Article

The study of culture, ethnicity, and race in American Psychology

American Psychologist (Impact Factor: 6.87). 05/1993; 48(6):629-637. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.48.6.629

ABSTRACT

The study of culture and related concerns, such as ethnicity and race, in American psychology are examined. First, the conceptual confusion and ways in which culture, ethnicity, and race are used as explanatory factors for intergroup differences in psychological phenomena are discussed. Second, ways in which to study culture in mainstream psychology and to enhance hypothesis testing and theory in cross-cultural psychology are illustrated. Finally, the importance of examining sociocultural variables and considering theory in ethnic minority research is addressed. In general, it is proposed that by including theory, conceptualizing, and measuring cultural and related variables, mainstream, cross-cultural, and ethnic research can advance the understanding of culture in psychology as well as the generality of principles and the cultural sensitivity of applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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Available from: Hector Betancourt, Jan 24, 2014
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    • "(Betancourt & Lopez, 1993, p. 629)To resolve this problem, they proposed that both mainstream and cross-cultural investigators identify and measure directly the cultural element in a particular group of interest that is hypothesized to influence behavior. They noted that when culture (or race and ethnicity) is defined in terms of these psychologically relevant elements (e.g., values, beliefs, and acculturation), it becomes more amenable to measurement and " the relationship between these cultural elements to psychological phenomena can [therefore] be directly assessed " (Betancourt & Lopez, 1993, p. 630). Finally Leong and Kalibatseva (2013) referred to a debate regarding research on diversity and leadership published in the American Psychologist where Klein and Wang (2010) questioned the value of the review articles in terms of their primary focus on race and ethnicity as " surface-level diversity " as opposed to the " deep-level diversity " approach advancing in organizational psychology . "
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    • "This paper explains the cultural theoretical framework behind the study and explores the cultural aspects of one Pakistani family business. Okazaki and Sue (1995) suggest there is no single, universally accepted definition of ethnicity , race or culture, and that these terms are often used interchangeably (Betancourt and Lopez, 1993). Eaton (1980:160) defines ethnic status as an easily identifiable characteristic that implies a common cultural history with others possessing the same characteristic . "

    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    • "One weakness of these studies is that they were basing their comparisons on prescribed cultural groups (demographic designation). Observed cultural differences were often interpreted as a result of distal and broad social, cultural, or contextual factors without these factors being directly examined [15]. Hence, conclusions and implications of many previous studies could only be regarded as heuristic, inspiring new hypotheses being hypothetical and tentative. "
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