilevel path model were in line with the ecophenotype conceptualization. Indirect effects indicated that general liability of peer victimization mediated the effect of poor response inhibition on bullying perpetration. Likewise, general liability and concurrent fluctuations in hostility-related automatic thoughts and self-esteem mediated the effect of peer victimization on bullying perpetration. The current study highlights the need for a comprehensive understanding of bullying perpetration which is only possible through consideration of individual characteristics along with environmental factors. This framework has the potential to inform targeted intervention strategies aimed at reducing peer-to-peer violence.
... Before analysis of the data from lexical decision task, we deleted responses of error trials, log-transformed the reaction time of correct trials and deleted data that were 2.5 SD higher or lower than the average (Robinson, 2007). According to Greenwald, Nosek, and Banaji's (2003) algorithm on calculating stereotype accessibility, we divided the difference between reaction time of filler words and stereotypic words, by the standard deviation of their reaction time combined. ...
Article
Being able to take the perspective of others is an important part of human social competence that has considerable impacts on social cognition. Previous research found that taking the perspective of an outgroup member is an effective strategy for reducing stereotyping and prejudice towards an outgroup member. Yet other studies showed that the perspective taking heightens the stereotyping in certain situations. In the present study, we hypothesized and found that the effect of perspective taking on stereotyping depends on the perspective taker's need for cognitive closure (NFC). In Study 1, after taking the perspective of the elderly, people with high NFC used more stereotypic traits in describing the elderly, whereas those low in NFC used significantly less. In Study 2, people with high NFC had higher level of stereotype accessibility, as compared with people with low NFC.
Article
People often think, feel, and behave metaphorically according to conceptual metaphor theory. There are normative sources of support for this theory, but individual differences have received scant attention. This is surprising because people are likely to differ in the frequency with which they use metaphors and therefore the frequency with which they experience the costs and benefits of metaphoric thinking. To investigate these ideas, a five study program of research (total N = 532) was conducted. Study 1 developed and validated a metaphor usage measure, finding that people were fairly consistent in their tendencies toward literal thought and language on the one hand versus metaphoric thought and language on the other. These differences were, in turn, consequential. Although metaphor usage predicted susceptibility to metaphor transfer effects (Studies 2-3), it was also linked to higher levels of emotional understanding (Studies 4-5). The findings provide support for several key premises of conceptual metaphor theory in the context of a new measure that can be used to track the consequences of metaphoric thinking.
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As family conflict tends to escalate during the adolescent years, the subsequent effects of adolescence on parent–child dynamics are systemically experienced, both intra- and inter-personally. As such, widening the scope of literature targeted towards better understanding the parent–adolescent conflict relationship is merited. To offer a more gestalt view of parent–adolescent conflict processes, the present study takes a biopsychosocial view of the mother–father–adolescent relationship by considering electrical brain activity using electroencephalography technology. Specifically, electrical brain activity was recorded during two problem-solving family discussions between a mother, father, and adolescent child. Data is analyzed from a pilot study of 11 triads, for a total of 33 participants, examining the statistical relationships between brain waves and self-reported measures of family functioning and distress. Findings suggest that hemispheric lateralization occurs during parent–adolescent problem-solving discussions thus reminding therapists of the importance in using a biopsychosocial lens when assisting families.
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Perceptual achievements would seem to require multiple skills related to collecting and organizing sensory input, comparing this input to categorical templates, and making decisions in accordance with current goals. Individual differences in such processes should be especially apparent under conditions of degraded input, even in simple tasks. A three study program of research (N = 305) developed procedures to quantify such variations in perceptual sensitivity, then linked the relevant skills to variations in emotional clarity, which is an operationalization of emotional intelligence. Individuals who were better able to differentiate their perceptions related to color and line length reported greater emotional clarity (Study 1) and displayed higher levels of clarity in emotion knowledge (Study 2) and emotion rating (Study 3) tasks. The studies provide new insights into the perceptual sensitivity construct while linking the relevant skills to individual differences in the manner in which emotions are understood and experienced.
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Sex differences in fear and pain suggest the possibility of sex differences in an underlying threat reactivity (or punishment sensitivity) system. This system would prime vigorous behavioral responses to threatening input and give rise to stronger, more quickly changing feelings within threatening contexts. Two studies sought to model such processes. Study 1 focused on emotion-primed losses of motor control in response to aversive, threatening noise. Women, but not men, exhibited a reactivity pattern of this type. Study 2 then examined subjective responses to affective pictures within a task that probed moment-by-moment changes. Women did not react more quickly to unpleasant pictures, but their reactions were larger in size and they were more dynamic, as reflected in a velocity of change metric. The results highlight processes of explanatory value in understanding and organizing a broader literature concerned with sex differences in motivation and emotion.
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Evolution-based theorizing has suggested that it may be more mandatory to respond to threatening than rewarding stimuli and considerations of this type are likely to influence the shape and time course of positive versus negative emotional reactions. Hypotheses of this type were examined in four within-subject experiments (total N = 573 undergraduate participants) that assessed moment-by-moment changes in affective feelings in response to appetitive versus aversive emotional images. Algorithms designed to identify peaks and onsets tended to be more successful in identifying negative emotional reactions relative to positive ones. In addition, negative reactions had faster onsets (3 of 4 studies), higher peak amplitudes, and cross-temporal shapes that better approximated prototypes derived by averaging across participants. In the context of a close temporal analysis, negative emotional reactions displayed several features (e.g., faster onsets, higher peaks, and greater matches to prototypes) that suggest higher levels of obligatory responding.
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Research shows that alcohol-related stimuli have the propensity to capture attention among individuals motivated to consume alcohol. Research has further demonstrated that impulsive individuals are especially prone to this type of attentional bias. Recently, it is suggested that alcohol cue exposure can also produce a general narrowing of attention consistent with the activation of approach motivational states. Based on previous models of addiction and recent research on the activation of approach motivational states, we predicted that impulsive individuals would demonstrate a constriction of attentional focus in response to alcohol cue exposure. Participants (n = 392) completed a task assessing attentional breadth in response to alcohol and non-alcohol cues, followed by measures of alcohol use and impulsivity. The findings revealed that impulsivity scores predicted narrowing of attentional scope following the presentation of alcohol cues for heavier drinkers but not for light drinkers. These results suggest that impulsive individuals who drink more heavily demonstrate a narrowing of attention in the presence of alcohol-related incentive cues. Implications for how these findings might account for the link between impulsivity and alcohol use and misuse are discussed.
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